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Leakage Reactance Measurement
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©D
Robert Brusetti
Doble Engineering Co.

©2017 Doble Engineering Company. All Rights Reserved.


DISCUSSION OUTLINE
I. Objective
II. Physics
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III. Definition
o m pa
n g C
IV. Setup and test methodology e e ri
n g i n
V. Data analysis oble E
©D

©2017 Doble Engineering Company. All Rights Reserved.


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Objective: Leakage Reactance Measurement
• What is it?
– The measurement of the transformer impedance with the secondary
winding short circuited by applying a voltage to the primary and
measuring the corresponding current. ny p a
• Ohm’s Law: Z=V/I
C om
rin g
• Why?
i n e e
– E
Assess physical conditionn g
of the transformer (Geometry of Specimen)
b l e
• Attempting toodetect
©D
winding movement or deformation
• How?
– Using a single phase high current low voltage source
– Measure voltage across and current through an individual winding

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DISCUSSION OUTLINE

I. Objective
II. Physics
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o m pa
III. Definition
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eeri
En gin
IV. Setup and test methodology
V. Data analysis Dob le
©

©2017 Doble Engineering Company. All Rights Reserved.


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Exciting Current Load Conditions

IexIL + I2 Φmain I2

a n y
V1 v/t ΦL ΦL o m p V V2~0
C
2
ZLOAD
i n g
g i n eer
l e En
Do b V/T > V/TS
©
• Current in primary IL supports the ΦL
.
©2017 Doble Engineering Company. All Rights Reserved.
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DISCUSSION OUTLINE
I. Objective
II. Physics
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III. Definition
o m pa
n g C
IV. Setup and test methodology eeri
n g i n
V. Data analysis oble E
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©2017 Doble Engineering Company. All Rights Reserved.


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Leakage Flux
• With the secondary winding electrically shorted the current in the
primary winding is only required to support the leakage flux.
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om winding, that does pa
• Text Book: Flux due to the current in the C primary
i n g
rdue to the current in the
e
not link the secondary and the flux
i n e
g
En not link the primary winding.
secondary winding that does
b l e
© Do
• Practical: The flux that is not confined to the core for the entire
length of it path. The flux which is present in the unit permeability
space.
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Unit Permeability Space

• Unit Permeability Space; includes the space between the


windings, within the windings and between the windings and
the tank a n y
m p
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Top yoke

En g
b l e
© Do Leak age channel

Outer wind ing Core leg

In ner win ding

Bottom yoke
©2017 Doble Engineering Company. All Rights Reserved.
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Practical Transformer Model
• From an energy transfer point-of-view, the elements in this circuit
represent the imperfections in a transformer

Primary winding dc
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Secondary winding dc
resistance Leakage reactance and losses
o m pa resistance
L2 C
g
rin
Rdc-1 RL-1 L1 RL-2 Rdc-2
+ e e
n g i n
le E
E D o b C
Cins Rins ©
Dielectric
losses and
Lm Rm N1 N2
Turns ratio
capacitance
-
Exciting current and losses

©2017 Doble Engineering Company. All Rights Reserved.


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Results are expressed in Percent
• Impedance and Reactance are expressed in ohms
– Will vary considerably based on size of unit
– Depends from which winding test is performed n y
o m pa
n g C
• It is preferable to express impedance in terms of percent or per
unit. eeri
g i n
n base impedance

l
Measured value dividede Eby
D b
o into a limited range of values
– ©
Consolidates results
• High single digits or mid-teens
– The same regardless of which side of transformer test is performed

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General Formula:
% Z = 100 × ( Z m Z b )
= Zm × ( S 3 Φ V ) × 100 2
y
LL
= [( 1 10 ) Zm ][ S 3 Φ ( inKVA p a n 2
o m ) / V
C LL ( inKV ) ]
rin g
i n e e
Zm is the measured E g
n impedance, if three phase
b l e
othe three
average
© D
of
Zb is the base impedance
S3Φ is the 3-phase base power rating of the winding
VLL is the line-to-line base voltage of the winding
©2017 Doble Engineering Company. All Rights Reserved.
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DISCUSSION OUTLINE
I. Objective
II. Physics
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III. Definition
o m pa
n g C
IV. Setup and test methodology eeri
n g i n
V. Data analysis oble E
©D

©2017 Doble Engineering Company. All Rights Reserved.


