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Source of Acquisition NASA Washington, D. C.

NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AWO S

OFFICE OF MANNED SPACE FLIGHT

PACE ADMINISTRATION

WASHINGTON,

D.C.

20546

PREFACE

The intent 'of this document is to provide a current description of the Skylab Experiment Program to a level of detail adequate for a general understanding of program rationale and experiment operation. The major research areas of Life Sciences, Solar Physics, Earth Observations, Astrophysics, Material Science and Manufacturing in Space, and Engineering and Technology are outlined, relating disciplinary goals and past accomplishments to t he Skylab Experiment Program. Appended to these overall disciplinary chapters are descriptions of the individual experiments, including experiment objectives, relation to discipline, hardware description, and operational protocol.

Appandix

Append5%

Appendix

III

Appendix

Appendix

Appendix

Appendix

Appendix

 

XII

Appendix

Appendix

Ths Skylab Exps~im@n%hogrm

Bone

~078

@ytogeiplet$c Studies sf the Blood,

mx

*

2.

23

31

Blood 9a"0l~@8nd Wdd Cb%l Lf %8

Span,

mf3

36

Appendix

XV

Appendix

XVI

Appendix

XVXI

Appendix

XVIII

Appendix

XLX

Chapter Three

Title

Metabolic Activity,

Body Mas8 Measurement,

Effects of

SO15

Circadian Rhythm - Pocket Mfce,

Ml71

MI72

Zero-g

on Single

Human Cells,

so71

Circadian Rhythm - Vinegar

Gnat,

SO72

Solar Physics

Appendix

I

X-Ray/tTV Solar Photography ,

SO20

Appendix

I1

The H-Alpha

Telescopes

Appendix

I11

White Light Coronagraph, SO52

~dpendix

IV

X-Ray

Spectrographic Telescope,

 

SO54

Appendix

V

W

Scanning Polychromtor

 

Spectrohelimeter,

SO55

Appendix

VS

Dual X-Ray Telescopes, SO56

Append 3.x

VII

XW

Spectrograph/Spectrohelf o-

Chapter Four

(r

graph,

SO82

Earth Observations

Appendix

I

Multispectral

Photographic

 

Facility,

S190

Appendix

I1

Infrared

Spectrometer,

Sl91

Appendix

I11

Multispectral Scanner,

Sl92

iii

Appendix

Appendix

Chapter Five

Append ix

Appendix

Appendix

Appendix

Appendix

Appendix

VI

Appendix

VII

Chapter Six

Appendix

Appendix

Appendix

11%

Appendix

IV

Appendix

V

Appendix

VI

Appendix

VII

Title

L-Band

sag4

Microwave Radiometer,

Astrophysics

Nuclear Emulsion, SO09

UV Stellar Astronomy, SO19

W Airglow Horizon Photography,

so63

Gegenscheinhodiacal Light,

so73

Particle Collection,

Galactic X-Ray Mapping,

W Panorama, 8183

Sl4g

S150

Material Science and Manu- facturing in Space

Zero Gravity Flammability,

n479

Materials Processing

M512

Metals Melting,

Exothermic Brazing,

Sphere Forming,

Composite Casting,

@aAs Crystal Growth, M555

Fac%Zity,

M551

M552

M553

M554

115

117

 

8

121

 

R

125

128

131

133

136

139

142

144

147

150

153

3.56

159

162

Chapter Seven

1

Append i.x

Append Ax

Appendix

Appendix

Append%x

Append lx

Append ix

Appendix

,

- .

Appendix

Appendix

Appendix

Append%x

Apperndfx

Title

hgineering and Tec%mo%ogy

Experiment8

Mdiadion in Spacecraft,

The'p?m%Control Coat%nas,

W24

1x108

3. Cont~o1Coatings,

~43.5

Hsebitabil$ty/Crew

Quarters,

MU7

Astronaut Mneuvering Equip-

ment, Mi509

Crew Act%vitiespE4aintenance,

~53.6

P%anaaa%Navigation Sfghtings,

"roo2

Inflight A~POSQ~Analysis,

TO03

.

Grewflehic3-e Disturbances,

920x3 .

Foot-Controlled

hnuevering

g]rra%.t,

TO20

165

168

17-1

3.75

181

3-85

3.88

193-

. 3.94

3-98

Coromgraph ContaminatLon Measurements, TO25

204

ATM Condadnation Measurements,

~027

208

CHAPTER ONE

THE SKYLAB EXPERIMEDTT PROGRAM

INTRODUCTION

The Skylab Program capitalizes on the capabilities

and

scientific,

space,

surrounding universe.

resources

developed

in the Apollo Program to accomplish

investigations in

our earth and

technological and biomedical

expanding

the scientific knowledge of

In addition,

the

Skylab will build

a foun-

dation of

on the future moon system.

knowledge against which

cours~eof

manned

the United

States can decide

the

earth-

exploration beyond

The basic

Scientific Investigation

objectives of

the

Skylab Program are:

in Earth Orbit

- Scientific

investigations are a

The information received

significant portion of

from these

the skylab missions.

scientific experiments will

substantially increase man's

k~owledgeof

the sun and bring

close the day when he can understand

phenomena

man's

the remarkable physical

evident there and the effect of these phenomena on

Astronomical

and

space physics

existence on earth.

experiments will be conducted

experiments.

space environment

in addition to several biological

the universe,

solar

the

Advances

and

in knowledge concerning

the phenomena

that

exist in the

system and

the

effect

of

the

environment

of

man on earth are

foreseen.

