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34

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flB/teH.Ue p83K,OeO B6~'PaCTaH.Ufl G;MtMUTYOIJl Bbtf£YiJlciJ_eJ-Ui/;ilX KOAe6aJ-lUu TeA.a - reAD.; 6btHyaICoeHHbtB r;/JJl.e6aHUfl rena; aMnJl.UTyoa 8&L.ny3fC8eu.nfJtJe ICo.ll.efJauwu resa; pessoe eospecxanue aMnAuvyafJ' BblHY3fCoefU-lblX KQAe6anut1 TeA{!/,; seseuue pessoeo eospacrana« aMnJl.UT.YObl I3blHY':!lcOeH1-lblX lWA.e6aHuil rena.

1. 3~WQH COKpa}1eHHH KGJIWmCTB8 9Hep,!'HH, 2 .. Ilpaxenei'I}le 3aKOH8 coxpaneana KOJIHtJeCTB8 J_:{BIOKeHH-5{, 3. KB8HTOBaH reopaa 9JIeIHpOTIpOBO,lI.HOG:r~ MeT8JIJIOB ..

nayica

Y'leHHe

MhlCJIb

neripos ranomesa T.Ipe·;U;c,TaBJIeHHe

Ynp.alKueHHe 84. Ornert.re aa aonpocu, H(mO,[b3YH B OTBeTa,x CJiOB8, JJ:iaHHble cnpaea.

1. KaK0J€ npe.ll.n0JI'GiKeHliIe 0bIJIO )l.®IW38HO B 2:CX Bexe C UOMOIAbI0 penrreHoBCKHX JIY!Ieli?

2, Kazoe :U.rre,lI.CTaB:JIeHHe

,n8eT HaM saaseaae 'qucJIa ABoral!po?

3. Kaxoe ytJeHHe enposepr f\.GmepHHK?

4. Kaxoe nOJI0}KeHHe c¢opMyJIHPQB8JI r amwell?

CTPClr'8H 38 IWHOMep110 CTb

B paeTICJ;JIC'i)KeHHH arOMOB B KpnCTaJI?Iax

HenO)l;BlDIUI0CTb 3eMJI-H H e,e 1l.eHTpaJIbHGe UQJIOH):e" HIre BO B.QeJIeHflOH HHepII.ll5-l TeJIa npn AaHl:KeHHH ITO ropH30HT8JIbHOH IJJIOCKOCTFI

Ynpa!lKHeime 85. HepeAai1)re COAe:p}KaHHe np'I'~,Il,JIOJKeHHi1:, ncncnsaya CJ[OBa HJIH CJIOBOC0Qe:raH.lfli, Aaa!!'bie B cK06Kax.

1. CraTHKa HSYII:aeT3al<OHBI p8BHOBeCH.H 'Fen (W-ieTme). 2. Mar<J::B~UlJI CIIHTaJI, TITO C13e1' npe;nCT8BJIHeT co6oft 9JIeKTpO'MannrTHr:;te w)"-Ie6aIlI-m (BblOeUH,yrb 2unorre3Y).. 3, Pesepcj:lop)l; H3YIIaJI 3BOJIIOII,:Id:rO BJIeMeHTOB (pal3BU8a1'b u(!jelO).

37

----~~""l,lf II--~-~-~--_~ ~ ~ ~ __

3. TIPOtIHOCTh na paapsrs y nJlaCTMaCC B 2-3 pa3a 60JIhWe npOtIHOCTH na cacarne.

ITOqeMY nJIaCTMaCChI JIyqrue ·BbI.n:ep)KHBaIDT zte<popMaIl.HH pacrasceans, tIeM .n:e¢opMaIl.HH C2KaTmr?

4eMY qaCTO nO,lI,BepraIOTC5I roronste H3Jl.eJIIUI?

YnpaJKHeHHe 86. OTBeTbTe na Bon

.l{.bJ:n.YLI..{ero npe.n..a01KeHI1lJ. pOC, H.CXO,ll,lI >13 C0,l{ep}Ka['IlHl npe-

Otipaeeu: EblOTOH. u3yttaJl oucnepcu~ C8eTa. Kaxu _

Tbl npoe 0' 1'J- J1. e onu

. 0 UJl . 1 bHfJ.TOft? - H blOTOli np0800UA

onblTbl no usytteH.UIO (Jucnepcuu C8eTa. .

1. MaKCBeJIJI H3Mep>'[JI C

BhIIIOJIHeH MakcBeJIJI0M;l 2KOtOC~~aCBeTa. I(aKOH: on~IT 6bIJI MaJIaCb H3YQeI-HleM: 0" . PY 'u HCCJIe;lI,oBaTeJIeH3aHH_ paoora .' HTHQeClmx CBOl1CTB KpHCTaJIJIOB. I(aKa5I

'. . lJ03BQJII1JIa YTOQB:I1T o

3 H E)Y . u . b. CBGI1CTBa KpHCraJIJIOB;l

. . • ."YKGBCKI111 H3y'tJ:aJI no.n;'beMH' . ..'

I\aKHe l1CCJIe,a:oBaHH5I HE )K yro C¥IJIy caxoaera. ,lI,YTC5I B OCB: .". YKOBCKOI'O zto CHX nop KJIa- 4 B JIa6· DBy paclIeroB npH HocTpeM.r<e CaMOJ1eTOB;l

'. I( oparopua npOBO)UfJIHCb HCCJIe.n:oBaH1HI tPoTo3¢<peK~ ~:~ra5IaI~a5I paooa-a .n;a.rra HOBbIe pe3YJIbT3Thr? 5. rpaBHTall}l'-

OCT05IHHaH H3MepHJIaGb ytIeHbIMH CCCP C

KaIfHe OliI'bITbI 6bIJIH npoBe,a:eHbI Y1!eHbIMH CCCP 11 CIlI~A.

4. TIpo13epKY na npox-

HOCTh 'laCTO rrpoH3BO;lI,SIT aa I'OTOBbIX H3,a:e.rrFl5IX.

YnpalKHeHue 88. ,UaflTe nOJUlQe onacaaae CBOlkTB KaJ{OrO-Jl.HOO seLl..{eC1'Ba.

Otipaeuu: 1. B c80600H.OM COCTORH.UU flAIOMUftUU npeoCTa8AReT c060u cepetipucro-tienua, OOBOJlbftO TBepOblu MeTaAJI. C yOeJlbH.blM 8ecOM 2,7. AJl.fOMW·lUU xapatcrepueuetcsi OUeH.b 60AbUWU TRBY'lecTblO U conpotuenenueu «a paspue, a Takall3e 8btCOlwii 9Jlelf.TpOnpOBOOftOCTbl0, coCTa8AE.IOu,e(f npU6AU3UTeAbftO 0,6 3AeKTponpoeoonocra xeou.

2. B(JOH.ble pecxeopu OCUOBClUUU 06.1)..aOalOT cAeoYfOu,uMU 06U,UMU ceoticteanu: a) ceoe- 06paSH.bl:M; «M,blAbH.blM» exqcou; 6) cnocotiIiOCTbfO U3MefiRTb /,f8eTa UH.OUK,aTOp08 unaue, 'teM ux U3MeftR10T KUCAOTbl, uanpu.uep, oxpaULU8aTb AaJ~MyC 6 cunuii /,f8eT; 8) cnocotinoCTblO 83aU.M.OOeUCTBoBaTb C KUCAOTaMU U 06- paeoeueat» COAU.

3. Cenenoeas KUCAOTa - T8epooe tcpuetan.nuuecsoe 8eu,eCTBO, nnaesuueecn npu 58°. Ona MaAO AeTlj'ta, 9UepZUliH.O COeOUH!ReTCR C 6000(1. U otisaiiae« CUJlbH.bl.I.tU OfG.UCAUTeAb1iblMU CBOUCT6aMU.

Ynpa.lKHen.He 87. Oraersra Era BO .

IIORH<HHH .rieB0ro CToJl6u.a. npoca, H,CnOJIb3ya cO,1{epJKaHHenpe,1{'

1 . .n:JI~ HCITbIT,P:lHJI na pacHI»f{eHHe o6pa3eIl. MaTepna.ra nO:ll.BepraeTCJI pacTJI)f{eHHIO B TaK B:33bIBae-

. MOM pa3pbIBHOH M~IIUlRe.

