ALLOYS Arrangement of atoms in metals © An alloy is a mixture of two or more elements with a certain fixed composition in which the major component is a metal. This makes the metals malleable (metals can be made into different shapes or pressed into thin sheets) Figure 3: Malleability of pure metals . Figure 1: Arrangement of atoms in a pure metal The orderly arrangement of atoms enables the layers of atoms to slide over each other easily when an external force is applied on them. This is because: A pure metal contains atoms of the same size arranged in a regular and orderly arrangement. Figure 2: Ductility of pure metals There exist empty spaces in the structures of pure metals. When hammered or pressed. © Pure metals are weak and soft. This makes the metals ductile (metals can be drawn to form long wires). groups of metal atoms may glide into new positions in these empty spaces.

the atoms of foreign elements disrupt the orderly arrangement of the metal atoms and also fill up any empty spaces in the metal crystal structure. the layers of metal atoms are prevented from sliding over each other easily. foreign elements are added to molten metal. When hardened. with a better finish and luster . © There are three aims of alloying a pure metal: To increase the hardness and strength of a metal To prevent corrosion or rusting To improve the appearance of the metal surfaces.The arrangement of atom in alloys © In the process of alloying. these atoms of foreign elements replace the positions of some of the original metal atoms. © In an alloy. Figure 4: The formation of alloy © Hence. less ductile and less malleable than pure metals. © This makes the alloy harder and stronger.

Ø Decorative ornaments. Ø Racing cars tyre Ø To make bodies of aircrafts. strong and resists rusting Bronze Hard. Ø To make cutlery and kitchenware. properties and uses of some common alloys Alloy Composition Properties Uses Ø Frameworks of buildings and bridges. Ø Tools. Ø Light electrical cables. hard and strong Light. Carbon Steel Iron added with carbon Iron added with chromium and nickel Copper added with tin Hard and strong Stainless Steel Shiny. hard and strong Lustre. Ø Fan blades. Ø Bodies of vehicles. Ø Racing bicycles. Ø To make candlesticks. Ø Heavy machinery. strong and shiny Brass Copper added with zinc Aluminium added with magnesium Aluminium added with copper and magnesium Tin added with copper and antimoni Hard and shiny Magnalium Light. shiny and strong Duralumin Pewter . Ø Ships Ø Decorative ornaments.The composition. Ø To make electrical connections musical instruments. Ø Art crafts. Ø Souvenirs. Ø Decorative ornaments. Ø Surgical instruments. Ø Statues. Ø Kitchenware. Ø Machines parts. Ø To make aircraft body frames. Ø To make kitchenware.

© The properties of a polymer are different from its monomers. © Polymerisation is the chemical process by which the monomers are joined together to form a big molecule known as polymer. examples are protein. examples are plastics and synthetic rubber. Figure 5: Formation of a polymer © A polymer is a macromolecule (a very big molecule). © Polymers can be divided into two types: Naturally occuring polymers. Hence. © There are two types of polymerisation process: Addition polymerisation POLYMERISATION Condensation polymerisation . Synthetic polymers. © Many of the raw materials for the synthetic polymers are obtained from petroleum. These small molecules are called monomers.SYNTHETIC POLYMERS The meaning of polymers © Polymers are large molecules made up of many smaller and identical repeating units joined together by covalent bonds. carbohydrates and natural rubber. the relative molecular mass of a polymer is large.

Polystyrene Phenylethane Packaging material. © Some examples of synthetic addition polymers. lens and traffic signs. plastic cups and plates. Polythene (PE) Ethane Polypropene (PP) Propene Plastic bottles. plastic tables and chairs. and wire casing. artificial leather. Polyvinylchloride (PVC) Chloroethane Water pipes. bottle crates.6-diol * Benzene-1. their monomers and uses are shown in table below.6-dioic acid Safety glass.6diamine * Hezane-1. Perspex Methylmethacrylate * Hezane-1. reflectors. clothing and carpets. Terylene Clothing. plastic containers. car battery cases and ropes. Synthetic Polymer Monomer Uses Plastic bags.4dicarboxylic acid * Hezane-1. sails and ropes. . raincoats. records.© Plastics such as polythene and PVC are produced by addition polymerisation. heat insulators and disposable cups. shopping bags. plastic toys. shoes. plates. bags. Both nylon and Terylene are synthetic fibre used for making clothing. whereas synthetic fibres such as nylon and Terylene are made by condensation polymerisation. toys. Nylon Ropes.