 

Earth Observations

from Orbit

- Skylab experiments

for

gather data for use by experts

management, ecology. resources and much of

earth resources

study will use

forestry,

remote

sensing techniques

water

geography and

to

studying oceanography,

geology,

agriculture,

The orbital path of

survey coverage of the world.

Skylab flights will permit

the

entire contiguous United

earth

States

Long Duration Space Flights

of' Men and Systems

- The

unique capabilities activities will be

behavioral The life of

measured

of

man as a participant

Habitability,

in space flight biomedical,

evaluated.

and work

effectiveness experiments will be performed.

subsystems of

space vehicles will be

in Skylab flights.

systems and

by

techniques developed

In the first Skylab flight

effects of

health and behavior will be

the

weightlessness on man's

prolonged

investigated

as well

as

his ability to carry out

his various

first mission will last

up

to 28 day's

or twice

duties.

This

the duration of

existing experience.

to

last

up

The second and

third

planned

a space station or space base.

to 56 days,

approaching

Skylab flights are the crew cycles of

to Develo~mentof

Basis for PotentLal Future space Frograms

will prbvi.de the development of the capability for man to

operate

basis for future long-duration

opment

MISSIONS

Effective ~conomicalAmroach

a - Skylab missions

*

of

time.

'

in space for inc~easin~lylonger periods

will

be

explored and

The

space station design and

devel-

evaluated on these missions.

The Skylab vehicle will ,operate in space for approximately eight months during 'which time there will be three manned missions and two periods of unmanned operation

The first manned mission

from the Kennedy Space Center's Launch Complex 39.

will begin with

two

launches

The first

lauhch,

which

is unmanned,

will

use

a

two-stage

Saturn V

booster.

Its payload

will be Skylab which consists

of

the

Orbital Workshop,

Adapter,

A shroud will cover the payload

the Airlook Module,

the Multiple Docking

and an Instrument

to

orbit,

Unit

the Apollo Telescope Mount,

during ascent

Skylab will be

inserted

into a near-circular

orbit

at

an altitude of

235 nautical miles with a nominal

orbit

inclin-

ation of

50 degrees to

the Earth's

equator.

The

second

launch

wlll occur the day following the Skylab launch,

a Saturn IB to boost

and

orbit from which it will transfer to the Skylab orbit and will

rendezvous with Skylab and dock to'the axial port of the Multiple Docking Adapter. The crew will enter and activate Skylab for habitation.

the crew

evaluate

the habitability of Skylab. At the end of the mission the crew will prepare Skylab for unmanned operation, and then transfer to the CSM and separate from Skylab. Using the Service Module

in Skylab will conduct

and will use

(CSM)

the Command and

Service Module

its crew of

three astronauts

into an interim elliptical

For the 28 days

of

the first

manned mission,

the experiment program and will

propulsion system,

performed

the deorbit decleration maneuver will be

the Command Module from

followed by separation of

the Service Module,

and

atmospheric entry and parachute

des-

cent of

the Command Module to a

splashdown in the west

Atlantic

recovery area.

The second manned mission will start with another

Saturn IB launch approximately 60 days after return of

first

dures will be

performed

to Skylab will be

the

crew.

by

Orbit

similar to the previous the crew after transfer

insertion,

rendezvous and

flight.

doaking proce-

The activities

similar

to

those in the previous mission.

The mission duration will be

increased

Go 56 days with recovery again in the west

Atlantic.

 

Launch of

the

third

manned mission,

about

30 days

after the

second crew returns,

39.

In this mission,

also of

will also be from Launch Complex

56 days

duration,

the Skylab

experiment program will be completed and additional

statis-

tical data will be obtained

performance

over the planned

on the crew's adaptability and

missioq duration.

Recovery of

this

EXPERIMENTS

crew and

data will occur in the mid-Pacific

,

area.

The Skylab experiment program consists of

more

than

fifty experiments representing

virtually every field

that

has been recognized as being able to benefit

in near-earth

from operations

and other

orbit.

The instruments,

sensors,

equipment

for these experiments are

located

in various parts

of Skylab,

some inside and

some outside.

In addition to the

permanently mounted

through which

for operation outside the vehicle.

equipments,

there are two small airlocks

instruments can be

inserted

small scientific

The major experiment areas are:

Life Sciences,

dealing with the effects on,men and animals of

long duration in the space environment.

Earth Observations,

which qonsists of

19 experiments

in which

a group of

six remote

sensing instruments will

support a

hundred

or more

individual

investigations for the study of

the

earth from space.

Solar Physics, in which nine solar instruments will provide unprecedented observations of solar phen- omena.

Astrophysics, in which seven instruments will make observations of the solar system and beyond.

Material Science, in which the properties of orbital weightlessness will be exploited to investigate

'the advantages of materials processing

in space.

Engineering and Technology, which will advance the I knowledge for design and operation of future space systems.

These experiments and their implications are discussed in the chapters which follow.

