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Automation in Construction 17 (2008) 284 – 302

www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon

Evaluating the system intelligence of the intelligent building systems


Part 1: Development of key intelligent indicators
and conceptual analytical framework
Johnny Wong a,⁎, Heng Li a , Jenkin Lai b
a
Department of Building and Real Estate, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hunghom, Kowloon, Hong Kong
b
Energy Management Manager, Facilities Management, Pacific Century Premium Developments Ltd., Hong Kong
Accepted 13 June 2007

Abstract

The rapid development of microprocessor-based technologies and the increasingly sophisticated demands for high performance working
environments have prompted an increasing number of developers to consider adding ‘intelligence’ to their new buildings in order to improve the
buildings' operational effectiveness and efficiency to enhance marketability. However, the lack of satisfactory consensus for characterizing the
system intelligence and structured analytical decision models, inhibit the developers and practitioners to understand and configure optimum
intelligent building systems in a fully informed manner. Little research has been conducted towards aiding in decisions and appraisal of the
building systems and components in the intelligent building. This paper (Part 1 of a two-part research project) aims to identify the key intelligent
indicators, and map the analytical decision models for the system intelligence appraisal of the intelligent building systems. A total of 69 key
intelligent indicators were identified for eight major intelligent building systems. The development of system intelligence analytical models will be
described in Part 2 of the research. The analytic network process (ANP), a systemic analytical approach, is proposed to prioritize the intelligent
indicators and develop the model for computing the system intelligent score (SIS) — a measurement of the system intelligence of the intelligent
building systems. ANP further enables the decision-makers to take the interdependent relationships between the intelligent attributes and the
building's operational goals/benefits into consideration. Their applicability will be also validated and demonstrated using a real intelligent building
project as a case study. The main contribution of this research is to promote and enhance understanding of the key intelligent indicators, and to set
the foundation for a systemic framework that can be used for appraising system intelligence of various intelligent building systems. It aims to
provide developers and building stakeholders a consolidated inclusive tool for the system intelligence evaluation of the proposed components
design configurations.
© 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Intelligent building systems (IBSs); Multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM); Analytic hierarchy process (AHP); Analytic network process (ANP);
Intelligent indicators (IIs)

1. Introduction [94,139,109,60,114]. The implementation of intelligent build-


ing technologies is particularly favourable in Asian cities as
The significant advances in microprocessor-based technol- developers look for product differentiation, and enhance their
ogies, and the growing awareness of the connection between ‘signature’ building image by forming highly integrated and
human productivity and living/working environment have intelligent building [133]. Although many new buildings are
driven many clients to implement intelligent systems into new claimed to be ‘intelligent’, their level of building intelligence
buildings in order to achieve an energy-efficient environment noticeably varies corresponding to the functionality and
that can maximize the efficiency of the occupants; and to operational efficiency of the installed intelligent components
promote maximum profitability for their own business [109,133]. Some buildings may incorporate full configuration
of intelligent systems and components, while others may only
⁎ Corresponding author. Tel.: +852 2766 5882; fax: +852 2764 5131. consist of simple building automation systems. Occasionally,
E-mail address: 03901711r@polyu.edu.hk (J. Wong). intelligent buildings are criticised for not flexibly responding to
0926-5805/$ - see front matter © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.autcon.2007.06.002
J. Wong et al. / Automation in Construction 17 (2008) 284–302 285

the needs of the end-users. Failure to match the expectations of buildings. The multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) tech-
clients or end-users would possibly intensify the disconnection nique is proposed as a solution to solve the complexities
between the expectation and fulfilment of the intelligent involved in the building system intelligence justification. The
building. This may result in disenchantment, and a serious multiple dimensions of system intelligence (i.e. the intelligent
decline in interest and confidence in intelligent technologies attributes) of the key intelligent building systems are to be
[92,45]. Thus, although there is increasing popularity of evaluated through an analytic hierarchy-network process (i.e., a
implementing intelligent technologies in new buildings, the combination of AHP and ANP approaches). The analytic
real challenge is on designing and configuring optimum network process (ANP) approach is utilized in the current
intelligent building systems (IBSs) which are able to respond research for two reasons. First, ANP allows a more compre-
intelligently to the changing needs of the end-users, and to fulfil hensive analytic framework which is not restrictive with a
the goals of the developers. hierarchically structural model alone (i.e. analytic hierarchy
In practice, the components design configuration poses a process, AHP). This method can be used to integrate qualitative
dilemma in that system designers need to amalgamate the best information and quantitative analysis, and to capture inter-
available intelligent system packages or technologies among a dependencies among the decision attributes [86,32,69]. Second,
vast number of alternatives that are available on the market, and so far the application of ANP in solving decision-making
incorporate them to design a building with maximum intelli- problems with illustrative examples has been very limited in
gence that meets or exceeds the performance expectations construction and intelligent building research (for example:
desired by developers and end-users [49]. Such design decisions [32,31,29]). The key processes of the current research
are further exacerbated by the high aggregation of the multi- framework are organized as follows:
criteria and multi-dimensional perspectives of building intelli-
gence. The criteria include user friendliness, satisfying business • review of current intelligent building appraisal research, and
and commercial needs, meeting international standard protocols, identification of existing research gaps;
integrating to multiple systems, energy saving features, • development and validation of intelligent indicators for the
information technology, scalability, future proofing, and flexi- major building systems in the intelligent building (IBSs);
bility [133]. System designers need to strike a balance between • developing the ANP-based analytical models for computing
these perspectives, and to cater for the goals and expectations of the ‘system intelligent score’ (SIS) (discussed in Part 2); and,
the people paying for and/or intending to occupy the building • validation of the proposed analytical models using a real-life
[9,92]. In dealing with such complexities, developed analytical practical intelligent building project as a case study
methods and techniques over the past few years of research (discussed in Part 2).
efforts have facilitated and enabled the decision-making and
evaluation for intelligent building designs. However, review of Due to the research organization, this study is presented in a
available literature reveals significant deficiencies specifically two-part series (Part 1 and 2). This paper (Part 1) reviews the
on intelligent building research. The current focus of appraisal intelligent building literature to accentuate current research
studies is largely on categorical modelling of intelligent deficiencies, identifies the suitable intelligent indicators, and
buildings in which the research concentrated on classifying the proposes the analytical approach for appraising the system
intelligent building to a definite category according to their intelligence of the intelligent building systems. In Part 2, the
overall performance [17,109,112,144]. The major gap is to methodology and analytical models are discussed. A real-life
develop an integrated systematic methodology and techniques in intelligent building project is used as a case study to validate the
addressing the system intelligence of the intelligent building proposed system intelligence models, and to test their application
systems and components. This problem is further exacerbated by practicality. This study contributes to making better understanding
a lack of detailed investigations of system intelligence of the of the intelligent characteristics and attributes of the key intelligent
intelligent building systems in prior research [15]. These building systems. It aims to consolidate information from the
knowledge gaps and practical deficiencies have forced practi- industry in order to improve the understandings of the operational
tioners to continuously rely on their past experience, ‘gut- efficiency as well as functionality of the intelligent building
feeling’, rudimentary judgments, or a combination of them, in systems. This study further formulates the ‘system intelligence
justifying the intelligence performance of the building systems score (SIS)’ which may provide a reference for existing buildings
during the design and configuration stages. The tried intelligent as well as future developments to systematically analyze the
building system configuration in one project does not necessar- specific building systems performance value to the intelligent
ily mean the most suitable option in another project as the project building. With this reference tool, it will assist developers and
nature and building design varied from one to another. As a building-stakeholders in justifying the level of system intelligence
result, inadequate understanding of system intelligence might of the building systems with the perspective to meet their
lead to incorrect selection of building systems or components. operation objectives.
This study is envisaged to make a significant contribution by
addressing the identified research problems. The main objective 2. Literature review
of this study is to identify the key intelligent indicators, and to
present a systemic analytical approach for appraising the system The concept of intelligent building has evolved since the
intelligence of the key building systems in typical intelligent early 1980s. Early perceptions of intelligent building highlighted
286 J. Wong et al. / Automation in Construction 17 (2008) 284–302

