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MODULE: 21st Century Literature from the Philippines and the World



I. Introduction
This lesson presents the different forms of literature during the Pre-Colonial Philippines which serves as the
foundation of our Contemporary Literature. These forms manifest our country’s diverse culture and history.

II. Objectives

1. Identify the geographic, linguistic, and ethnic dimensions of Philippine Literary History from the Pre-colonial
2. Understand and appreciate classic literary forms; and
3. Compose a time capsule letter, addressed to the ancient Filipino people.

III. Discussion

man’s vehicle for self

a form of catharsis/relief
came from the Latin word expression
Littera which means letter

primordial aim is to entertain preserver of culture of a


tool for cultural transmission

showcase people’s national

About the Pre-Colonial Period of the Philippines

 The first settlers of the Philippines arrived through land bridges around 15,000 – 30, 000 BC. Those first
settlers (the Aetas) were excellent hunters and food gatherers.
 In 2500 BC, two types of Malays came and influenced our ancestors. The Proto- Malays introduced
knowledge in seafaring, farming, building houses from trees, and creation of fire for cooking. The Deutero-
Malays (Indian, Chinese, Siamese, Arabic) shared their own systems of writing, knowledge and skills in
agriculture, metallurgy, jewelry- making, and boat- building.
MODULE: 21st Century Literature from the Philippines and the World


 Ancient Filipinos were animistic (worships nature). They believed in Anitos, Diwatas, good spirits, and bad
 The name/ term for God varies from region to region; same with the belief on how the world came to be.
o BATHALA (Tagalog)
o LAON or ABBA (Bisaya)
o KABUNIAN (Ilocano and Ifugao)

Way of Writing

 According to a Spanish Historian named Father Pedro Chirino , Filipinos already have their way of writing
even before the Spaniards came.
 There were at least 16 Different ancient writing systems used during the pre-colonial period.

o Badlit (Visayas) o Hanunu’o (Mindoro)
o Basahan (Bicol) o Buhid (Mindoro)
o Eskayan (Bohol) o Kirim (Maguindanao)
o Jawi (Sulu) o Kulitan (Kapampangan)
o Baybayin (Tagalog) o Kur-itan (Ilocos)
o Tagbanua (Palawan) o Palaw-an/ Ibalnan (Palawan)

Philippine Literature

Nature Forms

Oral and Written Traditions Traditional Verses

 Folk Wisdom Riddles, Proverbs, and Short Poems

Communal or Collective Folk Songs
 Language of Daily Life Ritualistic Chants and Spells
Functional Folk Narratives
 Transmission of Beliefs and Epics, Myths
 Values, Ideals, and Customs Legends, Fables
 Entertainment Folktales, Fantastic Stories
MODULE: 21st Century Literature from the Philippines and the World

Oral and Written Traditions

 RIDDLES (BUGTONG) – used to test wit, ingenuity, and imagination; usually a rhyming couplet, each
having a regular syllabic count, varying from four syllables to as many as 14 syllables.
Nang bata pa’y paru-paro
Nang tumanda na’y latigo

 PROVERBS (SALAWIKAIN) – terse statements of practical wisdom based on long experience and
observations about life. Stated in figurative language and are usually rendered in rhyming couplets.

Ex: 1. Ang naglalakad ng matulin, 2. Kung ano ang puno,

Kung matinik ay malalim. Ay siya ring bunga.

 IDIOMS (SAWIKAIN) – a phrase or a fixed expression that has a figurative, or sometimes literal, meaning.

Ex: 1. Kumukulo ang dugo 5. Pusong Mamon

2. Makati ang dila 6. Bahag ang buntot
3. Balat- sibuyas 7. Basang sisiw
4. Bungang araw 8. Nagmumurang kamatis

Communal or Collective

 SONGS – are of great variety, expressive of a gamut of human experiences and feelings. They are sung at
almost every occasion: work, worship, wedding, and war, with the accompaniment of musical instruments,
mostly percussive and stringed. They include lullabies, street songs, work songs, game songs, victory
songs, love songs, and funeral dirges.