2. Conp@lIHBJIeHHe ;D;IOpamOMHHH5.l na paBpbIB He MeHbIiIe, qeM y .rryqWHX C.oPTOB CTaJIH.

,UJIJI lIeI'O CJIY}KHT paapsmHaH MaII.JHI:Ia?

BJIaI'oJI.apJl 1!eru:y cram,

MO}K:HO 3aMeHHTb ,a:IDPaJIlOMHfIHeM B KDHCTPYKIl.H5IX, nOJl:BepraIOru:H~€JI .zr.e<popMagHH paCTHiKeflHH?

38

2. BbIPA)KEHHE ITPH3HAKA 4EPE3 CPABHEHHE

rrOXOJK na umo 6JIH30K (K:) fle.MY

HanOMHRa'J1b umo 01'JIH1JaTbCll om «eeo

Ilo,1{o6eH 'te.A'Y aaanorasea 'leAtY

pasea qeMY npOllopD;HOHaJleH'tte,uy

YnpalKHeHue 89. I1p01JHTaMTe npe.IJ.JJO)!{eHH~i. 06paTJ.ITe JlR>lMaHRe na KOHCTpYKD;>lll, e nOMOIUblO KOTOPbIX B.bJpa)KaIOTCff 01'HOllleHl'l5I CXOACTBa.

39

_j-~~-'ri

1. HnooJ.fM H TaHTaJl B COCT05UUiH OKHCJIeHHH V ITQXQ)KH aa THITHllHble HeMeTpJIJIbI. 2. ROMIlJIeKCbI C03+ BO MHOTOM HaI10:r:,HlHa!0T K(')MIIJIeKCbl Cr3+. 3. ITo XllMHlleCKI{M CBOHCTBaM pYTemIH 11 OCMUR QJIR3KH K penaio. 4. 3JIeMeI-ITapHble YFJI0- asre aepexemeaaa IIo,U06Hbl 3JIeMeHTapH'bIM JIIlHeHHblM rrepeMem:eHHHM. 8. Hexoropue csoacrsa necoocraeanstx HI-ITerpanon aa.3JIOrHQHbI CBoHcTBaM c06cTBeHHbIX HI-ITerpaJIOB.

Ynpa)KHeHl1.e 90 .. YKalrnne aa CXOJJ;CTBO ,u.aHHblX HBJ1eHHI'r, HCn0J1b3Y5!

YKlIaaHH!>Je CJIOBa:

I

I

A. aanowaaars «ro

1. KGMnJIeKCbI Co3+ (J\06aJIb:ra3+) ~ KOMl1JIeKCbl Cr3+ (X'pOMa 3+). 2. XHMl15L Kl'ICJIOpG!lI,HBIX COe)!HHeHMM MOJIl'I6,Uena ~ X1fMMJr FI0;rr:OQHhIX coe.!lJ<lH€IU:lH xpoxa. 3. XHMH1:leCKlle CBoHcTBa rHJ!.).U!,UHbIX K0MI1JIeKCOB Pt-+ (llJIaTHHhI3+) ~ GBOHCTBa ,UpyrHx rH)l,pH:llJlblX coe,UllHeHwH. 4. CBoHcTBa H0:ZJ:HCTQBO;U0POAHOH KllCJIQTbI ~ cB01kTBa C.oJIHHOiir FI 6poMHCTOBO)l,OPO,llJ.WH KRCJIOTbL

D. 6Jl"30K (fC) tleAty

1. CKaH,UwH (no CBOHeTBaM) - aJI 10M I1,I·tH'H. 2. PYTeHHH 11 OCMJIH (FIG XI<IMIiJ'H~CKIdM CBoHCTBaM) - peaRM. 3. I1H<ppaKpaeHble Jly<J:H (no CBGlwTBaM) ~Kp3cHble JIytfH. 4. KOJIe6aHRR MaHTHHKa npH MaJIblX OTKJIOHeHHHX - npocrsre rapuoHJ3,t:reC.KHe KGJl€6aHHH.

B. rroxoac IW wro

1. BOJIb¢IDaMaTHaH cncrexa ~ M"oJUf6..uaTH3R CRCTeM3. 2. Hl106llH If. rauran B eecrosnaa OKHCJIeHHH - THIIH'lH.ble neMeT3JIJIhI. 3. AJIKOKCH,ll.bI THTaHa (.IiJG csoacrsaa) - THUHQHble aJI]{QKCH,ll.bl IIepexOJI,HbIX MeTaJIJIOB.

T. aaaaoraaen lie·:MY

1. Apcenar (XI1MHlfeeKll) ~ cpoccpaT. 2. Ilpeereamne CBO'llGTBa necoticrseaasrx HH'PerpaJIOB - CBOMCTBa co6cTBeHHblX IfHTerfJaJIOB. 3. C06cTBeH'H'ble I<o:rre6aHJUI sosnyxa, saKJlIGqeHH®FO B rpyoy - CQ6CTBeHI-Ible KDJIe6aHH5:I CTPYHI5I. 4. XHMl1QeCI<He csoacrea BO,lUlbIX paCT-BOpOB eelV (uerupexaaaearaoro Ue.PHH) - CBOHCTBa -rersrpexaanearasrx aKTHIUIJl.OB.

.n. nO.ll.06eH tteAty

1. EBpormfr (no XHMH1:leCI<I1M cseacrsaa) - 6apHH. 2. faJI0reHH)l,bl HellTYHI1H H UJIYTOIfHH (XI1MHlH~CKH) - ranereaa,UbI yp aaa. 3. CYJIb<pllTbI BO:llbcppaMa - aHaJI0fH CYJIbWHT0B

40

. e Mell1.emHI - 9JIe-

6 4 9JIeMerrrapHhle yrJ10Bble n pe

MO.lllI AeHa.. u .. eMemeHHH.

MeHTapHJ:jre JI-IlHeHHble nep •

Ire unyx. D[)e,D.Jl.Q)K.em1l{ O)l,IHlM,

91 De e.o.aHTe CO)l,epJKalf' ,.,

Ynpa}KHeHlle . Pno 06HO IleMY, aHano'rH'lHO IteAtY·

HcnOJIb3ya KOI{CTPYKllRH . A . e n08aae~Cfl &eucTBUIO IWClLOT.

06Va3e1,f: tueo« nOLf,TU Ii" rl-oliUU TO'ICe nowrti lie n08:

MeTalLlLUIi~CKUU etup _ MeTalL/WliecKUU aaeTC}! 8euCT8U1O I<;UClL.OT. . e noa8aerCJl eaq)/iUU, n08G16H.0 TUTCLn.y, /WIiTU Ii

8eiicTB,U/{J f{(.telLOT.

.. H· cT0i111HB K KOPP03H.f1. Me-

l. TH'raH AOBOJIbHOu TEep! TB~ ,lI. H YCTOli'!HB K IWpp03HH.

TaJIJIMtIeCKllK U,HPKOH1U1 TmK T Ct60~I cmernaRRble OKHCJIbl. 2. TnTaHaTbl llpe,lI.CTaBJI:~lnoT c06011: cMellIaHHble ?KI1CJIb1. Ul'IpKOHa1'bl TO}Ke npe~cTa 01:1 cBepx 3anomwHHOJ{ d-06o- 3 Me,Ub J{MeeT O:ll.HH -3JIeI{Tp "Me'OT O)1..l'IH S-3JleKTpOH

. C 6 30JIOTO TO}Ke.. <

JI01flUI. epe po. 11 . 6 4 ill,eJIOtIHbIe MeTaJIJIbl

,u d-o GJIOllKI1. .

csepx 3anomlemIO~ lTT eJIOtIH03eMeJlbHble MeT8JIJIbi TO)Ke pep~arHpyfOT C B0,DpH. LJ.J,

arnpyror C BO:!l.On.

. O[1pe)l,eJIf1Te CpOPMY nu-

- 92 TIpOlJj.rraihe npe)l,J10)I{ernHT. .

Ynpa}KKeHHe • HX OT rJIaroJla OTJIH'la:l'bC!I.