on technology related to the building automation (i.e. the achievements, most of the measures were developed in forms of
definition by Cardin (1983: cited in [139]); and that of the simplified and generic indexes. Many existing approaches were
Intelligent Building Institution in Washington (1988: cited in restricted in their scope on either tangible (i.e. IBS and IBIA) or
[72,37])). Since the mid-1980s, it has been recognized that intangible (i.e. reframing and QFSD) aspects of IB [109]. Some
buildings with ‘intelligence’ need to respond to the change and indexes (i.e. IBI) were criticised for ‘non-determinism of criteria;
to meet the requirement of the users [141]. An intelligent non-sequitur calculation method; non-uniqueness of calculation
building should be a dynamic and responsive building that results; and non-organizational judgment of assessment procedure’
provides a productive and cost effective operation environment [29]. Apart from these drawbacks, existing studies lack an
through optimization among its four basic elements: places exhaustive investigation of the system intelligence of the intelligent
(fabrics, structure, facilities, materials), process (automation, systems and components in the intelligent building. There is also a
control, systems); people (services providers, occupants); and dearth of integrated systematic methodology and techniques which
management (maintenance, performance); and the interrelation facilitates the appraisal of the system intelligence of specific
between them (CIB Working Group W098 (1995: cited in [39]). intelligent building systems and components.
The integrated and intelligent systems play an important role in
that they act as a balance between building contents, the 2.2. Concepts of system intelligence
organization and services that determine if the value objectives
of clients, facility managers, and users are achieved [39]. These Over the last two decades, a plethora of intelligent components
objectives include creating a highly energy efficient and and products have been introduced. The term “intelligent” has
environmental-friendly built environment with substantial been extensively applied to portray the ‘smart’ properties of the
safety, security, well-being and convenience, a lower life-cycle building system products. Manufacturers of the intelligent
cost, and long term flexibility and marketability, which lead to technologies often claimed their system are more intelligent than
achieve a high level of buildings that have the highest social, the others of its kind, but these assertions tend to be vague and
environmental and economic values [29]. unjustified [15]. Few universally accepted properties of system
intelligence have been established for characterizing the ‘intelli-
2.1. Current intelligent building appraisal methodologies gence’ of the intelligent systems in a quantitative approach [15]. A
review of literature suggested that diverse concepts of system
Evaluating the building performance is a key determinant in any intelligence have been developed. For example, Armstrong et al.
acceptance of the intelligent building as a feasible building option [4] suggested that an ‘intelligent’ system should be one able to
[109]. ‘Building intelligence’ has been employed as a unique term demonstrate its intelligence to respond effectively to changing
of measure to reflect the specific performance and properties of the needs of potential occupiers. Wigginton and Harris [139] pointed
intelligent building. Over the last twenty years, a large amount of out that a system with real intelligence should behave more closely
appraisal methods and techniques have been developed to related to the realms of both artificial and natural intelligence with
benchmark the intelligent performance of the intelligent building the ability to respond and react to external stimuli in a predictable
(for example: [17,6,7,108,109,114,67,103,121,122,123,146]; and manner. That is, a system with artificial intelligence is able to
the work of Building Research Establishment (cited in [16])). For provide the capacity to perform similar functions to those that
example, Arkin and Paciuk [6] devised the ‘intelligent building characterize human behaviour by emulating the thought process of
score’ (IBS) which enables the IB performance to be quantified in living beings, while a system with natural intelligence relates to
terms of the building systems installed and the level of integration the aspirations of appropriating or devising faculties found in
that exists between them. Smith [108] developed the ‘reframing’ to living beings and the biological capacity [139]. Smith [109] stated
measure the enabling ability of intelligent building to meet that there are two perspectives of ‘intelligence’ of modern
organizational objectives through the examination of the organi- building. One view is related to how the building responds to
zational structure, politics, human resources and culture. Smith change, while another view is closely related to adaptability. A
[109] also proposed a ‘building intelligent assessment index system is said to be ‘intelligent’ if it is ‘able to respond and adapt in
(BIAI)’ to assess level of building intelligence through seven all these ways’ [109, p.36]. Himanen [59, p.42] suggested that a
building characteristics: site specification, operational cost, building is ‘intelligent’ if it is implemented with ‘environmental
intelligent architecture, identity, intelligent technology, system friendliness, flexibility and utilization of space, movable space
responsiveness, and access and security. Concurrently, some elements and equipment, life cycle costing, comfort, convenience,
international intelligent building institutes developed a series of safety and security, working efficiency, an image of high
rating methods to grade the intelligent building according to their technology, culture, construction process and structure, long
system design and performance [29]. For example, the Asian term flexibility and marketability, information intensity, interac-
Institute of Intelligent Buildings (AIIB) [121,122,123] developed tion, service orientation, ability of promoting health, adaptability,
an ‘intelligent building index (IBI)’ to assess the performance and reliability, and productivity.’ Despite such efforts, many concepts
categorize the IB. The UK-based BRE [13] devised a matrix tool of system intelligence tended to be simplistic. There is lack of
for IB performance assessment. The Continental Automated comprehensive and extensive investigations on the intelligent
Building Association [40] in Canada is at present establishing a attributes of the intelligent building systems.
new assessment tool (i.e. Intelligent Building Ranking Tool, IBRT) Although there are limitations in existing research, some
to assess the level of integrated systems within an IB. Despite such studies have been tried to tackle these problems. Bien et al. [15]
J. Wong et al. / Automation in Construction 17 (2008) 284–302 287

developed a concept of ‘system intelligence’ by summarizing a design [15,99,43,117,5,62,56,104,105,53,16,11,77,21]. The last


vast literature regarding system and machine intelligence of notion of system intelligence was related to the capability of
advanced technologies. Four notions of system intelligence performing ‘bio-inspired behavioural based technology’ [15]. This
(i.e., autonomy; controllability of complicated dynamics; man- is the ability to interact with the built environment and the services
machine interaction; and, bio-inspired behaviour) were pro- provided. Previous work suggested that biologically motivated
posed [15]. The first conception of the intelligent system relates to behaviour, cognitive-based, and neuro-science are considered as
the abilities on performing self-operative functions (‘autonomy’). the typical bio-inspired behaviour of the intelligent systems
An intelligent system should be designed in a manner that allows [41,65,102,124,129,88,57]. Bien et al. [15] further suggested that
minimum human intervention as much as possible during both autonomy and human-machine interaction are two common
execution of task [15]. Self-calibration, self-diagnostics, fault- components of intelligent systems or machines, while the other
tolerance and self-tuning are considered to be the key autonomous two constructs, bio-inspired behaviour and controllability for
features of intelligent systems [15,78,119,70,55,30,93,71,83,128]. complicated dynamics are considered as a specific components of
Second, a system is considered to be ‘intelligent’ when it possesses intelligent systems based on the operational characteristics of the
the ability to perform interactive operative functions, and is able to groups. Furthermore, the model of system intelligence [15]
make a very complicated dynamic system well-controlled suggested that any intelligent system with the above four identified
(‘controllability for complicated dynamic systems’). Examples intelligent attributes can lead to improved safety, enhanced
of the features of controllability for complicated dynamic reliability, high efficiency, and economical maintenance (Fig. 1).
systems include non-conventional model-based, adaptation, In this study, the system intelligence model of Bien et al. [15]
non-linearity, and motion planning under uncertainty is adopted for the development of the intelligent indicators.
[15,63,64,2,148,115,68,73,126,79,120,44]. In addition, Bien With the above model in mind, it is expected that the
et al. [15] suggested that an intelligent system should possess implementation of intelligent systems in the building would
the abilities to interface with operator and working staff, which facilitate the accomplishment of a number of operational goals
make the human users feel more comfortable and use-friendly. and benefits. A review of literature suggested that the main
The capability of human-friendly interaction between human and operational benefits of installing intelligent building compo-
machine (‘man-machine interaction’), is therefore considered as nents include: (1) improved operational effectiveness and
another important property of the intelligent systems. Examples of energy efficiency, (2) enhanced cost effectiveness, (3) increased
man-machine interaction include human-like understanding or user comfort and productivity, and (4) improved safety and
communication, emergence of artificial emotion, and ergonomic reliability [29,109,4,38,33,91].

Fig. 1. Taxonomy of key intelligent attributes in an intelligent system (reference: Bien et al. [15]).
288 J. Wong et al. / Automation in Construction 17 (2008) 284–302

3. Research methodology ‘building intelligent assessment index (BIAI)’, and ‘intelligent


building index (IBI)] also provide valuable information and
This study aims to develop key intelligent indicators, and useful insight into the generic intelligent measures of the
construct the analytical models for appraising the system building services and components. In order to review, justify,
intelligence of the main intelligent building systems. The current and further expand our list of proposed intelligent indicators,
research will confine the investigation to the following eight three experts (i.e. two M&E engineering consultants and one
main building control systems in a typical intelligent building. property developer) in intelligent building field were consulted.
In this research, two consecutive questionnaire-based surveys:
• integrated building management system (IBMS) for overall (1) a general survey; and (2) an ANP-based survey, were conducted
monitoring and building management function; in order to develop and validate key intelligent indicators and to
• heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) control construct the analytical decision models. The first survey was
system for indoor air quality (IAQ) and comfort control; designed to collect general views from industry practitioners to
• addressable fire detection and alarm (AFA) system for fire determine the relevance and suitability of the indicators to measure
prevention and annunciation; the system intelligence of various IBSs. This survey also aimed to
• telecom and data system (ITS) for communication network develop a team of experts who have rich knowledge and experience
backbone; in intelligent building design and development. They were invited
• security monitoring and access (SEC) system for surveil- to participate and complete the ANP-based survey.
lance and access control; The ANP-based survey was adopted to include all relevant
• smart/energy efficient lift system (LS) for multi-floors (suitable) intelligent indicators, and to compute their mean
transportation service; weights in order to prioritize and distinguish the more important
• digital addressable lighting control (DALI) system for light indicators from the less important ones in general. ANP allows
design and control; and, the users to consider interdependencies between and among
• computerized maintenance management system (CMMS) factors, and enables the problems to be solved in a complex and
for inventory control and service works. non-hierarchical structure [97]. The overall objective of the
models developed in this research is to determine optimum
For the development of intelligent indicators, the basic building systems which help promote the maximum benefits of
requirements for a proposed factor or criterion are that it should intelligent building. The end result is a weighting of the system
be quantifiable, effective, relevant, understandable, and usable by alternatives being considered, and the optimal building system
the practitioners and stakeholders [130]. Our list of proposed will be the one which ranks the highest. The findings of the
intelligent indicators was first derived from a comprehensive review ANP survey and the model development will be discussed in
of intelligent building literature (for example: [3,4,6,8,12,10,14,18– Part 2 [143] of this two-part series. The research framework and
20,22,23,28,33–36,42,47,48,51,52,54,58,59,65,74–76,80– methodology of this study is summarized in Fig. 2.
82,84,85,89,90,95,98,100,101,106,107,110,111,113,116,
118,125,127,132,134,136,137,138,147], and followed by inter- 4. Development of suitable intelligent indicators
views with local experts and practitioners. Apart from re-
viewing these studies, a number of available building services 4.1. Survey instruments and analytical tools
guides [for example, guideline series of Chartered Institution of
Building Service Engineers [24–27] and intelligent building The general questionnaire was purposely designed to test
indices [for examples, ‘intelligent building score’ (IBS), the suitability of identified intelligent indicators for use in

