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UNIT – I

Multiple Choice Questions


Q.1:…………….is known as father of science.
a) Aristotle
b) Galen
c) Hippocrates
d) Dioscorides
Q.2: Which of the following is not an organized drug?
a) Leaves
b) Fruits
c) Flowers
d) Gums
Q.3: Leaves of following drugs are effective, EXCEPT:
a) Senna
b) Digitalis
c) Clove
d) Vasaka
Q.4: When totally different substances are added in place of original drug is called:
a) Spoilage
b) Sophistication
c) Admixture
d) Substitution
Q.5: Select the drug which is not belonging to tannin class.
a) Ashoka
b) Arjuna
c) Myrobalan
d) Fennel
Q.6: The book “Analecta Pharmacognostica” is written by:
a) Sydler
b) Galen
c) Berg
d) Aristotle
Q.7: Glycosides are condensation product of:
a) Sugar + Aglycone
b) Sugar + Glycone
c) Protein + Aglycone
d) Fats + Aglycone
Q.8: Mayers Reagent contains:
a) Iodine in potassium iodide
b) Potassium Bismuth iodide
c) Picric acid
d) Potassium Mercuric iodide
Q.9: Which of the following drugs belong to alkaloids?
a) Rauwolfia
b) Fennel
c) Ashoka
d) Digitalis
Q.10: Which of the following drugs belong to glycosides?
a) Rauwolfia
b) Fennel
c) Ashoka
d) Digitalis
ANSWER:

01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10
c d c d d a A d a d

Short Answer Questions

Q.1: Define Pharmacognosy. Enlist the study parameters of crude drug.


Answer:
Pharmacognosyis the branch of science which deals the study of crude drugs from natural sources
like plant, animal and mineral kingdom. The term is derived by two Latin words “Pharmakon”
means drug and “Gignosco” means to have knowledge.
The parameters for study of crude drugs are followings:
1) Common name – It gives the general idea about crude drugs.
2) Botanical Source- It is the official source of crude drugs.
3) Family – It gives the idea about plant family.
4) Geographical source- It gives the idea about place where the plant is found.
5) Cultivation, Collection and Preparation – Cultivation play major important role in growth of
the plant and collection also play an important role because content of phytoconstituent
differ from time to time.
6) Morphological characters – The various morphological parameters are studied like colour,
size, shape, taste and odour.
7) Microscopic Characters – It gives the idea about the histological tissues and cells contents
present in particular part of the plant.
8) Chemical constituents – This gives the idea about the chemical substances present in the
plants.
9) Uses – It gives about the idea about the pharmacological action of drugs.

Q.2: Define drug adulteration and drug evaluation. Enlist methods of drug evaluation.
Answer:
Adulteration –
The term adulteration is defined as substituting original crude drug partially or wholly with other
similar looking substances. The substance, which is mixed, is free from or inferior in chemical and
therapeutic property.
Drug Evaluation –
Evaluation of crude drug means confirmation of identity, determination of purity and quality and
detection of nature of adulterant.

Methods of Drug evaluation:


1. Morphological method
2. Microscopic method
3. Physical method
4. Chemical method
5. Biological Method

Q.3: Define and classify alkaloids.


Answer:
Alkaloids –The alkaloids are organic, basic, nitrogenous compound containing one or more
nitrogen atom. They are potent in nature and found generally in plants. They are very potent in
nature and found generally in plants.
Classification of Alkaloids – The alkaloids are classified in four categories:
1) Pharmacological Classification:
A. CNS stimulant or Depressant
B. Analgesics
C. Antitussive or Expectorant
Examples:
 Opium alkaloids – Morphine- Analgesics, Codeine- Antitussive
 Cinchona alkaloids – Quinine- Antimalarial, Quinidine- Cardiac depressant
2) Taxonomical Classification: (On the basis of their distribution in different plant families)
Examples:
 Solanaceous alkaloids
3) Bio synthetic Classification:
(On the basis of precursors from which alkaloids are biosynthesized)
4) Chemical Classification: (On the basis of chemical structure)
A. True Alkaloids or heterocyclic alkaloids:
a) Pyrrole and Pyrolidine
a) Pyridine and Piperidine
b) Pyrrolizidine
c) Tropane
d) Quinoline
e) Isoquinoline
f) Indole
g) Imidazole
h) Purine
Arecoline, Lobeline, Anabasine
Echimidine, Senecionine
Atropine, Hyoscine, Hyoscyamine
Quinine, Quinidine
Morphine, Codeine
Ergometrine, Ergotamine
Pilocarpine
Caffiene, Theobromine

S.No. Type Example


1. Pyrrole and Pyrolidine Hyne, Coca
2. Pyridine and Piperidine Arecoline, Lobeline, Anabasine
3. Pyrrolizidine Echimidine, Senecionine
4. Tropane Atropine, Hyoscine, Hyoscyamine
5. Quinoline Quinine, Quinidine
6. Isoquinoline Morphine, Codeine
7. Indole Ergometrine, Ergotamine
8. Imidazole Pilocarpine
9. Purine Caffiene, Theobromine

b. pseudo alkaloids
Diterpene -Aconitine
c. proto alkaloids
Alkylamine- Ephedrine, Colchicine

Q.4 : Write history of pharmacognosy.