 Uyayi – lullaby
 Komintang – war song
 Kundiman – melancholic love song
 Harana – courtship song
 Tagay – drinking song
 Mambayu – Kalinga rice- pounding song
 Subli – dance ritual song of courtship/ marriage
 Tagulaylay – songs of the dead

 Chants – used in witchcraft or enchantments

 Examples:
o “Tabi tabi po, makikiraan lamang po”
o “Mag-iingat ka palagi”
o “Pagaling ka, mahirap ang may karamdaman”
o “Dagang malaki, dagang maliit, ayto ang ngipin kong sira na’t pangit. Sana ay bigyan mo ng
MODULE: 21st Century Literature from the Philippines and the World


 Folk Epics – are lengthy narrative poems revolving around supernatural events, heroic deeds, or folk
heroes. They were either chanted or sung with a certain seriousness of purpose. They were recited in
communal gatherings as a way of strengthening tribal pride and unity.


 Biag ni Lam-ang – Ilocano
 Ibalon or Handiong – Bicolano
 Ulalim – Kalinga
 Hinilawod – Sulod
 Agyu ad Baybayan – Bukidnon
 Banlakon – Pulangion
 Tuwaang – Manuvu
 Guman – Subanon
 Indarapatra at Sulaiman – Maguindanaon

 Myths – fictional stories that try to explain how things came to be through the intervention of supernatural
beings; usually answers “why?” and “how?”

 The Creation Myth (Tagalog)
 Bakit Maliwanag ang Araw kaysa Buwan?
 Bakit Kumukulog at Kumikidlat?
 Si Malakas at si Maganda
 Ang pinagmulan ng mga lahi
 Bakit pango ang ilong ng mga Pilipino?

 Legends – deals mainly with the origin of local phenomena or happenings, origin of places, plants, animals,
things, and names.

 Fables – deals with animals and inanimate beings made to speak and act like rational beings and teaching

 Fantastic Stories – deals with the unseen world or the underworld, and with odd, whimsical, or grotesque

 Folktales – deals with humorous or heroic stories about native culture heroes, village idiots, tricksters,
tramps, and other stock characters.
MODULE: 21st Century Literature from the Philippines and the World

IV. Activities

A. Individual Activity
1. Write a time capsule letter addressed to the Ancient Filipino People by using 10 sentences or
FORMAT: Short Bond Paper, HAND WRITTEN. Enclose the letter in a white envelope. WRITE
2. Transcribe your first name using the Modern Baybayin Writing System.
FORMAT: Bookmark (You can use any art material)
Front Side: Your first name in Baybayin
Back Side: Your name, grade and Section
MODULE: 21st Century Literature from the Philippines and the World


I. Introduction
Just like the Greeks, Filipinos also have a number of deities who represents our culture. In this lesson, you will be
introduced to the various residents of Kaluwalhatian (Skyworld) and Kasamaan (Underworld).

II. Objectives

1. Identify the different Gods and Goddesses of Philippine Mythology;

2. Reflect on how animism shape the lifestyle and literature of the Pre-colonial period; and
3. Plan and execute a photo shoot depicting Ancient Filipino Gods and Goddesses.

III. Discussion

 Philippine Mythology is a collection of stories and superstitions about magical beings a.k.a. deities whom
our ancestors believed controlled everything.
 Myths are believed to have taken place in the “remote past,” meaning a period when the world as we know it
today wasn’t fully formed yet.
 Philippine mythology gave our ancestors a sense of direction and helped them explain everything.
 For them, it was not just a belief in invisible higher beings. Philippine mythology defined who they were and
what they’re supposed to do.
 Filipinos didn’t stick to a single version of creation story nor did they give uniform names to their deities.

Good Tagalog Deities in Ancient Philippine Mythology

the residents of Kaluwalhatian (the Ancient Tagalog Skyworld)

▣ Bathala - The supreme god of being; creator of man and earth and addressed sometimes as Bathalang
Maykapal. dwells in Kaluwalhatian
▣ Amanikable - God of hunters
▣ Idiyanale - The goddess of labor and good deeds.
▣ Lakapati - The goddess of fertility and the most understanding and kind of all the deities. Also known
as Ikapati
▣ Mapulon - The god of seasons
▣ Mayari - The goddess of the moon, war, and revolution
▣ Tala - The goddess of the stars
▣ Hanan - The goddess of morning
▣ Anitun Tabu - The fickle-minded goddess of wind and rain
▣ Anagolay - The goddess of lost things and the only offspring of Lakapati and Mapulon.
MODULE: 21st Century Literature from the Philippines and the World

Harmful Tagalog Deities in Ancient Philippine Mythology

Resides in Kasamaan (Ancient Tagalog Underworld)

▣ Sitan - The guardian of Kasamaan and the keeper of all souls therein, the counterpart of Satan. He
had four agents whose task was to lead man to sin and destruction.
▣ Manggagaway - She was the first agent of Sitan and was primarily blamed as the cause of diseases.
▣ Manisilat - The second agent of Sitan, she was tasked to destroy and break every happy and united
family that she could find.
▣ Mangkukulam - The only male agent of Sitan, he was to emit fire at night and when there was bad
▣ Hukluban - The last agent of Sitan. Could change herself into any form she desired. She could kill
someone by simply raising her hand and could heal without any difficulty as she wished.

