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Chapter

2
1.0 INTRODUCTION

2.1 Series based on difference

2.2 Series based on squares or cubes
2.3 Series based on combination of series
2.4 Series based on prime numbers
2.5 Series based on multiplication
2.6 Series based on fibonacci pattern

5.0 LETTER REPEATING SERIES

EXERCISE-1

EXERCISE-2
Unit O ne
asdf
Series

1.0 INTRODUCTION
In these questions a series is given. The only thing to be understood for solving these questions is the
pattern, on which a particular series is based. A series can be formed by using various methods.
Some of the methods are given below.
2.0 COMPLETION OF SERIES
In such type of questions a series is given and we have to find out the missing term. Some of the
logics that can be applied to solve such questions are :
2.1 Series based on difference

Illustration1. 1, 3, 7, 13, 21, ?

(A) 30 (B) 31 (C) 32 (D 35
Solution. Observe the difference between the terms
+4 +8

1 3 7 13 21

+2 +6

We can see that the differences of given terms are consecutive even numbers
\ 21 + 10 = 31
\ The next term is 31
Illustration 2. 20, 19, 17, ?, 10, 5
(A) 16 (B) 15 (C) 14 (D) 13

–2 –4

20 19 17 14 10 5

–1 –3 –5
\ 17 – 3 = 14

Illustration 3. 1, 4, 9, 16, 25, ?

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Solution. The series is formed by finding the squares of consecutive numbers

i.e. 12, 22, 32, 42, 52, 62, . . . .

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Class IX : MAT

Illustration 4. 4, 5, 9, 18, 34, ?

(A) 50 (B) 55 (C) 57 (D) 59
Solution. We cannot apply the logic of squares or cubes of numbers directly to the given series.
So, first we will find the difference between the terms.
+4 +16

4 5 9 18 34

+1 +9

As we can see that the differences are squares of consecutive numbers.

\ The next difference will be 25
\ 34 + 25 = 59

2.3 Series based on combination of series

Illustration 5. 1, 3, 3, 6, 7, 9, ?, 12, 21
(A) 10 (B) 11 (C) 12 (D) 13
Solution. This series can be divided into 2 series
(I) 1, 3, 7, ?, 21 (II) 3, 6, 9, 12
In series (I) differences are
In series (II) differences are
+4 +8 +3

1 3 7 ? 21 3 6 9 12

+2 +6 +3 +3

7 + 6 = 13

2.4 Series based on prime numbers

Illustration 6. 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, ?, 17
(A) 12 (B) 13 (C) 14 (D) 15
Solution. This is a series of prime numbers, so the prime number after 11 is 13.
2.5 Series based on multiplication
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Illustration 7. 3, 6, 18, 72, ?

(A) 240 (B) 144 (C) 360 (D) None of these
×3

Solution. As we can see the series is 3 6 18 72

\ 72 × 5 = 360 ×2 ×4
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Series

Illustration 8. 2, 5, 9, 19, 37, ?

(A) 38 (B) 73 (C) 74 (D) 75
Solution. Number are related by the pattern shown below
×2–1 ×2–1

2 5 9 19 37

×2+1 ×2+1

\ 37 × 2 + 1 = 75

2.6 Series based on Fibonacci pattern

A Fibonacci pattern is a pattern in which the terms given in the series are added to form the next
term

Illustration 9. 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, ?, 34
(A) 20 (B) 21 (C) 22 (D) 24
Solution. In this series
rd nd st
3 number = 2 number + 1 number
th rd nd
4 number = 3 number + 2 number
th th rd
5 number = 4 number + 3 number.
and so on
\ 8 + 13 = 21

3.0 FINDING THE WRONG TERM.

In such type of questions a series is given with one wrong term that does not fit in the series. The
candidate is supposed to find that wrong term.

Illustration 10. 2, 5, 10, 17, 26, 37, 50, 64

(A) 17 (B) 26 (C) 37 (D) 64
Solution. The given question is based on the difference between the terms.
+5 +9 +13

2 5 10 17 26 37 50 64

+3 +7 +11 +14
As we can see that the difference between the terms are consecutive odd numbers.
But after 13 difference of 14 is given, which is not odd. So the wrong term is 64.
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Illustration 11. 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 96

(A) 4 (B) 32 (C) 64 (D) 96
Solution. The pattern followed in the given series is ×2, ×2, ×2, ×2 ..........
\ 64 × 2 ¹ 96, therefore 96 is the wrong term.

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Class IX : MAT

4.0 ALPHABET SERIES

In these questions an alphabet series is given. The only thing to be understood for solving these
questions is the pattern, on which the particular series is based. Let us have a look at some solved
examples.