Answer:
1) The knowledge ofmedicinal plant is very old and medicinal properties are described in Rig-
Veda and Atharveda from which Ayurveda was developed.
2) Ayurveda includes ‘Charaksamhita’ deals with the plants and ‘SushrutaSamhita’ deals with
surgey.
3) Hippocrates is the father of medicine.
4) Aristotle was a philosopher and known for writing animal kingdom.
5) Theophrastus is a student of Aristotle known for writing animal kingdom.
6) Bentham and Hooker’s have developed plant classification.
7) Berg was known for writing anatomical atlas of crude drugs.
8) Galen revised the method for preparation of plant drug which is known as galenicals.
9) Derosene extracted or isolated alkaloid Narcotine from opium.
10) Sertuner isolated morphine from opium.
Long Answer Questions
Q.1: Discuss various systems of classifications of drug.
Answer:
The crude drugs are classified are as follows:
Alphabetical Classification: These are classified on the basis of alphabetical name of crude drugs.
The arrangement is employed for dictionaries, Pharmacopoeias etc. Alphabetical classification is
found in I.P, B.P., U.S.P., NF, E.P. and Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia.
Eg. Acacia, Bees wax, Cinchona, Dill, ergot, Fennel, Garlic, Honey, Isapgol, Jalap, Kurchi.
Merits: If we know the name of drug, we can study it properly.
Demerits: It doesn’t give idea whether it is organized or unorganized.
Morphological Classification: In this the drug are classified according to morphological characters.
The morphological character varies from plant part to part. The organized drug consists of part of
the plant like stem, root, leaves, fruits, bark, seeds and unorganized drug consists of gums,
extract, latex etc.
Eg.Root- Rauwolfia, Ipecac, Stem – Ephedra, Rhizome – Ginger Turmeric,
Bark – Cinnamon, Cinchona, Leaf-Datura, Digitalis, Senna, Flower Bud- Clove
Seed –Nux Vomica, Fruit – Fennel, Coriander Dried extract - Gum, Gelatin, Acacia
Dried Juice- Aloe, Resins – Benzoin, Myrrh, Latex – Opium, papaya
Merits:
 It is more convenient for practical purpose.
 It gives idea about the source of drug.
 It gives idea whether it is organized or unorganized
Demerits: During collection, drying and packing morphology of drug changes. They are
difficult to study
3. Chemical Classification: In this, the drugs are classified on the basis of chemical
constituent which is present in drug.
Eg. Alkaloids – Cinchona, Datura, Vinca, Ipecac
Glycosides – Senna, Aloe, Ginseng, Glycyrriza
Carbohydrates – Acacia, Tragacanth, Starch, Isabgol
Volatile oil – Coriander, Clove, Fennel, Cinnamon
Resins – Benzoin, Myrrh
Tannins – Catechu, Tea
Enzymes – Papain, Casein
Lipids – Bees wax, Lanolin
Merits: If we know the chemical constituent, easy to study the drug.
Demerits: This method doesn’t give any idea about the source of drug.
4.Pharmacological Classification: This classification is based on pharmacological action of
active constituent in crude drugs. For eg.
1. Drug acting in GIT
Bitter – Cinchona, Quassia, Carminative – Fennel, cardamom, Emetic – Ipecac
Laxative – Aloe, Isapgol, Purgative – Senna, castor oil.
2. Drug acting on Respiratory System
Expectorant – Vasaka, Liquorice, Anti tussive – Opium
3. Drug acting on CVS
Cardiotonic – Digitalis, Cardiac Depressant - Cinchona
4. Anti cancer – Vinca, Taxol
5. Astringent – Catechu
6. Antimalarial – Cinchona
7. Antirheumatic – Aconite, Colchicum
Merits: If we know the pharmacological action, easy to study the drug.
Demerits: Some drugs have two different pharmacological action it is difficukt to classify
them.
5. Taxonomical classification: the drugs are classified according to plant or animal from
which they are obtained in phylum, species, genus, family and order.
Merits: This classification gives information about the species and family of drugs.
Demerits: This system failure to recognize the organized and unorganized nature of drug.

Q.2 : Define drug evaluation with different methods of drug evaluation in detail with
examples.
Answer: Evaluation of drug means confirmation of its identity and determination of its quality and
purity and detection of nature of adulteration.
The evaluation of crude drug is necessary because of three reason:
1. Biochemical variation in the drug
2. Deterioration due to treatment and storage
3. Substitution and adulteration, as a result of carelessness, ignorance or fraud
Methods of drug evaluation: The different techniques involved in standardization of crude
drugs are as follows:

· Organoleptic evaluation
· Microscopic evaluation
· Physical evaluation
· Chemical evaluation
· Biological evalution
1. Organoleptic Evaluation: In this method the morphological characters are studied
like size, shape, color, odor, taste
For eg – Quills of cinnamon, Conical shape of aconite, Ribbon shape of tragacanth
2. Microscopic Evaluation: In this method microscopic characters were studied like cell
content in crude drugs like lignin, starch grains, calcium oxalate crystals, aleurone grains.
Also studied about the stomata, trichomes etc.
For eg – Lignified trichomes of Nux Vomica, Covering trichomes of senna, Wavy walls of
medullary rays in cascara bark.
3. Physical Evaluation: There are various physical parameters by which the drug can be
evaluated.
o Moisture content – The percentage of active constituent in crude drug is
mentioned on air dried basis, so moisture content should be determined and
controlled.
For eg: Moisture content of Digitalis is NMT 10%
Moisture content of Aloe is NMT 05%
o Viscosity – It is an important diagnostic character in physical evaluation of liquid
chemical constituent.
For eg: Liquid Paraffin – NLT 64 centistokes
o Melting Point – Used to determine the purity of crude drug.
For eg : Kokum Butter – 39-420C
Bees wax – 62 - 650C
o Solubility
o Refractive Index
o Optical rotation
o Ash value
o Extractive value
4. Chemical evaluation: This method of evaluation is mainly related to chemical
constituent of crude drug This method consist of 3 methods
1. Chemical test Method – Qualitative test and Quantitative Test
2. Chemical assay Method
3. Physical Chemical assay Method
5. Biological evaluation: When the potency of crude drug is carried out on living organisms
like bacteria, fungal growth, animal tissue or entire animal. This is known as Bioassay. There
are three methods in this method.
1. Toxic Method
2. Symptomatic Method
3. Tissue Method
UNIT – II
Chapter Outline
 Study of Laxative drugs, Cardiotonic drugs, Carminative drugs, Astringent drugs, drugs act
on Nervous system, Antihypertensive drug, Antitussive drugs
Review questions /comprehensive questions
Multiple Choice Questions
Note: All questions carry 01 mark each.
Q.1 : “Foeniculumvulagare” is the biological source of which drug.
a) Coriander
b) Fennel
c) Ajwain
d) Cinnamon
Q.2 : Which drug acts as laxative.
a) Ajwain
b) Fennel
c) Isapgol
d) Digitalis
Q.3 : Cinnamon Belongs to which family
a) Lauraceae
b) Umbellifarae
c) Scrophularaceae
d) Liliaceae
Q.4 : Aloe belongs to which family
a) Lauraceae
b) Umbellifarae
c) Scrophularaceae
d) Liliaceae
Q.5 : The important chemical constituents of rauwolfia is
a) Reserprine
b) Resercinnamine
c) Ajmalicine
d) Desperidine
Q.6 : Biological source of Nux vomica
a) Styrchnousnux vomica
b) StrychnousPotatorum
c) Strychnousnuxblanda
d) Strychnouswallichiana
Q.7 : Which drug is used as antitussive
a) Tulsi
b) Vasaka
c) Both a & b
d) None
Q.8 : Anethole and Fenchone are present in volatile oil obtained from
a) Fennel
b) Cardamom
c) Cinnamon
d) Caraway
Q.9 : Biological source of Isapgol
a) Plantagoovata
b) Aeglemarmelous
c) Gelidiumamansii
d) Carumcarvi
Q.10 : “Food of the god” is synonym of which drug
a) Caraway
b) Nutmeg
c) Asafoetida
d) Fennel