AeJIeHHblX CJ10n, 38IlHC51lIl, , .'. aMa .. e3KO OTJHPtaeTcSI

1. XHMllH MOJIl'l6,ll.eH~ H BOJI~~~.rr.bl OiJlHQalOTCSI OT scex (!)T XUM.UU XpoMa. 2. Kap OHlIJIrn cnoC06liOCTb10 np05:IBJ15ITb ,lI.pyrI:Ix fH,UPH,il,I;bIX KO.M.~Jli~~~:HnlleCKHe H HeopraHHllecKlle KHCJIOTlilble CBOHCTBa. . OHcTBaM OTJlH'IalOT{.SI opye OT

Be14ecTBa ITO :xMMHtJecKHM cB·· .

8pyea.

93 YKa}KHTe na OTJlJilJHe ,lI,8HHbIX 5lB,llermrl, HcnOJlb3YSI

Ynpa}KHeHHe •

KOHCTpYKII:UIO oTMIQaTbcR O.T lie. GO. KOCTH _ ,ll.aBJIenll5l. B Il0KOSI-

1. ,UaBJIeHHSI B TeKymc en. )KH,lI. '-lOHOB _ cBoi'rcTBa aTOMOB

• lTKOCTH 2 BOHCTBa r. . • e

I1l,enCH )lUI...... .' . 3 XHMHllecKlIe CBonCTBa P -

cooTBeTcTBYIOIJ1;llX .3J1erv:eHToB. M·apra:aua. 4. MarHHTHble H HllH - XHMlltIeCKI<Ie uCBonc:ma ana OB _ CBOHcTBa nepeXD,ll.cneKTpaJIhHhle CB0l1CTBa JI5HTCllJI~ TperUI5I (no CBoeMY xaHbIX 3JIeMeHTOB d-rpynUbI. ~ ClIJIbl BceM.HpHOrO THroTeHllH.

paxrepy) _yf.lpynle CH;IlbI. .

94 JiI3MeHHTe npeJI,JlO)KeHHlI .

Yppa.lKHeHHc .'. . . eali-

. X uecnue CBQUCTBa Te.:eHx~1Atflil U Map v

no 06pa3u,y. UAW. JIo XU1.tULf,ecKUM eBOUCT-

!.fa pa3lLULf,/ibt. - . a BaM. Texlieu,uu OTAULtaeTC}! OT M.apealiu, .

4-1

1. XBM'I<ltI~CKk!~ G:Boi1.cTBa aroMapnoro 'BQ)I.GlpO:ll.aM MO,ITeI<y,h5tPHOPGl BG;u:opo.n;a paSJ1B1J:HbI. 2. XMMH'IeCKHH: xaparne:p aT0M0B rp'B0.J'la 11 aTOM0B Harp,1111 JDe3I~onpOrHBonQJIo*eH. 3. E:B0:ficTB'& G30Ha 11 0oHIIHoro KH<i;JI0po)I.ap aSa:IH"IHbI. 4. CJ30HCTBa raJIOR,IIPi=I 11 ananoroa Map,paHua pa3JIHlJ:HBI. 5., AKTlfBHOcTb i!Iolla H aKTHBHOCXb XJIb-pa pa3.ILll'TIRBI. 6. eBOK~TBa TeJ1JrypaTGB 11 CBDiircTJ3a GYJIbqJaTospm'J-

;[IUTIHBI.

¥npa~lIeHlle 95. B ,[IaHH!>lX n.peAJlQlI{eHl!If!X I<OHC1'PYKII.IUO (He) O'i'"JlIl'l~'Jl"G!lOT twe@ 3aMeHl"l1:e CXOJ!:l'lblMH I10 '3liaQeHHlO OJ(H30K (KJ't.eIr!Y, no~o'lK «a 'LTD H Apynli'ilH'.

1, no XI!IMHTI~CKHM GB®RG'rBaM lI'eXH.euuiir He Gt;lIH'laeTC5l or p'eInr~L 2, n® Me'faJIJIB.'lec!{iIM cBoihtTBa:M M0JIHt'll,llieH 110'lrH He OTJIHJ.IaeT,eH (1m: BOJIbq1paMa. 3. BP0MM,fi.bI H HQ.JJ,H)l,b'1 me OHORM CBC:1l1CTB'aM He OTJrHTIaIOTC5I OT X)I0Pli,!!,OB, 4. XI4MM5I KOMIIJI"el<;COB Rh3+ (p0L!:H51 3+) B '06IU·eM He OTJI"II'lae'l'GK ®'l1,mMHfi KOMIIJleNCOB C.e3d- (Ko(])a.JIIoTa 3f) , 5. nG BReuIHeMy, BU.n:¥ peffI1ll H'I181«!-Iel!I.kI.i1: nO'ITH H~ (i)TJIH"IaIDTCJl or mJI8,THH~l,

y.'npa~!.HeHlie 96. TIp0'!HTa:H'l'e npe):l}fCDKeHHJI. 06J',zcmr:re, 0T '!eI'O 3&' nyrC}]T cjJOPMil n:p1-IJlalla"'t:eJlbHPR0 panea.

1. P'aHF JIJ{<)QOIl Ma:rjilHm.PI pasen MaKCRMaJIl'>HQMY Yl-fCJI¥ ee JHIHeHHO Hff3aBI10HMBTX lr'IOJIOIl,QB. 2. I\:oollP.flmaTbI Cepe:D,I!lHoI OTI,l63Ka P'RBH<bI F(GJIY:CYMMRM CO€lTBe'FCTBy.IO~~:X KQOpllHnar era KO:HUQE. 3. CYMMa 1rna.n:paT@B .n;M:anmaJIeii rrapamreJI.orpaMMa paBHacYM,M'e KB3)lIDa:ro)3 era C:rOp.OH. 4. {hreJI,Q) c@JDc:rBeHHblx '-Iac:reH: c,HcTeMpipaBHo 'lHCJIiji CTeJileH~iI CB@-

60.lI,bl.

Ynga<lKitelllle 9.1. Q1'BeTbTe HH BOnp0Cb], IHmOJIj:,3yfl CJIOBa, /I;ilJlHble cnp·aBa.

1, 4elyiy paeaa IJ,lI·6IU-a,!!,b na paJIJIeJI!')rpaM\lfa.?

2. 4e.MW pal~eH KBa';llipar ran.oTeHY3.J5lf

3,. l.JeMY jilaBe.H aTOMHbI"H:'

HOMep 3JI eMe:H.Ta?-

npCH13Be.n;emle era OCH0BalUtH wa B;bIG"0TY

CYMMa rma.n;paT(i)B .KaTeTOB

I I

YllpalKfI.eJllfe 98. I1poTUl1'aftTe JI:aHHhTe f!J.m,e qJ0PMYJl15l.

1. N FV (N - MOIIVIOCTb, FV- rrponaeenemre CHJIb! na t;HOPOCTb )!BI<Ll'KeHHH).

2. Tf= 1 (rf - nponaseneaae nepaozta xpyroaoro pasnoMeHRoro ,lI,BIUKeHHSI xa ':I.atTQTY)·.

"3. U+Un='O (U+Un-cYMMa HarrpmKeHI1H EO BHeI:JlHeM qaCTH rrerm H IIa MCTO!IHHKe TOKa) ,

4. c= ~ (C - 9JIeK:rpoeMKocTb xoaaeucaropa, Z - OTHOHlEmHe aapH;rr,a K0H)l!eHCarOpa K IH,Huome1v1YCH na HeM HanpK2KeH'HIlO) •

5, P=mg (P - sec TeJIa, mg - npQH3Be)I.eHHe MaCCIoI reaa na YCKofleime caooonnoro naneann).

. YnllaJKHeH.~e 99. ITpo'lHtaifTe npe,ll;JlOiKeHHlI, 06'bllCHHTe, OT 'lera sa· BIlCHT cjJ0.pMa BbI:n:_ei1leHHhlX CJl@Ii.