Fig. 2. Research framework and methodology.


J. Wong et al. / Automation in Construction 17 (2008) 284–302 289

measuring the system intelligence of the intelligent building This first questionnaire consists of two sections. The first
systems. A pilot study was first undertaken to test the potential section serves to introduce the objectives and scope of the
response, suitability and comprehensibility of the questionnaire. survey. The terminology of each IBS and intelligent attribute
Five intelligent building experts including three mechanical and was defined in order to clarify their meanings. The first section
electrical (M&E) engineers, one architect and one property is also used to collect demographic data regarding the
developer, were selected. These experts were asked to assess respondent's previous experience and general knowledge in
whether the proposed indicators sufficiently represented the intelligent building field in order to select those experts who are
intelligent characteristics or attributes of any intelligent building suitable for the subsequent ANP-based survey. Participants
systems if being examined; whether the wording was acceptable were invited to elicit their opinions on the suitability of each of
or whether they should be changed to make the indicators the proposed intelligent indicators on a five-point Likert scale
understandable to the respondents; and whether additional format (1 = Not suitable; 2 = Less suitable; 3 = Suitable; 4 = More
indicators should be added that are not included. Comments suitable; and, 5 = Most suitable). The critical rating was fixed at
were received and minor amendments were made to the original scale ‘3’ since ratings above ‘3’ represent ‘more suitable’ and
instrument. At the end of consultations, a total of 120 intelligent ‘most suitable’ according to the scale. Likert scales facilitate the
indicators were generated and organized into four intelligent quantification of responses so that statistical analysis could be
attributes [15]. Table 1 presents the proposed intelligent taken and differences between participants could be observed
attributes and their corresponding indicators for the eight key and generalized [1]. The descriptive statistics were employed to
intelligent building systems. This is not an exhaustive list of analyze the survey results on the critical intelligent indicators.
relevant measures but they are expected to be appropriate The mean scores ratings of all proposed indicators were
generic intelligent indicators based on the literature and experts' calculated using the formula [50,61]:
opinions. Additional intelligent indicators can be integrated
when they are deemed to be essential by the individual 1ðrv1 Þ þ 2ðrv2 Þ þ 3ðrv3 Þ þ 4ðrv4 Þ þ 5ðrv5 Þ
Mean ¼ ð1Þ
stakeholder/respondent. N ðrv1 þ rv2 þ rv3 þ rv4 þ rv5 Þ
In this study, two approaches were used to acquire an
appropriate size of survey sample. First, an invitation letter and where rv1, rv2, rv3, rv4, rv5 represent the total number of
e-mail were sent to main design consultancies (i.e. architecture responses for scale ‘1’ to ‘5’ respectively.
and engineering firms) and property developers in Hong Kong in The t-test analysis was employed to identify ‘suitable’
early September 2005. Until late November 2005, a few intelligent indicators among them [50,61,142]. The rule of t-test
companies that experienced in intelligent building design and of this survey sets out that the indicators which value larger than
development accepted our invitation and participated in this 3.00 were considered to be critical. The null hypothesis (H0:
survey. Questionnaire surveys were distributed to the staff in these μ1 b μ0) against the alternative hypothesis (H1: μ1 N μ0) were
companies who have experience in design and development of tested, where μ1 represents the mean of the survey sample
intelligent buildings, via the post and e-mails. Furthermore, the population, and μ0 represents the critical rating above which the
‘snowball’ sampling method was adopted in order to boost the indicators considered as ‘suitable’. The value of μ0 was fixed at
survey sample size. The respondents were invited to distribute the ‘3’ because it represents ‘suitable’, ‘more suitable’ and ‘most
questionnaires to those colleagues or professionals they know that suitable’ indicators. The decision rule was to reject H0 when the
have rich experiences in intelligent building design and result of the observed t-values (tO) (Eq. (2)) was larger than the
development. A total of 157 questionnaires were sent out and critical t-value (tC) (Eq. (3)) as shown in Eq. (4).
distributed, and 48 questionnaire surveys were returned by the P l
v
end of February 2006. Four completed questionnaires were tO ¼ w p0ffiffiffi ð2Þ
sD= n
removed due to erroneous use of the rating scale or inappropriate
respondents, and only 44 replies were usable for the analysis tC ¼ tðn1;aÞ ð3Þ
giving a net usable response rate of 28%. This response rate
appears both representative and reasonable for two reasons. First, tO NtC ð4Þ
the limited number of experienced professionals in intelligent p ffiffi

building field, and the extent of knowledge required for where v is the sample mean, w
P
s D = n is the estimated standard
completing this lengthy and comprehensive survey restricted error of the mean of different score (i.e. w sD is the sampled
the size of available sample. Second, empirical study with small standard deviation of difference score in the population, n is the
survey sample often appears in construction research. For sample size which was 44 in this study), n-1 represents degree
example, Ekanayake and Ofori [50] invited a sample of 43 of freedom, and α represents the significant level which was set
building contractors in Singapore in developing the determinants at 5% (0.05).
for the construction wastes. Ugwu et al. [130] included a sample The suitability of intelligent indicators in this study was
of 33 construction practitioners in developing key performance examined using Eqs. (3) and (4)). If the observed t-value is larger
indicators for sustainability appraisal in infrastructure project in than the critical t-value (tO N tC), t (43, 0.05) = 1.6820 at 95%
Hong Kong. Dulaimi and Hong [46] identified factors influencing confidence interval, then H0 that the indicator was ‘less suitable’
bid-mark-up decisions of building contractors in Singapore by a and ‘not suitable’ rejected, and only the H1 was accepted. If the
sample of 23 contractors. observed t-value of the mean ratings weighted by the
290 J. Wong et al. / Automation in Construction 17 (2008) 284–302

Table 1
Proposed intelligent indicators of the key intelligent building systems (IBSs)
IBS Proposed intelligent attributes and their associated indicators
Autonomy Controllability for complicated Man-machine interaction Bio-inspired behaviour
dynamics
Integrated building • Adaptive limiting • Ability to link multiple • Web base interface to any location • Analyze operation function
management system control algorithm stand alone building control and wireless terminal for functional parameters to select the best and
(IBMS) (e.g. max/min threshold systems from a variety of access (i.e. PALM, pocket PC, effective operation logic to run the
limiter, fault-tolerance manufacturers (interoperability) mobile phone) building services systems over time
adaptation)
• Self-diagnostic of • Remote control via Internet • Reports generation and output of • Automatically adapt to daily
operation deviations statistical and trend profiling of occupied space changes to control
controls and operations building services systems
• Year-round time • Ability to connect multiple • Ability to provide operational and • Provide adaptive control
schedule operation locations analytical functions for totalized algorithms based on seasonal
building performance review changes to control building services
systems
• Alarms and events statistics • Single operation system/ platform
for multiple location supervision
• Control and monitor HVAC • Graphical representation and real-
equipments on sequence control, time interactive operation action
time scheduling, thermal icons
comfort, ventilation, fault
recovery operations
• Control and monitor security • Run continually with minimal
system interlock operation with human supervision
“other services”
• Control and monitor lighting time
schedule/zoning operation
• Control and monitor fire
detection interlock operation with
“other services”
• Control and monitor vertical
transportation operation.
Telecom and data • Adaptive limiting • Integrate multiple network or • Fixed hub/terminal port installed • Interactive voice system
system (ITS) control algorithm service providers for flexibility connections and
(e.g. max/min threshold expansions
limiter, fault-tolerance
adaptation)
• Self-diagnosis to • Transmission capacity control and • System life and turn-round • Transmission/processing analysis
detect the timeworn diversion complexity
parts
• All digital system • End-user terminal provisions
Heating ventilation air- • Adaptive limiting • Operation control mechanism • Provide management staff with • Adaptive to occupancy work
conditioning control control algorithm to achieve efficient power database and analytical tools for pattern
system (HVAC) (e.g. max/min threshold consumption operation and service evaluation
limiter, fault-tolerance
adaptation)
• Sensing the internal • Interface with Energy • Pre-programmed responses and • Utilize natural ventilation control
temperature and Management System, Building zoning control to reduce air-conditioning power
humidity, and auto- Automation System, or consumption
adjustment of systems Integrated Building Management
System
• Sensing of external • Interact with lighting and sun- • Graphical representation and real-
temperature and blinds systems time interactive operation action
humidity, and auto- icons
adjustment of systems
• Automated fault
detection
• Self-diagnosis to
detect the timeworn
parts
Addressable fire • Alarm deployment • Integration and control of • Run continually with minimal • Analysis of alarm and false alarm
detection and alarm algorithm within the sensors, detectors, fire-fighting human supervision events patterns
system (AFA) building and notification equipment
to Fire Department
J. Wong et al. / Automation in Construction 17 (2008) 284–302 291