ANSWERS

01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10
B c A d a a c a a c

Short Answer Questions


Note: All questions carry 05 marks each.
Q.1 : Define carminatives with the detail of ginger.
Answer: Carminatives: Carminatives are the aromatic drugs and substances which assist the
expulsion of gases from stomach through the mouth. They are also used for relief of
flatulence.
Ginger:
Common Name: Adrak, Sonth
Biological Source: It consisit of the rhizomes of “Zingiberofficinale”
Family: Zingiberaceae
Geographical Source: It is cultivated in Jamaica, Japan, Africa, south India.
Macroscopic Characters:
o Color - Buff
o Odor - Agreeable and aromatic
o Taste - Agreeable and aromatic
o Shape – Symboidal
Chemical Constituent – It contains Volatile oil: Zingiberene, cineol, citral, borneol and
pungent principle like Gingerol, Shogaol and Zingerone.
Uses – It is used as carminative, stimulants, stomachic and flavouring agent.

Q.2 : Define laxatives with the types of laxative.


Answer:Laxatives: Theses are defined as substances which facilitate the passage and elimination
of faeces from colon and rectum.
Types of Laxatives: They are classified according to site of action, severity of action and
mechanism of action.
1. Stimulant Laxatives: It increases the propulsive peristaltic activity of the intestine by local
irritations of mucosa. They produce gripping, increased mucous secretion and secretion of
large amount of fluid.eg. Castor oil, Senna
2.Bulk forming Laxatives: They form emollient gels that not only facilitate the passage of
the intestinal contents but also improve peristalsis. Eg. Agar, isapgol
3.Emollient Laxatives: Basically these are used to soften the stools.eg. Mineral oil.

Q.3 : Define astringents and write details of gambier.


Answer: Astringent: An agentthatcausescontraction or
arrestsdischarges,usuallylocallyaftertopicalapplication.Astringentsact as
proteinprecipitantsandarrestdischarge by causingshrinkage of
tissue.Astringentshavesomebacteriostaticproperties,thoughtheyarenotgenerallyused as
antiseptics. They precipitate the blood protein, causes contraction of tissue and control
bleeding.
Gambier:
Common Name: Pale catechu
Biological Source: It is dried aqueous extract prepared from leaf and young twigs of
“Uncariagambier”
Family: Rubiaceae
Geographical Source: It is cultivated in Indonesia, Malaya and Bornia.
Macroscopic Characters:
o Color - dull grayish brown to dark reddish brown externally and pale brown
internally
o Odor - Odorless
o Taste – Bitter then sweet then astringent.
Chemical Constituent – It contains condensed tannins in the form catechins, catechu-tannic
acid, catechu red. It also conatinsQuercetin, Gambier fluorescin.
Uses – It is used as an astringent, used in the preparation of lozenges and sublingual tablets,
used in dying industry.

Q.4 : Define hypertension. Give the detail pharmacognosy of rauwolfia.


Answer:Hypertension: It is defined as an elevation of blood pressure above the accepted normal
range. Elevation of the arterial blood pressure is the result of increased peripheral
resistance with concomitant increase in the force of myocardial contraction. The plant
acting on the blood vessels leading to vasodialtation have a hypoitensive effect is called
antihypertensive effect
Rauwolfia:
Common Name: Chottachand, sarpagandha
Biological Source: It consists of dried roots and rhizomes of “Rauwolfiaserpentina”
Family: Apocynaceae
Geographical Source: It is cultivated in America, Africa, India, Thailand, Srilanka.
Macroscopic Characters:
o Color – Greyish Yellow to Brown
o Odor - Odorless
o Taste – Bitter
o Size – 10-18 cm long and 1-3 cm diameter
Chemical Constituent – It contains Reserpine and Rescinnamide and others are ajmaline,
yohimbine, Ajmalicine, Rauwolfine, serpentine.
Uses – It is used hypertension and also used in treatment of neuropsychiatry disorders and
treatment of obstruction of cerebral blood flow.

Long Answer Questions


Note: All questions carry 10 marks each.
Q.1 : Write biological source, family, macroscopic character, chemical constituent and
uses of any two drugs:
a. Fennel
b. Isapgol
c. Digitalis
Answer:1. Fennel:
Common Name: Saunf
Biological Source: It consists of dried ripe fruits of “Foeniculumvulgare”.
Family: Umbellifarae
Geographical Source:It is cultivated in India, Europe, Russia, Japan and Germany
Macroscopic Characters:
o Color - Yellowish Green
o Odor - Aromatic
o Taste – Pungent
o Size - 5-10* 2-4 mm.

Chemical Constituent – Fennel contains volatile oil. The Volatile oil contains anethole,
fenchone and also contains fixed oil and proteins.

