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Term 1

HOMENOTES
English Language
Grades V, VI & VII

NOUNS
PRONOUNS WRITING SKILLS

TENSES

VOCABULARY
LISTENING AND
SPEAKING SKILLS
PUNCTUATIONS
NOTE TO PARENTS
Dear Parents,

This book has been carefully crafted and


graded in consonance with the objectives of the
major Boards of Examinations. It stands out
as a useful tool in promoting a holistic,
integrated, thematic and student-centred
approach to learning as it assists you to help
the student in attaining subject proficiency that
is viable in the real world environment.
The general aim here is to support you in
facilitating
the student recall the concepts and content covered in class, while
occasionally assisting the enthusiastic child to access knowledge outside the
syllabus. It also seeks to simplify ideas and content, to stimulate rational as well
as creative thinking, to link the learning process to practical situations.
This book has been created by experts in the field of education, and
considerable research has been undertaken to ensure accuracy of information,
grade appropriateness, subject relevance and clarity. As a user-friendly resource
material, it is a venture with a difference and it makes it easy for you to help
the student to comprehend the content quickly. Supplementary information
disseminated through “Did You Know?” caters to the ever-growing interests of
students and can be shared in the classroom. While this additional information
is not part of the syllabus, it promises to enrich the students’ sphere of
knowledge.
This teaching aid is sure to assist you in the teaching process and will go a long
way in making the whole experience easier for you to tackle.
* Please note that this is a comprehensive reference book for Grades:
5, 6 and 7. The concepts form the basics of the English Language and will
be reinforced subsequently in the other Grades as well. It is also
suggested that you refrain from getting your students to memorize the
content since rote learning is discouraged in our educational system.
The book could assist in clarifying facts and reinforcing the learning
process.

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INDEX
1. Comprehension 3

2. Punctuation and Capitalisation 4

3. Nouns 27

4. Pronouns 50

5. Articles 56

6. Verbs 67

7. Adjectives 88

8. Adverbs 114

9. Vocabulary 132

10. Listening Skills 178

11. Speaking Skills 181

12. Essay Writing 183

13. Letter Writing 204

14. Newspaper Report 225

15. Expository Writing 231

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1. COMPREHENSION
To comprehend means ‘to understand’.

A Comprehension is an exercise designed to test the grasping

power or the ability of making sense of passages/poems not

read before. Such an exercise may include a prose passage,

a poem or even excerpts from a play.

Here are a few hints to keep in mind while attempting a comprehension


exercise:
 To begin with, read the passage once, in order to get a general but accurate idea
of the passage.
 Read the passage again to grasp the details.
 Study the questions thoroughly and highlight the relevant points in the passage.
 Answer the questions in your own words. Do not copy the text from the passage
directly in order to answer the question. You may use the key words, if relevant.
 Use complete sentences to answer the questions.
 Always answer in Indirect Speech.
 DO NOT add extra information (that is not given in the passage) in your answer.
 When asked to explain the meaning of words or phrases, be as clear as possible
while using your own words. In case you do not know the meaning of the word or
phrase, read the sentence where it occurs and guess the meaning in the context
of the sentence. Remember to write the meaning in the same tense and the
same part of speech as the given word.

* * * * *

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 3
2. PUNCTUATION AND CAPITALISATION
Writing is not only a necessity; it’s an art, and no writing is complete without the
proper use of capitalisation and punctuation marks.

CAPITALISATION

Capitalisation is using the upper case (i.e. capital letters) to write letters or words.

Examples:
It was raining and Sally got drenched.
My friends and I went to Agra in December to see the Taj Mahal.

PUNCTUATION

Punctuation is a set of symbols or marks, used in writing to separate sentences and


to clarify meaning. They help to indicate something about the structure of sentences,
or to assist readers in knowing when to change the rhythm or the stress of their
speaking. No composition is complete without the use of proper punctuation marks.