CHAPTER

TWO

LIFE

SCIENCES

EXPERIMENT

Rationale

PROGRAM

BACKGROUND

been

From the beginning

a continuing

controversy

of

manned space flight,

about whether man

can

there has

live

and

efficiently perform under space flight conditions. The

controversy can be attributed partly to concern for the

adequacy of'the life support systems for man.

This

area of

concern must be considered as an inherent part of each mission. The remaining portion of the controversy concerns the ability

of man, as a living organism, to adjust to the spaceflight environment, and to readjust to the earth environment upon return.

The

manned space

controversy

has

continued

throughout the

first

decade of

Apollo have been

rode

data.

flight because

the missions

through

that over-

dedicated

to single flight goals

any

concentrated

effort

to obtain detailed biomedical

Before NASA can

embark

on major manned programs

of

exploration and orbital operations, man's viability and useful- ness in space must be assured. This can only be done through a careful quantitative study of man's physiological, psycholog- ical, and social adjustments as they occur in flight. Measures for the overall status of the crew at a given time during flight must be established, and an accurate time profile of the adaptation of men to space conditions must be developed. We must find out whether the long-term adjustments a man makes in space eventually lead to a new stable level, or whether con- tinual adjustments cause him to eventually exceed his reserve capacity for meeting stress. Even if man does successfully adapt to space conditions, the return to earth involves an additional adaptive changeabout which we must learn more.

The Skylab Program

offers

the

first opportunity

to

study these questions in depth. The 28 and 56-day missions are long enough to study acute effects which could threaten man's safety as well as to observe slower biological pro-

cesses. The biomedical experiments for the Skylab Program have been designed to study the suspected changes and to

understand

their basic mechanisms.

The

investigations

are not

conceived

as medical monitoring procedures.

The

latter

function

will

be

performed

operationally-by known

and

fully

tried bio-

instrumentation

and-medical

techniques

and procedures.

 

The Skylab medical

program

is

an

intensive study

of

normal,

healthy men

and

their

reactions

to

the

numerous

stresses

such

unusual

in fundamental knowledge about human physiology is anticipated.

In addition,

extended missions,

cations in such areas as non-invasive bio-sensors, continuous

long

telemetry will have and treatment.

diagnosis

of space flight.

been performed

Seldom has

a

comprehensive examination!

and never

under

the

.

A substantial gain

these multi-man

appli-

in ground-based

of

prolonged

preparing

for

advances

of

studies,

space

and

stresses

by

flight.

conducting

in earth-based

medical

term monitoring

physiological

processes

and! bio-

a significant impact on medical

 

A basic

set of

biomedical

data has

been

collected

as

a

safety monitoring procedure

on

all the manned

flights

of

the

Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo programs. The parameters recorded

have been

heart

rate,

respiration

rate,

body

temperature

and

blood

pressure.

These were supplemented by

a variety

of

pre-

and postflight measurements

of

such factors as exercise capa-

bility,

cardiovascular

response,

hematology-biochemistry

factors,

immunology

studies,

and microbiological

evaluations.

In

the Gemini program,

medical

experiments of

an initial scope

,were conducted in flight to investigate the time course of the changes which had been noticed before and after previous missions.

Taken as

a whole,

of

these observations

have

generated

space

the

flight on man:

following picture

the physiological

effects of

1)

A consistent

loss

of

body

weight.

2)

A

small but

repeated

loss

in bone

calcium

and

muscle mass.

3)

A reduction

in the

ability of

blood

vessels

to

actively distribute blood

to proper

parts

of

the

body

in response to gravity -

imposed shifts

in

fluid.

These effects

after return

completely

to earth

reversed

so

themselves within

shown no

con-

However,

a few days

sistent relation

and

far have

to

flight

duration

(up to

14 days),

there

remains

missions could

some concern that

continued

significantly reduce man's

effects

effectiveness in

in extended

space and increase

the danger of

conditions

ROLE OF SKYLAB

on earth.

re-adapting

to

the gravity

Each manned mission

upon

in

a

in the United

the cwnulative experience of

States

space program

was built

Skylab will fly more men,

preceding flights.

with more

larger

spacecraft,

varied activities,

American or Russian flight. under which the biomedical

and

for longer

times

than any previous

It will provide the test conditions

to

date can be

effects observed

studied more

extensively than

has previously been possible.

parts,

The Skylab biomedical

program

consists

of

four

each designed for separate purposes;

1)

2)

The actual stay of

associated operational medical monitoring and

the observations

variety of

This

three men in

space,

with

a

the

of

crew performance

operational

in

wide

scientific and

tasks.

is

designed to verify our expectations

effectively

that

in

The medical

gate

in previous

greater understanding of

believed

man can perform space'.

safely and

experiments are designed

the factors

the useful

to

effects revealed

results will provide

investi-

in depth the physiological

flights.

to

limit

Their

currently

man's

duration of

stay in space.

3)

4)

The biology

fundamental biological processes

environment

limiting

The biotechnology experiments (see Chap. 7) are directed toward advancing the effectiveness of man-machine systems in space operations and improving the technology of space-borne bio- instrumentation.