Uses – a. Used as stomachic, carminative.


b. Used as respiratory stimulant.
c. Used as bacteriostatic and fungistatic

2. Isapgol:
Common Name: Isapghula, Psyllium
Biological Source: It consists of dried seeds and husk of “Plantagoovata”.
Family: Plantaginaceae
Geographical Source:It is cultivated in Gujarat, Punjab and Rajasthan.
Macroscopic Characters:
o Color – Pinkish grey- brown
o Odor - Odorless
o Taste – Characteristics
Chemical Constituent – It contains arabinose, uronic acid, xylose, Ribose, Galactose

Uses – Used to treat constipation.

3. Digitalis:
Common Name: Foxglove leaves
Biological Source: It consists of dried leaves of “Digitalis Purpurea”.
Family: Scrophularaceae
Geographical Source:It is cultivated in India, North America, England, Holland
Macroscopic Characters:
o Color – dark greyish green
o Odor - Slight
o Taste – Bitter
o Size - 10-14 cm.* 4-15 cm.

Chemical Constituent – It contains mixture of both primary and secondary cardiac


glycosides such as Purpurea glycosides A and B, Digitoxin, Gitoxin.

Uses – Used in the treatment of congestive heart failure, also used in atrial fibrillation,
supraventricular tachycardia, diuretic effect also.
Q.2 : Write biological source, family, macroscopic character, chemical constituent and
uses of any two drugs:
a. Belladonna
b. Vasaka
c. Ephedra
Answer: 1. Belladonna:
Common Name: Deadly night shade leaf, belladonna leaf
Biological Source: It consists of dried or fresh leaves, flowering and fruiting tops of “Atropa
belladonna”.
Family: Solanaceae
Geographical Source:It is cultivated in India, South Europe, Germany, England.
Macroscopic Characters:
o Color – Green to brownish green
o Odor - Characteristics
o Taste – Bitter and acrid
o Size - 5-25* 2.5-12 cm.

Chemical Constituent – It contains L- Hyoscyamine, Atropine, Scopoletin, Hyoscine.

Uses – a. Parasympatholytic drug with anticholionergic property.


b. Reduce secretion of sweat, saliva and gastric juice.
c. Antidote in chloral hydrate poisoning
d. In treatment of peptic ulcer.
e. Antispasmodic in intestinal gripping
2. Vasaka:
Common Name: Adusa, Adhatoda
Biological Source: It consists of fresh or dried leaves of “Adhatodavasica”.
Family: Acanthaceae
Geographical Source:It is cultivated in India, Burma, Myanmar, srilanka.
Macroscopic Characters:
o Color – Light Green
o Odor - Characteristics
o Taste – Bitter
o Size - 12-20* 2.5-6 cm.

Chemical Constituent – It contains quinazoline alkaloids like Vasicine, Vasicinone, Vasicine,


vasakin.

Uses – 1. Used as expectorant and brochodialator.


2. Used in sedative, antispasmodic.
3. Leaf juice cures diarrhea, dysentery.
3. Ephedra:
Common Name: Ma-Huang
Biological Source: It consists of dried young stems of “Ephedra gerardiana”.
Family: Ephedraceae
Geographical Source:It is cultivated in China, Pakistan, Australia, Kenya, Spain.
Macroscopic Characters:
o Color – Greenish - yellow
o Odor - Aromatic
o Taste – Astringent
o Size - 30-35 cm.* 0.5 cm.

Chemical Constituent – It contains aminoalkaloids L- Ephedrine, d-Pseudo Ephedrine, and


Methyl ephedrine.

Uses – Used as sympathomimetic in asthma, used in hay fever, bronchitis and hay fever.

References and Suggested Readings


 Pharmacognosy by C.K.Kokate, A.P.Purohit, S.B. Gokhale, Nirali Prakashan, India.
 Pharmacognosy by N.M. Patel, V.C.Jain, AtulKabra, Pee Vee Publications, India.
UNIT – III
Chapter Outline
 Study of Antirheumatics drugs, Antitumour drugs, Antileprotic drugs, Antidiabetic drugs,
Diuretic drugs, Antidysentric drugs, Antitumour drugs, Antiseptic and disinfectant,
Antimalarial drugs and Oxytocic drugs

Review questions /comprehensive questions


Multiple Choice Questions
Note: All questions carry 01 mark each.
Q.1 : Which is not the use of ergot.
a) Oxytocin
b) Prevent postpartum hemorrhage
c) Migraine
d) Laxative
Q.2 : Which is not the biological source of cinchona
a) Cinchona calisaya
b) Cinchona officinalis
c) Cinchona indica
d) Cinchona succirubra
Q.3 : Family of ipecac is
a) Rubiaceae
b) Theaceae
c) Solanaceae
d) Asclepiadaceae
Q.4 : Azadiractaindicais the biological source of which drug
a) Tulsi
b) Neem
c) Ajwain
d) Cinnamon
Q.5 : Family of Gymnema is
a) Rubiaceae
b) Theaceae
c) Solanaceae
d) Asclepiadaceae
Q.6 : Which drug is used as diuretic.
a) Gokhru
b) Senega
c) Ginseng
d) Quillia
Q.7 : Boerhaaviadiffusais the biological source of which drug
a) Tulsi
b) Neem
c) Punarava
d) Cinnamon
Q.8 : Which drug is used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
a) Colchicum
b) Rauwolfia
c) Vinca
d) Nux vomica
Q.9 : Pedelium murex is the biological source of which drug
a) Tulsi
b) BadaGokhru
c) ChotaGokhru
d) Cinnamon
Q.10 : Commiphoramolmolis the biological source of which drug.
a) Jalap
b) Myrrh
c) Benzoin
d) None
ANSWERS

01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10
d c a b d a c a b B

Short Answer Questions


Note: All questions carry 05 marks each.
Q.1 : Define diuretics. Give the detail pharmacognosy of punarava.
Answer:Diuertics: Diuretics increases the excretion of urine bythe kidney, thereby decreasing
body fluids especially the extracellular fluid. Most of the diuretics increases the excretion of
sodium ion by decreasing reabsorption of water and solute from glomerular filtrate will give
a diuretic response. The diuretics are generally used for treatment of edema.
Punarava:
Common Name: RaktaPunarava, Hogweed
Biological Source: It consists of fresh or dried herb of “Boerhavviadiffusa”.
Family: Nyctaginaceae
Geographical Source:It is cultivated in all parts of India.
Macroscopic Characters:
o Color – Greenish purple
o Odor - Odorless
o Taste – Bitter
Chemical Constituent – It contains alkaloids known as punarnavine. It also consistsursolic
acid, allantoin, stearic acid, arachidic acid.