Punctuation marks help you to express yourself clearly and correctly and also add
style to your writing. Punctuation marks are of extreme importance as a change in a
punctuation mark may entirely change the meaning of the sentence.

RULES FOR THE PROPER USE OF CAPITALISATION

1. Use capital letters to begin the first word of a sentence and to begin the first word
after a full stop / question mark / exclamation mark.

Examples:
The dog chased the cat.
Have you brought the art sheets? We need them for the project.

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2. Use capital letters to write Proper nouns like names of people, animals, places,
mountains, rivers, monuments and so on.

Examples:
Names of people: Swaminathan, Mahatma Gandhi.
Names of pets: Rover, Tommy.
Names of places (continents, countries, cities etc.): Asia, India.
Names of mountain ranges and peaks: Mount Everest, Himalayas.
Names of oceans, seas, rivers, lakes, waterfalls: Pacific Ocean, Ganges.
Names of monuments and buildings: Taj Mahal, Eiffel Tower.

3. The pronoun ‘I’ should always be written in capital letters, irrespective of whether
it is in the beginning of a sentence or anywhere else.

Examples:
I have not completed my homework; so I can’t play now.
Jenny and I often go to the park to walk our dogs.

4. Use capital letters to begin the names of days and months.

Examples:
I go to the gym every Tuesday and Wednesday.
We have summer vacation in the months of May and June.

5. Names of languages, adjectives and other words that are derived from proper
nouns are generally capitalised.

Examples:
English from England, Tamil from Tamil Nadu.
We must never forget the importance of Gandhian values. (from Gandhi).

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6. Capitalise the first word and each significant word of the title of
books, newspapers, stories and poems.

Examples:
I read ‘The Times of India’ every morning.
‘The Wind in the Willows’ is a delightful book having animal characters.

7. Titles of courtesy / honour and professional titles attached to the names of people
start with capital letters.

Examples:
Queen Elizabeth, Princess Diana.
Mrs Singh, Dr Deokar.

8. Use capital letters to name days of historical, national and religious importance.

Examples:
India celebrates its Republic Day on the 26th of January.
Diwali is a festival of lights in remembrance of Rama’s homecoming.

9. Capitalise the first word of a quoted sentence, i.e. direct speech. -

Examples:
-
“Why are you late?” asked the teacher.
The teacher said, “The earth goes round the sun.”

10. Capitalise the first word of a salutation and the first word of a complimentary
close in letter writing.

Examples:
Dear Vicky
Yours sincerely

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11. Most abbreviations are written in capital letters. [An abbreviation is a shortened
form of a word or phrase. Usually, but not always, it consists of a letter or group
of letters taken from the word or phrase while the other letters are removed.]

Examples:
BBC for British Broadcasting Corporation
PETA for People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals

The abbreviations of units and the abbreviations related

to time are not capitalised.

Abbreviations of units - cm (centimetre), m (metre), etc.

Abbreviations related to time - pm (prime meridian), hr (hour), etc.

PUNCTUATION MARKS

The chief punctuation marks are:


1. Full Stop (.)
2. Comma (,)
3. Question Mark (?)
4. Exclamation Mark (!)
5. Quotation Marks (“ ”)
6. Apostrophe (’)
7. Semicolon (;)
8. Colon (:)
9. Hyphen (-)
10. Parenthesis ( )

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The Full Stop

The full stop is a punctuation mark used to show a strong pause. It stands for the
longest pause. It is sometimes called the period. It is denoted by (.) and indicates the
end of a sentence.

Stop!
Examples:
The boy ate all the sweets.

Please tell her that I will be late today.

The full stop may or may not be used in abbreviations.

They are often omitted in modern English.

‘Mister’ can be written as Mr. or Mr

When an abbreviation with a full stop comes at the end of a sentence,

another full stop is not used.

My name is Frank Jr.

Certain abbreviations that are pronounced as a word are NOT


written with full stops.
LASER for ‘Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation’
ISRO for ‘Indian Space Research Organisation’

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The Comma

The comma is a punctuation mark indicating a short pause in a sentence. It


separates words and phrases and is denoted by the sign (,).