The knowledge and

experiments

which might

are designed

ultimately be

to

study

in the weightless

the factors

in

space.

the survival time of

any animal

experience gained from all four

parts of

incremental

after

the program will be used

increases

in

56-day

to

establish criteria for

manned missions

the duration of Skylab flights.

the 28 and

Three nutrition and musculoskeletal experiments have been designed to investigate the extent of skeletai and muscular alterations, and to evaluate biochemical changes and nutritive requirements. These investigations will measure input and output of fluid and biochemical consti- tuents (Appendix l), assess hormones and electrolytes in body fluids (Appendix 2), and measure bone mineral changes by the photon absorptiometric technique (~ppendix4).

A cardiovascular study with a lower body negative pressure device (Appendix 5) will test the cardiovascular reflexes which regulate the regional distribution of blood through the body. This important measurement will help to determine the onset and progression of changes in these reflexes. The cardiovascular investi ation also includes inflight vec torcardiograms (Appendix 8) during exercise on a bicycle ergometer, in order to evaluate the response of the cardTovascular system to calibaated workload in weight- lessness.

Investigations in hematology and immunology (Appendices 7-11) will investigate the effects of space flight on the blood cells, body fluid compartments, the homeostatic mechanism, body immunity, and chromosomal aber- rations.

A neurophysiology investigation will evaluate several nervous systems responses. A human vestibular exper- ment (Appendix 12) will investigate the effects of weight- lessness on man's perception of body orientation in space and will test for changes in sensitivity and susceptibility to rotation in weightlessness.

A second experiment in this area, sleep monitorin (Appendix 13), will investigate the effects of the spacefliEht environment on sleep state patterns derived from an analysis of electroencephalographic (brain wave) and electro-oculographic (eye movement) data.

A time and motion study (Appendix 14) will evaluate the relative differences and consistencies between ground and U inflight task performance by comparing moving picture sequences of inflight activities with similar ground-based activities.

Energy

by comparfng the metabolic

that

expenditures

(~ppendix15) will be measured

observed

during

rest with

exercises,

to

these

exper-

rate

found

during

the bicycle

ergometer

To provide

supporting information

ments, man and materials will be "weighedtt in zero-g with two mass measurement devices of appropriate range (~ppendices

3 and

16),

Circadian rhythm physiological periodicity

studies are concerned

wfth

of

many body functions about

the

the

24-hour

terrestrial day/night

cycle.

In addition to obvious

rhythms

such as

sleep and wakefulness,

the

endocrine,

cardio-

vascular,

nervous,

and

other

systems and biochemical processes

are

influenced

by

this

cyclic phenomenon.

A more fundamental investigation of the function of the biological clock which is believed to be responsible for

the timing of these rhythms in man and other animals will be conducted by experiments with mice (~ppendix18) and vinegar gnats (~ppendixlg), These experiments test the stability of the clock mechanism under space conditions and may provide

some indication of

the rotation of the earth.

its

dependence

on factors

associated with

In another biology

experiment

(~ppendix17), the

biochemistry a,nd microscopic

structure

of

human cells

In

tissue culture will be

lapse photography

examined

chemical

In the biotechnology

and

during

space flight

by time-

treatment,

areas,

an evaluation will be

conducted of

a

special maneuvering

unit

designed

to assist

crewmen in conducting work outside

the

spacecraft.

In addition

a

which crewmen move in

systematic observation will be

conducted

from one

zero gravity

of

the manner

location to

in

another,

and

transport

small and

large

objects

in space.

Of

special

interest

to Life Sciences is

an exper-

iment

Skylab.

the waste management

system is

tionship of

the

dealing with the habitability

The

efficiency of

the

system,

or

livability of

the

the

design of

living area,

food

system and personal

experiment.

hygiene

the major concern of

this

equipment

is obvious.

to

this

the

The rela-

of

health and well-being

crew

FUTURE DIRECTIONS

Skylab flights will give us a

good picture of man's adaptation to the space environment

and

will

The 28 and 56-day

his

abilities

to perform many operations

in space.

It

tell us whether there is any fundamental limitation

%nman's abilities

a 2-month

in,

and

tolerance to,

weightlessness for

stay in space.

Should

limitations become evident from the results

of

been obtained

the Skylab experiments,

the basic

information will have

from which future experiments can be planned,

the responses of

flight crews

in future missions

can be

predicted and preventive measures

preventive measures may have design and program planning,

methods,

can be implemented.

Such

limited

effects on spacecraft

such as different exercise

or special diets,

or they may require radical design

Such ?

changes

in order to provide artificial gravity.

decision will have a major impact on the design and

oper-

ating procedures

for future orbital stations.

In addition to

the information about man,

our

present

approach to

the design of

long-term

life support

systems will be

severly tested

indispensible

and

in the design of

in Skylab,

gained will be

duration systems.

the

larger,

experience

longer

APPENDIX I

Mineral Balance,'Experiment

M071

Principal Investigator: G. Donald Whedon, L\R,.D., NIH Co-Principal Investigator: Loe Lutwak, M.D., Cornell University Center: MSC Integration Center: MSFC

Contractor: None

Objectives

The objective of

Experiment M071 is

to determine

the effects of space flight on the muscle and skeletal body

systems by quantitative assessment of the gains and losses of

biochemical constituents of

constituents

Sodium,

and Chloride.

Background

losses

metabolic importance.