Uses – Used as diuretic, expectorants and stomachic. It is also used in treatment of


jaundice and also used in edema and asthma.

Q.2 : Write down the chemical constituent and uses of ipecac and ergot .
Answer: 1. Ipecac:
Chemical Constituents – It contains isoquinoline type of alkaloids like Cepahaline,
Psycotrine, Psycotrine methyl ester and emetine. It also conatinsipecacuanhic acid,
glycoside, starch, phytosterol, citric acid, fat and calcium oxalate.
Uses – Used as expectorant in small doses and emetic in higher doses. It also used in the
treatment of dysentery. It is also used as antitumour.

2. Ergot:
Chemical Constituents – It contains ergometrine, ergometrinine, ergotamine, ergosine,
ergotoxine, ergocryptine, ergocristine.
Uses –Ergometrine has oxytocic action. They are used in labour to assist delivery and to
reduce postpartum hemorhhage. Ergotamine is used in migraine.

Q.3 : Explain antitumour drugs in detail.


Answer:Antitumour Drugs: Antitumour drugs are the agents used for the treatment of cancer.
Cancer is characterized by abnormal cell growth.rious type of cancers are reported such as
lung, breast, stomach, bladder, colon, uterus etc.
Catharanthus
Common Name: Sadabahar, Vinca, Periwinkle
Biological Source: It is dried whole plant of “Catharanthusroseus”.
Family: Apocyanceae
Geographical Source:It is cultivated in Madagascar, Africa, East Europe, Australia.
Macroscopic Characters:
o Color – Greenish
o Odor - Characteristics
o Taste – Bitter
Chemical Constituent – It contains indole alkaloids like vincristine and Vinblastine,
Catharanthine and Vindoline. Other areajmalicine, lochnerine, serpentine.

Uses – Used as antineoplastic agents, in treatment of acute leukemia of children, used in


carcinoma cancer.

Q.4 : Write biological source, family, chemical constituent and uses of guggul.
Answer:Guggul
Biological source: It is an oleo gum resin obtained by incision obtained by incision from
the bark of “Commiphoramukul”.
Family: Burseraceae
Chemical Constituent: It contain resin contains steroids Guggulosteron I,II,III,
Guggulosterons Z & E. It also contains pentosan, pentose and furfural.
Uses: 1. Used in essence sticks.
2. Used as anti-inflammatory, diuretic, antihypertensive, srtomachic, hypolipidemic and
antifertility activity.
3. Used in treatment of osteoarthrirtis, frozen shoulders, sciatica and dental infections.
4. Used in neurological disorders, antispasmodic, hay fever, anemia, syphilis, thyroid
disorders.
Long Answer Questions
Note: All questions carry 10 marks each.
Q.1 : Write a detail account on antimalarial drugs.
Answer:Malaria is a widespread infectious disease. The causative organism of malaria are species
of Plasmodium. Four species of Plasmodium namely P.ovale, P. vivax, P.falcipuram, P.
malaria.
Cinchona:
Synonym: Peruvian bark, Jesuits bark
Biological Source: It is dried bark of “Cinchona calisaya, Cinchona officinalis, Cinchona
succirubra, Cinchona ledgiriana”
Family:Rubiaceae
Geographical source: It is cultivated in java, peru, India, Nilgiri, Darjeling.
Macroscopic Characters:
o Colour: Brown
o Odour: Slight
o Taste: Astringent and Bitter
Chemical Constituents: It contains quinoline alkaloids like quinine, quinidine, cinchonine,
cinchonidine, cinchonicine, hydroquinine.
Uses:1. Quinine is used as antimalarial, bitter stomachic, Antipyretic.
2. Quinidine is antiarrythmic, in treatment of atrial fibrillation.

Q.2 : Write biological source, family, macroscopic character, chemical constituent and
uses of any two drugs:
a. Neem
b. Colchicum
c. Myrrh
Answer:1. Neem:
Common Name: Indian lilac, Neem tree
Biological Source: It consists of aerial parts of “Azadiractaindica”.
Family: Meliaceae
Geographical Source:It is cultivated in India, tropical and subtropical countries of the world.
Macroscopic Characters:
o Color – Greenish
o Odor - Characteristics
o Taste – Bitter
o Size - 20-38* 0.5-15 cm.

Chemical Constituent – It contains Azadiractin, meliacin, Quercetin, nembosterol, ascorbic


acid, nimbidol, nimbinine.

Uses – a. It is used as antiseptic, stimulant, anti rheumatic and in skin disease.


b. Neem paste is used in small pox.
c. Neem oil is used as antifertility, antifungal and antimicrobial.
2. Colchicum:
Common Name: Semen coichid, Autumn crocus seed and corms, Meadow saffron seeds
and corms
Biological Source: It consists of dried ripe seeds and corms of “Colchicum autumnale”.
Family: Liliaceae
Geographical Source:It is cultivated in England, Holland, Poland, Yugoslavia.
Macroscopic Characters:
Seeds
o Color – Reddish brown
o Odor - None
o Taste – Bitter
o Size - 2-3 mm.

corm
o Color – Yellowish - Yellowish brown
o Odor - None
o Taste – Bitter
o Size - 2-5 cm.

Chemical Constituent – It contains colchicines, demecolcine, colchicorsine.

Uses – 1.Used in treatment of gout and rheumatism.