Examples:
The bag contained a book, pencils, erasers, a sharpener and a key ring.

She bought some sweets, bread and a bar of chocolate.

Use of the Comma

1. Use a comma to separate three or more words in a series or list. The last word is
often separated by ‘and’ or ‘or’.

Examples:
Susanna is a tall, thin, fair and clever girl.

Mrs Rehan wants to visit Greece, Spain or Italy next year.

2. Use a comma when a sentence begins with words like ‘Yes’, ‘No’, ‘Well’, ‘Now’,
‘However’ etc.

Examples:
Yes, my pet has been vaccinated.

Do you want some more of my special soup? No, thanks.

Well, I never thought you would learn to dance so well!

3. Use a comma to mark off a word repeated for the sake of stress.

Examples:
Try, try, try and try again.

The poor child cried, cried, cried and cried till there were
no tears left in her eyes.

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4. Use a comma to mark off a direct quotation from the rest of the sentence.

Examples:
“The weather has been unseasonably cold this year,” said the farmer.

The man cried, “I’m really scared of spiders!”

5. Use a comma to separate the day of the month from the year and after the year.

Examples:
India became free on 15th August, 1947.

Sarita was born on October 25, 1999, in Delhi.

6. Use a comma to separate parts of an address in a sentence.


Examples:
I have lived at 42 Link Road, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, for the last six years.

Please deliver this packet to 6 Rushmore Lane, Toronto, Canada.

The Question Mark

The question mark is a mark of punctuation put after a word or a sentence to indicate
a direct question. It is denoted by (?). It is also used to express doubt or uncertainty.
The question mark is also known as interrogation point / question point / query.

Examples:
Have you completed your worksheet?

Do you think we should go for a movie tonight?

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o not use the question mark at the end of an indirect

question. It does not directly ask a question.

Ask them where they are going.

She enquired whether I had read the newspaper.

If a question ends with a series of brief follow-up questions, each of


these little questions will end with a question mark.
Who helped you to make the chart? Your teacher? Your parents?
Have you ever been granted a wish? When? By whom? What kind?

Rhetorical questions (questions whose answers are not expected) end with a
question mark.
Don’t you want to get good grades?
How many times do I have to tell you to stop walking into the house
with mud on your shoes?

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The Exclamation Mark

The exclamation mark is a punctuation mark used to indicate a strong emotion like
astonishment, irritation, excitement, surprise, anger, alarm or shock. It is denoted by
(!). It is also used to emphasise a comment or short, sharp phrase. It lends colour
and sound effect to your expression. It is placed after an interjection (a short
utterance that is added to the sentence to convey emotion).

Examples:
What a fine day it is!

Hurrah! The trophy is ours.

Look at the pictures carefully. Can you say what the characters are feeling; i.e.
Happy? Sad? Surprised? Angry? Excited? Scared? Frustrated? Shocked? Any other
emotion?
Remember: The same picture may depict more than one feeling / emotion.

Alas! We
have lost
Give me the the match.
money or else! What a beautiful
day it is today!

Ah! Is that
a ghost?

Oh no! I
forgot my
name again
. What a
pleasant
surprise!

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The Quotation Mark

The quotation marks are also known as inverted commas and consist of the open
inverted commas (“) and the closed inverted commas (”).

Examples:
Simon said, “I really enjoyed my trip to the water park.”
“Do you have a pen that you can lend me?” said the girl.

Use of the Quotation Mark

1. Use quotation marks when you need to use the exact words of the speaker or
writer.

Examples:
“I can teach you to knit, if you like,” said Grandmother.

The instructor shouted, “Don’t look sideways while running!”

2. Use quotation marks around the titles of books, poems, songs, short stories,
magazine or newspaper articles and other titles.

Examples:
R.K. Narayan’s “Malgudi Schooldays” is one of my favourite books.

“Jana gana mana” is the national anthem of India.

