Figure 2: Ductility of pure metals There exist empty spaces in the structures of pure metals. When hammered or pressed. Figure 1: Arrangement of atoms in a pure metal The orderly arrangement of atoms enables the layers of atoms to slide over each other easily when an external force is applied on them. © Pure metals are weak and soft. This makes the metals malleable (metals can be made into different shapes or pressed into thin sheets) Figure 3: Malleability of pure metals . This is because: A pure metal contains atoms of the same size arranged in a regular and orderly arrangement. This makes the metals ductile (metals can be drawn to form long wires). groups of metal atoms may glide into new positions in these empty spaces.ALLOYS Arrangement of atoms in metals © An alloy is a mixture of two or more elements with a certain fixed composition in which the major component is a metal.

the atoms of foreign elements disrupt the orderly arrangement of the metal atoms and also fill up any empty spaces in the metal crystal structure. © This makes the alloy harder and stronger. When hardened. © There are three aims of alloying a pure metal: To increase the hardness and strength of a metal To prevent corrosion or rusting To improve the appearance of the metal surfaces. Figure 4: The formation of alloy © Hence. © In an alloy. less ductile and less malleable than pure metals. with a better finish and luster . the layers of metal atoms are prevented from sliding over each other easily.The arrangement of atom in alloys © In the process of alloying. these atoms of foreign elements replace the positions of some of the original metal atoms. foreign elements are added to molten metal.

Ø Art crafts. Ø Heavy machinery. Ø Tools. Ø Surgical instruments. hard and strong Light. shiny and strong Duralumin Pewter . Ø To make candlesticks. strong and resists rusting Bronze Hard. hard and strong Lustre.The composition. Ø Machines parts. Ø Bodies of vehicles. strong and shiny Brass Copper added with zinc Aluminium added with magnesium Aluminium added with copper and magnesium Tin added with copper and antimoni Hard and shiny Magnalium Light. Ø Racing cars tyre Ø To make bodies of aircrafts. Ø Statues. Ø Decorative ornaments. Ø To make electrical connections musical instruments. Ø Fan blades. Ø Kitchenware. Ø Racing bicycles. Ø To make kitchenware. Ø Light electrical cables. Ø Ships Ø Decorative ornaments. Ø Souvenirs. properties and uses of some common alloys Alloy Composition Properties Uses Ø Frameworks of buildings and bridges. Ø Decorative ornaments. Ø To make cutlery and kitchenware. Ø To make aircraft body frames. Carbon Steel Iron added with carbon Iron added with chromium and nickel Copper added with tin Hard and strong Stainless Steel Shiny.

SYNTHETIC POLYMERS The meaning of polymers © Polymers are large molecules made up of many smaller and identical repeating units joined together by covalent bonds. Synthetic polymers. © Polymers can be divided into two types: Naturally occuring polymers. These small molecules are called monomers. examples are plastics and synthetic rubber. carbohydrates and natural rubber. © Many of the raw materials for the synthetic polymers are obtained from petroleum. examples are protein. © Polymerisation is the chemical process by which the monomers are joined together to form a big molecule known as polymer. the relative molecular mass of a polymer is large. Figure 5: Formation of a polymer © A polymer is a macromolecule (a very big molecule). © There are two types of polymerisation process: Addition polymerisation POLYMERISATION Condensation polymerisation . © The properties of a polymer are different from its monomers. Hence.

plastic tables and chairs. bags.4dicarboxylic acid * Hezane-1. car battery cases and ropes.6diamine * Hezane-1. sails and ropes.6-diol * Benzene-1. artificial leather. raincoats. clothing and carpets. their monomers and uses are shown in table below. © Some examples of synthetic addition polymers.6-dioic acid Safety glass.© Plastics such as polythene and PVC are produced by addition polymerisation. Terylene Clothing. Polystyrene Phenylethane Packaging material. heat insulators and disposable cups. reflectors. . plastic cups and plates. plastic toys. Polyvinylchloride (PVC) Chloroethane Water pipes. lens and traffic signs. plates. toys. and wire casing. Polythene (PE) Ethane Polypropene (PP) Propene Plastic bottles. Perspex Methylmethacrylate * Hezane-1. bottle crates. shoes. Both nylon and Terylene are synthetic fibre used for making clothing. Synthetic Polymer Monomer Uses Plastic bags. plastic containers. records. Nylon Ropes. shopping bags. whereas synthetic fibres such as nylon and Terylene are made by condensation polymerisation.