Table 1 (continued )
IBS Proposed intelligent attributes and their associated indicators
Autonomy Controllability for complicated Man-machine interaction Bio-inspired behaviour
dynamics
Addressable fire • Adaptive limiting • Interface with Energy • Provide management staff with
detection and alarm control algorithm Management System, Building database and analytical tools for
system (AFA) (e.g. max/min threshold Automation System, or operation and service evaluation
limiter, fault-tolerance Integrated Building Management
adaptation) System
• Self-diagnostic • Interact with security systems • Pre-scheduled of special events and
analysis for false alarm incidents
reduction
• Self test of sensors, • Interact with HVAC systems • Provide access for tenants and
detectors and control occupants concurrent information
points of the services provision
• Self-diagnosis to • Interact with lift systems
detect the timeworn parts
• Interact with emergency
generator systems
Security monitoring • Adaptive limiting • Dynamic programming • Run continually with minimal • Human behaviour analysis and
and access control control algorithm (routing, time schedule, human supervision diagnostic
system (SEC) e.g. max/min threshold monitoring sequence, control
limiter, fault-tolerance reaction, etc.)
adaptation)
• Sabotage proof to • Configurable to accurately • Provide management staff with • Adaptive to demands in high
resist physical damage implement the security policies database and analytical tools for traffic or occupancy situations
and modification for the premises operation and service evaluation
• Self-diagnosis to • Interface with other system, • Provide access for tenants and
detect the timeworn parts e.g. communication network, occupants concurrent information of
phone system, etc the services provision
• Interface with Energy • Pre-scheduled set up of special
Management System; Building events and normal routines;
Automation System, or
Integrated Building Management
System
• Multiple detection or
verification mechanism
Smart/energy • Adaptive limiting • Accommodate changes of • Human engineering design to • User designation, verification and
efficient lift control control algorithm passenger traffic pattern facilitate convenience of passengers specific control (static sectoring or
system (LS) (e.g. max/min threshold (up peak/down peak) (i.e. voice announcement, fit for dynamic sectoring)
limiter, fault-tolerance disables, lighting, floor display up/
adaptation) down, etc)
• Auto-controlled • Remote monitoring • Provide management staff with • Integration with building usage
navigation at emergency database and analytical tools for schedule for travel programming
(with remote override) operation and service evaluation
(i.e. levelling performance)
• On-line data logging • On-line investigation and • Provide access for tenants and
facilitating routine analysis of lift activity occupants concurrent information of
maintenance the services provision
• Self-diagnosis to • Interface with Energy • Pre-scheduled of special events and
detect the timeworn parts Management System, Building normal routines
Automation System, or
Integrated Building Management
System
Digital addressable • Adaptive limiting • Adaptive to occupancy work • Provide management staff with • Provide multiple level and control
lighting control control algorithm schedule database and analytical tools for mode for occupants to program
system (DALI) (e.g. max/min threshold operation and service evaluation custom-made settings
limiter, fault-tolerance
adaptation)
• Monitoring • Presence detection • Provide access for tenants and • Sensing the light intensity and
capabilities that lamp (i.e. dimmable occupancy sensor, occupants concurrent information of angle of projection and solar
performance and hours access triggered control) the services provision radiation to maximize natural light/
run can be logged reduce lighting power (i.e.
photoelectric switching and
dimming controls)
(continued on next page)
292 J. Wong et al. / Automation in Construction 17 (2008) 284–302

Table
Table 11 (continued
(continued ))
IBS Proposed intelligent attributes and their associated indicators
Autonomy Controllability for complicated Man-machine interaction Bio-inspired behaviour
dynamics
Digital addressable • Self-diagnosis to • Control of individual • Pre-programmed response and • Automatic lighting or
lighting control detect the timeworn parts luminaries, groups of luminaries control shading controls
system (DALI) or lighting zone
• Interface with Energy • User interface via internet/intranet
Management System, Building or remote control
Automation System, or
Integrated Building Management
System
Computerized • Automatically • Deployment mechanism • Input/output display custom design for • Diversion of work process
maintenance generation of routine management requirements on busy schedule
management system maintenance work
(CMMS) schedule with alert of
system contract
expiration
• Statistical evaluation • Interfacing with telephone • Dispatch and works tracking • Interactive communication
of building services system, mobile phone system, on demand through system with site
(breakdown, recovery, SMS system, fax system, e-mail workers and operator to
parts replacement, etc) system, etc maintain up-to-the-minutes
status
• Self-diagnosis to • System configuration allows • Management programming to
detect the timeworn parts multiple locations, multiple trade, upkeep changes of labour, work type
multiple client database and material inventory
• Service quality and customer • Set up maintenance scheduling and
feedback management special services

respondents was less than the critical t-values (tO b tC), the H0 situation. It aims to provide automatic functional control and
that was ‘less suitable’ and ‘not suitable’ only was accepted. maintain the building's normal daily operation. Current IBMS
also provides the function of power quality monitoring and
4.2. Summary of the survey results analysis as well as distribution analysis of electricity, gas, and
water consumption in the intelligent building. In this survey, 16
Table 2 summarises the sample characteristics of this survey. indicators were determined as critical in determining the level of
Forty-four industry practitioners including design consultants,
property developers, and facility managers, etc who were Table 2
involved in intelligent building design and development, Demographic details of the general survey respondents
participated in this survey. About 61% of the respondents Demographic information Number %
were from a design background (i.e. M&E engineers, and
Nature of work
architects), and the remainder were property developers (21%) Design consultants (building services engineers) 27 61%
and facility managers (18%). Most respondents (84%) had Developers 9 21%
about 1 to 20 years of work experience in the construction Facility managers 8 18%
sector, and 16% of respondents had more than 21 years work Total 44 100%
Year of experience
experience. Main types of intelligent building projects they
0–5 years 7 16%
have participated in were commercial/residential (30%), and 6–10 years 16 36%
commercial/office (37%) development. Other developments 11–15 years 7 16%
included commercial/hotel-resort (14%), commercial/recrea- 16–20 years 7 16%
tional (6%), and residential (13%) projects. 21–25 years 1 2%
26–30 years 4 9%
Table 3 presents the mean scores and t-test results. Based on
Over 30 years 2 5%
the findings, 69 key intelligent indicators were extracted from a Total 44 100%
total of 120 proposed indicators under the eight IBSs. Pursuant Experience in intelligent building development
to this table, some patterns were identified: Commercial/residential 25 30%
Commercial/office 30 37%
Commercial/hotel-resort 11 14%
4.2.1. Integrated building management system (IBMS)
Commercial/recreational 5 6%
The main function of IBMS is to integrate all essential Industrial/warehouse 0 0%
building services systems to provide an overall strategic Industrial/manufacturing 0 0%
management in all aspects with the capacity to systematically Residential/single block villa 3 4%
analyse and report the building performance and connect with Residential/complex 7 9%
Total 81 100%
multiple site/location to give corporation a portfolio view of the
J. Wong et al. / Automation in Construction 17 (2008) 284–302 293