3. Use quotation marks to set off words or phrases referred to within a sentence or
to emphasise certain important words or phrases.

Examples:
The phrase “hit the ceiling” means to become very angry.

The word “chill” has several meanings today.

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Do not use quotation marks for indirect quotations.
In direct quotations, the comma / full stop /
question mark / exclamation mark are placed
BEFORE the closed inverted commas. E.g. My friend
said, “Please help me lift this heavy box.”
If the sentence ends with the name of book / poem / movie etc,
the full stop or question mark come after the quotation marks.
E.g. Have you seen the film “A Bridge to Terabithia”?

Quotation marks are also denoted by (‘ ’ - single quotation


marks). You may use single or double quotes.

The Apostrophe

The apostrophe is a punctuation mark that denotes possession or contracts a word.


It creates shortcuts in words and sentences. It is denoted by the sign (’).

Examples:
The naughty boy pulled the dog’s tail. (shows possession)
I can’t go to the party with her. (contracts or shortens a word: here, ‘cannot’)

An apostrophe is used for two purposes:


1. To show possession (‘belongs to’ or ‘of’) - This is John’s book.
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2. To contract (shorten) a word - Don’t you want to dance?

Use of the Apostrophe to show Possession

1. Singular noun: Add the apostrophe + s (‘s).

Examples:
Jason’s toy train is lost.
My father’s spectacles are on the table.

2. Singular noun ending in –s: Add the apostrophe with or without s.

Examples:
I have to arrange my boss’ / boss’s files.
James’ / James’s trip in the giant peach was eventful.

3. Plural noun: Add the apostrophe + s (‘s).

Examples:
The children’s toys are lost.
The women’s queue was longer than that of the men’s.

4. Plural noun ending in –s: Add the apostrophe after s.

Examples:
The boys’ school is beside the open ground.
Ladies’ handbags are available here.

5. Compound noun (singular and plural): Add the apostrophe + s (‘s) to the end of
the compound word.

Examples:
Singular: Editor-in-chief’s article.
Plural: Sisters-in-law’s cars.
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6. Expressions relating to time, distance and value: Add the apostrophe + s (‘s).

Examples:
It’s just five kilometre’s distance from the school to the station.
I went crazy at the fair and bought thousand rupee’s worth of candy!

7. To form the plural of numbers, letters and symbols: Add the apostrophe + s (‘s).

Examples:
Always cross your t’s and dot your i’s.
Information technology was introduced in India in the 90’s.

8. To show joint possession (possession of the same object by more than one
noun): Add the apostrophe + s (‘s) to the last word in the series.

Examples:
Father, Mother and Uncle’s hometown is in Kerala.
Josh and Jane’s car is a new Ford model.

Do not use an apostrophe to show possession


of non-living things.
The lid of the pot (NOT the pot’s lid).
The hand of the clock (NOT the clock’s hand).

Use of the Apostrophe for Contraction


1. Not is shortened to n’t.

Examples:

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 16
He can’t (can not) do the work all by himself.
Rohan didn’t (did not) take part in the dance competition.

2. Is is shortened to ’s.

Examples:
What’s (what is) the day today?
He’s (he is) going to be 12 years old this year.

3. Has is shortened to ’s.

Examples:
Simon’s (Simon has) gone to school.
It’s (it has) been three years since we last met.

4. Have is shortened to ’ve.

Examples:
We’ve (we have) a new teacher this term.
I’ve (I have) never been to the circus.

5. Had / Would is shortened to ’d.

Examples:
We’d (we had) done this exercise before.
They’d (They would) go for morning walks every day.

6. Will is shortened to ’ll.

Examples:
I’ll (I will) never repeat this mistake.
She’ll (she will) go to the library to do some reference work.

7. Are is shortened to ’re.

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Examples:
I think they’re (they are) happy with the arrangements.
We’re (we are) going home now.

