MANUFACTURED SUBSTANCES IN INDUSTRY
© Pure metals are weak and soft. This is because: A pure metal contains atoms of the same size arranged in a regular and orderly arrangement.
Figure 1: Arrangement of atoms in a pure metal
The orderly arrangement of atoms enables the layers of atoms to slide over each other easily when an external force is applied on them.
Figure 2: Ductility of pure metals
There exist empty spaces in the structures of pure metals. This makes the metals ductile (metals can be drawn to form long wires). When hammered or pressed. This makes the metals malleable (metals can be made into different shapes or pressed into thin sheets)
Figure 3: Malleability of pure metals
. groups of metal atoms may glide into new positions in these empty spaces.ALLOYS
Arrangement of atoms in metals © An alloy is a mixture of two or more elements with a certain fixed composition in which the major component is a metal.
© There are three aims of alloying a pure metal: To increase the hardness and strength of a metal To prevent corrosion or rusting To improve the appearance of the metal surfaces. foreign elements are added to molten metal. the layers of metal atoms are prevented from sliding over each other easily.The arrangement of atom in alloys © In the process of alloying. © In an alloy. © This makes the alloy harder and stronger. less ductile and less malleable than pure metals. When hardened. these atoms of foreign elements replace the positions of some of the original metal atoms. with a better finish and luster
Figure 4: The formation of alloy
© Hence. the atoms of foreign elements disrupt the orderly arrangement of the metal atoms and also fill up any empty spaces in the metal crystal structure.
Ø Surgical instruments. Ø Bodies of vehicles. Ø Ships Ø Decorative ornaments. Ø Statues. Ø Fan blades.
Iron added with carbon Iron added with chromium and nickel Copper added with tin
Hard and strong
Shiny. Ø Decorative ornaments. Ø Souvenirs. Ø Machines parts. Ø Racing bicycles. Ø Decorative ornaments. strong and shiny
Copper added with zinc Aluminium added with magnesium Aluminium added with copper and magnesium Tin added with copper and antimoni
Hard and shiny
Light. Ø To make electrical connections musical instruments. strong and resists rusting
Hard. properties and uses of some common alloys
Uses Ø Frameworks of buildings and bridges. Ø To make kitchenware. hard and strong Lustre. Ø To make cutlery and kitchenware. hard and strong Light. Ø To make candlesticks. Ø Art crafts. Ø Racing cars tyre Ø To make bodies of aircrafts. shiny and strong
. Ø Light electrical cables. Ø Heavy machinery. Ø Tools.The composition. Ø To make aircraft body frames. Ø Kitchenware.
© Polymers can be divided into two types: Naturally occuring polymers. the relative molecular mass of a polymer is large. © The properties of a polymer are different from its monomers. These small molecules are called monomers.
Figure 5: Formation of a polymer
© A polymer is a macromolecule (a very big molecule). Hence. carbohydrates and natural rubber. examples are plastics and synthetic rubber. Synthetic polymers. © Many of the raw materials for the synthetic polymers are obtained from petroleum. © Polymerisation is the chemical process by which the monomers are joined together to form a big molecule known as polymer. examples are protein.SYNTHETIC POLYMERS
The meaning of polymers © Polymers are large molecules made up of many smaller and identical repeating units joined together by covalent bonds. © There are two types of polymerisation process: Addition polymerisation POLYMERISATION Condensation polymerisation
car battery cases and ropes.6diamine * Hezane-1. Synthetic Polymer Monomer Uses Plastic bags. shopping bags. shoes. reflectors.6-diol * Benzene-1. artificial leather.
Methylmethacrylate * Hezane-1. plastic tables and chairs. plastic containers.
Plastic bottles. toys. clothing and carpets. plastic toys. and wire casing.6-dioic acid
Safety glass. heat insulators and disposable cups. their monomers and uses are shown in table below.4dicarboxylic acid * Hezane-1. records.
Water pipes. sails and ropes. whereas synthetic fibres such as nylon and Terylene are made by condensation polymerisation. plastic cups and plates. bags. Both nylon and Terylene are synthetic fibre used for making clothing.
Packaging material. bottle crates. plates. © Some examples of synthetic addition polymers.