Phosphorous,

These

are Water,

Calcium,

Magnesium,

Potassium,

Nitrogen,

Urea,

Hydroxyproline,

~reatinine

Continuous

of

calcium and nitrogen,

such as

those which occur in ground-based simulation studies, during long duration missions might result in impairment of skeletal and muscle integrity and the formation of kidney stones. Identification of the rates of actual deterioration will allow specific countermeasures to be taken on later flightiis such as the institution of exercise routines and the manipulation of dietary constituents.

the effect of

stressor on the biochemical integrity of the skeletal and

muscular systems

The principal method of

is

assessing

a

to determine whether

the stressor promotes

a catabolic response which is greater than the anabolic capa-

bilities of

reflected in an imbalance between the nutrient intake of the constituent in question and the output of it and/or its metabolites. A state of negative nitrogen or calcium balance is not itself detrimental unless it is of an extent and duration which results in compromise of the integrity of muscle

the tissues.

The change in equilibrium may be

or bone with

or actual pathology.

disease, however, minor changes in function can be demonstrated which will reflect later deterioration.

resultant

increases

Prior

to

in susceptibility to disease

recognizable

the onset of

Bed rest immobilization studies have shown that in healthy young adults urinary calcium increases to 2-3 times the control level within 5 weeks after confinement. X-ray studies of the bones have demonstrated demineralization as soon as 2-3 weeks after immobilization. Gemini pre- and post- flight X-rays have suggested a similar loss of mineral from peripheral bones; and the Gemini 7 mineral balance experiment has demonstrated a trend toward negative mineral balance. This experiment was not conclusive because of operational

diff5culties.

Hardware

The hardware to support MOT1 is supplied by other experiments and operational systems. Crew body mass will be determined by the Body Mass Measuring Device supplied by Experiment M172. Unconsumed food remnants, feces and vomitus

will be mass measured by the Specimen Mass Measurement Device

supplied by Experiment M074.

Facilities for collecting urine,

feces and vomitus are supplied by the Waste Management System.

This system will also provide for urine volume measurement and sampling, specimen preservation (drying for feces and vomitus, and freezing for urine samples) and storage. The Inflight Blood Collection System will provide the capability to draw venous blood and centrifuge the samples for preser-

vation.

preserve the samples during the mission and maintain them in a frozen state. They will be returned in a frozen condition in a urine return container for postflight analysis. This inflight blood collection system and allied facilities will be utilized to obtain, process, preserve and return hematology samples for Experiments MO71, M073, M112, M113, ~114and Mll5. The Food Management System includes the food storage and preparation facilities including the water dispensing and measuring device.

The on-board freezing capability will be used to

Protocol

The experiment MOT1 will be accomplished in three phases: (1) Preflight, for 21 days, (2) In-flight, and (3) Post-flight for 18 consecutive days, beginning immediately post-flight . The functions to be performed and the controls to be exercised are:

a) Body weight (or mass) will be measured once daily immediately after the first urine voiding following the sleep period.

b) A

diet

of

defined

composition will be used

since the composition of the crewman's diet

must

flight, each crewman will use this diet prior to the acquisition of baseline (or normal) data to allow the establishment of individual meta-

bolic equilibrium.

be known and

carefully controlled.

Pre-

Every effort will be made

to make the diet palatable.

c) Fluid

can be

taken as desired but

all

intake

d)

will

food

All urine, feces and vomitus will be collected

pre-' and post-flight

In-flight, the amount of daily urine output from each crewman will be determined, and a measured,

homogeneous sample of

be

recorded.

This

includes

fluid used

for

reconstitution.

and preserved

at

least

for analysis.

122 millrliters

(45 for M071,

75 for M073,

and 2 for tracer method

volume determination)

taken,

frozen and

stored for

return

as

experiment data.

All feces and

vomitus

passed

will

be

collected,

mass measured,

dried

and

Data

stored for

blood

be

constituents

return as

experiment data.

in-,

e) Period

will

samples pre-,

and post-flight

selected

taken and

the concentration of

determined.

Return

During

the Skylab Program,

three

crews of

three men

each will occupy the orbital workshop on three different

occasions. The initial mission

and the other two for up to 56 days each. The Mineral Balance Experiment will occur on all three missions so that by the end of the Skylab Program, a continuous quantitative assessment of the muscle and skeletal body systems for nine different individuals will have been obtained. For each individual, a preflight baseline will be obtained followed by a day-by-day

profile-of his physiological

will

last for up

to 28 days

reaction

to

the

space environment

and,

re-adaptation

Specifically, the following data on a daily basis will be

obtained pre-f light, in-flight and post-f light;

post-flight,

his

to

earth normal conditions.

1. Food consumption - nutritional mfneral and caloric content.

Fluid consumption.

3. Feces - mass and concentration of biochemical constituents specified in the Objectives.

4. Urine - total voids volume, and concentration of the biochemical constituents specified in the Objectives.

5 Vomitus - mass and concentration of the biochemical constituents specified in the Objectives.

6. Body mass.

In addition, blood samples will be taken periodically pre-, in-, and post-flight and those parameters specified in the Objectives in addition to alkaline phosphatase, total protein, electrophoresis pattern and sugar will be determined.

i.