intelligence of IBMS. The top three ranked indicators were the the ability to ‘sense the internal temperature and humidity, and
‘ability to link multiple standalone building control system from auto-adjustment’, and the ‘interface with EMS, BAS, or IBMS’ of
a variety of manufacturers’; the ‘graphical representation and HVAC control system. As commented by Bischof et al. [1993,
real-time interactive operation action icons’; and the ‘ability to citied in [127]], indoor air quality (IQA) is critical for the well-
connect multiple locations’. The highest ranking of ‘ability to being of occupiers because inadequate ventilation in buildings
link multiple standalone building control system from a variety can lead to serious problems including sick building syndrome,
of manufacturers’ reflects an awareness among stakeholders building-related illnesses and mildew [34,121,3]. In addition, a
over the importance of total integration of the sub-systems by comfortable and healthy visual environment is critical to support
the IBMS. This is probably caused by the frustrations the activities of the occupants. In HVAC control system, the PID
encountered by stakeholders regarding the incompatibilities (Proportional-Integral-Derivative) controls are employed to
and limited opportunities for the integration of building control the supply air temperature, supply static pressure, and
automation and control systems among product of different return air flow rate. Optimum control strategies are used to reset
manufacturers [135]. Respondents also recognized that the the set points of the local PID control loop of the supply static
ability of IBMS to accommodate all devices and to conform pressure (for VAV/AHU system), Sensors concerned are the
them to the protocol standard being used is significant. Devices temperature sensors of the fresh air, return air, and supply air,
from different manufacturers should employ the same commu- humidity sensors of the return air and fresh air, and the static
nications network, communicating with their peers and not pressure sensor of the supply air. These sensors are essential in
interfering with other equipment. In addition, the graphical monitoring and automatic control of the air handling process
representation and real-time interactive operation action icon [145]. System instability would result in comfort complaints, IAQ
were considered as an indispensable intelligent attribute of issues, control problems, and exorbitant utility cost [3].
IBMS. Example includes the graphical displays of plant Developers and facility managers ranked the ‘ability of pre-
operation which allow diagrams of plants with live point values programmed responses and zoning control’ as the top intelligent
displayed, giving on-screen displays of temperatures, flows etc. indicator. This implies the need for the existence of pre-pro-
Operating states of items of plant should be displayed. Set grammed control modules in its software to facilitate their daily
points may be adjusted directly and plant items switched on and HVAC control and monitoring. A number of logic control functions
off [27]. An optimum IBMS should be able to display real-time which may be used to improve control operation [27]. The contro-
trend graph of the present situation or a review of historical data. ller sets its internal parameters to match the characteristics of the
Interestingly, among the three-categories of participants, actual combination of building and heating system. This configures
developers also ranked the ‘ability of system self-diagnostic of to meet the requirements of the actual control strategy to be
operation deviations’ and ‘ability to provide operational and implemented. The averaging module is an example of pre-pro-
analytical function’ as the top intelligent indicators of IBMS. grammed control models which is used to produce a mean value of
This reflects that there is a high level of awareness that the a number of inputs. The system may be set up to control mean zone
importance of IBMS to detect and diagnose faults in the control temperature, averaged over several temperature sensors. Sophisti-
systems, devices and sensors with automated monitoring and cated versions may be programmed to ignore extreme values.
control instrumentations in which design consultants and
facility managers regarded relatively low in their ranking. 4.2.4. Addressable fire detection and alarm (AFA) system
The key function of the AFA system is to provide effective
4.2.2. Telecom and data system (ITS) fire detection, control and fighting in the building. Other than
The telecom and data system is a communication network the statutory requirements of the fire detection systems, a total
backbone in intelligent building designed to provide effective of ten indicators were determined by stakeholders as important
and efficient information transmission or exchange inside and in justifying the system intelligence of fire detection system.
outside building [109]. Four intelligent indicators including the The top two indicators include the ‘alarm deployment algorithm
‘ability of integrating multiple network or service providers’; within the building and notification to Fire Department’, and
‘transmission capacity control and diversion’; ‘the installation ‘self-diagnostic analysis for false alarm reduction’. Facility
of fixed hub/terminal port’ and ‘system life and turn-round managers emphasized three other intelligent properties of AFA
complexity’, were identified as the most suitable indicator by system as 1st ranking: ‘interface with security systems’, ‘Run
the stakeholders. This ranking implies that during data continually with minimal human supervision’, and ‘interface
transmission, communication network should have the ability with HVAC systems’. In principle, during the fire incident, it is
to deal with message prioritization/diversion and the avoidance important for the fire detection system to effectively and
of message collision when several devices are attempting to efficiently notify the IBMS (or BAS) for a fire and the BAS
transmit at the same time [27]. instructs the security system to unlock access. Emergency doors
and other security entrance controllers should be disabled to
4.2.3. HVAC control system allow easy egress of the building occupants [27]. In addition,
The primary objective of HVAC control system is to enhance the control strategy for each subsystem of the HVAC plant
thermal comfort, humidity control, and adequate ventilation should set up the control action to be taken in the event of
inside the buildings. To determine the intelligence performance of receiving a fire alarm signal. Much of the plant should be shut
a HVAC system, design consultants placed greater emphasis on down in response to a fire alarm. The air handling unit (AHU)
294 J. Wong et al. / Automation in Construction 17 (2008) 284–302

Table 3
Perceptions of ‘suitable’ intelligent variables/indicators by various industry experts and practitioners
IBS Level 1 Level 2 indicators/variables Mean (SD, ranking) t-value
attributes
All (N = 44) Design Developers Facility
consultants (N = 9) managers
(N = 27) (N = 8)
Integrated AUT Adaptive limiting control algorithm 3.32 (.740, 12) 3.33 (.832, 11) 3.11 (.601, 5) 3.50 (.535, 3) 2.852⁎
building
management AUT Self-diagnostic of operation deviations 3.45 (.761, 7) 3.56 (.751, 8) 3.56 (.527, 1) 3.00 (.926, 7) 3.961⁎
system AUT Year-round time schedule operation 3.25 (.751, 14) 3.41 (.844, 10) 3.00 (.000, 6) 3.00 (.756, 7) 2.208⁎
(IBMS)
CCD Ability to link multiple stand alone building control 3.93 (.900, 1) 4.15 (.770, 1) 3.56 (.882, 1) 3.63 (1.188, 2) 6.871⁎
systems from a variety of manufacturers
CCD Remote control via Internet 3.30 (.978, 13) 3.56 (1.050, 8) 2.56 (.726, 8) 3.25 (.463,5) 2.003⁎
CCD Ability to connect multiple locations 3.61 (.618, 3) 3.81 (.557, 2) 3.22 (.667, 4) 3.38 (.518, 4) 6.585⁎
CCD Alarms and events statistics 3.59 (.816, 4) 3.74 (.813, 3) 3.44 (.726, 2) 3.25 (.886, 5) 4.803⁎
CCD Control and monitor HVAC equipments 3.57 (.759, 5) 3.81 (.736, 2) 3.33 (.500, 3) 3.00 (.756, 7) 4.963⁎
CCD Control and monitor lighting time schedule/zoning 3.39 (.722, 10) 3.63 (.742, 6) 3.11 (.333, 5) 2.88 (.641, 8) 3.548⁎
operation
CCD Control and monitor security system 3.20 (.930, −) 3.59 (.747, −) 2.44 (.882, −) 2.75 (.886, −) 1.460
CCD Control and monitor fire detection 3.23 (1.031, −) 3.63 (.926, −) 2.67 (1.000, −) 2.50 (.756, −) 1.462
CCD Control and monitor vertical transportation operation. 3.14 (.878, −) 3.37 (.839, −) 2.89 (.782, −) 2.63 (.916, −) 1.030
MMI Web base interface to any location and wireless 3.02 (.976, −) 3.26 (.903, −) 2.78 (.972, −) 2.50 (1.069, −) 0.154
terminal for functional access
MMI Reports generation and output of statistical and trend 3.39 (.868, 10) 3.59 (.931, 7) 3.00 (.707, 6) 3.13 (.641, 6) 2.951⁎
profiling of controls and operations
MMI Ability to provide operational and analytical functions 3.43 (.728, 8) 3.48 (.802, 9) 3.56 (.527, 1) 3.13 (.641, 6) 3.934⁎
MMI Single operation system/platform for multiple location 3.32 (.740, 12) 3.41 (.797, 10) 3.22 (.441, 4) 3.13 (.835, 6) 2.852⁎
supervision
MMI Graphical representation and real-time interactive 3.66 (.939, 2) 3.67 (1.038, 5) 3.44 (.726, 2) 3.88 (.835, 1) 4.658⁎
operation action icons
MMI Run continually with minimal human supervision 3.41 (.897, 9) 3.63 (.926, 6) 3.22 (.833, 4) 2.88 (.641, 8) 3.024⁎
BIB Analyze operation function parameters 3.34 (.745, 11) 3.48 (.753, 9) 2.89 (.333, 7) 3.38 (.916, 4) 3.034⁎
BIB Automatically adapt to daily occupied space changes 3.16 (.914, −) 3.41 (.888, −) 2.78 (.833, −) 2.75 (.886, −) 1.155
BIB Provide adaptive control algorithms based on seasonal 3.52 (.902, 6) 3.70 (.912, 4) 3.00 (.707, 6) 3.50 (.926, 3) 3.845⁎
changes
Telecom & AUT Adaptive limiting control algorithm 3.05 (.569, −) 3.11 (.641, −) 3.00 (.500, −) 2.88 (.354, −) 0.530
data
system AUT Self-diagnosis 3.09 (.640, −) 3.19 (.622, −) 2.89 (.333, −) 3.00 (.926, −) 0.942
(ITS)
CCD Integrate multiple network or service providers 3.77 (.774, 1) 3.81 (.879, 1) 3.56 (.527, 1) 3.88 (.641, 1) 6.627⁎
CCD Transmission capacity control & diversion 3.55 (.791, 3) 3.59 (.931, 3) 3.44 (.527, 2) 3.50 (.535, 2) 4.574⁎
CCD All digital system 3.14 (.734, −) 3.26 (.764, −) 2.78 (.667, −) 3.13 (.641, −) 1.232
MMI Fixed hub/terminal port installed 3.57 (.661, 2) 3.67 (.734, 2) 3.33 (.500, 3) 3.50 (.535, 2) 5.701⁎
MMI System life & turn-round complexity 3.23 (.642, 4) 3.41 (.694, 4) 2.78 (.441, 4) 3.13 (.354, 3) 2.348⁎
MMI End-user terminal provisions 3.16 (.861, −) 3.37 (.839, −) 2.78 (.833, −) 2.88 (.835, −) 1.225
BIB Interactive voice system 2.91 (.802, −) 2.93 (.781, −) 2.89 (.782, −) 2.88 (.991, −) − 0.752
BIB Transmission/processing analysis 3.09 (.709, −) 3.19 (.681, −) 2.89 (.782, −) 3.00 (.756, −) 0.850
HVAC AUT Adaptive limiting control algorithm 3.32 (.561, 8) 3.48 (.580, 5) 2.89 (.333, 6) 3.25 (.463, 4) 3.760⁎
control
system AUT Sensing the internal temperature and humidity, and 3.57 (.818, 3) 3.70 (.775, 1) 3.11 (.782, 4) 3.63 (.916, 1) 4.606⁎
auto-adjustment of systems
AUT Sensing of external temperature and humidity, and 3.25 (.943, 10) 3.56 (.892, 3) 2.78 (.667, 7) 2.75 (1.035, 6) 1.758⁎
auto-adjustment of systems
AUT Automated fault detection 3.50 (.849, 5) 3.52 (.802, 4) 3.44 (.527, 3) 3.50 (1.309, 2) 3.906⁎
AUT Self-diagnosis 3.23 (.677, 11) 3.33 (.679, 7) 2.89 (.333, 6) 3.25 (.886, 4) 2.226⁎
CCD Operation control mechanism 3.52 (.952, 4) 3.56 (.801, 3) 3.56 (.882, 2) 3.38 (1.506, 3) 3.642⁎
CCD Interface with EMS, BAS, or IBMS 3.61 (.689, 2) 3.70 (.669, 1) 3.44 (.527, 3) 3.50 (.926, 2) 5.905⁎
CCD Interact with lighting and sun-blinds systems 2.80 (.904, −) 3.07 (.829, −) 2.11 (.601, −) 2.63 (1.061, −) − 1.500
MMI Provide management staff with database & analytical 3.27 (.845, 9) 3.44 (.801, 6) 2.89 (.601, 6) 3.13 (1.126, 5) 2.140⁎
tools for operation & service evaluation
MMI Pre-programmed responses and zoning control 3.64 (.685, 1) 3.63 (.688, 2) 3.67 (.707, 1) 3.63 (.744, 1) 6.161⁎
MMI Graphical representation and real-time interactive 3.34 (.834, 7) 3.48 (.849, 5) 3.00 (.707, 5) 3.25 (.886, 4) 2.712⁎
operation action icons
BIB Adaptive to occupancy work pattern 2.89 (.841, −) 3.11 (.892, −) 2.33 (.500, −) 2.75 (.707, −) − 0.896
BIB Utilize natural ventilation control 3.43 (.759, 6) 3.56 (.751, 3) 2.89 (.333, 6) 3.63 (.916, 1) 3.772⁎
J. Wong et al. / Automation in Construction 17 (2008) 284–302 295