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Test Methods
• In the field
– Three Phase Equivalent Test
• All three phases of secondary winding are electrically short circuited
Single phase source excites two phases each in seriesany

• Measurement is conducted on three groupsC m p
ofotwo phases
ri n g

i n e e
Sum of three impedances and/or reactance is used to calculate final %

E n
impedance and/or %reactanceg which is then compared to nameplate or
benchmark
o b le
– ©D
Per Phase Test
• Single phase source performs individual test on each phase.
• Only corresponding phase on secondary winding is electrically short circuited
• Individual impedance and/or reactance are used to calculate individual %
impedance and/or % reactance which is then compared among phases or
benchmark ©2017 Doble Engineering Company. All Rights Reserved.
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Information needed to perform test
• From Nameplate (or factory test report)
– To calculate base impedance

• Base power rating (in MVA)
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pa
• Voltage (L-L) rating of winding from which test is performed
o m
– Reference to tap position
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e e i
r test connections
n g i n
– Winding vector diagram to determine

e E
As tested configuration of apparatus
l
D o b
– Record all tap positions
©
– Note any special winding configurations
• Connection of stabilizing winding (buried tertiary)
• Connection of configurable winding

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Nameplate

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©2017 Doble Engineering Company. All Rights Reserved.


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Nameplate

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©2017 Doble Engineering Company. All Rights Reserved.


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Per Phase Measurement
• Energize one phase of the primary winding
– Delta winding across the Phase terminals (H1-H3, H2-H1, H3-H2)
– Wye winding Phase to Ground (H1-H0, H2-H0, H3-H0)
a n y
m
• Electrically short circuit the corresponding secondary
o p winding
n g C
– Reference the nameplate vector diagram
e e ri
n g
• Leave all other bushing terminalsi n floating
l e E
D o
– Except stabilizing b
winding leave as configured for service and note in
test results©
• Results:
– % Leakage Reactance for each phase

©2017 Doble Engineering Company. All Rights Reserved.


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Referencing the Vector Diagram

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©2017 Doble Engineering Company. All Rights Reserved.


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Basic Per Phase Connections

Instrume
nt
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©Instrument

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Three Phase Equivalent Measurement
• Change in Doble’s Recommendation
– Past Recommendation
• Perform Three Phase Equivalent as part of initial test

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– Intent was to compare with Nameplate value, however a complete correlation never
materialized
o m pa
– Updated Recommendation
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Three Phase Equivalent only performed
e e i
r if investigation warrants
n

n g i
• Exceptions
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b
oThree Phase Equivalent and Per Phase to establish benchmark
– Wye Delta winding
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configurations where test is performed for the Wye winding
©
» Initial:
» Routine: Per Phase routine test
» Investigate: Three Phase Equivalent
– Units with inaccessible neutral
» Three Phase Equivalent
• Per Phase test not possible
©2017 Doble Engineering Company. All Rights Reserved.
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Three Phase Equivalent Measurement cont’d
• All windings tested across bushing line terminals
– Neutral not part of test circuit but must be ungrounded
• Energize two phases of the primary winding at a time
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pa
– Across the line terminals (H1-H3, H2-H1, H3-H2)
• Short circuit the secondary winding
C o m
i n g
– All three phases except neutral
g i n eer
n floating
E
• Leave all other bushing terminals
b l e
Except stabilizingowinding
©D
– leave as configured for service and note in test
results
• Results:
– % Leakage Reactance
• Three measurements one result

©2017 Doble Engineering Company. All Rights Reserved.


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Basic Three Phase Equivalent Connections

Instrument

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Instrument

©2017 Doble Engineering Company. All Rights Reserved.


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DISCUSSION OUTLINE
I. Objective
II. Physics
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III. Definition
o m pa
n g C
IV. Setup and test methodology eeri
n g i n
V. Data analysis oble E
©D

©2017 Doble Engineering Company. All Rights Reserved.


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Analysis of Test Results
• Per-Phase Tests
– Per-Phase is the preferred method
• Comparison between phases
• Less physical area included in each measurement
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– Initial test
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• Used to established benchmark
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• Results acceptable if every value is within 3% average of three readings.
g i n
En
– Subsequent test
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Do
• Acceptable difference is <2% of the established benchmark of the respective phase
• ©
Three-Phase Equivalent Test
– Investigative test only
– Analysis
• “Ideal” within 3-4% of nameplate
– 5-7% not necessarily indicative of a problem
• If a benchmark exist should be <2%
©2017 Doble Engineering Company. All Rights Reserved.
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Nameplate Information

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©2017 Doble Engineering Company. All Rights Reserved.


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Per Phase Results
Initial Test

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Next Test
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©2017 Doble Engineering Company. All Rights Reserved.


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Three Phase Equivalent
Initial Test

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Next Test
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©2017 Doble Engineering Company. All Rights Reserved.


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