Principal

Bioassay of

APPENDIX I1

Body Fluids,

Experiment MOT3

Investigator:

Carolyn S.

Leach,

Ph.D.,

%.

Development

Center:

MSC

Integration

Center:

MSFC

Contractor:

None

Objectives

The objective of

this

experiment

is

to

NASA,

MSC

evaluate

the

endocrinological

adaptation resulting

from exposure to

the

space flight

environment for periods

up

to

56 days and

to

re-adaptation postflight.

Specifically,

the following

elements

in blood

and

urine will be

evaluated:

Adrenocorticotropic

Hormone (ACTH), 17-Hydroxycorticosterone (Cortisol),

Angiotensin

11, Renin,

Aldosterone,

Norepinephrine,

Antidiuretic

urine

Hormone

(ADH), Epinephrine,

electrolytes

(sodium

and potassium),

fluid volume,

citronin, Parathyroid Hormone,

Background

urine and plasma

body

water,

osmolality,

Calcitonin,

extracellular Serum Thyrocal-

total

Serum Thyroxine.

Although many

the

external

living

influences

a

contribute

the

the

environment

to

environment

of

of

human organism as

the

whole,

its

basic

unit,

cell,

is wholly internal.

changes

in the

Since

* changes

in extracellular fluid produce

compo-

sition of

the

intracellular fluid,

it is essential to the

 

normal

function of

cells

that

the

constancy of

this

fluid

be

- maintained.

This

is achieved by the close interaction of

several

organ

systems,

thus

the

are

viewed

kidneys

holding a predominant

role.

The kidneys

as

an organ which not

only removes

metabolic

wastes,

but

actually performs

highly

important

homeostatic

functions by adjusting plasma

volume and

compo-

sition.

The necessity of

elucidating

the

homeostatic

control

mechanisms which govern plasma

hhen one

of

volume and

realizes

the

and

complex and,

as yet,

endocrine controls.

these metabolic

composition is unexplained

evident

interactions

In man's

constantly

changing

environment,

there

is a narrow margin of

protective

safety between normal,

isms.

Evidence now

hypo and

to

hyperfunction of

that

these mechan-

of

exists

suggest

derangements

these

normal mechanisms may play a

tion to gravitational

Hardware

stress.

significant

role in man's

adapta-

The hardware to

support M073 and MOT1 are

identical.

Crew body mass will be determined by the Body Mass Measuring Device supplied by Experiment Ml72. Uncomsumed food remnants will be mass measured by the Specimen Mass Measurement Device supplied by Experiment ~074. Facilities for collecting urine, feces and vomitus are supplied by the Waste Management System. This system will also provide for urine volume measurement and sampling, specimen preservation (drying for feces and vomitus, and fpeezing for urine samples) and storage. The Inflight Blood Collection System will provide for hematology sampling during flight (see ~071). The Food Management System includes the food storage and preparation facilities including the water dispensing and measuring device.

Protocol

This

experiment and

and

the Mineral Balance Experiment, data generated from MOT1 is

MO71,

required for M073. Durtng the missions, combined urine samples will be collected for MOT1 and MOT3 and split post- flight. In addition, operational data will be taken which

will allow assessment of crew member metabolism. This consists of (1) a spacecraft humidity and temperature history, particu- larly excursions from the crew comfort range, (2) times of

are closely

coupled

operation (mission elapsed time and identification

ticipating crew

Negative Pressure,

(a1Experiment M092,

of par-

member(s)

in

Lower Body

(b) Experiment M171,

Metabolic Activity,

and (c) Extravehicular Activities, and (3) general crew activities (sleep periods, physical activities, etc.).

The (1) preflight,

until

post-flight.

experiments for 21 days,

has

will

be

accomplished

and

in three phases:

(3) post-flight

immediately

(2) in-flight, established, to be measured

re-adaptation

been

beginning

are:

The functions

a) Body weight

(or mass) will be measured once daily

immediately after the first urine

the

sleep period.

voiding following

b) A diet of defined composition will be used since the composition of the crewman's diet must be known and carefully controlled. Preflight, each crewman will use this diet prior to the acquisition of baseline (or normal) data to allow the establish- ment of individual metabolic equilibrium. Every effort will be made to make the diet palatable.

c)

Fluid

can be

taken as desired but

all

intake will

This

includes fluid used

for food

be recorded.

reconstitution,

d) All urine will be collected pre- and post-flight and preserved for a-nalysis. In-flight, the amount

of daily urine output from each crewman will be determined, and a mea'sured, homogeneous sample of

at least 122 milliliters taken

for M073, and 2 for bracer method volume determina-

tion), frozen and stored for return as experiment data.

(45 for MO71,

75

e) Periodic blood

samples pre-,

in-,

and post-flight

be

constituents

will

taken and

the

concentration of

determined.

selected

During the Skylab Prog~&m,bh~eecmws of'

The initial mission will

each.

last

three men

the

eash will adcupg the orbital ~orkshe@on three different

occasions.

end

Experiment

of

the endocrinological adaptation for nine different individuals

continuous quantitative assessment of

for 28 days and

Body Fluids

so that

by the

other two for 56 days

the Skylab Program,

The Bioassay of

will occur on all three missions

a

will have been obtained.

baseline will be obtained followed

his physiological reaction to the space environment, and post-

flight,

Specifically,

obtained preflight,

For

each individual,

by

a

a preflight

profile

day-by-day

of

his

re-adaptation

to earth normal

oh

a

conditions.

the following data

in-flight,

daily basis will be

and post-flight:

1. Data obtained from Mineral Balance,

Experiment

M071.

