This is because: A pure metal contains atoms of the same size arranged in a regular and orderly arrangement. This makes the metals ductile (metals can be drawn to form long wires).ALLOYS Arrangement of atoms in metals © An alloy is a mixture of two or more elements with a certain fixed composition in which the major component is a metal. Figure 1: Arrangement of atoms in a pure metal The orderly arrangement of atoms enables the layers of atoms to slide over each other easily when an external force is applied on them. © Pure metals are weak and soft. This makes the metals malleable (metals can be made into different shapes or pressed into thin sheets) Figure 3: Malleability of pure metals . groups of metal atoms may glide into new positions in these empty spaces. When hammered or pressed. Figure 2: Ductility of pure metals There exist empty spaces in the structures of pure metals.

The arrangement of atom in alloys © In the process of alloying. © In an alloy. these atoms of foreign elements replace the positions of some of the original metal atoms. with a better finish and luster . Figure 4: The formation of alloy © Hence. less ductile and less malleable than pure metals. foreign elements are added to molten metal. the atoms of foreign elements disrupt the orderly arrangement of the metal atoms and also fill up any empty spaces in the metal crystal structure. When hardened. © There are three aims of alloying a pure metal: To increase the hardness and strength of a metal To prevent corrosion or rusting To improve the appearance of the metal surfaces. the layers of metal atoms are prevented from sliding over each other easily. © This makes the alloy harder and stronger.

properties and uses of some common alloys Alloy Composition Properties Uses Ø Frameworks of buildings and bridges. Ø Statues. Ø Racing bicycles. shiny and strong Duralumin Pewter .The composition. Ø Souvenirs. Ø Decorative ornaments. Ø Heavy machinery. Ø Kitchenware. Ø Ships Ø Decorative ornaments. strong and resists rusting Bronze Hard. Ø Racing cars tyre Ø To make bodies of aircrafts. Ø Tools. Ø To make candlesticks. Ø Decorative ornaments. Ø Light electrical cables. Ø Art crafts. Ø To make aircraft body frames. Ø Fan blades. Ø To make electrical connections musical instruments. Ø To make cutlery and kitchenware. Ø Surgical instruments. Ø To make kitchenware. Ø Machines parts. strong and shiny Brass Copper added with zinc Aluminium added with magnesium Aluminium added with copper and magnesium Tin added with copper and antimoni Hard and shiny Magnalium Light. hard and strong Lustre. Carbon Steel Iron added with carbon Iron added with chromium and nickel Copper added with tin Hard and strong Stainless Steel Shiny. Ø Bodies of vehicles. hard and strong Light.

Figure 5: Formation of a polymer © A polymer is a macromolecule (a very big molecule). © Polymerisation is the chemical process by which the monomers are joined together to form a big molecule known as polymer. These small molecules are called monomers. © Polymers can be divided into two types: Naturally occuring polymers. examples are protein. examples are plastics and synthetic rubber. Hence. carbohydrates and natural rubber.SYNTHETIC POLYMERS The meaning of polymers © Polymers are large molecules made up of many smaller and identical repeating units joined together by covalent bonds. © The properties of a polymer are different from its monomers. © There are two types of polymerisation process: Addition polymerisation POLYMERISATION Condensation polymerisation . © Many of the raw materials for the synthetic polymers are obtained from petroleum. the relative molecular mass of a polymer is large. Synthetic polymers.

their monomers and uses are shown in table below. Polystyrene Phenylethane Packaging material. Both nylon and Terylene are synthetic fibre used for making clothing. bottle crates. plastic tables and chairs. bags.6diamine * Hezane-1.4dicarboxylic acid * Hezane-1. . records. Terylene Clothing. lens and traffic signs. toys. Synthetic Polymer Monomer Uses Plastic bags. sails and ropes. plates.6-diol * Benzene-1. Nylon Ropes. car battery cases and ropes. Perspex Methylmethacrylate * Hezane-1. plastic containers. and wire casing. whereas synthetic fibres such as nylon and Terylene are made by condensation polymerisation.© Plastics such as polythene and PVC are produced by addition polymerisation. raincoats. © Some examples of synthetic addition polymers. plastic cups and plates. heat insulators and disposable cups. Polythene (PE) Ethane Polypropene (PP) Propene Plastic bottles. plastic toys. artificial leather. reflectors. shopping bags. Polyvinylchloride (PVC) Chloroethane Water pipes. shoes. clothing and carpets.6-dioic acid Safety glass.