Ancient Bikolano Deities in Philippine Mythology

▣ Gugurang – The supreme god who dwells inside of Mount Mayon where he guards and protects the
sacred fire in which Aswang, his brother was trying to steal.
▣ Asuang – The harmful god who always try to steal the sacred fire of Mount Mayon from his brother,
▣ Bulan – The God of the Pale Moon; depicted as a pubescent boy. It was said that he was so handsome
that he could tame wild beasts and make everyone treat him kindly.

▣ Magindang – The God of Sea and all its creatures; Pursued the lunar God Bulan.

▣ Bakunawa – A gigantic sea serpent deity who is often considered as the cause of eclipses. As the
devourer of the sun and the moon, this serpent became an adversary of Haliya.
▣ Haliya – The masked goddess of the moon and the arch-enemy of Bakunawa

Ancient Visayan Deities in Philippine Mythology

▣ Kaptan – Supreme Ruler of the heavens

▣ Magwayen – Supreme Goddess of the Seas and the underworld
▣ Adlaw/Apolaki – God of the Sun
▣ Alunsina – She was the virgin goddess of the eastern skies.
▣ Bangun Bangun – God of time and cosmic movements.
▣ Barangaw – He is the god of the rainbow.
▣ Bulalakaw – Bird god, causer of illness.
▣ Dalikmata – The many-eyed goddess, cures eye illnesses.
▣ Nagmalitong Yawa – Diwata the goddess of lust,
▣ Ribung Linti – God of lightning and thunder, seduction and demons
MODULE: 21st Century Literature from the Philippines and the World

Other Tagalog Deities in Ancient Philippine Mythology

▣ Balitok (Ifugao) – son of Bugan and a mortal man; He was split in half. The upper half became a
celestial being and the lower became various species of animals
▣ Melu (Bilaan) – he was so large that he could not be compared w/ any known thing. He had gold teeth
and was so obsessed with cleanliness. From the dead skin which he rubbed off his body to keep
himself clean he created the earth.
▣ Bungisngis (Batangas) – is described as “a large strong man who is always laughing”. He also has an
upper lip so large that when it is thrown back, it completely covers his face.
▣ Batibat (Bicol) – popular among the Tagalogs as “Bangungot”. She is described as a fat, old witch and
her preferred way of killing her victims is by sitting on their chest while they sleep.
▣ Tikbalang (Tagalog) – is a tall, bony humanoid creature with the head and hooves of a horse and
disproportionately long limbs, to the point that its knees reach above its head when it squats down. In
some versions it is a transformation of an aborted fetus sent to earth from limbo. Tikbalangs are
generally associated with dark, sparsely populated, foliage-overgrown areas. To tame a Tikbalang, one
must successfully pluck 3 golden hairs from its mane. Once done, a Tikbalang will serve you until it
▣ Biaonganan (Palawan) – is described as a small human with black skin, kinky dark hair, and feet
pointing backwards. They can sometimes be found climbing through the tallest trees. It can transform
into a human or a pig, where it will use this guise to sneak into a village and steal a pig or a human for
its consumption. When villagers detect a rotting smell, they know a Biangonan is near. To ward of a
Biaonganan, one must light a torch and wave it to the monster.

IV. Activities

A. Individual Activity
▣ If you could be a Filipino God/Goddess for a day, who would you want to be and why?
Elaborate in 10 sentences and write on a Short Bond Paper.

FORMAT OF THE INDIVIDUAL ACTIVITY: Short Bond Paper, Hand written.

B. Group Activity
Plan and execute a photo shoot depicting Ancient Filipino Gods and Goddesses.


▣ Compile your photos as a pdf file.
▣ The title of your file is your Strand and Section.
▣ Do not forget to include a list of names of your members. Everyone should participate!