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Thermal Physics Test Grade 10

Zoe Scarlett

March 18, 2020

1. Gas is contained in a cylinder and exerts a pressure on the cylinder.

The speed of the gas molecules is reduced.

Which row shows what happens to the temperature of the gas and to the pressure exerted by the gas
on the cylinder?

temperature pressure
A decreases decreases
B decreases increases
C increases decreases
D increases increases

2. A substance is a gas when its temperature is 65°C.

How do the boiling point and the melting point of this substance compare with 65°C?

boiling point melting point


A above 65°C above 65°C
B above 65°C below 65°C
C below 65°C above 65°C
D below 65°C below 65°C

3. A hot water tank is fitted with two identical heaters P and Q. Heater P is two thirds of the way
up the tank and heater Q is at the very bottom. The tank is full of cold water.

When only heater Q is switched on, it takes a long time to heat the tank of water to the required
temperature of 60°C.

What happens to the tank of cold water if only heater P is switched


on?

A All the water reaches 60°C in less time than before.

B All the water reaches 60°C at the same time as before.

C The bottom two thirds of the water reaches 60°C in two thirds of
the original time.

D The top one third of the water reaches 60°C in one third of the
original time.

4. A beaker of cool liquid stands in a warm room. The temperature of the liquid is falling because
molecules are escaping from the surface of the liquid.

Which row gives the name of this process, and also shows which molecules are escaping from the
liquid?

name of process molecules that are escaping


A condensation least energetic
B condensation most energetic

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C evaporation least energetic
D evaporation most energetic

5. Which row shows what happens to the temperature of a solid as it melts and what happens to
the temperature of a liquid as it boils?

temperature when a solid melts temperature when a liquid boils


A increases increases
B increases no change
C no change increases
D no change no change

6. Liquid in a beaker evaporates quickly.

Which row shows what happens to the mass and to the temperature of the liquid in the beaker?

mass temperature
A decreases decreases
B decreases increases
C increases decreases
D increases increases

7. A sample of liquid is allowed to cool for 20 minutes. Its temperature is recorded every two
minutes. The results are shown in the table.

How should the sample be described at the end of the 20 minutes?

A all liquid B all solid

C in the process of boiling D in the process of solidifying

8. The diagrams show part of a water-heating system which is working by convection.

Which diagram shows the flow of water in the system?

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Answer: D

9. Two identical metal rods are 25cm long at room temperature (20°C).

One rod is put into a freezer at a temperature of –18°C. The other rod is put into an oven at a
temperature of 200°C. The rods are left for several hours.

Which row shows the new length of each rod?

length of rod at –18°C length of rod at 200°C


A 25cm 25cm
B 25cm more than 25cm
C less than 25cm 25cm
D less than 25cm more than 25cm

10. On a warm day, a driver checks the air pressure in a car tyre. Overnight the temperature drops
and the air pressure in the tyre falls. There are no air leaks in the tyre.

Why does the pressure fall?

A The air molecules in the tyre move more slowly. B The air molecules in the tyre stop moving.

C The volume of the air in the tyre decreases. D The volume of the air in the tyre increases.

11. How is heat transferred in a vacuum?

A by conduction and convection B by convection and radiation

C by convection only D by radiation only

12. Which energy resource did not receive its energy from the Sun?

A geothermal B hydroelectric C oil D waves

13. A glass bottle containing air is sealed with a screw cap and then cooled in cold water.

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The contraction of the glass bottle can be ignored.

What remains the same during the cooling?

A the air pressure inside the bottle B the energy of the air molecules in the bottle

C the force on the cap made by the air molecules in the bottle D the volume of air inside the bottle

14. What happens to the temperature of a substance as it is melting and as it is boiling?

melting boiling
A decreases increases
B decreases no change
C increases increases
D no change no change

15. A hot metal ball is placed in a small hollow in a piece of


wood. Two thermometers are placed equal distances
from the ball, one at position P and one at position Q.

Which thermometer gives the highest reading and why?

highest reading reason


A thermometer at P the air conducts heat sideways, not upwards
B thermometer at P the wood conducts the heat sideways, not upwards
C thermometer at Q convection carries the heat upwards, not sideways
D thermometer at Q infra-red rays carry the heat upwards more than sideways

16. Which statement about a gas in a container of constant volume is correct?

A The less often the gas molecules collide with the container walls, the higher the pressure.

B The lower the temperature of a gas, the more often its molecules collide with the container walls.

C The pressure of a gas increases as its temperature decreases.

D The temperature of a gas increases as the speed of the gas molecules increases.

17. Which statement about the transfer of thermal energy is correct?

A Heat transfer by radiation involves mainly ultraviolet radiation.

B Heat transfer by radiation requires a medium to travel through.

C The main method of heat transfer through gases is conduction.

D The main method of heat transfer through liquids is convection.