2. Used in epidermal cancer and myeloid leukemia.
3. Myrrh:
Common Name: Hirabol, Myrrh
Biological Source: It is an oleogum resin obtained from “Commiphoramolmol”.
Family: Burseraceae
Geographical Source:It is cultivated in Southern Arabia and North east Africa.
Macroscopic Characters:
o Color – Reddish yellow or Reddish Brown
o Odor - Aromatic
o Taste – Bitter
o Size - Variable.

Chemical Constituent – It contains Volatile oil like eugenol, phenol, cuminic aldehyde,
Contain resins like resinic acid, cammoniphoric acid.

Uses – Used as antiseptic, stimulant, astringent and protective.


UNIT – IV
Multiple Choice Questions
Note: All questions carry 01 mark each.
Q.1 : ……….. is not the synonym of liquorice,
a) Glycyrrhiza
b) Liquorice root
c) Mulethi
d) Yam
Q.2 : Important chemical constituent of honey.
a) Glucose
b) Fructose
c) Maltose
d) Invert Sugar
Q.3 : The biological source of Indian gum is.
a) Cyamopsistetragonolobus
b) Astragalusgummifer
c) Acacia arabica
d) Acacia senegal
Q.4 : Carica papaya is the biological source of which drug
a) papaya
b) Yeast
c) Diastase
d) Flax
Q.5 : Yam is the synonym of
a) Glycyrrhiza
b) Liquorice root
c) Mulethi
d) Dioscorea
Q.6 : Gelidiumamansii is the biological source of which drug
a) Agar
b) Tragacanth
c) Diastase
d) Flax
Q.7 : Convolvulaceae is the family of which drug
a) Cotton
b) Shankpushpi
c) Garlic
d) Flax
Q.8 : Picorrhizakurroa is the biological source of which drug
a) Cotton
b) Pyrethrum
c) Picorrhiza
d) Flax
Q.9 : Sterculiaceae is the family of
a) Tragacanth
b) Sterculia
c) Acacia
d) Guar gum
Q.10 : Linaceae is the family of
a) Tragacanth
b) Sterculia
c) Acacia
d) Linseed oil

ANSWERS

01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10
D d C a d a b c b D

Short Answer Questions


Note: All questions carry 05 marks each.
Q.1 : Give detail pharmacognosy of lemongrass oil.
Answer:Lemongrass oil:
Common Name: Lemongrass
Biological Source: It is volatile oil distilled from “Cymbopogonflexousus”.
Family: Graminae
Geographical Source:It is cultivated in India, Tinnevelly, Travancore and Cochin.
Macroscopic Characters:
o Color – Reddish yellow to brown
o Odor – Lemon like
o Taste – Lemon like
Chemical Constituent – It contains citral, linalool, citronellol, geraniol, limonene,
caryophylline and geranyl acetate.

Uses – 1. Used in perfumes, soaps, cosmetics and mosquito repellant.


2. Used for isolation of citral which is used for manufacturing ionone and this
ionone is used for synthesis of Vit. A.

Q.2 : Write down the chemical constituent and uses of papaya and Guargum.
Answer: 1. Papaya:
Chemical Constituents – It contains papain, chymopapain, the proteolytic enzyme which
hydrolysed polypeptides, amides and esters.
Uses – 1. Used for removal of protein deposits from surface of soft contact lenses.
2. Used as meat tenderizer and clarification of bevarages.
3. Used as protein digestant.

2. Guar gum:
Chemical Constituents – It contains water soluble and water insoluble parts. Water soluble
part is known as guaran which iis high molecular weight polysaccharide. Guaran on
hydrolysis gives galactose and mannose which is combined through glycosidic linkage.
Uses –1.Used as thickening, binding and disintegrating agent.
2. Used as bulk laxative, appetite depressant and in peptic ulcer therapy.
3. Used as good emulsifying agent.

Q.3 : Explain any two drugs which come under pharmaceutical aids in detail.
Answer: 1.Honey:
Common Name: Madhu, shahad
Biological Source: it is sugar secretion deposited in honeycomb by the bees “Apismellifera”
Family: Apidae
Geographical Source:It is cultivated in India, Australia, Africa, Newzealand.
Macroscopic Characters:
o Color – Yellowish Brown
o Odor - Characteristics
o Taste – Sweetish
Chemical Constituent – It contains carbohydrates, invert sugar, Enzymes, Vitamins.
Uses – 1.Used as Pharmaceutical aid.
2. Used as nutrient and demulcent.
3. Used as laxative.
2.Guar gum:
Common Name: Jagaur gum, Guar flour
Biological Source: Guar gum is the powder of the endosperm of the seeds of
“Cyamopsistetragonolobus”
Family: Leguminosae
Geographical Source:It is cultivated in India, Pakistan, USA.
Macroscopic Characters:
o Color – Colorless or pale yellow white
o Odor - Characteristics
o Taste – Gummy
Chemical Constituent – It contains water soluble and water insoluble parts. Water soluble
part is known as guaran which iis high molecular weight polysaccharide. Guaran on
hydrolysis gives galactose and mannose which is combined through glycosidic linkage.
Uses – 1.Used as thickening, binding and disintegrating agent.
2. Used as bulk laxative, appetite depressant and in peptic ulcer therapy.
3. Used as good emulsifying agent.

Q.4 : Write biological source, family, chemical constituent and uses of Liquorice.
Answer: Liquorice:
Common Name: Glycrrhiza, Mulethi.
Biological Source: It consists of dried peeled or unpeeled root and stolon of
“Glycrrhizaglabra”.
Family: Leguminosae
Geographical Source:It is cultivated in spain, sicily, England, Russia, Iran, Iraq and India.
Macroscopic Characters:
o Color – Yellowish - Brown
o Odor – Characteristics
o Taste – Sweet
Chemical Constituent – It contains Glycyrrhizin, Glycyrrhinic acid, Isoliquertin and liquertin.

Uses – 1. Used as expectorant and demulcent.