Clothing. lens and traffic signs.© Plastics such as polythene and PVC are produced by addition polymerisation. raincoats.
results in environmental pollution problems from the disposal of synthetic polymers because: Most polymers are non-biodegradable (cannot be decomposed by bacteria or other microorganisms). however. causing flash floods.
. the main source of raw materials for the making of synthetic polymers is a non-renewable resource. Burning of polymers release harmful gases that cause air pollution.Issues of the use of synthetic polymers in everyday life © Synthetic polymers have been used widely to replace natural materials because of the following advantages: Strong and light Cheap Able to resist corrosion Inert to chemical attacks Easily moulded or shaped and dyed
© The use of synthetic polymer. Make biodegradable polymers. Plastic containers become breeding places for mosquitoes. © Petroleum. Small plastics swallowed by aquatic animals cause death. © Methods to overcome these problems of polymers are: Reduce. reuse and recycle synthetic polymers. Plastic items block drains and rivers.
GLASS AND CERAMICS
© The main component of both glass and ceramics is silica or silicon dioxide. © Both glass and ceramic have the same following properties: Hard but brittle Inert towards chemicals Poor conductors of heat and electricity © The use of glass and ceramics also depends on their differences as follows: Glass is transparent whereas ceramic is opaque. Ceramic has higher melting point than glass. Type of glass Properties Chemical composition Examples of uses
Ø Very high melting point. and calcium oxide § § § § Bottles Window panes Light bulbs Mirror
§ Laboratory Silicon dioxide apparatus and § Cooking boron oxide utensils § Decorative items § Lens and prism § Crystal glassware
Silicon dioxide and lead (II) oxide
. § Lenses SiO2 § Optical fibres § Laboratory glasswares Silicon dioxide. thus is heatresistant Borosilicate Ø Does not crack easily with sudden temperature change Ø High refractive index Ø Reflects light rays and appears shiny
§ Telescope mirror Silicon dioxide. © The uses of glass depend on the composition and properties as shown in table below. hence highly heat-resistant Ø Transparent to Fuses glass ultraviolet and infrared light Ø Does not crack when temperature changes Ø Low melting point Soda lime Ø Cracks easily with glass sudden temperature change Ø High melting point. sodium oxide. SiO2.
AgBr is added to normal glass. sand and feldspar. © Some uses of ceramics in daily life are shown in table below. For example. Photochromic glass is produced when silver chloride.© Ceramics sre made from clay. AgCl or silver bromide. Examples Bricks. spark plugs in car engines Microchips § § § § § § § § § Uses As building materials Materials for vases Plates Bowls Cooking utensils To make insulating parts in electrical apparatus To make microchips in computers Radios Televisions
The uses of improved glass and ceramics © Examples of new uses of improved glass are photochromic glass and conducting glass. The fine silver deposited in glass is black and the glass is darkened.
. AgCl or AgBr decomposes to form silver and halogen atoms. © Examples of new uses of improved ceramics are superconductors and car engine blocks. Clay consists of aluminosilicate. tiles and cement Porcelain Isulators in toasters and irons. The glass darkens when exposed to sunlight but becomes clear when light intensity decreases. When exposed to ultraviolet light. silver atoms and bromine gas recombine to form silver bromide. AgBr
Ag + ‰Br2
When the ultraviolet ray intensity decreases. © Photochromic glass Photochromic glass is a type of glass that is sensitive to light intensity. An example of clay is kaolinite.
© Ceramic car engine block Ceramic used for making car engine blocks can withstand very high temperature. the combustion of fuel becomes more efficient. Superconductor ceramics are used to make light magnets. producing more energy and less pollution.© Conducting glass Conducting glass is atype of glass that can conduct electricity. © Superconductor Superconductors are a class of ceramic that conduct electricity without resistance and without the loss of electrical energy. Conducting glass is produced by an embedding a thin layer of conducting material in glass. At a higher temperature.
. electrical generators and electric motors.
© Composite materials are harder. producing a complex mixture. more resistant to heat and corrosion compared to their original components.COMPOSITE MATERIALS
What are composite materials ? © A composite materials is a structural material formed by combining two or more material with different physical properties. © Table on the next page compares the superior properties of composite materials compared to their orginal components. (TABLE ON THE NEXT PAGE)
. Composite materials are also made for specific purposes. as well as the uses of these composite materials. stronger and lighter. © A composite material has more superior properties than the original components used to make up the composite material.