causing flash floods. reuse and recycle synthetic polymers. . Plastic containers become breeding places for mosquitoes. however. © Methods to overcome these problems of polymers are: Reduce. Burning of polymers release harmful gases that cause air pollution.Issues of the use of synthetic polymers in everyday life © Synthetic polymers have been used widely to replace natural materials because of the following advantages: Strong and light Cheap Able to resist corrosion Inert to chemical attacks Easily moulded or shaped and dyed ADVANTAGES © The use of synthetic polymer. Plastic items block drains and rivers. Small plastics swallowed by aquatic animals cause death. © Petroleum. Make biodegradable polymers. results in environmental pollution problems from the disposal of synthetic polymers because: Most polymers are non-biodegradable (cannot be decomposed by bacteria or other microorganisms). the main source of raw materials for the making of synthetic polymers is a non-renewable resource.

© Both glass and ceramic have the same following properties: Hard but brittle Inert towards chemicals Poor conductors of heat and electricity © The use of glass and ceramics also depends on their differences as follows: Glass is transparent whereas ceramic is opaque. sodium oxide. © The uses of glass depend on the composition and properties as shown in table below. Ceramic has higher melting point than glass.GLASS AND CERAMICS © The main component of both glass and ceramics is silica or silicon dioxide. and calcium oxide § § § § Bottles Window panes Light bulbs Mirror § Laboratory Silicon dioxide apparatus and § Cooking boron oxide utensils § Decorative items § Lens and prism § Crystal glassware Lead glass Silicon dioxide and lead (II) oxide . hence highly heat-resistant Ø Transparent to Fuses glass ultraviolet and infrared light Ø Does not crack when temperature changes Ø Low melting point Soda lime Ø Cracks easily with glass sudden temperature change Ø High melting point. Type of glass Properties Chemical composition Examples of uses Ø Very high melting point. thus is heatresistant Borosilicate Ø Does not crack easily with sudden temperature change Ø High refractive index Ø Reflects light rays and appears shiny § Telescope mirror Silicon dioxide. § Lenses SiO2 § Optical fibres § Laboratory glasswares Silicon dioxide. SiO2.

Clay consists of aluminosilicate. AgCl or silver bromide. © Photochromic glass Photochromic glass is a type of glass that is sensitive to light intensity.© Ceramics sre made from clay. tiles and cement Porcelain Isulators in toasters and irons. © Some uses of ceramics in daily life are shown in table below. spark plugs in car engines Microchips § § § § § § § § § Uses As building materials Materials for vases Plates Bowls Cooking utensils To make insulating parts in electrical apparatus To make microchips in computers Radios Televisions The uses of improved glass and ceramics © Examples of new uses of improved glass are photochromic glass and conducting glass. Examples Bricks. AgBr uv Ag + ‰Br2 When the ultraviolet ray intensity decreases. AgCl or AgBr decomposes to form silver and halogen atoms. For example. When exposed to ultraviolet light. Photochromic glass is produced when silver chloride. silver atoms and bromine gas recombine to form silver bromide. © Examples of new uses of improved ceramics are superconductors and car engine blocks. AgBr is added to normal glass. The fine silver deposited in glass is black and the glass is darkened. sand and feldspar. An example of clay is kaolinite. . The glass darkens when exposed to sunlight but becomes clear when light intensity decreases.

© Conducting glass Conducting glass is atype of glass that can conduct electricity. electrical generators and electric motors. producing more energy and less pollution. Conducting glass is produced by an embedding a thin layer of conducting material in glass. © Superconductor Superconductors are a class of ceramic that conduct electricity without resistance and without the loss of electrical energy. At a higher temperature. © Ceramic car engine block Ceramic used for making car engine blocks can withstand very high temperature. Superconductor ceramics are used to make light magnets. the combustion of fuel becomes more efficient. .

stronger and lighter.COMPOSITE MATERIALS What are composite materials ? © A composite materials is a structural material formed by combining two or more material with different physical properties. © A composite material has more superior properties than the original components used to make up the composite material. more resistant to heat and corrosion compared to their original components. © Table on the next page compares the superior properties of composite materials compared to their orginal components. Composite materials are also made for specific purposes. as well as the uses of these composite materials. (TABLE ON THE NEXT PAGE) . producing a complex mixture. © Composite materials are harder.

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