18. A gas cylinder has a constant volume.

The gas molecules collide with the walls of the cylinder at a certain rate.

The gas is heated and its pressure increases.

What happens to the average speed of the gas molecules and to their rate of collision with the cylinder
walls?

average speed of gas rate of collision

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molecules
A increases increases
B increases stays the same
C stays the same increases
D stays the same stays the same

19. Four students make statements about the change of state of solids, liquids and gases.

Which statement is correct?

A The boiling point of a liquid is the temperature at which it starts to evaporate.

B The temperature of a liquid does not change while it is boiling.

C The temperature of a liquid falls while it is solidifying.

D Heat energy must be put into a gas to make it condense.

20. Fig. 2.2 shows an iceberg floating in the sea.

(i) Which material named on Fig. 2.2 best fits the statement below?

“The particles are able to move, are randomly arranged and are closely packed.”

sea water [1]

(ii) Name the process by which water molecules in the sea become water molecules in the air.

Evaporation [1]

21. This is a microwave oven. The energy of microwaves is used to cook food by heating up the
water molecules in the food.

a) A student heated some water in a microwave oven for five minutes. The graph shows how the
temperature of the water changed.

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The temperature of the water stops increasing after two minutes.

Explain what happened to the water molecules during the five minutes.

the water heats up until it reaches 100 degrees celsius (it’s boiling point) and the temperature stays the
same while the water evaporates

[3]

b) 0.5kg of water is heated in the microwave from 10°C to 50°C. The specific heating capacity of
water is 4200J/kg°C.

Calculate the energy needed to heat the water.

State the formula that you use and show your working.

formula used: PT= (4.2 x L x T) / 3600

=0.0233 joules

________________ [3]

c) The following label is found on a cooker that combines a microwave oven and a grill.

voltage 220V
microwave power 0.60kW
grill power 1.20kW
Some meat is cooked using both the microwave oven and the grill. Both are switched on at full power
for 30 minutes.

Calculate the total energy transferred by the cooker.

Show your working.

e=p x t

p=v x c= 220 x (1.8/220)

p=1.8

e=1.8 x 30=54

=54 joules

________________ [3]

(ii) Name the process that releases energy within the Sun.

nuclear fusion

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__________________________________________________________________________________

[1]

(iii) Energy is transferred from the Sun to the Earth by radiation.

Explain why energy cannot be transferred from the Sun to the Earth by conduction.

__________________________________________________________________________________

[1]

(c) Inside the washing machine, some of the water evaporates when the washing machine is being used.

(i) During evaporation, water changes state from liquid to gas.

Complete the diagrams to show the arrangement of particles in a liquid and in a gas.

(ii) Explain, in terms of particles, the process of evaporation.

__________________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________ [3]

22. Fig. 2.1 shows the inside of a refrigerator.

The temperature inside the freezing compartment is -20°C and the temperature in the rest of the
refrigerator is +5°C.

(a) (i) The air in the refrigerator is cooled by


convection.

Draw onearrow on Fig. 2.1 to show the movement of


the air cooled by the freezing compartment.

[1]

(ii) Explain this movement in terms of particles and


density.

__________________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________________

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[2]

(b) The mass of air in the refrigerator is 0.19kg.

The air in the refrigerator is cooled by 4°C.

The specific heating capacity of air is 1.01J/kg°C.

Calculate the heat energy removed from the air when it is cooled.

State the formula that you use, show your working and state the unit of your answer.

formula

working

unit [2]

(c) (i) Some ice from the freezing compartment is allowed to melt at 0°C.

Explain why energy is required to melt the ice even though the temperature remains at 0°C.

__________________________________________________________________________________

[1]

(ii) Complete the diagrams to show the arrangement of water molecules in solid ice and in liquid water.

One molecule has been drawn for you in each box. Each diagram should contain at least twelve water
molecules.

[2]

(d) A refrigerator can be warmed up by radiation energy absorbed by the outside surface of the
refrigerator. Such absorption needs to be kept as low as
possible.

The four refrigerators shown in Fig. 2.2 are identical except


for the outside surface.

State which refrigerator is most effective at keeping the


contents cool.

Explain your answer.

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______________________________________________________________________[2]

23. (c) The cooling system of the car uses water to remove heat energy from the hot engine.

The heated water goes into the radiator. Heat energy is lost from the radiator.

(i) Fig. 8.1 shows a car radiator.

Explain how the features of the radiator that are shown in Fig. 8.1 increase the rate of cooling of hot
water.

__________________________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________ [2]

(ii) The mass of water in the radiator is 5kg. The specific heating capacity of water is 4200J/kg°C.

Calculate the energy released when the water in the radiator cools by 12°C. State any formula that
you use, show your working and state the unit of your answer.

formula

working

unit [3]

Total Marks: 50

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