1. CKOPOCfIo B03pacTaH}fB

JIotapH<pMHT:ie~KoH <PYHKIJ;HH (npn «» 1) 06paTIIO np()iIOpl1..HoHaJlbHa 3HalJ:eHHIO apryjeeara,

2. B Oll.H"HHIWB1,rx yCJIO-

BH"5IX exopocra .llHCPrpy- 3Hll Q6paTHO nponepuaoHacJI.hHhl KOpHHM xaanRaTHbIM H3 HX, MOJIeKYJI7iPHbIX BeC@B.

3. KOJIH"'IeCTBO TefIJIOTBI,

BbI.n;e~JlHeMoil: TOKOM na yqacTKe 'u;eIIH, nponopi\Hoa-aJlbHO KBa::npaTY TOxa, BpeMeHH ero npO,XQ}K.ueHH5I H QOHPOTHBJIeHHIO Y'"laCTKa.

1. ReJIH TeMTIepa'l'ypa OCTa~TC[I rrOCT05IHHOH, TO O'Q'beM rasa H3MemreTCH rrperropuaeaaasno JI.3BJIeHHIO.

2. no onpenenenaoro ypoaH:5.l YJI..rrHlr.eIIHe B03pacraer npHMO nponopuaoH.aJIbH() narpysxe.

3 .. CHJIa .3JIeKTpHtIeCKOrO

B3a'n~Q.n;eHCTBJ:i5I y6bInaer npOnOp1J.HOHaJibHo IiBa.upaTY pacCTOHHH5I.

. YnpalKHeHHe 1.00. Beipasare CBf!3b Me)K,!!Y AilHHhlMI1 fl8JIeHI'lijMH I1PH

I101<IOIIl;l'fc "Jlosa I1pOIlOp~HOflaJreH, . .

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I

43

4. l;leMY paBea HMFIYJJBe?-

5. geMY' paaaa tKO-PQCTIl?

tIHCJlQ UDlJlTOHOB B H,!!,jil6 HJIH lJ:HCJfO '3JI~KTpOH(j)B Bne 5l},lJ;pa

uHTerpaJI eHJIbI nOJ?f,leM'€HH n:POFf3B.Q;!I,HaH 0'1' Ki0Qf!:lLFI- . IIaTbI IlO Bl?eMeHH

42

YnpaXHeHlf.e 101. Hpe0Gpa3yiflme J\3HHble npellJIQ)KeHlIH, J\el6aBYB B H1IX rnaroa H3MeRSlTbCli.

OefJtflSBUr 06'beM, eeea oepilTliO n,PEJ'nQpqur!JH.tUte1:l. iJa8:Ae-

liUIO. - 06-oeM eaea U31d.eI'lRe:rGR 06paTUG

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1,. )J,aBJleHHe a rOpJl30J'tT'aJIhHOM ce'reI-um npOllOpUHOH.aJIbHO KB'3JLpaTypaccT0RHHH OT 0GH. B'pamelflUL2. ClmpOG'fh B03p8CTa)UlH nOK33a.1'@JI.bH0jt WYH~UHH (npu e;» 1) npcrrop~HOHaJIb1;ra 3'Ha.<ter-U1)IO caM'ol1 CPYIIKIl;IilH. :il. l?a60Ta no rrepeMemelUII<;:l 'EeJIa rrpOIwpu:w@HaJIBJ~a rrpHJIGllt.fmr·{IDH CIiJI~. 4 .. GUlla B3auM®)J.eHcTBHH 3ap.lHKemIBIX Tea npormprmHOHaJIoHa IHSJIFI'lUHe I{a2K)]~Ol'O lI3 :ilapH!ltOB.

YnpaJK'HeFlHe 102: TIpee6pa3yHTe .Ila.HI'l.ble npe;.womeHHR, onytKa!i r:IIar0JI.

OopaBet;f: Macca TeA a U3MBHR,eTCf! npol'L0pU;UfJ1UlJLbH.O eZIiJ :mepeuu. - Macea reaa npfJnOpU;.UOHa.Jl.bHrt e~e 3 Ff/epeuu,

1. TaHreHuuanbHbH.~ CllJIbI H3MeHSIOTCH UpmlOplI,HOHaJIbI:IO fi[:laJLH€\HTy CliQJp10ti:rFl. 2. M0U1.~H0CTb H3MeH~e:r(m npHM9 npa-' DIG,pUHPHa:TIbHoC"H:JIe H eK@pGc;J\H Jl.BH:lKeHH~L 3. n0JIYB:aeM~e TeJioM YCKOW€lHHe H3MeHjJe'l'CH np5{Nlo N~QIT0pIJ:H@ffiaJIhH0 )J,eHCTBY'Iorn;eH 11.a sro TeaIO C}lJIe. it Me*aRH'I€lCK3.H 3Hepn~.H Gel::!: (-;'1'eMB[ Ji!3Me'H5.re:rCH IlpGIIOp'UH0HaJIbHG Pl a60'te, cpB{,\pDleHHoH ImeIUIDIMH 0HJI:aMH, J1pFlJI:OtKeHH1bIMFI K CI'I(}TeM'e.

\

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1. Cxopocrs Mex.aHI11:JeclnIX ,llBmrs:eHHH sceraa M€:;HbUle, <[€1M cxcpcers CBeTa. 2. llBH.lKeH'He )l<H.)(K0c>refl: CJI:O}!(]fee, :qeM ,llBVDKeHHe TB€PAbIX TeJI. 3. HH.epTHo·cTb rPY2K€J-lOfl JIO,llIUI 60JIblUe, lIeM rurepTl:,r'ocTb nycl'.Gl1: J):OANP.r. 4. nOJIe nrro,(eHH5l 6QJIbiliOH MaCChI cHJ:IbHee, 'reM nOJIe 'fHfOTeIHm MaJIOH MacchI.

5. CKaHAli.H acrpeaaerea B npapozre B)J.Boe :!lame, <[€1M 6op.

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(}fi)\11bIlle (JIeT'l~, TSliIKeJIee')

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7)eJ!lJl-laJ! crenens + '(eeo 3aMeHHTe I(O,HGTpYKlJ,Hefr Cpa8IiUTeJ1;bI-£af! ore-

nen» + 'leA.' 'lTO_

1. B BOSp?CTa10meH ITOOJIe;n:,OB;aTe-/IbHOCTFI K1:!:lK)J;bIH qJI~H IIOC,lJ:e)I:OB3TeJIbIfOCTFI 60JIbHIe rrpe)J;bI,!;!,yIlI,er01:JJIerr8. 2. noJr;BR2K'H.oCTb3JI<ZRTj!lGlHOB B MeTaJIJIaX 13'e MEoro pas 60J1bllie nO)J.BH2KHOCTfi lWI;IQB B ;'3JIeKTpOJIHTax. 3. B Oe-bIllHbtx YCJI.GBtrHx rrJIOTHOCl'll raaa 3HallllT<ZJIbHP M'eHbIIl~ II.!!oTBoG:TeH rsep;1lihrx 11 }!mJl:KI1'Xt~JI. 4. DaJrJ1a,LU'IH HTImfTI1Ha peaKlI,I{oHHO· CJ1IOcoG)Hee eeTa:7IhHhIX TIJlaTllHeBblX MeTaJIJIOB. ·5. GHJIa rpeHH.5l; C.lfOJIb}KelUlHMeRhilie IVWIHcHMaJIl>HOH: .CHJIbI TpeHHH no!(QH .. 6. EBPOII!1H YCTbHQPi:see eaM?pHH.

Ynpa}l{HeHU'e 106. Cpasaare }l'<IHH.ble BeJUl'{):IHhl no ot§paBI3Y: 6b@e ~ nuace

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60JIl>lHe - MeHbIUe

1. CCI<i0P0CTB paonpuetpane- < HH1I CBeT? B BO;(('e

2. sec .nto60rO TeilIa sa He-

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CKOpOGTB pacnpocrpaaerraa CBeTa B BO~.1l.yxe

Bee 3Tor0 }Ke TeJIa na IT0- 'BepXHOCTll 3eMJIJ1

:n:.ByX .llPY-

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1. Cmm,raeMoC'Fh }KFI)J;KOC- L C~K'HMaeM0eTb )f{H,llK0-

'DelL ropassro MeHbIlle, lJeM cn'!; ft.rpas;lI;O MeHb.Ille

oKH:MaeMocTb ra3J}.J3. C1K}fIMaeMo.CTUl'a30B.

