This makes the metals ductile (metals can be drawn to form long wires). This makes the metals malleable (metals can be made into different shapes or pressed into thin sheets) Figure 3: Malleability of pure metals .ALLOYS Arrangement of atoms in metals © An alloy is a mixture of two or more elements with a certain fixed composition in which the major component is a metal. groups of metal atoms may glide into new positions in these empty spaces. When hammered or pressed. Figure 1: Arrangement of atoms in a pure metal The orderly arrangement of atoms enables the layers of atoms to slide over each other easily when an external force is applied on them. Figure 2: Ductility of pure metals There exist empty spaces in the structures of pure metals. This is because: A pure metal contains atoms of the same size arranged in a regular and orderly arrangement. © Pure metals are weak and soft.

with a better finish and luster . the layers of metal atoms are prevented from sliding over each other easily. foreign elements are added to molten metal. the atoms of foreign elements disrupt the orderly arrangement of the metal atoms and also fill up any empty spaces in the metal crystal structure. less ductile and less malleable than pure metals. Figure 4: The formation of alloy © Hence. © In an alloy. © There are three aims of alloying a pure metal: To increase the hardness and strength of a metal To prevent corrosion or rusting To improve the appearance of the metal surfaces. © This makes the alloy harder and stronger.The arrangement of atom in alloys © In the process of alloying. When hardened. these atoms of foreign elements replace the positions of some of the original metal atoms.

Ø Decorative ornaments. Ø Light electrical cables. Ø To make aircraft body frames. Ø Bodies of vehicles. hard and strong Light. hard and strong Lustre. Ø Racing cars tyre Ø To make bodies of aircrafts. Ø To make electrical connections musical instruments. Ø Heavy machinery. Ø Tools. Ø Racing bicycles. Ø Decorative ornaments. strong and resists rusting Bronze Hard. Ø Art crafts. strong and shiny Brass Copper added with zinc Aluminium added with magnesium Aluminium added with copper and magnesium Tin added with copper and antimoni Hard and shiny Magnalium Light. Ø To make cutlery and kitchenware.The composition. Ø Ships Ø Decorative ornaments. Ø To make kitchenware. Carbon Steel Iron added with carbon Iron added with chromium and nickel Copper added with tin Hard and strong Stainless Steel Shiny. Ø To make candlesticks. properties and uses of some common alloys Alloy Composition Properties Uses Ø Frameworks of buildings and bridges. Ø Fan blades. Ø Surgical instruments. shiny and strong Duralumin Pewter . Ø Kitchenware. Ø Statues. Ø Souvenirs. Ø Machines parts.

These small molecules are called monomers. Hence. examples are plastics and synthetic rubber. the relative molecular mass of a polymer is large. Synthetic polymers. carbohydrates and natural rubber. © There are two types of polymerisation process: Addition polymerisation POLYMERISATION Condensation polymerisation .SYNTHETIC POLYMERS The meaning of polymers © Polymers are large molecules made up of many smaller and identical repeating units joined together by covalent bonds. © The properties of a polymer are different from its monomers. © Many of the raw materials for the synthetic polymers are obtained from petroleum. © Polymers can be divided into two types: Naturally occuring polymers. examples are protein. © Polymerisation is the chemical process by which the monomers are joined together to form a big molecule known as polymer. Figure 5: Formation of a polymer © A polymer is a macromolecule (a very big molecule).

bottle crates.4dicarboxylic acid * Hezane-1. © Some examples of synthetic addition polymers. plastic containers. shopping bags. clothing and carpets. Terylene Clothing. plastic cups and plates. bags. artificial leather.6-dioic acid Safety glass.6-diol * Benzene-1. reflectors. Perspex Methylmethacrylate * Hezane-1. lens and traffic signs. their monomers and uses are shown in table below. Both nylon and Terylene are synthetic fibre used for making clothing. raincoats.© Plastics such as polythene and PVC are produced by addition polymerisation. plastic toys. heat insulators and disposable cups. whereas synthetic fibres such as nylon and Terylene are made by condensation polymerisation. .6diamine * Hezane-1. Polyvinylchloride (PVC) Chloroethane Water pipes. and wire casing. sails and ropes. shoes. plastic tables and chairs. Polystyrene Phenylethane Packaging material. toys. Synthetic Polymer Monomer Uses Plastic bags. records. plates. Nylon Ropes. Polythene (PE) Ethane Polypropene (PP) Propene Plastic bottles. car battery cases and ropes.