Table 3 (continued )
IBS Level 1 Level 2 indicators/variables Mean (SD, ranking) t-value
attributes
All (N = 44) Design Developers Facility
consultants (N = 9) managers
(N = 27) (N = 8)
Addressable AUT Alarm deployment algorithm within the building and 3.73 (.949, 1) 3.96 (.759, 1) 3.56 (1.130, 1) 3.13 (1.126, 5) 5.083⁎
fire detection notification to Fire Department
& alarm AUT Adaptive limiting control algorithm 2.91 (.640, −) 2.96 (.759, −) 2.89 (.333, −) 2.75 (.463, −) − 0.942
system AUT Self-diagnostic analysis for false alarm reduction 3.68 (.601, 2) 3.74 (.656, 4) 3.56 (.527, 1) 3.63 (.518, 1) 7.522⁎
(AFA)
AUT Self test of sensors, detectors and control points 3.45 (.791, 8) 3.78 (.506, 3) 2.44 (.726, 7) 3.50 (.756, 2) 3.811⁎
AUT Self-diagnosis to detect the timeworn parts 2.98 (.590, −) 3.07 (.616, −) 2.78 (.441, −) 2.88 (.641, −) − 0.255
CCD Integration and control of sensors, detectors, fire-fighting 3.48 (.952, 7) 3.56 (.934, 6) 3.33 (1.00, 2) 3.38 (1.061, 3) 3.325⁎
equipment
CCD Interface with EMS, BAS, or IBMS 3.20 (.701, 9) 3.30 (.724, 7) 3.11 (.782, 4) 3.00 (.535, 6) 1.934⁎
CCD Interact with security systems 3.66 (.861, 3) 3.81 (.834, 2) 3.22 (.833, 3) 3.63 (.916, 1) 5.077⁎
CCD Interact with HVAC systems 3.61 (.813, 4) 3.78 (.801, 3) 3.11 (.782, 4) 3.63 (.744, 1) 5.006⁎
CCD Interact with lift systems 3.45 (.848, 8) 3.67 (.877, 5) 2.89 (.333, 5) 3.38 (.916, 3) 3.556⁎
CCD Interact with lighting/emergency generator systems 3.50 (.976, 6) 3.67 (.961, 5) 3.22 (.833, 3) 3.25 (1.165, 4) 3.397⁎
MMI Run continually with minimal human supervision 3.57 (.974, 5) 3.81 (.834, 2) 2.78 (.972, 6) 3.63 (1.061, 1) 3.869⁎
MMI Provide database and analytical tools for operation and 3.25 (.991, −) 3.41 (.888, −) 2.56 (1.130, −) 3.50 (.926, −) 1.673
service evaluation
MMI Provide concurrent information of the services provision 2.70 (.765, −) 2.96 (.706, −) 2.11 (.782, −) 2.50 (.535, −) − 2.562
MMI Pre-scheduled of special events and incidents 3.07 (.661, −) 3.22 (.641, −) 2.78 (.667, −) 2.88 (.641, −) 0.684
BIB Analysis of alarm and false alarm events patterns 2.86 (.765, −) 3.04 (.854, −) 2.67 (.500, −) 2.50 (.535, −) − 1.182
Security AUT Adaptive limiting control algorithm 3.02 (.731, −) 3.15 (.770, −) 2.78 (.441, −) 2.88 (.835, −) 0.206
monitoring & AUT Sabotage proof 3.41 (.693, 4) 3.48 (.700, 3) 3.11 (.782, 4) 3.50 (.535, 2) 3.917⁎
access control AUT Self-diagnosis 2.91 (.563, −) 2.93 (.616, −) 2.78 (.441, −) 3.00 (.535, −) − 1.071
system (SEC) CCD Dynamic programming 3.32 (.909, 6) 3.37 (.884, 5) 3.22 (.833, 3) 3.25 (1.165, 3) 2.321⁎
CCD Configurable to accurately implement the security policies 3.61 (.722, 1) 3.74 (.764, 1) 3.33 (.500, 2) 3.50 (.756, 2) 5.636⁎
for the premises
CCD Interface with other system, e.g. communication network, 3.59 (.622, 2) 3.74 (.594, 1) 3.44 (.527, 1) 3.25 (.707, 3) 6.302⁎
phone system, etc
CCD Interface with EMS, BAS, or IBMS 3.25 (.751, 7) 3.33 (.832, 6) 3.00 (.707, 5) 3.25 (.463, 3) 2.208⁎
CCD Multiple detection or verification mechanism 3.11 (.895, −) 3.44 (.751, −) 2.22 (.667, −) 3.00 (.926, −) 0.842
MMI Run continually with minimal human supervision 3.57 (.950, 3) 3.70 (.912, 2) 3.11 (.782, 4) 3.63 (1.188, 1) 3.968⁎
MMI Provide database and analytical tools for operation and 3.34 (.834, 5) 3.41 (.844, 4) 2.89 (.782, 6) 3.63 (.744, 1) 2.712⁎
service evaluation
MMI Provide concurrent information of the services provision 2.98 (.792, −) 3.22 (.641, −) 2.22 (.833, −) 3.00 (.756, −) − 0.190
MMI Pre-scheduled set up 3.20 (.734, 8) 3.30 (.775, 7) 3.11 (.601, 4) 3.00 (.756, 4) 1.849⁎
BIB Human behaviour analysis and diagnostic 2.68 (.800, −) 2.85 (.770, −) 2.44 (.726, −) 2.38 (.916, −) − 2.637
BIB Adaptive to demands in high traffic or occupancy situations 2.91 (.772, −) 3.04 (.706, −) 2.56 (.726, −) 2.88 (.991, −) − 0.781
Smart/energy AUT Adaptive limiting control algorithm 3.18 (.843, −) 3.26 (.944, −) 3.00 (.707, −) 3.13 (.641, −) 1.431
efficient lift AUT Auto-controlled navigation at emergency 3.61 (.841, 1) 3.59 (.844, 1) 3.44 (.726, 2) 3.88 (.991, 1) 4.838⁎
control
system (LS) AUT On-line data logging 3.16 (.608, 7) 3.19 (.681, 6) 3.22 (.441, 4) 3.00 (.535, 5) 1.736⁎
AUT Self-diagnosis 2.93 (.759, −) 3.00 (.832, −) 2.78 (.667, −) 2.88 (.641, −) − 0.596
CCD Accommodate changes of passenger traffic pattern 3.43 (.974, 3) 3.48 (.975, 2) 3.44 (.882, 2) 3.25 (1.165, 3) 2.941⁎
CCD Remote monitoring 3.16 (.939, −) 3.37 (.839, −) 2.56 (1.014, −) 3.13 (.991, −) 1.124
CCD On-line investigation and analysis of lift activity 3.30 (.765, 5) 3.33 (.734, 4) 3.11 (.601, 5) 3.38 (1.061, 2) 2.562⁎
CCD Interface with EMS, BAS, or IBMS 3.41 (.972, 4) 3.41 (.971, 3) 3.67 (.707, 1) 3.13 (1.246, 4) 2.791⁎
MMI Human engineering design 3.48 (.849, 2) 3.59 (.797, 1) 3.33 (.866, 3) 3.25 (1.035, 3) 3.730⁎
MMI Provide database and analytical tools for operation 3.20 (.795, 6) 3.22 (.698, 5) 3.11 (.782, 5) 3.25 (1.165, 3) 1.707⁎
and service evaluation
MMI Provide concurrent information of the services 2.91 (.741, −) 2.96 (.706, −) 2.78 (.667, −) 2.88 (.991, −) − 0.813
provision
MMI Pre-scheduled of special events and normal routines 3.20 (.734, 6) 3.22 (.698, 5) 3.11 (.601, 5) 3.25 (1.035, 3) 1.849⁎
BIB User designation, verification and specific control 3.02 (.762, −) 3.07 (.730, −) 2.78 (.441, −) 3.13 (1.126, −) 0.198
BIB Integration with building usage schedule for 3.18 (.815, −) 3.22 (.698, −) 2.89 (.782, −) 3.38 (1.188, −) 1.480
travel programming
Digital AUT Adaptive limiting control algorithm 3.14 (.668, −) 3.19 (.622, −) 3.11 (.601, −) 3.00 (.926, −) 1.354
addressable AUT Monitoring capabilities 3.18 (.815, −) 3.22 (.801, −) 3.22 (.667, −) 3.00 (1.069, −) 1.480
lighting control AUT Self-diagnosis 3.00 (.682, −) 2.96 (.808, −) 3.00 (.500, −) 3.13 (.354, −) 0.000
system (DALI) CCD Adaptive to occupancy work schedule 3.18 (1.018, −) 3.44 (.892, −) 2.33 (.866, −) 3.25 (1.165, −) 1.185
CCD Presence detection 3.23 (.803, 6) 3.37 (.742, 4) 2.78 (.441, 4) 3.25 (1.165, 5) 1.877⁎
(continued on next page)
296 J. Wong et al. / Automation in Construction 17 (2008) 284–302