2. Used as an ultiulcer.
3. Sweetening agent.

Long Answer Questions


Note: All questions carry 10 marks each.
Q.1 : Write biological source, family, macroscopic character, chemical constituent and
uses of any two drugs:
a. Amla
b. Garlic
c. Gelatin

Answer: 1. Amla:
Common Name: Indian Goose Berry, Embelica
Biological Source: It consists of fresh or dried fruits of “Emblicaofficinalis”.
Family: Euphorbiaceae
Geographical Source:It is cultivated in India, Srilanka and Burma.
Macroscopic Characters:
o Color – Green to light yellow.
o Odor - None
o Taste – Sour and Astringent
o Size - 1.5 – 2.5 cm.

Chemical Constituent – It contains Vit.C, Phyllanthin, Phyllantidine, gallic acid, elagic acid
and emblicol.

Uses – Used as expectorant, antiviral, antibacterial, aphordiaciac, antidiabetic, cardiotonic,


anticancer. Also used in scurvy and popular ingredient of Chyapanprash.

2. Garlic:
Common Name: Lehsun, Allium
Biological Source: It consists of ripe bulbs of “Allium sativum”.
Family: Liliaceae
Geographical Source:It is cultivated in India, Russia, Italy, USA and Europe.
Macroscopic Characters:
o Color – White to Pinkish
o Odor - Aromatic
o Taste – Aromatic and Pungent
o Size - 1.5 – 2.5 cm.
Chemical Constituent – It contains allyl propyl disulphide, diallylsulphide, allicin.

Uses – 1. Used as antibacterial activity, used as spice and also useful in


indigestion and intestinal infection.
3. Gelatin:
Common Name: Puragel, Gelatinuum
Biological Source: It is mixture of animal proteins obtained from bones and skin of animals
by treatment of hot water.
Chemical Constituent –it contains alanine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, cystine, methionine
etc.

Uses – 1.Used in manufacture of hard and flexible capsule shells.


2. Used for preparing suppositories.
3. Used in preparation of bacteriological culture media.

Q.2 : Write biological source, family, macroscopic character, chemical constituent and
uses of any two drugs:
a. Sandalwood oil
b. Shatavari
c. Honey
Answer: 1. Sandalwood Oil:
Common Name: Chandan oil, Yellow sandalwood
Biological Source: It consists of dried heartwoof of “Santalum album”.
Family: Santalaceae
Geographical Source:It is cultivated in India, Malaya, Archipelago.
Macroscopic Characters:
o Color – Yellowish or pale reddish.
o Odor – Strong fragrant
o Taste – Slightly Bitter
Chemical Constituent – It contains Volatile oil α and β- santalene, α and β- santalol,
isovaleraldehyde, santalone, santanone, santalic acid.

Uses – Used for healing wounds, for blisters caused by small pox vaccination, and treatment
of dysuria, gonorrhea, cough.

2. Shatavari:
Common Name: Shatmuli, Shatavar
Biological Source: It consists of dried roots and leaves of “Asparagudracemosus”.
Family: Liliaceae
Geographical Source:It is cultivated in India, Australia, Africa, Asia.
Macroscopic Characters:
o Color – White to Buff
o Odor - Characteristics
o Taste – Sweetish
Chemical Constituent – It contains steroidal saponins: Shatavarin I – IV, Quercetin, β-
Sitosterol, rutin.
Uses – 1. Used as galactogogue, tonic and diuretics.
2. It has antioxytocic property
3. Used in treatment of rheumatism and nervine disorders.
3. Honey:
Common Name: Madhu, shahad
Biological Source: it is sugar secretion deposited in honeycomb by the bees “Apismellifera”
Family: Apidae
Geographical Source:It is cultivated in India, Australia, Africa, Newzealand.
Macroscopic Characters:
o Color – Yellowish Brown
o Odor - Characteristics
o Taste – Sweetish
Chemical Constituent – It contains carbohydrates, invert sugar, Enzymes, Vitamins.
Uses – 1.Used as Pharmaceutical aid.
2. Used as nutrient and demulcent.
3. Used as laxative.

References and Suggested Readings


 Pharmacognosy by C.K.Kokate, A.P.Purohit, S.B. Gokhale, Nirali Prakashan, India.
 Pharmacognosy by N.M. Patel, V.C.Jain, AtulKabra, Pee Vee Publications, India.

UNIT-V
Multiple Choice Questions
Note: All questions carry 01 mark each.
Q.1 : Which fibre is used for manufacturing of crepe bandages.
e) Cotton
f) Silk
g) Wool
h) Flax
Q.2 : Cork and Cortex is absent in which drug
a) Cinchona
b) Fennel
c) Cinnamon
d) Nux vomica
Q.3 : Which combination is correct.
e) Gossypiumherbaceum - Tiliaceae
f) Corchorusolitorius Linn. - Malvaceae
g) Gossypiumherbaceum - Malvaceae
h) Linumusitatissimum - Tiliaceae
Q.4 : Aerenchyma is present in which drug
a) Cinnamon
b) Clove
c) Cinchona
d) None

Q.5 : Wool is prepared from


a) Skin
b) Scalp
c) Bones
d) Fleece
Q.6 : Chemical constituent of ipecac are
a) Cephaeline
b) Psychotrine
c) Emetine
d) All
Q.7 : Bovidae is the family of which drug
e) Cotton
f) Silk
g) Wool
h) Flax
Q.8 : Anthraquinone glycosides containing drug
a) Liquorice
b) Digitalis
c) Senna
d) Quassia
Q.9 : Example of natural fibres are
e) Cotton
f) Nylon
g) Terelene
h) None
Q.10 : Position of ca oxalate crystals in senna
a) Cortex
b) Endoderm
c) Columella
d) Spongy Parenchyma
ANSWERS

01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10
c c c b d c c c a B
Short Answer Questions
Note: All questions carry 05 marks each.
Q.1 : Define and classify fibres.
Answer: Fibres: The term fibre is used with restriction to describe certain specific characters of
plant and animals. Fibres are used in pharmacy as filtering media and also used for making,
dressings and sutures.
Classification of Fibres:

Q.2 : Write chemical constituent and uses of absorbent cotton and silk.
Answer: 1. Absorbent Cotton:
Chemical Constituents – It contains pure form of cellulose. Cellulose material is made of
glucose residue united by 1,4 β- glucosidic linkage.
Uses – 1.Used as surgical dressings.
2. It gives mechanical support to absorb blood, mucus, pus.
3. Used as filtering media, absorbent guaze and colloidon.
2. Silk:
Chemical Constituents – It contains protein known as fibroin which on hydrolysis gives
amino acids like glycine and alanine.
Uses –1.Used in preparation of ligatures and sieves.

