© Pure metals are weak and soft. This makes the metals ductile (metals can be drawn to form long wires). This is because: A pure metal contains atoms of the same size arranged in a regular and orderly arrangement. This makes the metals malleable (metals can be made into different shapes or pressed into thin sheets) Figure 3: Malleability of pure metals . Figure 1: Arrangement of atoms in a pure metal The orderly arrangement of atoms enables the layers of atoms to slide over each other easily when an external force is applied on them. Figure 2: Ductility of pure metals There exist empty spaces in the structures of pure metals. groups of metal atoms may glide into new positions in these empty spaces.ALLOYS Arrangement of atoms in metals © An alloy is a mixture of two or more elements with a certain fixed composition in which the major component is a metal. When hammered or pressed.

© In an alloy. © There are three aims of alloying a pure metal: To increase the hardness and strength of a metal To prevent corrosion or rusting To improve the appearance of the metal surfaces. When hardened. these atoms of foreign elements replace the positions of some of the original metal atoms. less ductile and less malleable than pure metals. © This makes the alloy harder and stronger. the atoms of foreign elements disrupt the orderly arrangement of the metal atoms and also fill up any empty spaces in the metal crystal structure. the layers of metal atoms are prevented from sliding over each other easily.The arrangement of atom in alloys © In the process of alloying. foreign elements are added to molten metal. with a better finish and luster . Figure 4: The formation of alloy © Hence.

Ø Souvenirs. Ø Light electrical cables. properties and uses of some common alloys Alloy Composition Properties Uses Ø Frameworks of buildings and bridges. Ø Bodies of vehicles. Carbon Steel Iron added with carbon Iron added with chromium and nickel Copper added with tin Hard and strong Stainless Steel Shiny. Ø Kitchenware. hard and strong Lustre. Ø Heavy machinery. Ø Ships Ø Decorative ornaments. Ø Racing cars tyre Ø To make bodies of aircrafts. Ø Art crafts. Ø To make candlesticks. Ø Surgical instruments. Ø Decorative ornaments. Ø Racing bicycles. Ø To make cutlery and kitchenware. Ø To make kitchenware. shiny and strong Duralumin Pewter . Ø Tools. Ø Fan blades. Ø Statues.The composition. Ø To make aircraft body frames. Ø Machines parts. Ø Decorative ornaments. hard and strong Light. Ø To make electrical connections musical instruments. strong and resists rusting Bronze Hard. strong and shiny Brass Copper added with zinc Aluminium added with magnesium Aluminium added with copper and magnesium Tin added with copper and antimoni Hard and shiny Magnalium Light.

the relative molecular mass of a polymer is large. © Polymers can be divided into two types: Naturally occuring polymers. © Many of the raw materials for the synthetic polymers are obtained from petroleum. These small molecules are called monomers. examples are protein. Synthetic polymers. carbohydrates and natural rubber. © Polymerisation is the chemical process by which the monomers are joined together to form a big molecule known as polymer. © The properties of a polymer are different from its monomers. Figure 5: Formation of a polymer © A polymer is a macromolecule (a very big molecule). Hence.SYNTHETIC POLYMERS The meaning of polymers © Polymers are large molecules made up of many smaller and identical repeating units joined together by covalent bonds. © There are two types of polymerisation process: Addition polymerisation POLYMERISATION Condensation polymerisation . examples are plastics and synthetic rubber.

and wire casing. Synthetic Polymer Monomer Uses Plastic bags. shoes. © Some examples of synthetic addition polymers. Nylon Ropes. shopping bags.6-dioic acid Safety glass. clothing and carpets. sails and ropes. bags. car battery cases and ropes. Perspex Methylmethacrylate * Hezane-1. Terylene Clothing. artificial leather. plastic tables and chairs.6diamine * Hezane-1. lens and traffic signs. plates. toys.4dicarboxylic acid * Hezane-1.© Plastics such as polythene and PVC are produced by addition polymerisation.6-diol * Benzene-1. Polythene (PE) Ethane Polypropene (PP) Propene Plastic bottles. raincoats. reflectors. records. bottle crates. . plastic cups and plates. plastic containers. Both nylon and Terylene are synthetic fibre used for making clothing. whereas synthetic fibres such as nylon and Terylene are made by condensation polymerisation. heat insulators and disposable cups. Polyvinylchloride (PVC) Chloroethane Water pipes. Polystyrene Phenylethane Packaging material. their monomers and uses are shown in table below. plastic toys.