8. A year is occasionally written in an abbreviated form with an apostrophe.

Examples:
26th Jan 2011 = 26th Jan ’11.
Paulo Bradson was a distinctive member of the generation of ’98.

The difference between it’s and its

It’s is NEVER used to show possession. When it

is used with the apostrophe, it’s stands for it is.

The apostrophe is used for contraction. E.g. It’s not the

correct answer.

The word its is a possessive pronoun and has no apostrophe. E.g.

The bird flew to its nest. (Note there is NO apostrophe here)

There are some unusual contractions.


won’t = will not shan’t = shall not
o’clock = of the clock

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The Semicolon

The semicolon is a punctuation mark used to indicate a longer pause than a comma.
It is a combination of a full stop and a comma; and so does the work of BOTH a full
stop and a comma. It is denoted by the sign (;). A semicolon puts two sentences or
ideas together in a very simple way.

Examples:
Look at these pairs of sentences:
Eagles hunt in the morning. Owls hunt at night.
Nikit loves hot coffee. Polly loves iced tea.

Each of these pairs of sentences can be combined into one sentence by using a
semicolon.
Eagles hunt in the morning; owls hunt at night.

Nikit loves hot coffee; Polly loves iced tea.

Use of the Semicolon

1. Use a semicolon to join two complete but related sentences without using a
conjunction.

Examples:
My mother loves cooking. She is a good chef. (Two complete sentences)
My mother loves cooking; she is a good chef. (Joining the 2 sentences using
a semicolon instead of the conjunction and)

Aryan went to school. Suman stayed at home. (Two complete sentences)


Aryan went to school; Suman stayed at home. (Joining the 2 sentences using
a semicolon instead of the conjunction and)

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Sometimes a connecting word is already given in the

second sentence. In that case, retain the connecting

word and join the two sentences using a semicolon.

I live in the city. However, my brother lives in a small town. (The

second sentence has the connecting word ‘however’)

I live in the city; however, my brother lives in a small town.

(Joining the 2 sentences using a semicolon and retaining ‘however’)

2. Use a semicolon in a list / series when the items in the series already have
commas and can be grouped for better understanding.

Examples:
The Cricket Board will conduct the matches simultaneously in many places -
Pune, Maharashtra, Kolkata, West Bengal, Patna, Bihar and Amritsar, Punjab.
The Cricket Board will conduct the matches simultaneously in many places;

Pune, Maharashtra; Kolkata, West Bengal; Patna, Bihar and Amritsar, Punjab.

The members of the committee were Dr. Jhaveri, the principal, Mrs. Parikh,
the vice principal, Mr. Kumar, the counsellor and Ms. Shweta, the librarian.
The members of the committee were Dr. Jhaveri, the principal; Mrs. Parikh,

the vice principal; Mr. Kumar, the counsellor and Ms. Shweta, the librarian.

[The first sentence in both the above examples is confusing because commas
have been used to mark a city from the state and a name from a designation
respectively. That makes us unsure of the items that are being listed. So we use
semicolons to separate the items that are being listed. In the first example, ‘Pune,
Maharashtra’ is one item, ‘Kolkata, West Bengal’ is another item. In the second
example, ‘Dr. Jhaveri, the principal’ is one item and so on.]
Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 20
Capitalise a person’s title when it precedes the name. Do

not capitalise, when the title is acting as a description

following the name.

Chairperson Petrov, Director Richard Petersen.

Ms. Petrov, the chairperson of the company, will address us at noon.

Richard Petersen, director of Langley Research Center.

The Colon

The colon is a punctuation mark used to introduce a strong pause within a sentence.
In fact, it is possibly the strongest break within a sentence, and is denoted by the
sign (:).

Use of the Colon


1. Use a colon to introduce a list.

Examples:
I bought everything required to make the special salad: vegetables, pepper
corns, olive oil and salad dressing.
The student used her time productively: studying, writing, revising and taking
mock tests.