Table
Table 33 (continued
(continued ))
IBS Level 1 Level 2 indicators/variables Mean (SD, ranking) t-value
attributes
All (N = 44) Design Developers Facility
consultants (N = 9) managers
(N = 27) (N = 8)
Digital CCD Control of individual luminaries, groups of luminaries 3.80 (.734, 1) 3.81 (.736, 1) 3.78 (.667, 1) 3.75 (.886, 2) 7.190⁎
addressable or lighting zone
lighting CCD Interface with EMS, BAS, or IBMS 3.64 (.718, 2) 3.81 (.681, 1) 3.33 (.866, 2) 3.38 (.518, 4) 5.877⁎
control MMI Provide database and analytical tools for operation and 3.27 (.845, 4) 3.19 (.736, 6) 3.33 (.866, 2) 3.50 (1.195, 3) 2.140⁎
system service evaluation
(DALI) MMI Provide concurrent information of the 2.77 (.774, −) 2.74 (.813, −) 2.78 (.667, −) 2.88 (.835, −) − 1.949
services provision
MMI Pre-programmed response and control 3.25 (.839, 5) 3.26 (.764, 5) 3.33 (.866, 2) 3.13 (1.126, 6) 1.977⁎
MMI User interface 2.91 (.802, −) 2.93 (.675, −) 2.67 (1.118, −) 3.13 (.835, −) − 0.752

BIB Provide multiple level and control mode 3.18 (.896, −) 3.33 (.877, −) 2.67 (.707, −) 3.25 (1.035, −) 1.346

BIB Sensing the light intensity and angle of projection and solar 3.64 (.967, 2) 3.67 (.877, 2) 3.22 (.833, 3) 4.00 (1.309, 1) 4.367⁎
radiation
BIB Automatic lighting or shading controls 3.39 (.841, 3) 3.44 (.801, 3) 3.22 (.441, 3) 3.38 (1.302, 4) 3.046⁎
Computerized AUT Automatically generation of routine maintenance 3.34 (.914, 3) 3.37 (.884, 3) 3.00 3.63 (1.188, 1) 2.475⁎
maintenance work schedule with alert of system contract expiration (.707, 4)
management AUT Statistical evaluation 3.48 (.549, 1) 3.52 (.580, 2) 3.33 (.500, 1) 3.50 (.535, 2) 5.763⁎
system AUT Self-diagnosis 3.09 (.741, −) 3.15 (.718, −) 2.89 (.601, −) 3.13 (.991, −) 0.813
(CMMS)
CCD Deployment mechanism 3.23 (.605, 4) 3.30 (.609, 4) 3.22 (.667, 2) 3.00 (.535, 5) 2.493⁎
CCD Interfacing with telephone, mobile phone, SMS, fax, e-mail 3.05 (.861, −) 3.11 (.751, −) 2.89 (.782, −) 3.00 (1.309, −) 0.350
system, etc
CCD System configuration allows multiple locations, multiple trade, 3.20 (.668, 5) 3.26 (.594, 5) 3.00 (.500, 4) 3.25 (1.035, 4) 2.033⁎
multiple client database
CCD Service quality and customer feedback management 2.75 (.811, −) 3.11 (.698, −) 2.00 (.500, −) 2.38 (.744, −) − 2.046
MMI Input/output display custom design for management 3.05 (.680, −) 3.26 (.594, −) 2.56 (.726, −) 2.88 (.641, −) 0.443
requirements
MMI Dispatch and works tracking on demand 3.00 (.610, −) 3.19 (.557, −) 2.56 (.527, −) 2.88 (.641, −) 0.000
MMI Management programming to upkeep changes of labour, work 3.36 (.810, 2) 3.59 (.572, 1) 2.67 (1.118, 6) 3.38 (.744, 3) 2.979⁎
type and material inventory
MMI Set up maintenance scheduling and special services 3.23 (.937, −) 3.52 (.753, −) 2.56 (1.130, −) 3.00 (.926, −) 1.609
BIB Diversion of work process on busy schedule 3.20 (.632, 5) 3.26 (.594, 5) 2.89 (.601, 5) 3.38 (.744, 3) 2.148⁎
BIB Interactive communication through system with site workers 3.23 (.743, 4) 3.26 (.712, 5) 3.11 (.782, 3) 3.25 (.886, 4) 2.029⁎
and operator to maintain up-to-the-minutes status
Note: AUT = Autonomy; CCD = Controllability for complicated dynamics; MMI = Man-machine interaction; and, BIB = Bio-inspired behaviour.
⁎Represents the t-values which is higher than cut of t-value (1.6820) indicating the significance of the indicators.