Illustration 12. H, I, K, N, ?
(A) O (B) Q (C) R (D) S
Solution. Observe the series
+1 +2 +3 +4
H ¾¾® I ¾ ¾® K ¾¾® N ¾ ¾® R
Hence the correct choice is (C).

Illustration 13. AYD, BVF, DRH, ?, KGL

(A) FMI (B) GMJ (C) GLJ (D) HLK
Solution. 1st letter

A B D G K

+1 +2 +3 +4

2nd letter

Y V R M G

–3 –4 –5 –6
3rd letter

D F H J L

+2 +2 +2 +2
\ The correct choice is (B).

Illustration 14. 2 A 11, 4 D 13, 12 G 17, ?

(A) 36 I 19 (B) 36 J 21 (C) 48 J 21 (D) 48 J 23
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2 4 12 ?

×2 ×3 ×4
Middle letter

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Series

A D G ?

+3 +3 +3
3rd number

11 13 17 ?

+2 +4 +6

5.0 LETTER REPEATING SERIES

In this type of questions, some letters are missing. The letters are arranged in sequences which may
be formed in the following ways.

1. The letters may be arranged in cyclic order to form a group and then repeated to form a series.

2. The letters may be in a series which may be formed by repeating some letters in a group.

3. The letter series may be formed by repeating the same group of letters, skipping one and
repeating another.

4. The letter series may be formed by simply repeating the same group of letters, skipping one
letter in turn, in cyclic order.

5. The letter series may be formed on the basis of some rhythm.

Now some of the above cases are discussed by taking some examples.

TYPE-I
Illustration 15. _ b c a _ c a _ c a _ c a _ _
(A) a a b b a c (B) a b b b b c (C) a a b c a c (D) a a b b c c
Solution. We have to select one of the alternative from the four given alternatives. The choice
should be such that when the letters are placed in blanks of the series, we may get a
series, the letters of which are in a sequential form. Hence the choice (B) fits in, and the
series becomes
abcabcabcabcabc
Here a b c is represented and so the answer is (B).
Illustration 16. _ m _ l _ l _ ml _ m_
(A) l l m l l l (B) m l m l l m (C) l l m l l m (D) m l m l m m
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Solution. Normally when there are only two letters in a series, these letters are repeated in a
group. The answer is obviously (A). When these letters are placed in the series, we get
a series of the type

lmllmllmllml

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Class IX : MAT

(A) a b c c (B) a c b a (C) b c a a (D) b c b a

Solution. Here the first cycle is a b c, the second cycle is the reverse of the first i.e, c b a. Next
cycle is b c a and then its reverse. So the series this way becomes a b c c b a b c a a cb

Hence the choice is (D)

TYPE-II
In such type of series a letter series is given at the top with a number series at the
bottom. Each letter corresponds to a particular number in the number series. The can-
didate is supposed to establish a relation between the letters and number and then

Illustration 18. a _ c a c _ c _ b _ c a _ _ b
_2__32_12______
Find the last five numbers of the number series
(A) 3 2 1 3 2 (B) 3 1 2 3 2 (C) 3 3 2 1 2 (D) 3 1 2 2 3
Solution. We can observe that c stands for 3 and b for 2. Consequently a stands for 1. The
pattern followed by the letter series is a b c a c / b c a b a / c a b c b. Therefore the last
five letters are c a b c b or the numbers are 3 1 2 3 2.

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18
Series

SOME WORKED OUT ILLUSTRATIONS

Illustration 1.
APZLT, CQYNR, ERXPP, GSWRN, ITVTL, (?)
(A) KUUVJ (B) KVUUJ (C) JUVUR (D) LATER
Solution
(A)
Let us examine letters in the Ist place in each letter group. We have A, C, E, G, I. These are letters
coming with a gap of one letter. Hence the missing term should start with K.
Letters in the second place are P, Q, R, S, T
Next should be U.
Letters in the third place are Z, Y, X, W, V
There are continuous letters in the reverse order. Hence next letter should be U.
With two letters only we could say that the answer is (A). The third letter confirms the same.

Illustration 2.
ZYYZR, ABVUM, ?, BCUTL, XWABT, CDTSK
(A) YXZAS (B) ZYABT (C) XWYZR (D) YXZAB
Solution
(A)
A careful look will show that there are two series of groups of letters namely.
(i) ZYYZR, (?), XWABT
(ii) ABVUM, BCUTL, CDTSK
In the first series, let us see the relation of letters in different positions.
Position Rule (?)
I Z?X 1 letter backward Y
II Y?W 1 letter backward X
III Y?A 1 letter forward Z
IV Z?B 1 letter forward A
V R?T 1 letter forward S
Hence the missing letter group is YXZAS i.e. (A) is the answer.