[The individual words in the list are punctuated with commas]

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 21
NEVER use a colon directly after a verb or a preposition.
With these blocks you can make (verb): a bridge,
a crane, a tractor and a tank. – Incorrect
With these blocks you can make the following things: a bridge,
a crane, a tractor and a tank. – Correct

The building is made of (preposition): steel, cement and glass. –


Incorrect
The building is made of the following material: steel, cement and
glass. – Correct

2. Use a colon between the title and the sub-title of a book.

Examples:
The teacher advised us to read Charles Dickens: A Biography to understand
life during the 19th century.
Our text book is A Magic Place: Readers for the Schoolroom.

3. Use a colon to indicate proportions and ratios.

Examples:
The ratio of 5 to 3 is written as 5:3.

Mix the sugar and water in 2:1 ratio.

4. Use a colon to separate the hour and the minutes when writing the time.

Examples:
I have an appointment with the doctor at 9:30 tomorrow morning.

The programme will commence at 6:30 pm.


Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 22
5. Use a colon before explanations.

Examples:

Excessive use of petroleum is damaging our environment: it releases toxic


gases which damage the ozone layer.

The courage of explorers cannot be undermined: they face hostile situations


to seek new wonders.

6. Use a colon to distinguish a conversation or to mark dialogues in a play.

Examples:
Inn keeper: You must have had an enjoyable time seeing the world.

Traveller: Oh yes, I have travelled far and wide and seen wonderful places!

The Hyphen

A hyphen is a dash placed between words or between the letters of a word. It is used
to connect words or syllables or divide words into parts. It is denoted by the sign (-).

Examples:
brother-in-law

two-thirds

Use of the Hyphen

1. Use a hyphen to join parts of a compound word.

Examples:
mother-in-law, back-to-back, merry-go-round.
Shakespeare was born in the small town of Stratford-upon-Avon in 1564.

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 23
2. Use a hyphen after a prefix.

Examples:
sub-title, vice-president, anti-hero.
The Olympic Champion is an ex-student of our school.

3. Use a hyphen with compound numbers (from 21 to 99) and compound fractions.

Examples:
sixty-six, twenty-ninth.
three-fourths, one-sixth.

4. Use a hyphen with compound compass directions.

Examples:
North-West.
South-East.

5. Use a hyphen to show the difference between terms which are spelled the same,
but which have different meanings.

Examples:
reformation: change for the better re-
formation: to form again
resign: leave a job re-
sign: to sign again

6. Use a hyphen to join two or more words serving as a single adjective before a
noun.

Examples:
chocolate-covered peanuts.
well-known author.

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 24
When two or more words serving as a single adjective
come after a noun, they are not hyphenated.
The peanuts were chocolate covered.
The author was well known.

The Parenthesis

Parenthesis is used to set off words, phrases, clauses, or sentences which are used
by way of explanation, translation, or comment but which are independent
constructions.

Examples:
Esha (my sister’s roommate at college) is coming to visit us.
Owing to his perspicacity (power of discernment with great clarity), he is a
popular counsellor.
When he was young (I remember well), he looked very sweet.
Show me (that is if you don’t mind) your work.
He will come (I believe in him) to see the show.
We need a place where (1) we can hide, (2) we will be safe, and (3) where no
one finds us.
He looked at her (I was looking at his expression) as if they were friends before.
This season will (I hope) produce good crop.
 Jay (I know him as Nikhil Mathur) is no doubt a great actor.

Some more examples:


Using it in numbers:
The Principal ordered twelve (12) parallel bars for the sseenniioorr sscchhooooll gymnasium.
Using it in symbols:
The book-keeper ornamented his letterhead with the percentage ssyym
mbbooll (%).

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 25
How punctuation changes meaning!

Did you know that a sentence can have more than one meaning
depending on the manner in which it is punctuated?

Look at the following sentences:


1. Don’t stop running.
2. Don’t, stop running.
Do the sentences mean the same? No, they DO NOT.
The first is a request to continue with the action; the second is the exact
opposite -- it's saying that the action should cease.