2_ HmJ-{HllH Npe:n:.eur €mpe;rr,rt- 2. HH}1{HUH n,pe;n;eJI oupe-

JI~HHQrO HHTef'plaJI:a MO- :ueJI~I+lIWr0 aarerpaera

)KeT 0f>l1'b M.eHbWe,lJeM MQ:Hl1eT ID.bI:r:b MeHi.me

BepxH~H npe:l1.e;ll·, sepxaern npeneaa.

~. Hcm CM.aJIAH5I ·IH'J pa3'Me- 3. Idem CKaH.,ll:(1.H: Ito pa~Me,

p~al'4 MeUbme, qeM MORbi paM MeHbIlleHOHOll JlaH-

JIaHTaHHAOB. TaHH,ITi@B.

44

j

4 . .QJIHHa JIl060M CTOPOHbI < cyMMa .ll.JlHH .QBYX npyrax

rpeyrozn.aaxa eropon

caasnee - CJIa6ee

5. 3BYK xaxeproua C peso- > SBYK KaMepTOHa 6es peso-

HaTOplThIM HlllJIKOM naropaoro 5IIURI5:a

Yn[}aJKHelPle 1,07. J)[3MeHlITe ztaanuc npe.u;JIO}KeHIUI'

C1WPOCTU uacruii B 38ljKOBOii BOJ/.ne MeltbUte, tteM CICOPOCTb 3BYJW, C,WPOCTU 1f.aCTUlJ B 3SYKOBOii eo.nne "'teHbUte no CpaBHeltUIO co CIWpOCXblO 3syKa.

1. A110MHaH xaeca TIUKea:IOro BO,lI,0p0.ll.a B.ll.BOe 60Jlbllle, lfeM aTOMHaR Macca 00bltIHOro aonopona. 2. )J,JIHHbI B0JIH peHTPe.HoBCKHX JIY1IeIi: B TbICHtIH H .QeCHT'lUI TbIC5ItI pas MeHbwe, lJeM .n,JlUHbl BOJIH BH,llHMOrO CBeTa. 3. Y,lleJIbHaH Ter:IJlOeMKocTb MeTaJlJIOB B(C) MH.0ro pas MeHbDle, ~eM TenJloeMKOCTb BO.n,bI. 4. B xanensxe BOAbI co,nep)J{HTcH B MHJIJIROHbI pas 60JIbllJe MOJIeKYJI, qeM lJHCJIO JIIo.n,eu aa 3eMJIe.

120 o6pa3tfij:

~npaJKReHile 108. TIp0'HITaiiTe npe;J;Jlr:HKeHlIH. Oiiparare 'BHHMaHHe aa I(0HC'rpYK'Il,HH, Bblpa>Ka10LQHe KOJIH'IeCTBeHHYlo pasxauy npa cpaBHeHHH. (

1. 5IApo aTOMa CBHmLa conepxorr aa ABa nporon a MeHbme, qeM RAPO aTOM'a rrOJIOHHH.. 2. Tesrnepa'typa IUlIfeHHH MypaBbHIHllM KHCJIOThT na 17° HH)Ke TeMrrepaTypbI KHneHRH YKcycaos KMCJIOTbJ. 3. Macca 5I))'pa sonopona B 1840 paa OOJIbme MaCChl 3JIeKTpoHa. 4. CBHHen B sersrpe C JI.HiIIHHM paaa TR:lKeJIee amOMHHHR.

YnpalKHeHlIe ]09 . .QonOJIHHTe npe.o:JIOmeHH51 CJlOBaMH, ~aHHbIMH oIIRaBa.

L Conpornsrrenae BOJlOma .zlJIeKTpO-

JI3Ml1Bl B ffaJ{aJIeHHOM COCTOHHHI1 OOJIhille ero corrpOTHBJIeHHR B XOJIO,nHOM COCTCDRHHH ...

2. MaG:.ea szrpa renaa 60JIblIT~ MaCCbI 13:)Lpa aTOMa BO,ll0PQ;l1.a ...

3. rpaj\llM-aToM cepsr TmKe.JIee rpaxxaTOMa BO;l{Opo,lla ...

4. COrrp~THI!JIeI-IHe }I<eJIe3HOM nposeJIOKH 60JIhllie corrpOTHBJIe1:THlI

Me)),I-IOM liLj110BOJIOKH TOM )Ke .QJI,HHbl H TOJIIUliHbI

12-16 pa3

4 pasa

31 e

8 pas

46

5. Texneparypa KHneHHlI nponnouoBOM KHCJIOThI nsrure TeMrrepaTypbI

KHneHHlI MYP aBhHHoll T<HCJIOTbI... 40°

YnpamHeHMe ] 10. Cpasaare cneziyiourae BeJlF[1J[Ulbl, 1'lC(10J1b3Y't IWHCTpyKUHEI Ha CKOJlbKO e.uIlHHlJ, 60Jlbme (rnaceaee Jler'le, suure H T . .0:.), BO CkOJTbKO pas 6oJJl:;1JJe (M.eHbme, TlHl(eJlee If T . n.).

1. CIWPOCTb pacnpocrpauerraa 3BYKa B BO)J,e~ 1450 Mice",.;, B CTaJIH~5000 M,!cerc 2. I'paxx-arox cephI ~ 32 e, rpaana10M I<HCJIOpo,na ~ 16 e, rpaMM-aToM ncnopona ~ 1 e. 3. Ko- 3cj:JcpHILHeHT rrQJIe3FlOrO ,lleikTBlHI rraponux MaUIHH "'" 20 %, )l;BHraTeJIell BHYTpeHHero cropanxa ""39%, naponux .rypOHH "" 43 %, peaKTH.BHbIX ))'BI-IraTe:JIeH "'" 42 %. 4. TOqKa KHneHHH BO..Qbl + 100°C, oeH3liHa +150°, 6eH30JIa +8Qo. 5. TOtIKa IIJIaBJleH115I cepe6pa +960°C, crann + 1400°C.

Ynpascaeaae Ill. CpaBHHTe Jl3BeCTHble BaM II[.lH3JlaKH BeIIl,eCTB, rm:rreHM!!,npOueC(WB, HCnOJlb3YJI K0HCTPYKlUIH co cpaBHHTeJlbH01~[ creneireic npanararemorsrx II HapeqHit

3. BbIPA)I(EHHE I1PH3HAKA IIPE)J,META l{EPE3 )J,EHCTBHE (npHqACTH~)

A. Mal'epHaJl ,lI.J1.il naccaanoro YCB@eHHSI

a) )l.ell.cTBIITeJlblIble npll'Jac.TII!I aacroaurero BpeMeHH

YnpalKHeHHe 112. Cpasnnre npeztnomemm JIeBOro 11 npasoro CTOJl6- ua, YKailm:re cnonc, teoropoe onpezrensercn rrpH.u;1!'l'01JHbIM npe.llJIO)l\eHI1- eM (B JleBOM cToJl6ue) H npl1QaCTHbIM 060POTOM (B npanou CTOJIQue). Onpenenare nap;e)l{ COI03HOrO CJlOB2 IWTOPb!U H ·nap;el[{ npasacrua,

L BeCKOHetIHO MaJIhle BeJIHqHI·lhI ~ 9TO BeJIUtIHHbI, xcropue CTpeM51TCH K HyJIlO, T. e. HMeroT CBORM npeneaox HyJIb.

2. H3BeCTHo oseas MHoro B~~eCTB, xoropsre I<IMe- 101' O,llFlHal<QBhIti: COCTaB, HO paanaxasre C'BoMC"FBa.

3. MaTpH1u.a JIHHet'IHoro

npectipasonaaaa B 6a311- ce, KOTOPbIM COCTOHT H3

BeCKOHetIHO MaJ!BIe Bem[qHHbl ~ 3TO BemlqHHbI, CTpeMlIIUHeC51 K nymo, T. e. HMelOIll.He CBORM npe)J,eJIOM HYJIb.

H3BeCTIfO onem. MHoro Beutecrs, HMeroIIJ:HX OJI:HHaKOBhIM COCTaB, IrO pa3- JIFrqllble csokcrna.