plant will be shut down either continuing the supply and extract supervision’. The indicator ‘provision of database and analytical
fans with inlet and exhaust dampers closed, or with the extract tools for operation and service evaluation’ was given higher
fan continuing to run with the exhaust damper open [27]. emphasis by the facility managers only.
However, the overall ranking of these controls and interlocking
functions were ranked 3rd and lower among the intelligent 4.2.6. Smart/energy efficient lift system (LS)
indicators. This outcome indicated that all participants might The smart/energy efficient lift system aims to transport
have regarded these functions as default rather than being passengers to the desired floor quickly, safely, and comfortably.
intelligent attributes. A total of 8 key intelligent indicators were determined by the
respondents. The four highest rank of intelligent indicators
4.2.5. Security monitoring and access control (SEC) system included ‘auto-controlled navigation at emergency’; ‘human
The SEC system is developed to provide surveillance and engineering design’; ‘accommodate changes of passenger traffic
access control to detect unauthorized entry and enhance security pattern’; and, ‘interface with EMS, BAS, or IBMS’.
and safety inside the building. Eight intelligent indicators were The ‘auto-controlled navigation at emergency’ relates to the
determined. Three indicators that were quite consistently in automatic control and monitoring of lift navigation/operation
rankings among developers, design consultants and facility during special or emergency events [122]. Lifts can be monitored
managers include ‘configurable to accurately implementation of by control centre operated by the maintenance companies
the security policies for the premises’, ‘interfacing with other remotely so that the performance and real-time status of lift can
systems’, and ‘continual operation with minimal human be analyzed and recorded but this only ranked No.6. In addition,
J. Wong et al. / Automation in Construction 17 (2008) 284–302 297

human engineering design should be allowed to facilitate and important in any facilities management operation systems
convenience of passengers [24]. Examples include voice strategy. This is a key to effective serviceability and maintenance
announcement, suitability for the disabled, and, in-car information management of the building.
display. Furthermore, an ‘intelligent’ lift control system should be From Table 3, the coefficient of variation, were about 30%
able to accommodate changes of passenger traffic pattern [24]. for most cases, which indicates that the perceptions of system
For example, use of artificial intelligence techniques to identify intelligence of different intelligent building systems vary
the number of passengers, and the existence of supervisory control moderately among different stakeholders. The variations in
algorithm (i.e. dynamic and static sectoring control algorithm) to rankings of intelligent indicators in Table 3 reflected different
detect passenger traffic patterns and peak traffic. stakeholders' preference on the suitability of the indicators for
determining the system intelligence of IBSs. The intelligent
4.2.7. Digital addressable lighting control (DALI) system indicators to be applied should be project-specific. Utilizing
The digital addressable lighting control system is expected to weightings to each option of IBS would reflect such project-
provide acceptable levels of illumination for all aspects of specificity [130]. Furthermore, the survey findings suggested
occupations, and to enhance efficient lighting usage and energy that the interpretation of ‘intelligence’ is different from one
conservation in the intelligent building [109]. Seven key intelligent building system to another which implies in this
indicators were identified by the stakeholders in the survey. study that each IBS performs in a non-unique way and contains
Both design consultants and developers ranked the ability of unique measures of system intelligence. Our findings were
‘system control of individual luminaries, groups of luminaries, consistent with Bien et al. [15].
and, lighting zones’ and the ‘system interface with EMS, BAS,
or IBMS’ as the prime intelligent indicators. In the lighting 5. Proposed models of system intelligence appraisal for the
control system, the luminaire incorporates a presence detector intelligent building systems
and a downward-looking photocell which measures the level of
illumination [24]. The built-in controller ensures that illumina- Once the suitable intelligent indicators of various intelligent
tion is only provided when the space is occupied and provides a building systems are identified, the analytical frameworks that
constant level of illumination in varying ambient light levels. involve numerical analysis of distinct alternatives can be
The luminaries can communicate with each other over a bus established. These analytical frameworks would facilitate
system. A group of luminaries is switched on if a presence is developers and stakeholders to justify a wide range of intelligent
detected by any one of them. The luminaries can be programmed to attributes and indicators before committing to a particular choice
provide general background illumination to avoid the person of intelligent building system. As mentioned earlier, the theory
working in an isolated pool of light. Luminaires may be of system intelligence by Bien et al [15] suggested that any
individually controlled by permitted users over the telephone intelligent system with these four identified intelligent attributes
system or from a PC. Overall, the ‘automatically sensing the light can lead to improved safety, enhanced reliability, high efficiency,
intensity, angle of projection, and the solar radiation’ ranked as top and economical maintenance (Fig. 1). Reviewing the literature
intelligent indicator. This reflects that the lighting control system on intelligent building also suggested that a range of operational
should contain photoelectric switching and dimming control (i.e. goals and benefits (i.e. improved operational effectiveness and
photocells) to monitor the light level in the space and regulate the energy efficiency, enhanced cost effectiveness, increased user
lighting accordingly. A ceiling-mounted photocell looking comfort and productivity, and improved safety and reliability)
downwards responds to the combined daylight and artificial can be promoted from implementing intelligent technologies in
illumination and the control system is set to provide a constant the intelligent building. Therefore, the proposed analytical
level of illumination. One interesting observation is that developers models should take the relationship between intelligent
and facility managers ranked ‘provision of database and analytical attributes and operational benefits of the intelligent building
tools for operation and service evaluation’ No. 2 and 3 respectively, systems into consideration, and resulting in the possibility to
while design consultant ranked this indicator No. 6. This deviation form a network-like structural framework. In addition, the
may reflect the demand of the end-users of the system, who may complicated nature of justifying system intelligence requires a
not be satisfied due to the difference in perception of the required quantitative model that can be used to integrate qualitative
operation intelligence in existing practice. information and quantitative values and analysis. For these
reasons, the analytic network process (ANP), a systemic
4.2.8. Computerized maintenance management system analytical approach, was proposed and utilized to prioritize the
(CMMS) intelligent indicators and dealing with network decision models.
The CMMS is designed to provide efficient and effective The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and ANP are two related
inventory control and service works management of the building. concepts developed by Saaty [96,97] to handle complicated
Seven indicators were suggested by the stakeholders to determine MCDM problems. AHP is a general theory of measurement which
the system intelligence. Overall, the 1st ranked intelligent models a hierarchical decision problem framework but it is
indicator lies in ‘statistical evaluation’. The 2nd and 3rd ranked restrictive to solve problems with a hierarchically structural model
indicators reflected management of works deployments and up or unidirectional relationships. ANP is the generic form of AHP
keeping of changes. The result implies that the availability, which can model the interdependent relationships in the decision
reliability and maintainability of the CMMS are very common making frameworks by relaxing the hierarchical and unidirectional
298 J. Wong et al. / Automation in Construction 17 (2008) 284–302

Fig. 3. Graphical representation of relationship for the proposed ANP system intelligence appraisal framework for an intelligent building system.

assumptions. The ANP model can be generically designed as a In this paper, a general survey was conducted to elicit the
control hierarchy (i.e., a hierarchy of subsystems with inner suitable intelligent indicators of the intelligent building systems.
dependencies) or a non-hierarchical network which includes A total of 69 suitable intelligent indicators were identified. The
decision alternatives as an original element cluster [97,140]. In this survey results further suggest that the interpretation of ‘intelli-
study, the only interdependencies that are identified and will form gence’ is different from one intelligent building system to another
the supermatrix, are between the intelligent building benefits and which implies that each intelligent building system performs in a
the intelligent attributes of the intelligent building systems. non-unique way and contains unique measures of system
Investigating the relationships between these benefits and the intelligence. The findings further reveal that ‘autonomy’ was
intelligent attributes of intelligent building systems is based on the not judged as an important intelligence attribute to reflect the
inquiry that if a system designer wants to achieve the maximum degree of system intelligence in the ITS and DALI systems. This
benefits from implementing intelligent building components, research was deliberately limited to an investigation of eight of the
which intelligent attribute(s) of the building components or most general building control systems in the intelligent building.
systems should be relatively more important in promoting these Future study should include other building systems related to
benefits. In contrast, each intelligent attribute might have varied water, waste and pollution control, and sensor technology
degree of importance in promoting the four identified benefits. The networks in order to provide a better understanding and reflection
hierarchy-network framework was proposed to assist the problem on the degree of intelligence of the building control systems in the
structuring. Fig. 3 provide snapshots of the proposed framework intelligent building.
for the model for evaluating the system intelligence of intelligent Previous research suggested that the development of intelligent
building system. The model illustrates the interaction and buildings is not only limited to the advances in technologies, the
interdependent relationship among the intelligent attributes and ability to achieve the clients and stakeholders’ desires and to
the operational goals/benefits. The framework builds on prior enhance their benefits are real objectives of the intelligent building
application on performing multi-criteria dimensional evaluation development, but also suggests that the implementation of
of decision alternative as well as the interrelationship with ex- intelligent systems in the building lead to a number of operational
ternal components among researchers [32,86,87,131]. The details goals and benefits. The authors put forward the use of an analytic
of the ANP process and the development of system intelligence network process (ANP) which allows all suitable intelligent
analytical models will be presented Part 2 of the research. attributes, as well as their corresponding indicators, to be taken
into account, not only their relative importance, but also their
6. Conclusions and recommendations interrelationship with the building's operational goals/benefits. A
conceptual ANP decision framework was proposed and developed
This paper, as the first part of this two-part research project, in this paper. In the next paper, the methodology and analytical
has presented the development of indicators, and introduced model set up will be discussed and presented. A real-life intelligent
analytical approaches for appraising system intelligence of the building project will be used as a case study to validate the
key intelligent building systems. This study commenced with a proposed system intelligence models and to test their practicality.
review of the current research in intelligent building appraisal,
reviewed the existing research, and described the practical Acknowledgements
problems. The lack of satisfactory consensus for characterizing
the ‘intelligence’ of the intelligent systems in a quantitative The authors wish to thank the anonymous respondents who
manner, and the paucity of integrated structured evaluation participated in the interview and questionnaire survey for their
methodologies aggravated the difficulties in appraising the invaluable responses that provided the basis of the empirical
system intelligence of the intelligent building systems. analysis in this study.
J. Wong et al. / Automation in Construction 17 (2008) 284–302 299

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