2. - concentration of

Urine

the biochemical

constituents

specified

in the Objectives.

I,

In addition,

blood

samples will be

taken periodically

pre-,

the Objectives will be determined.

in-,

and post-flight

and

those parameters

specified

in

APPENDIX

111

Specimen Mass Measurement,

Experiment

M0 74

Principal

Investigator:

William E. Thornton, M.D., NASA, MSC

Co-principal Investigator: John W. Ord, Colonel, USAF, Medical

Development Center: MSC

Integration Center: MSFC Contractor: Southwest Research Institute, Inc.,

Corps, Brooks AFB

Objectives

s.

-

 

The objectives

of

this

experiment

are:

1.

To provide

the

on-board

capability

for

specimen

mass

measurement

in

support of

M071,

and

the Mineral

 

Balance

Experiment,

the Bioassay

of

Body Fluids Egperiment,

M073.

 

2.

To demonstrate the feasibility of making mass determinations of,up to 1000 gm in a gravity free environment using calibration masses.

3.

the theoretical

behavior

of

the

To validate device under

flight

conditions which will

include

the

finite mass of

the

spacecraft

and

the

effects

caused

vibrations, lift-off

temperature

by

spacecraft environment,

stresses,

variations.

including

atmospheric

and

Background

I

Studies

from the Mercury,

Gemini

and Apollo

Programs

indicated that in flight bone and muscle deterioration occurs and this may adversely affect performance during extended space flights. In-flight experiments were designed to investi-

gate

determination of

feces.

taken

program was under-

functioned

system.

linear

device depends upon

these

to

To

phenomena

and

the

experimental protocol

of

a

food

residues,

ground-based

required

and

the masses

vomitus,

fulfill this

need,

provide

a non-gravimetric

of

gravity.

mass The concept chosen

oscillation

of

measurement

device which

for the

a

independent

timing the period'of

pendulum

spring-mass

The'mass to be measured

uniquely

determines the period

(seconds per

cycle)

of

the

device

and by measuring

this period,

the mass

of

an object

can be

determined.

Hardware

The Specimen Mass Measurement

~eviceis

a

self-

contained unit

up

1000 grns

to

capable

a

in

of

measuring

the mass

zero gravity

environment,

of

objects

The

instru-

ment

consists of

a

specimen

tray

supported on

springs

attached to

the bottom panel

of

an

enclosing case.

The

tray

is

locked

to prevent oscillation when

not

in use,

I

To operate the unit,

the

tray

is unlocked

and

activated without an object on the tray to insure that the

device operates smoothly with no rubbing or binding. The tray is secured and the object to be mass measured is placed on the tray and secured with the restraints provided. The

inches

pan

from the neutral point, and released. The latch is used to impart a known displacedent to the spring system to initiate oscillation,

is

unlocked,

latched in

a position

displaced

3/16

An

optical unit

The

sends

signal to

the midpoint

a

the timer

in its

each

time

the measurement sensor

ing

crosses

oscillat-

cycle.

first two

cycles

are not counted

in order that

any noise produqed by

the release mechanism

is

dissipated,

The next

three

cycles

argtimed.

The device

is

shut down

",

by

activating

the

control lever which moves

the measurement

tray

locking

and

to the offset position,

control to the

the measurement

latches

the trigger The results

crew

and sets

the

lock position,

The

are recorded

repeated.

total

time required

for the

entire procedure

is approximately -five -minutes.

The Mass Measuring Unit

requires

power

for the

electronics subsystem. Two units are needed, one in the food preparation area and the other in the waste management compart- ment. Each unit weighs 33 lbs including the calibration masses. The dimensions are approximately 10 x 11 x 16 inches.

Protocol

Each

instrument will be

(early, middle

of

calibrated three

and

times

during the mission

using

the instrument will be

three

late in the mission)

The stability

the

the

calibration weights

known mass.

a

ascertained by

comparison of

the mission*

calibration curves obtained during

of

The Specimen Mass Measurement Device is vital to the success of Experiments M071 and M073. Residue from all partially eaten food containers must be mass measured* All fecal material and vomitus passed by each crewman must be mass measured before being preserved by drying.

Data Return

The data return from this experiment will be the calibration curves generated at three different times during the mission, The vast majority of the data will consist of that required to support M071 and M073. Specifically, the mass of a11 unconsumed food and all feces and vomitus passed by each crewman taking part in the three Skylab missions will be measured.

The routine use of the Specimen Mass Measurement Device will validate the theoretical concept employed and will evaluate the design of this specific instrument.