© Methods to overcome these problems of polymers are: Reduce. Plastic items block drains and rivers. results in environmental pollution problems from the disposal of synthetic polymers because: Most polymers are non-biodegradable (cannot be decomposed by bacteria or other microorganisms). Make biodegradable polymers. the main source of raw materials for the making of synthetic polymers is a non-renewable resource.Issues of the use of synthetic polymers in everyday life © Synthetic polymers have been used widely to replace natural materials because of the following advantages: Strong and light Cheap Able to resist corrosion Inert to chemical attacks Easily moulded or shaped and dyed ADVANTAGES © The use of synthetic polymer. causing flash floods. © Petroleum. . Burning of polymers release harmful gases that cause air pollution. Plastic containers become breeding places for mosquitoes. Small plastics swallowed by aquatic animals cause death. however. reuse and recycle synthetic polymers.

© The uses of glass depend on the composition and properties as shown in table below. sodium oxide. and calcium oxide § § § § Bottles Window panes Light bulbs Mirror § Laboratory Silicon dioxide apparatus and § Cooking boron oxide utensils § Decorative items § Lens and prism § Crystal glassware Lead glass Silicon dioxide and lead (II) oxide . © Both glass and ceramic have the same following properties: Hard but brittle Inert towards chemicals Poor conductors of heat and electricity © The use of glass and ceramics also depends on their differences as follows: Glass is transparent whereas ceramic is opaque. § Lenses SiO2 § Optical fibres § Laboratory glasswares Silicon dioxide. thus is heatresistant Borosilicate Ø Does not crack easily with sudden temperature change Ø High refractive index Ø Reflects light rays and appears shiny § Telescope mirror Silicon dioxide. Ceramic has higher melting point than glass. Type of glass Properties Chemical composition Examples of uses Ø Very high melting point. hence highly heat-resistant Ø Transparent to Fuses glass ultraviolet and infrared light Ø Does not crack when temperature changes Ø Low melting point Soda lime Ø Cracks easily with glass sudden temperature change Ø High melting point.GLASS AND CERAMICS © The main component of both glass and ceramics is silica or silicon dioxide. SiO2.

When exposed to ultraviolet light. tiles and cement Porcelain Isulators in toasters and irons. . The fine silver deposited in glass is black and the glass is darkened. silver atoms and bromine gas recombine to form silver bromide. AgBr uv Ag + ‰Br2 When the ultraviolet ray intensity decreases. Photochromic glass is produced when silver chloride. AgCl or silver bromide. AgCl or AgBr decomposes to form silver and halogen atoms. The glass darkens when exposed to sunlight but becomes clear when light intensity decreases. Clay consists of aluminosilicate. For example. Examples Bricks. © Examples of new uses of improved ceramics are superconductors and car engine blocks. sand and feldspar. © Some uses of ceramics in daily life are shown in table below. © Photochromic glass Photochromic glass is a type of glass that is sensitive to light intensity. spark plugs in car engines Microchips § § § § § § § § § Uses As building materials Materials for vases Plates Bowls Cooking utensils To make insulating parts in electrical apparatus To make microchips in computers Radios Televisions The uses of improved glass and ceramics © Examples of new uses of improved glass are photochromic glass and conducting glass. AgBr is added to normal glass.© Ceramics sre made from clay. An example of clay is kaolinite.

producing more energy and less pollution. electrical generators and electric motors. At a higher temperature. the combustion of fuel becomes more efficient. Conducting glass is produced by an embedding a thin layer of conducting material in glass. Superconductor ceramics are used to make light magnets. © Superconductor Superconductors are a class of ceramic that conduct electricity without resistance and without the loss of electrical energy. . © Ceramic car engine block Ceramic used for making car engine blocks can withstand very high temperature.© Conducting glass Conducting glass is atype of glass that can conduct electricity.

more resistant to heat and corrosion compared to their original components.COMPOSITE MATERIALS What are composite materials ? © A composite materials is a structural material formed by combining two or more material with different physical properties. © Composite materials are harder. (TABLE ON THE NEXT PAGE) . © Table on the next page compares the superior properties of composite materials compared to their orginal components. © A composite material has more superior properties than the original components used to make up the composite material. producing a complex mixture. Composite materials are also made for specific purposes. stronger and lighter. as well as the uses of these composite materials.

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