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Steam temperature control 143

In the optimising control system, the following control inputs are used:
• additive control signal to fuel flow, if/fuel,add
• additive control signal to feedwater flow, rhfw,add.
The following controlled output variables are used:
• control error on outlet steam pressure, Psh3,err
• control error on steam temperature after superheater lb, Tshlb,err
• evaporator temperature, Teva.
Feedforward control and parameter scheduling are introduced using the boiler load
demand PB.
Eleventh-order linear state space models of the following form are the basis for
the controller design:

x(k + 1) = Ax(k) + Bu(k) + Bad(k) + Ke(k)

y(k) = Cx(k) + e(k)

for the operating points JsKv2 = {115 MW, 130 MW, 187 MW, 240 MW} = {43%,
49%, 71%, 91%}. The load range to be covered was chosen so that the normal operat-
ing range is covered. The number of load points (four) was chosen to be the minimum
possible while allowing for the non-linear dynamic behaviour of the combined boiler
and existing control system. The distribution was not chosen to be equally spaced
because of dedicated load intervals for start/stop of coal mills.
The models were estimated from SKV2 data (PRBS excitation of control-
lable inputs (u : Uadd) and ramps in boiler load demand (d = PB)) using
the N4SID, subspace system-identification method (Van Overschee and Moor, 1994;
MathWorks, 1995). Feedforward control

Feedforward controllers of the form (5.13) are designed for each operating point in
JSKV2, with the open-loop observer as given by equation (5.14).
The sensitivity function from the load disturbance PB to the outputs Psh3,err and
Tshlb,err is shown in Figure 5.8 at the 187 MW operating point. Theoretically, this
plot reveals that the impact of the load change on Psh3,err and Tshlb,err is significantly
reduced (~ 10 dB).
Figure 5.9 shows the responses to a load change from 200 to 180 MW at a gradi-
ent of 4 MW/min. for cases with and without the LQ feedforward controller active.
Figure 5.10 shows the corresponding additive control signals. The offset in TsH,err is
caused by the existence of a deadband in the existing control system.
The test results show that an almost perfect dynamic compensation of the load dis-
turbance has been obtained with the feedforward controller, since there are practically
no deviations in either Psh3 or in Tshlb. The action of the LQ feedforward controller
can be interpreted as follows: the decrease in the steam temperature (note that the con-
trol error is defined as the reference value minus the measured value) is compensated
for by increasing the fuel rate and decreasing the feedwater rate, both resulting in an