however. Plastic containers become breeding places for mosquitoes. causing flash floods. Burning of polymers release harmful gases that cause air pollution. Make biodegradable polymers. . Small plastics swallowed by aquatic animals cause death.Issues of the use of synthetic polymers in everyday life © Synthetic polymers have been used widely to replace natural materials because of the following advantages: Strong and light Cheap Able to resist corrosion Inert to chemical attacks Easily moulded or shaped and dyed ADVANTAGES © The use of synthetic polymer. results in environmental pollution problems from the disposal of synthetic polymers because: Most polymers are non-biodegradable (cannot be decomposed by bacteria or other microorganisms). © Petroleum. Plastic items block drains and rivers. © Methods to overcome these problems of polymers are: Reduce. reuse and recycle synthetic polymers. the main source of raw materials for the making of synthetic polymers is a non-renewable resource.

and calcium oxide § § § § Bottles Window panes Light bulbs Mirror § Laboratory Silicon dioxide apparatus and § Cooking boron oxide utensils § Decorative items § Lens and prism § Crystal glassware Lead glass Silicon dioxide and lead (II) oxide . © The uses of glass depend on the composition and properties as shown in table below. sodium oxide. hence highly heat-resistant Ø Transparent to Fuses glass ultraviolet and infrared light Ø Does not crack when temperature changes Ø Low melting point Soda lime Ø Cracks easily with glass sudden temperature change Ø High melting point. © Both glass and ceramic have the same following properties: Hard but brittle Inert towards chemicals Poor conductors of heat and electricity © The use of glass and ceramics also depends on their differences as follows: Glass is transparent whereas ceramic is opaque. Type of glass Properties Chemical composition Examples of uses Ø Very high melting point. SiO2. Ceramic has higher melting point than glass. § Lenses SiO2 § Optical fibres § Laboratory glasswares Silicon dioxide. thus is heatresistant Borosilicate Ø Does not crack easily with sudden temperature change Ø High refractive index Ø Reflects light rays and appears shiny § Telescope mirror Silicon dioxide.GLASS AND CERAMICS © The main component of both glass and ceramics is silica or silicon dioxide.

AgCl or AgBr decomposes to form silver and halogen atoms. The fine silver deposited in glass is black and the glass is darkened. AgBr uv Ag + ‰Br2 When the ultraviolet ray intensity decreases. © Examples of new uses of improved ceramics are superconductors and car engine blocks. spark plugs in car engines Microchips § § § § § § § § § Uses As building materials Materials for vases Plates Bowls Cooking utensils To make insulating parts in electrical apparatus To make microchips in computers Radios Televisions The uses of improved glass and ceramics © Examples of new uses of improved glass are photochromic glass and conducting glass. The glass darkens when exposed to sunlight but becomes clear when light intensity decreases.© Ceramics sre made from clay. tiles and cement Porcelain Isulators in toasters and irons. . AgBr is added to normal glass. An example of clay is kaolinite. © Photochromic glass Photochromic glass is a type of glass that is sensitive to light intensity. AgCl or silver bromide. Clay consists of aluminosilicate. When exposed to ultraviolet light. © Some uses of ceramics in daily life are shown in table below. sand and feldspar. Photochromic glass is produced when silver chloride. silver atoms and bromine gas recombine to form silver bromide. For example. Examples Bricks.

Superconductor ceramics are used to make light magnets.© Conducting glass Conducting glass is atype of glass that can conduct electricity. © Ceramic car engine block Ceramic used for making car engine blocks can withstand very high temperature. the combustion of fuel becomes more efficient. . At a higher temperature. © Superconductor Superconductors are a class of ceramic that conduct electricity without resistance and without the loss of electrical energy. electrical generators and electric motors. Conducting glass is produced by an embedding a thin layer of conducting material in glass. producing more energy and less pollution.

© A composite material has more superior properties than the original components used to make up the composite material.COMPOSITE MATERIALS What are composite materials ? © A composite materials is a structural material formed by combining two or more material with different physical properties. (TABLE ON THE NEXT PAGE) . more resistant to heat and corrosion compared to their original components. as well as the uses of these composite materials. stronger and lighter. © Composite materials are harder. © Table on the next page compares the superior properties of composite materials compared to their orginal components. producing a complex mixture. Composite materials are also made for specific purposes.

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