Illustration 3.
ACEGI, JLNPR, SUWYA, (?), KMOQS
(A) LBGHI (B) ADJFH (C) YWXAC (D) BDFHJ
Solution
(D)
A-C-E-G-I, i.e. There is a gap of one letter in the first group. Second group starts with J, i.e.
immediately after the last letter I in the first group, and there is a gap of one J-L-N-P-R. Following
this pattern the answer is BDFHJ i.e. (D)

Illustration 4.
aab_aaa_bba_
(A) b a a (B) a b b (C) b a b (D) a a b
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Solution
(A)
Observe the above letter series
1. The first blank space should be filled in by ‘b’ so that two a’s are followed by two b’s
2. The second blank space should be filled in by either ‘a’ in which case four ‘a’ s are followed by
two ‘b’s.
3. The last space must be filled in by ‘a’.

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Class IX : MAT

4. Possible answers are b a a or b b a. Since the alternatives contain only ‘b a a’ , (A) is the answer.
5. In case ‘b a a’ and b b a’ had appeared as possible alternatives, then we would choose one
which is a more prominent pattern.
a a b b/a a a b b b/a a
Would be a better choice so that the answer in that case would be b b a.

Illustration 5.
a_aab_aaaab_
(A) a a a (B) a a b (C) a b a (D) b a a
Solution
(B)
Possible series could be
aaaabaaaaabb
or abaabbaaaabb
Of the two possible answers i.e., a, a, b and b, b, b only the first appears as an alternative and is
therefore the only choice.

Illustration 6.
ab__a_dcacb_acd_
(A) d c b d b (B) c d b b d (C) d a b d b (D) c d b d b
Solution
(D)
The following pattern fits well

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Series

1. (6, 7, B) (19, 20, D) ( ? ), (175, 176, K), (526, 527, P).

(A) (58, 59, G) (B) (59, 60, G) (C) (58, 59, H) (D) (59, 60, H)

2. 2, 2, 4, 4, 6, 8, 8, ?
(A) 10 (B) 12 (C) 14 (D) 16

3. 11, 10, ?, 100, 1001, 1000, 10001

(A) 100 (B) 101 (C) 110 (D) 111

4. 3, 8, 15, 24, ?
(A) 30 (B) 35 (C) 36 (D) 49

5. 31, 29, 24, 22, 17, ?, ?

(A) 15, 13 (B) 10, 8 (C) 14, 12 (D) 15, 10

6. 4, 7, 12, ?, 28, 39
(A) 19 (B) 24 (C) 14 (D) 16

7. 240, ?, 120, 40, 10, 2

(A) 480 (B) 240 (C) 220 (D) 120

8. 2, 3, 5, 9, 17, 33, ?
(A) 65 (B) 37 (C) 63 (D) 64

9. 4, 9, 19, 34, 54, ?

(A) 66 (B) 75 (C) 79 (D) 84

10. 4, 2, 5, 4, 7, 6, 10, 8, 14, ?

(A) 10 (B) 12 (C) 18 (D) 19

11. 96, 90, 78, ?, 36, 6

(A) 60 (B) 54 (C) 72 (D) 48

12. 8, 24, 16, ?, 7, 14, 6, 18, 12, 5, 5, 10

(A) 14 (B) 10 (C) 7 (D) 5

Directions : (13 to 15) Find the wrong term in the given series.
13. 3, 10, 19, 31, 43, 58, 75
(A) 10 (B) 19 (C) 31 (D) 43
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14. 7, 9, 17, 42, 91, 172, 293

(A) 9 (B) 17 (C) 42 (D) 91

15. 3, 5, 12, 39, 154, 772, 4634

(A) 5 (B) 12 (C) 39 (D) 154

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Class IX : MAT

Direction (16 to 25) : Find the missing term in each of the following questions.
16. 4, 9, 25, 49, 121, 169,…
(A) 324 (B) 289 (C) 225 (D) 196

17. 5, 20, 80, 320, 1280, …

(A) 5120 (B) 5220 (C) 4860 (D) 3642

18. 16, 24, 36,…, 81

(A) 52 (B) 54 (C) 56 (D) 58

19. 17, 26, 37, 50, 65,….,101

(A) 82 (B) 75 (C) 78 (D) 90

20. 3, 8, 15, 24,…,48

(A) 32 (B) 33 (C) 34 (D) 35

21. 2, 9, 28, 65,…,217

(A) 123 (B) 124 (C) 125 (D) 126

22. 1010, 8020, 27030, 64040,….