MaTpHIJ;a JII1HeHHOro rrpeoripasoaarraa B 6a3Hce, COCTOHru.eM H3 coocTBeR-

47

C06CTBeHHhIX BeKTOpOB, HMeeT AnarOIfaJIbHbIJi BHA.

HbIX Bel(TOpOB, HMeeT

AIdafOHa<'IbHblI1 BRA.

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2. Pea1'C~UR, seayl/{aR K o6paso8aI-LulO COpeaK14ufl, «otopas Beoer K. o6paso8afitJI.1O

CO

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1. COrJ1aCHO reopaa 311 amrertna , xacca ,lI.BH)JI.Ylll..erOCH TeJIa 60JIbllie MaCChI roro xce TeJIa, FlaXO,1J,SIlll.erOC5I B I10I~Oe, H ]DaCTeT C YBemI"Crel-meM cxopccra ,llB.lDKeHI'lH. 2. YCKopeIHlH TeJI BbI3hTBaIOTCH ,lI.eflcTBYIOlll..l{MH aa HHX Cl'.lJ1aMIf. 3. Pa3AeJI XHMl'IH, cnenaarrsno saHHMaIO.!Il.HikH 113YtIeHFleM coe.n;HHeHI1H: yraepozra, Ha3'hIBaeTCH OpFaI:HI'IeCIWfI XI1MI1eH:. 4. f1PR XHMR'reCKFlX npespameaasx oCBo6eHK;lI;aeTcH TQJIbKO 'IaCTb conep)J{ar:u:eH:C51 B semecrsax 3HeprHH.

:¥npa1l!.HeHHe 114. TIPM'l3CTlfhIH 060pOT, CTOflIIl.HCI nepea onpeaenseMbTM C.l[QBOM, nocrassre nocae on'peAeJJjle~1:oro CJIOBa.

1. Oopasyromyroca npn 3TOH peamran ORHCb )I{eJIe3 a neTPYJ];HO BOCCTan.oBUTbAe MeTaJIJIliltIeCrWro ;m:eJIe3a. 2. Florry'IRIOlll.l{H:CH UpH aaextpozrase BO,lI.Q{D0:11, OtIe1'l'b tIHCT. 3. BuneJHUOlll..HH:CH npa B3alfMO.l(efrcl'BIUI lUlilKa c cepnoa KHCJlOTOC[ r-as npOH3BOAI1'I' ,lI.·aBJIel-I'I1e H3 BO~YJ namrryro B CKJI511lKY B. 4. qHCJIO spamaronraxca soxpyr azrpa aTOM-a SJIeKTpOHoB pasao [[OPHAKGBOMY H0Mepy SJIeMelITa B nepnomcrecxok CHCTeMe.

Ynpa~HeHHe 115. B .u,aUHblX J1jleAJlO)KemmX o[]pe)l.eJllfTe rpaHH~b! npauacmax 06opo'ro.B H paccraasre HeAOCTalOIIl.lfe aanarne,

1. 4HCJIO .9JIelnp_OHOB Bpa.Ill.a10U!lJ!XC5I BOICpyr 5IApa aTOM3 paBRO nOp5I;lI.KOBtlMY noxepy 3JIeMeIHa B nepHO,lI.H'IeCKOH CHCTeMe. 2. Bemmaua npaaaxarontaa OTAeJIbHble, «oropnaaFlue» npyr OT npyra 3Ha~eHI151 Ha3hIBaeTCH An:cKpeTHOH:. 3. XHMIIH H3Y'IaeT COCTal? H CTpoeHI1e senrecrn IHlXO:11,5Irn:HXCH B 2KHBbIX KJIeTKaX pea:KIJ,HK nporexaiourae MeiK,lI.Y sernecrnaMH B }KHBGM opraaaaxe 11 M.3MeffeHIISI llj!l0I1CX0.ZI.5IIU.He B KJleTKaX II TKaHHX npa 3a6oJIeBaHHl!x. 4. BMecTe C H3"Me,HeHHeM e,lI.rlIUH.l, C.JIY2KallHIX ,lI.JIH H.3MepeHH'lI H3Mel:I5ITCH H qliCJIa nOJIYQ<j.IOu.l,HeC5I B pe3YJIhTaTe 1'13MepeHH5I rex HJII1 Ml-lbIX ¢11- smecxax BeJII1QI'lH.

48

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npOT¥lBJIe]-Hle H3MeHHloIll,eeC5I )LaBJIeHHe

YBeJI RqHB atom a SICH crWPOCTb YMeHhmalOlll.ee:C5I TpeHHe nOBblIDaIQlll..a5IC5I reMnepi!.Typa nOHFnKalOmeecSI ,lI.aBneaae

p a3JI araiotneeca BellI,eCTBO

2. a) <eIIJIa, BhI3b1Balom,afl ,lI.BIDKeHHe;

TeJlO, cOBepm.alOlll..ee paricry:

semec'raa, acrynaionrae B pearm,MIo; pea-KIl,HH, COilPOB02K,lI.alOIll.aHCH Bbl,lI.eJlemieM renna; narpysxa, npI1XGA5lmaHCH ua OCb

6) 8 aBlle5I1Il,He .npyr OT

,lI.P'Ypa BeJIIF.JlUIbl lU!Il5Irua5I )I{I1,lI.KOCTb nJIaBHmHI1cSI MeTaJIJ1 conep )](aIll.H ecs B se-

meCTBe npHMeCH

6) aTOMbI, BXO,lL5!ill.J.{e.B COCTaB MOJIeKYJIhl

lIBJIeHHH, npoHCXO-

nsmae npa XlfMHtIeCIWH: peaxnan caMoJ,Ie'Il, JIeTHruHH: co CKOPOCTbIO 3BYKa TO'IKa, uaxonsmasCH na nJIOCKOCTH

Ynpa1l!.HeHHe t 17. B JlaHHbIX' npep,JlO}I,eHH51X 3aMeHHTB npM'laCTl:!bl~ 060POTbl I1p:HJlaT0QHbI1l:H onpe)l,eJlHTeJJbHblMH npeAJJ0}Keln!f1.MJi.

1. MaTpHua, cOBna,lI.aIOma51 co CBOeH: TpaHcnOImpoBaHHOM Ha3blBaeTC51 CHMMeTpHl.JeCKoH. 2. PaCCMOTpl1M HarpY3KY, npH:xoAHII~yroC51 na Y'IaCTOK OCR OT T0tIlUI a AO TOqKR b. 3. BonpocbI 0 npnpone CRJI,. Bb13bIBcPDllI,llX MexaHwn~c~He ,U!BI<DKt;!HllSf, BblXO,lI.5IT sa paMKH MexaHRKll. 4. i}TOMhl, Q'lJIH-

49

I .

'IaIOI1'l.HeCfI alTOMHbIMI1 M,aCC8MH, !I.O HMelGilLHe ·OJI.HHa.!<OBblfl nOJIO)KHTeJIbHbIH sapan HJI.pa, 6bIJUI Ha3BaHbl '!f30TOnaMH.

YopalKHeHHe 118. Bhl,lleJlIiTe B rexcre npasacras H npnaacraue 060' porsi, YKa}JUlTe GJlOBa, xoropue OHH orrpe)1,eJllllOT, paCCTaBbTe He)1,0c.TaI0-

UJ,He aanarae.

e TO'IKH 3peHHH aTO~I'IO-M:@JleKYJI5lpHOH TeopHH BClIKaH XHMll'reCKaR p.eaKIlJIH 3aKJI'I01JaeTCH B TOM, YTG MOJIeKYJIbl nOJI.BepraIOLll.HXCH rrpeBpam;eHHIO BellI.eCTB paspytnamrca, H aTOMb!, 113 KOTOPblX OHM COCTOllJIH, rpyrmupyrorca B BORMe MomtEYJIbl. 3Hall coct aa MOJIeKYJI BCTyrrarOIJiI.HX B peaKIl,HlO BemeCTB H semects 06pa3YIOIll.HXCH B jDeSYJlbTate peaKll;HH Mbl MO,)KeM H306p.aSHTb mo6yID peaKll;HIO X:HMH1JeCI<HM yp.a·B-

HeHHeM.