APPENDIX IV

Bone Mineral Measurement, Experiment M078

Principal Investigator: John Me Vogel, M.D., USPHS Hospital, San Francisco, California

x. CO-principal ~nvestigator: John R. Cameron, Ph.D., University

Development Center: MSC
8 Integration Center: None Contractor: None

Obiective

of Wisconsin Medical Center

The objective of this experiment is to determine by the photon absorptiometric technique the occurrence and degree of bone mineral changes in the Skylab crewmen which might result from exposure to the weightless condition,

Background

Stimulus of bone'metabolism is a function of the pulling force exerted on the bone by the attached muscles and the force exerted along the longitudinal axis of the skeletal system by gravity. Both forces are altered during complete bed rest and absence of gravity, Consequently, bone mineral losses have been associated with long tern bed rest and were anticipated as a potential problem for the crews of long term space flights.

In both Gemini and early Apollo flights, small but significant losses have been measured in astronaut bone mass. In contrast to the Gemini and early Apollo studies, which used a radiographic densitometry technique, the bone mineral studies performed on Apollo 14 using the gamma ray absorption technique revealed no significant losses in bone mineral content. More data from both ground based and inflight studies are necessary to resolve the issue prior to committing man to extended space travel,

Hardware

This experiment uses the photon absorptiometric

technique for bone mineral

scanning device, containing Iodine-125 to provide the photon

A rectilinear

source, is mounted in opposition to an X-ray detector, The scanning system and its associated electronics will acquire data on bone mineral content along the left 0s-calcis (heel) and the right radius (forearm) positioned in the beam path. Foot molds and restraining equipment are utilized for accurate positioning of the subject for the scan.

Protocol

Foot molds for the flight crew, backup crew, and control group members will be made at least six weeks prior to the first scheduled measurement at F-30 days. Heel X-rays will be taken at least seven days prior to the first scheduled measurement at F-30 days.

Pre-flight scans of the left 0s-calcis and right radius will be accomplished on the flight crew, backup crew, and control group on days F-3057, F-1422, and F-353.

Post-flight scans of the left 0s-calcis and right radius will be accomplished on the flight crew and control group on days R+0 (within 10 hours of recovery), R+2 to 3,

R+5 to 10, and R+30 to 45.

not required if baseline values are reached on the R+5 to 10 day scan.

Dqta Return

The data returned by this experiment will be the pre- and past-flight bone density measurements of the 0s-calcis and radius of each Skylab crewmember (three from the 28-day mission and six from the 56-day missions) and nine control group members. The data will be used to determine the impact of the space flight environment on the occurrence and degree of bone mineral changes.

The scan on R+30 to 45 days is

APPENDIX V

Lower Body Negative Pressure,

Experiment M092

Principal Investigator: Robert L. Johnson, M.D., NASA, MSC

Co-Principal Investigator:

John We Ord,

Colonel,

USAF,

Medical,

Corps,

Brooks AFB

Development Center: MSC Integration Center: MSFC

.Contractor:

MSFC,

Martin Marietta Corp.

Objectives

This experiment is designed to provide

concerning the time course of cardiovascular adaptation during flight and to provide in-flight data for predicting the degree of orthostatic intolerance and impairment of physical capacity to be expected following return to earth environment,

Background

in£ormation

Cardiovascular

adaptation

involves

a partial

failure

of the leg blood vessels to prevent excessive pooling of blood

in

gravity field. When this excessive blood pooling takes place,

the

causing the pulse pressure (difference between systolic and

diastolic blood pressure) to be less, and the average pressure

to be

dizziness

too

the legs when the person

rate

of

blood

flow

low,

causing

assumes

an erect posture

and

lungs

is

in

a

through

reduced

the heart

flow

less,

to the brain.

Therefore,

stands up.

and fainting arepossible when the person

The Lower Body Negative Pressure

(LBNP)

experiment

intentionally imposes a slight reduction of external pressure to the lower half of the body to test how the cardiovascular system reacts to a controlled amount of blood pooling during

weightless flight.

This will be done

in Skylab to

assess

the

time

course

degree of

during weightless

and

members

cardiovascular adaptation flight.

in crew

Hardware

 

The in-flight

LBNP apparatus

consists of

three basic

units:

(1)

a

cylindrical

tank with

a waist

seal into which

the

astronaut puts

his

legs

and hips.

It can be evacuated to

a controllable pressure of 0-50 mm Hg below the ambient cabin

pressure; (2)

the circumference of each leg at the level of the calf muscle;

a

leg volume measuring

system which records

(3)

an

automatic blood pressure measuring system.

It

has

an

automatically

inflatable arm cuff with

a microphone for detect-

ing blood

pressure. The experiment also uses the vectorcardiogram equipment from M093and the Body Temperature Measuring System from ML71. The apparatus weighs 175 lbs and has a stowed volume of 59 cubic feet.

Protocol

flow and records

systolic and diastolic blood

The experiment

is performed

on each astronaut every

three days,

subject

experiment takes first half-hour

the subject and he enters

seal.

and an attending astronaut is

needed

to

assist the

for each performance of

Then a

the experiment. to perform.

The entire

During

the

about 60 minutes

the electrodes

and sensors are attached

recording

to

and secures the waist

the device

resting baseline

5-minute

is made of

blood pressure,vectorcardiogram, leg volume, and body

temperature. This is followed by 15 minutes of recording at successively lower pressure levels to a minimum level determined for each crewman, The experiment ends with a 5-minute post- negative pressure recording of the same parameters.

Data Return

The in-flight

vectorcardiogram,

blood pressure,