(A) 125500 (B) 125050 (C) 100255 (D) 120055

23. P, U, Z, … J, O, T
(A) E (B) U (C) S (D) P

24. DG, HK, LO, PS, TW,…

(A) XA (B) ZA (C) XB (D) None of these

25. VPG, UQF, ..., SSD, RTC

(A) SQD (B) TRE (C) TRS (D) QDT

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Series

Direction : (1 to 3) Complete the given series

1. YZWX, UVST, QROP, ...........
(A) MNKL (B) KLMN (C) LMNK (D) KLNM

2. BASTU, ........ , DCQVW, DEPXW, FEOXY, FGNZY

(A) CBTUT (B) CBRUV (C) BCRVU (D) BCTVU

3. AYBZC, DWEXF, GUHVI, JSKTL, ................., POQPR

(A) MOORN (B) QMONR (C) MQNRO (D) NQMOR
Direction : (4 to 8) Complete the given series
4. a _ bbc _ aab _ cca _ bbcc
(A) bacb (B) acba (C) abba (D) caba

5. __aab_a_a_ba
(A) bbaab (B) aaabb (C) ababa (D) babab

6. ba _ b _ a _ _ ba _ b
(A) ababa (B) baabb (C) abaab (D) bbaab

7. ab __ bc __ c __ ba __ c
(A) baac (B) aabb (C) caab (D) aaab

8. __ bcdbc __ dcabd __ bcdbc __ dc __ bd

(A) aaaaa (B) ccccc (C) bbbbb (D) ddddd
Direction : (9 to 10) Complete the given series
9. YXZWV, XWYVU, _ _ _ _ _ , VUWTS, UTVSR, TSURQ
(A) VWTXU (B) WXVUT (C) TVXUW (D) WVXUT

10. BD, HJ, NP, ? , ZB.

(A) TV (B) QS (C) YC (D) TU

11. Find the numbers to replace the question mark ?

a__ c __ __ b c a __ __ c a a __
1__ 5 1 1 3 __ __ 1 3 ? ? ? ?
(A) 3113 (B) 3115 (C) 5113 (D) 5115

12. Complete the series : K P A, L Q B, M R C, N S D, _ _ _

(A) T O E (B) O E T (C) E T O (D) O T E

13. Complete the series : _ b c c b _ a b c _ b a a _ c

(A) a c b c (B) a a c b (C) b c a c (D) a b c c
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14. Direction : Find the last five numbers in the given series.
__ f g __ f __ e __ __ g __ e
4 5 __ 6 __ __ 4 __ __ __ __ __
(A) 5 6 6 4 5 (B) 4 5 6 5 6 (C) 5 6 6 5 4 (D) 4 5 6 4 5

15. Complete the series : 4, 7, 10, 11, 22, 17, 46, 25, ?
(A) 58 (B) 69 (C) 86 (D) 94
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Class IX : MAT

Direction (16 to 25) : Find the missing term in each of the following questions.
16. 5, 7, 13, 23, …
(A) 25 (B) 27 (C) 29 (D) 41

17. 4, 8, 16, 32, 64,…,256

(A) 128 (B) 98 (C) 86 (D) 106

18. 5040, 720, 120, 24, …., 2,1

(A) 8 (B) 7 (C) 6 (D) 5

19. 101, 401, 901, 1601, 2501, …., 4901

(A) 2201 (B) 3301 (C) 4401 (D) 3601

20. 2, 6, 12, 20, 30,…., 56

(A) 32 (B) 34 (C) 42 (D) 24

21. 999, 7999, 26999, 63999,….

(A) 199924 (B) 124999 (C) 129994 (D) 999124

22. 990, 7980, 26970, 63960,….

(A) 124500 (B) 124005 (C) 120045 (D) 124950

23. B, C, A, D, Z, E, …, F, X, G
(A) U (B) Y (C) W (D) V

24. EZ, DX, CV,..., AR, ZP

(A) CS (B) AM (C) BT (D) TG

25. DIE, XCY, RWS, ...

(A) LQN (B) QMP (C) LMS (D) LQM

EXERCISE-1

Que. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Ans. A D B B D A B A C A
Que. 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Ans. A C C A C B A B A D
Que. 21 22 23 24 25
Ans. D B A A B

EXERCISE-2
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Que. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Ans. A C C B C A C A D A
Que. 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Ans. C D B C D D A C D C
Que. 21 22 23 24 25
Ans. B D B C D

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