YnpaHHleHile 119. rtpO'lll'l'aiiTe npe):lJlO}KeHlH:l. YKa}!{uTe CJ!OBO, KOropee onpe,lleJiHeTCli njJwraCTlreM 1'1 np14.llaTOQHblM rrpe)1,JlO~KelUleM. Onpe~eml'l'e nap:e21( C0!03HQT0 enona I<OTOPblii H naAe)R np,!HaCTl!5!. CpaBHHTe cjJOPMY Bblpml{eHHlr JlOfl-!'1eCKOrO cy6"beKTa i3 npHA3TO'lHOM npeAJlO)KeHJiH

H B npli'IaCTHOM o60pOTe.

1. JIY1JH, HcnycKaeMble coJUIMI1 p a,D.H5I, o6.JIa,lI.aro'f crrOCOGHOC1'blO Bb13blBa1'b MHorHe xUMY.!''lIeClme peaKUHH.

2. HaUp5DKeHHOCTb 3JIeKTPHtI.ecKoro nOJI5I, cosnaBaeMOFO TeJIOM B B pa3- nstx T01:IKaX DflGCTpaHcTaa, pa3.JIWrna.

3. Cpe.ll.Hee paCCT05IHl4e,

I1poJIe1'aeMOe MOJI.eIWJIOH Me}K,lI.y ,lI.ByM5f CTOJIKHOBeH.H51.MH, Ha:ablBaeTcH )l:JlHH0H cB06o:1I,HOro D,Y-

J1YIJ.H, KOT0pb!e HcnycKaIOT COJIH p.a,lI.l15I, o6.JIa,lI.aIOT cnOCG6HOCTbIO BbI3bIBa1'b

'f.H MDJI.eKy:nbI.

MHOPKe XHMHtIeClme peal{,Il,HH.

Harrp5DKeHH0CTb 9JIeKTpHtIeCI<OPO nOJI51, xoropoe coszraer TeJIG B B pa3Hblx TOtIKaX npocTpaHcTBa, p::t3JIH'tIH'8.

Cpezmee paccreaane, KOTOpoe nponeraer MOJIel}yJl~ Me>K,lI.Y ,lI.ByM5I CTOJ1KHGBeHHfLMl1, Ha3bIBaeTcll ,D.JIUHOH cB06oJI.HorQ nYTH MOJI'eKYJIbI.

YnpmKHeHHe 120. B AaHliblx Ilpe,!l~O}KeHHlIX orrpeAeJI1!Te cy6'beKT Aeiic.TBl-!H, Bb!pa)KeHBonl) fipHlJa~T[1E~M.

Q6paSBt.r jI,aBJI.?Uue., CDaOUBaeAwe CTOJl.60M ~CU(JJWCTU $qtc@Toii h, pqeno pgh. - CTo//.6 'JICUO'WCTU CDsoaer OaBA.eliue. He~eCQMoCTb B03liwm.eT tta ecex IWC:!ItUl'LBCKUX Kopa6Afl.X, COBeptuUI()-

50

UfUX nOA.eT BOKPY2 sennoeo tuapa. - KOCMU«ecsue Kopa6//.u coeepuuuet noner.

L U-qaCTHUbI, I1bI6.pacbIBaeMble aTOMaMHpa,QrlOaKTHBHbIX 9JIeMeHTOB, npeJI.cTaBJIHI01' C060H nOJlO2KH·TeJI.bHO sapaxcennsre aTOMbI reJIHSI. 2. Ynpyrow Ha3bIBaeTCH llecj)QpMaUHll HCxesaiomaa C npexpatnenaex lleHcTBlul CHJIbI. 3. TOJI'lIKH: noJIytIaeMble 'IaCTlnI,aMH cyenenaan co scex CTOPOH OT MOJIeKYJI, He Mory: B TGL£HOCTH ypaBI'IOBeIllHBaTb npyr npyr a. 4. TIoCTOllHHOH Be.rrU1JHHe ornenaer T01{K8, He MeHRIOlIJ,all cnoero

IT OJJ02K.eHHH. .

I

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I

I

I

I

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YnpalKHeHHe 121. 3aMemITe eoxeraaas c rrp!-p!aCTffHMH coxerauaaaa c npH,!laTO'lHbIMH onpenenarensaaxa npep;JlQ}!{eHl-!·HMH.

Otipaeeu: 1. Tennora, Bbl!}eJlfl.eMaft TOfG~M ... - rennora, KOTOPYto Bbli)eAftBT TOI<-". ; rennora, KOTOpast euoenserc« TOKOM; ....

2. l1sYiiaeMoe R8Jle1iUe - sienenue, soropoe uayuaIOT ... ; senenue, KOTopoe usyt.taerCR; ....

1. 3aBHcHMoCTb, Bblpa2Kae- 2. Onpe.n:.eJIHeMaH BeJIH1JH-

MaR ypaaaeaaex; Ha;'

JI.aBJIeHHe, oxassmaexoe paCCMaTpJiBaeMa5I 3aKO-

CBeTOM;

6. HOMepHOGTb;

pa OT8, COBepLIIaeMa51 re-

113MepSIeMa5I llJIJ.U1a.;

JIOM;

CBeT, f13JIY1JaeMbI'H TeJIOM' nOJIytraeMa51 3T:-JeprHH;

llaBJIeHHe, np0I13BOJI.HMOe' ,UCilOJIb3yeMa5I annapa-

Typa.

ra30M;

YopaJKHeHUe 1.22. Ilepenaare COnep}KaHM<

npHna'Ilo'rHbI1'lHf orrpeAeJlHTeJlbHblMH npe'!{JlO)KeH:H npHn'laCTHbIX 06opOTOB QaCTHoMY' oeop . . .... . . MH. OMHHTe 'lTO IJPH-