reuse and recycle synthetic polymers.Issues of the use of synthetic polymers in everyday life © Synthetic polymers have been used widely to replace natural materials because of the following advantages: Strong and light Cheap Able to resist corrosion Inert to chemical attacks Easily moulded or shaped and dyed ADVANTAGES © The use of synthetic polymer. © Methods to overcome these problems of polymers are: Reduce. the main source of raw materials for the making of synthetic polymers is a non-renewable resource. results in environmental pollution problems from the disposal of synthetic polymers because: Most polymers are non-biodegradable (cannot be decomposed by bacteria or other microorganisms). . Make biodegradable polymers. however. Plastic containers become breeding places for mosquitoes. Small plastics swallowed by aquatic animals cause death. Plastic items block drains and rivers. Burning of polymers release harmful gases that cause air pollution. © Petroleum. causing flash floods.

and calcium oxide § § § § Bottles Window panes Light bulbs Mirror § Laboratory Silicon dioxide apparatus and § Cooking boron oxide utensils § Decorative items § Lens and prism § Crystal glassware Lead glass Silicon dioxide and lead (II) oxide .GLASS AND CERAMICS © The main component of both glass and ceramics is silica or silicon dioxide. hence highly heat-resistant Ø Transparent to Fuses glass ultraviolet and infrared light Ø Does not crack when temperature changes Ø Low melting point Soda lime Ø Cracks easily with glass sudden temperature change Ø High melting point. § Lenses SiO2 § Optical fibres § Laboratory glasswares Silicon dioxide. Type of glass Properties Chemical composition Examples of uses Ø Very high melting point. sodium oxide. © The uses of glass depend on the composition and properties as shown in table below. thus is heatresistant Borosilicate Ø Does not crack easily with sudden temperature change Ø High refractive index Ø Reflects light rays and appears shiny § Telescope mirror Silicon dioxide. Ceramic has higher melting point than glass. SiO2. © Both glass and ceramic have the same following properties: Hard but brittle Inert towards chemicals Poor conductors of heat and electricity © The use of glass and ceramics also depends on their differences as follows: Glass is transparent whereas ceramic is opaque.

© Photochromic glass Photochromic glass is a type of glass that is sensitive to light intensity. tiles and cement Porcelain Isulators in toasters and irons. spark plugs in car engines Microchips § § § § § § § § § Uses As building materials Materials for vases Plates Bowls Cooking utensils To make insulating parts in electrical apparatus To make microchips in computers Radios Televisions The uses of improved glass and ceramics © Examples of new uses of improved glass are photochromic glass and conducting glass. © Some uses of ceramics in daily life are shown in table below. AgCl or AgBr decomposes to form silver and halogen atoms. An example of clay is kaolinite. AgBr uv Ag + ‰Br2 When the ultraviolet ray intensity decreases. Examples Bricks. silver atoms and bromine gas recombine to form silver bromide. © Examples of new uses of improved ceramics are superconductors and car engine blocks. sand and feldspar. Clay consists of aluminosilicate. The glass darkens when exposed to sunlight but becomes clear when light intensity decreases. The fine silver deposited in glass is black and the glass is darkened. When exposed to ultraviolet light.© Ceramics sre made from clay. Photochromic glass is produced when silver chloride. . AgCl or silver bromide. AgBr is added to normal glass. For example.

Conducting glass is produced by an embedding a thin layer of conducting material in glass. electrical generators and electric motors.© Conducting glass Conducting glass is atype of glass that can conduct electricity. Superconductor ceramics are used to make light magnets. producing more energy and less pollution. the combustion of fuel becomes more efficient. © Superconductor Superconductors are a class of ceramic that conduct electricity without resistance and without the loss of electrical energy. © Ceramic car engine block Ceramic used for making car engine blocks can withstand very high temperature. . At a higher temperature.

© A composite material has more superior properties than the original components used to make up the composite material. Composite materials are also made for specific purposes. (TABLE ON THE NEXT PAGE) . producing a complex mixture. © Table on the next page compares the superior properties of composite materials compared to their orginal components. stronger and lighter. as well as the uses of these composite materials. more resistant to heat and corrosion compared to their original components. © Composite materials are harder.COMPOSITE MATERIALS What are composite materials ? © A composite materials is a structural material formed by combining two or more material with different physical properties.

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