Q.3 :Draw and label the diagram of T.S. of cinnamon bark.


Answer:
T.S. of Cinnamon Bark

Q.4 :Draw and label the diagram of T.S. of clove bud.


Answer:

T.S. of Clove Bud


Long Answer Questions
Note: All questions carry 10 marks each.
Q.1 : Write biological source, family, microscopic characters, chemical constituents and uses of
Senna.
Answer: Senna:
Synonym: Senna leaf, senaikipatti
Biological Source: It consists of dried ripe leaflets of “Cassia angustifolia”.
Family:Leguminosae
Geographical Source: It is cultivated in India, Pakistan, Arabia, Egypt.
Microscopic Characters: 1. Lamina:
a. Upper Epidermis: Single layer elongated and compactly arranged parenchyma cells
continued through midrib.
b. Spongy Parenchyma: Loosely arranged cells with intercellular spaces and calcium
oxlatae crystals.
c. Lower Palisade: Present only in lamina arranged cells, wavy walls and cells smaller than
upper palisade.
d. Lower Epidermis: Similar to upper epidermis with stomata and numerous trichomes
with wavy walls and cuticle.
Midrib: Palisade parenchyma with single layer.
a. Crystal Sheath: Parenchymatous layer containing calcium oxalate crystals.
b. Sclerenchymatous cells: Lignified, thick walled cells, covering vascular bundle.
c. Vascular Bundle: Xylem with lignified cells present at ventral surface.
d. Phloem: non-lignified cells present at dorsal surface.
e. Collenchyma: With multilayered thick walled parenchyma cells containing cellulose
and present only at ventral side.
Chemical Constituents: Senna contains anthraquinone glycosides called sennosides A & B
and also contains kaempferol, aloe-emodin and isorhamnetin.
Uses: a. Used as purgative in habitual constipation.

Q.2 : Discuss in detail about methods of cultivation, collection, processing and drying.
Answer: Cultivation:
Cultivation of medicinal plants requires intensive care and management. The conditions
and duration of cultivation required vary depending on the quality of medicinal plant
materials required.

Methods of Cultivation:
 Vegetative propagation (Asexual Method):
Vegetative propagation can be defined as regeneration or formation of a new individual
from any vegetative part of the plant body. The method of vegetative propagation involves
separation of a part of plant body, which develops into a new plant.
Importance of asexual propagation:
1. It is a cheaper, easier and rapid method of multiplication.
2. Plants like roses and chrysanthemum, etc do not form viable seeds. Thus, vegetative
propagation is the only method of propagation
3. All the plants developed by these methods will be generally similar to the parent plant.
4. Micro propagation is useful in raising disease free plants, homozygous diploids, and
those without viable seeds.
 Seed Propagation (Sexual Method):
In this method the plants are raised from seeds. Such plants are known as seedlings. The
seeds must be of good quality, capable of high germination rate and free from disease.
The process of sexual propagation:
(i) Microsporogenesis:Microspores are formed from microspore mother cells inside the
anther.
(ii) Pollination: This is the transfer of pollen grains from the anther to the stigma.
(iii) Microgametogenesis: This involves the formation of male gametes from microspore.
(iv) Megasporogenesis: This process leads to the formation of megaspores from
megaspore mother cell, inside the ovule.
(v) Megagametogenesis: The events involving the formation of embryo sac from
megaspore are included in this process.
(vi) Fertilization: Fusion of male and female gametes takes place, resulting in the formation
of zygote.
(vii) Embryogeny: The process involves development of embryo from zygote.
Collection of drugs:
Medicinal plant materials should be collected during the appropriate season or time period
to ensure the best possible quality of both source materials and finished products.The
collected medicinal plant materials should be protected from insects, rodents, birds and
other pests. If more than one medicinal plant part is to be collected, the different plant
species or plant materials should be gathered separately and transported in separate
containers. Cross-contamination should be avoided at all times.
Time of collection:
The period of growth or development at which medicinal activity is highest has been
carefully determined for many plants. The proportion, of alkaloid in the leaves of
Hyocyamus Niger and of belladonna is largest at the beginning of flowering, whilst with
Stromonium the peak coincides with full bloom.
Primary processing:
Collected raw medicinal plant materials should be promptly unloaded and unpacked upon
arrival at the processing facility. Prior to processing, the medicinal plant materials should
be protected from rain, moisture and any other conditions that might cause deterioration.
Medicinal plant materials should be exposed to direct sunlight only where there is a
specific need for this mode of drying.
The materials may be stored under refrigeration, in jars, in sandboxes, or using enzymatic
and other appropriate conservation measures immediately following harvest/collection
and during transit to the end-user.
For example, dried medicinal plant materials should be inspected, sieved or winnowed to
remove discoloured, mouldy or damaged materials, as well as soil, stones and other
foreign matter. Mechanical devices such as sieves should be regularly cleaned and
maintained.
All processed medicinal plant materials should be protected from contamination and
decomposition as well as from insects, rodents, birds and other pests, and from livestock
and domestic animals.
Drying:
When medicinal plant materials are prepared for use in dry form, the moisture content of
the material should be kept as low as possible in order to reduce damage from mould and
other microbial infestation.
Medicinal plants can be dried in a number of ways:
1. In the open air (shaded from direct sunlight);
2. Placed in thin layers on drying frames, wire-screened rooms or buildings.
3. By direct sunlight, if appropriate.
4. In drying ovens/rooms and solar dryers.
5. By indirect fire; baking; lyophilization; microwave; or infrared devices.
6. Vacuum drying
7. Spray dryer: Examples: Papaya latex and pectin’s, etc.