.. . . .0:ry GO crpanareasasrx npHl[aC'l'I1eM CHHQHHMHq~bl n

~~~~~~. npe.!{JI02KeHHll, npencrannsnoumo c060:11 aKTHJ;lHblf! M rr3CCI1PB~~~fi

Otipaeeu: MapufI. Kiopu npOBOOUAa onuru no uenepenuto npOBoottMOCTU Bosoyxa, BbISbIBaeMOu. JlYliaMU ypatia. - MapufI. Ktopt: npoeodu.na onem» no ueuepeiuuo npeB()OUMOCTU Bosoyxa, IWTOpylO eueuetuor lLljiLU ypa1ia (xoropa« eusuea-

ercst ftYiWMU ypaJ-w). .

.. 1. 2HhrnrreiirI:I ,lI.OK838JI, 'lITO MemJI.Y Maccow H 9He mew cymecrnyer 3aBHCHMoeTb, BblpamaeMaH yp anneu HeMP E = =mc2• 2. ~.eJIbTa-qJYHKIl,HH, IllHl'lOK® npHMeH5IeMaR B Ma:reMaTI1Ke H ee rrpa JwmerUI HX, HBJI5IeTClI npocrejmmx rrpnxe-

51

pOM o696m1hmbIx CPYHKI1l'lH. 3. naBJleHI1e, oxasuaaeaoe ~BeTOM na TeJI,a, O'IeHb MaJIO. 4. A.MnepMeTp, BKJIlO'laeMbur B paSJlFlIIHbIe Yl.Jacn<:H 3JleKTpH'IeCIWH: uerm, ITOI{a3bIBaeT OAHU 'H TOT m.e TOK. 5. thlCJIO G60pOTOB, coaepuraeaux B ceKYRlI.Y, O,U,I1H.aI<OBO ,U,Jl51 scex ronex AB1UKYULerOC51 xorreca.

Ynpa}KHeHHe 123. B nauastx npenJIO}I<eHH51X BblneJIHTe npw,aCTI1R H npINaCl'lIble OOOpOl'bl, Yl<.all'HTe CJlOBa, xoropsre OHU o'npeneJ;l51l0T, n pacCTaBbTe nenOC·T.alolllHe sanareie,

1. TIOCJIe HHTerpHpOBamHI ypasueaas nOJlY1faeT('51 3aKOH, CB513'bTBalOIl.lJ'IH xoaexaue 3Ha'teB]UI paCCMaTpIiBaeMEIX BeJIH'lI1H. 2. I1sJlYl,Jerme paJl,H5l uepaaacxepao. BepTHKaJIbHbIM nytIOK JIy-q'eH nOA BJIH511:IUeM xaruare pacnaaaerca na TpH xaTeropHH JIyqeH: iTIy'lH He I13MenSIlOl1l,He csoero Ha,;tpaBJIeHH5l OT .neHCTBH5l MarHHTa nOJIYQ]lJIH HaSBaRHe 'Y-JIY'leH; JIY'lH 0'1'KJIGHgeMble NOJIO>KHTeJIbHbIM nG)llOCOM Ha3bmaIOTCH ~-JIyqH, a JIYLIH, OTKJIOH51eMbte OTpHllaTeJIbHbIM nOJIlOCOM - a-JIyqH.

8) CTpaAaTeJIbllb!e npHtlaCTIUI npouienurero BpeMeHH

Ynpa:lKHeH.Re 124. ITpOqHTafITe npe,lI)10}KeBI151. Yi{8IlUlTe. C}IOBO, KOTO' poe enpeaeaaercs rrpll,ll;aTOt[H:bIM npe)V[Q}KeHll'eM J_;I il'pRqaCTHblM oriopo- 1['0111.. Onpenenare naJIie~K (;:O!03Horo C.JlOBa IWTOPl:Jlt! II nanexc npanacras. CpaBHHTe C:rPYK'l'YPY npaaarosuoro npe.n:Jro)KeHMH B nepBoM II BTOPOM

rrpnaepax.

1. TIo sasouy, KOTOPbIH

YCTaHOBHJI rYK, BeJIH'lHna ,n.ecpopMallFlH nponopUHOHa./IbHa JI;e}[CTBYromeH CHJIe.

2. ITJIOTH0GTb eJI,HHFI'CfHOH

TOyeqHOH MaCCbI, KGTOpa5'l paCrrOJH:l->KeHa B na-rane NoopJI,HHar., pasHa JI,eJIbTa-CPYHI(]J..MH.

TIo 3aKOHY, YCTq.HOBJIeHHOMY rYKOM, BeJIH'lHHa ,n.e-

cpopM'allIfH rrponopnno-

HaJIbHa JI,eHGTByromeH

CHJ1e.

TIJIOTFlOCTb e,rr:UHHl!H0H TOtreLIHOH xaccu, paCHOJIO)KBHHOH B nanaire KOOpJl,HHaT, pasna ,n.eJI,bTaCPYHKllHH.

ipascaeaae 126. Hasoaure rnaroasr, OT KOTOPblX 06pa30B8Hbl ,!J.aH- 1[{tIaCTHH. Ilozroepare K nplf1raCTHJIM onpencmrcaue tJIOBa.

u6pa3etf.' oXAa~aijJ.a-{'bUl - OXAaaUTb - fJXJl.aalCaeHHafl OICUaKOCTb.

Pacraopeuasrfi; YCTaHOBJIeHHbIH; nOJIytreHI-lbU'.\:; H306pa:tKeHtlbrfr; uanpasnennsra; rrpOH3BeneHHblH; rrOJl,TBep>K)J.eHHbIH; sarperua; C)KaTblfr; H30rHYTblfr.

C JI 0 B a Ll:JI 51 C II P aBO x: BemeCTBO, COJIb, saKOH, aaKOHOMepHOCTb, peaym-rar, npatiop, oTpe30R, BbllIHCJ1emle, SKCnepI1MeFlT, rnIIOTe3 a, rrpennoaoacemre, nap, sosnyx, rpytixa.

YnpalKHeHHe 125. COqeTaJ:DHf C np}!4aCTHffMH saaeaare GOqeTaHlHfMH c npRnaTO'IHbIMli on:pe.ll.eJIIlTeJIbHb!MH JlpenJIOIl(eH'HHMH.

5lBJIeHHe, HCCJIe,n.OBaI-IHOe THMHp5l3'eBbIM; 3aI{QHOMep:

HOCTb, YCTaaOBJIefIHa5l Appeaayccx; MeTO,U" npe,U,JIOlKeHHbUI P06£l.pTOM OOi'IJI.6M; reopxa, paspaocrauaaa UHOJIKOBCf{HM; nOH5lTHe, BBe,n.eI1HOe )J.aJIbTOHOM; 3JIeKTpH'leCI<H}I. rpancqtopMaTOp, H306peTeHHblR 5!{)JIO'lKOBbIM; paCCT05lIlIi@, npOH,LLeHH0ec :rOLII'l:Oii.; SaKGH, OTKflblTbIH JIOM0HOCOBbIM; rI1FI9TeSa, BblJl,BI1HYTaH Pe3ePCPop,U,OM; TeopHH, paSBJiITaa J1opeHID,OM.

52

YrrpalKHeHHe 127. BbJ.)I;eJIHTe B npeAJIO)f~em!51x npaxacrnsre 060pOTbI Il IlOCTaBbTe ax nocae onpeneaxesroro caoaa.

1. BeCOBoe KOJIHtIeCTBO paCTBOpeHHOro B .naHHOM 06'beMe :tKHJI,KOCTH rasa npaxo npcnopnaoaansno Jl,aBJIeHI1IO rasa. 2. TIOJIYtIeHHhle nocpencrsox 3JIeKTpIl'IeCJwr{ HH,lJ,yKUHH saPHJI,bI HaSbIBamT HaBe.1leIUlbIMliI RJlH J-IH.nYllHpoBaRHbIMH. 3. Ha BC5lK0e noxernenrroe B npocrp aacrso 3ap.H2KeHH0e reJICi :rr.eMcTBYlOT CI1JIbl. 4. ~TJiI paccyacaeaas XOPOIIIO I1JIJIIOCTPHPYlOTCH na I1SBeCTHOM OITblTe C IIoMergeHHbIMH B MarHHTaoe RGJIe }!(eJIe3HbTMH OnHJIKaMB. 5. D0Ll:p06HO I1CCJIe.rr.OBaB YCTarrOBJIeHHble CTOJIeTOBbIM 3aKOHOMepHOCTI1 q>oT03cpcper<ra, 911HwTeHn nOKa38JI, 'ITO HX HeJIb35l 06'b51CHFlTb, I-ICXO,n.5l 113 rrpeJl,C1'aBJIeHH'H 0 BOJIHOBQH upHpo,n.e CBeTa.

YnpalKHCHHe 128. Bunezare B TeKCTa.x rtpaxacraae 060POTbI; YKaIl<Hre. CJlOBa, xcropsre.oaa onpezrenmor, n paceuassre aeaocraieurae S3JIHTble.

1. Tenaora acrrapeaas I1J1,eT aa pa60TY A coaepuraexyro MOJIeKYJIaMH npn npoxoxoreana CKB03b IIoBepxHocTHbIH CJIOM. 2KHJI.KOCTH Ii ua paoory Al CB5I3aHHYIO C yseJUI1feHHeM yJI,eJlbtroro 06'beMa nemecrsa npn ero rrepexone H3 ),KHJI,KOTQ coCT051HH'51 B r aaoocpasaoe.

2. ECJ1H ITJ10CKa51 JII1HH5'l spanraerc» soxpyr 'OCYI ;JIe2Kalll,eH B nJIOCl<OCTH 3TOH JIl1HlIH H He nepecexatomea ee TO naouians nOJIy:qeHHOH IIOBepXHOCTI1 BparueHI151 panaa npOH3BeJl,eHI-nO Jl,J1HHbI 3TOll ./IHHI1l'I aa rryrs npOHLl:eHHbIH ee reOMeTpa'IeCKHM nenrpox T51LKecnr.

Ynpalf!;HeHl<re 129. Ilepeaaare cozrepasaaae IlpWraeTHblx 060POTOB npM.ll.aT04H:bIMH ol1pe.ll.eJUlTeJlbHblMH npe.ll.JJO)l{eHll'51MH.

1. <P0PMYJI& pacceaana, npe,lJ,JIo)KeHHaH Pe3epCP0pJl,OM, OKa3bIBaJIaCb B pane CJIYIIaeB HeTotI'HoH. 2. B MeTaJIJIaX, HC-

53