. reuse and recycle synthetic polymers. results in environmental pollution problems from the disposal of synthetic polymers because: Most polymers are non-biodegradable (cannot be decomposed by bacteria or other microorganisms).Issues of the use of synthetic polymers in everyday life © Synthetic polymers have been used widely to replace natural materials because of the following advantages: Strong and light Cheap Able to resist corrosion Inert to chemical attacks Easily moulded or shaped and dyed ADVANTAGES © The use of synthetic polymer. Small plastics swallowed by aquatic animals cause death. © Petroleum. the main source of raw materials for the making of synthetic polymers is a non-renewable resource. Plastic items block drains and rivers. however. causing flash floods. © Methods to overcome these problems of polymers are: Reduce. Burning of polymers release harmful gases that cause air pollution. Make biodegradable polymers. Plastic containers become breeding places for mosquitoes.

© The uses of glass depend on the composition and properties as shown in table below. Ceramic has higher melting point than glass. sodium oxide.GLASS AND CERAMICS © The main component of both glass and ceramics is silica or silicon dioxide. hence highly heat-resistant Ø Transparent to Fuses glass ultraviolet and infrared light Ø Does not crack when temperature changes Ø Low melting point Soda lime Ø Cracks easily with glass sudden temperature change Ø High melting point. Type of glass Properties Chemical composition Examples of uses Ø Very high melting point. and calcium oxide § § § § Bottles Window panes Light bulbs Mirror § Laboratory Silicon dioxide apparatus and § Cooking boron oxide utensils § Decorative items § Lens and prism § Crystal glassware Lead glass Silicon dioxide and lead (II) oxide . § Lenses SiO2 § Optical fibres § Laboratory glasswares Silicon dioxide. thus is heatresistant Borosilicate Ø Does not crack easily with sudden temperature change Ø High refractive index Ø Reflects light rays and appears shiny § Telescope mirror Silicon dioxide. SiO2. © Both glass and ceramic have the same following properties: Hard but brittle Inert towards chemicals Poor conductors of heat and electricity © The use of glass and ceramics also depends on their differences as follows: Glass is transparent whereas ceramic is opaque.

For example. © Photochromic glass Photochromic glass is a type of glass that is sensitive to light intensity. silver atoms and bromine gas recombine to form silver bromide. © Some uses of ceramics in daily life are shown in table below. The glass darkens when exposed to sunlight but becomes clear when light intensity decreases. © Examples of new uses of improved ceramics are superconductors and car engine blocks.© Ceramics sre made from clay. AgCl or AgBr decomposes to form silver and halogen atoms. AgBr is added to normal glass. When exposed to ultraviolet light. spark plugs in car engines Microchips § § § § § § § § § Uses As building materials Materials for vases Plates Bowls Cooking utensils To make insulating parts in electrical apparatus To make microchips in computers Radios Televisions The uses of improved glass and ceramics © Examples of new uses of improved glass are photochromic glass and conducting glass. Examples Bricks. An example of clay is kaolinite. sand and feldspar. . The fine silver deposited in glass is black and the glass is darkened. AgCl or silver bromide. tiles and cement Porcelain Isulators in toasters and irons. Clay consists of aluminosilicate. Photochromic glass is produced when silver chloride. AgBr uv Ag + ‰Br2 When the ultraviolet ray intensity decreases.

producing more energy and less pollution. Superconductor ceramics are used to make light magnets. the combustion of fuel becomes more efficient. At a higher temperature.© Conducting glass Conducting glass is atype of glass that can conduct electricity. . © Superconductor Superconductors are a class of ceramic that conduct electricity without resistance and without the loss of electrical energy. © Ceramic car engine block Ceramic used for making car engine blocks can withstand very high temperature. Conducting glass is produced by an embedding a thin layer of conducting material in glass. electrical generators and electric motors.

© Composite materials are harder. stronger and lighter. © A composite material has more superior properties than the original components used to make up the composite material. as well as the uses of these composite materials.COMPOSITE MATERIALS What are composite materials ? © A composite materials is a structural material formed by combining two or more material with different physical properties. (TABLE ON THE NEXT PAGE) . Composite materials are also made for specific purposes. more resistant to heat and corrosion compared to their original components. © Table on the next page compares the superior properties of composite materials compared to their orginal components. producing a complex mixture.

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