Look at the following pair of phrases:


1. two year-old cats.
2. two-year old cats.
The first means ‘two cats, each of which is one year old’; the second means
‘cats that are two years old’.

* * * * *

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 26
3. NOUNS

A Noun is a word used as a name. It is the name of a person, place, animal, thing,
emotion or action. Whatever exists in the universe can be named, and that name is a
noun.

Nouns can be classified as:


1. Proper noun
2. Common noun
It’s easy to
3. Collective noun
recognise me.
4. Abstract noun
5. Material noun

THE PROPER NOUN

The Proper Noun is the name given to a specific person, place or thing. It always
begins with a capital letter.

Examples:
The world admires the courage of Nelson Mandela.
The Statue of Liberty attracts many tourists.

THE COMMON NOUN

The Common Noun is used to name words of the


same class or a common group.

Examples:
I would love to go into space in a rocket and look at the earth from there.
Many people sit on the beach and watch the huge waves roll onto the sand.

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 27
THE COLLECTIVE NOUN

The Collective Noun is a word given to a group of persons or things taken together.

Examples:
A large crowd was waiting to meet and congratulate the NSG commandos.
A herd of cattle was being chased by a lion.

an army of soldiers a bunch of crooks


a band of musicians/robbers a caravan of gypsies
a board of directors a choir of singers
a body of men a class of pupils/students
a crew of sailors a pack of thieves
a crowd of spectators/people a patrol of policemen
a dynasty of kings a regiment of soldiers
a galaxy of film stars a staff of employees/teachers
a group of dancers/singers a team of players
a host of angels a troupe of artistes/dancers

an army of ants a pack of hounds/wolves


a brood/flock of chickens a pride of lions
a drove of cattle/horses a school of herrings/whales
a flock of birds/geese/sheep a shoal of fish
a gaggle of geese a swarm of ants/bees
a haul of fish a team of horses/oxen
a hive of bees a troop of lions/monkeys
a muster of peacocks a zoo of wild animals

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 28
a battery of guns a grove of trees
a block of flats a heap of stones
a bouquet of flowers a library of books
a bunch of bananas/ grapes/ keys a line of cars
a bundle of rags/ firewood/ sticks/ hay a list of names
a chain of mountains an orchard of fruit trees
a constellation/ galaxy of stars a pack of cards/ lies
a fleet of motor-cars/ taxis/ ships a quiver of arrows
a flight of steps a range of hills/ mountains
a forest of trees a sheaf of grain/ corn/ papers

For your information:

1. The SAME Collective Noun can be used for different groups.


Example:

a herd of buffaloes a colony of ants a litter of cubs


a herd of cattle a colony of bats a litter of kittens
a herd of elephants a colony of penguins a litter of puppies

a team of horses a pack of dogs


a team of oxen a pack of hounds
a team of players a pack of wolves

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 29
2. The SAME group may have more than one collective noun to describe it.
Example:

soldier

an army of soldiers a brigade of soldiers a company of soldiers

a division of soldiers a platoon of soldiers

tree cats

a forest of trees a grove of trees a clowder of cats a glaring of cats

an orchard of trees a clutter of cats

THE ABSTRACT NOUN

The Abstract Noun is an idea, experience or quality.

Examples:
A person who is blessed with understanding, sympathy and tolerance is a gift
to the society in which he lives.
Always tell the truth; then you don't have to remember anything!

Here is a list of a few Abstract Nouns for your understanding:

kindness success
honesty skill
freedom brilliance
integrity thought
arrival failure
love laughter
Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 30
THE MATERIAL NOUN

The Material Noun is the name of a material out of which other things are made.

Examples:
Cinderella’s slippers were made of glass.
The Iron Pillar of Mehrauli does not rust although it is made of iron.

They may be placed in groups as follows:

1. The metals: iron, gold, platinum, etc.


2. Products spoken of in bulk: tea, sugar, rice, wheat, etc.
3. Geological bodies: mud, sand, granite, rock, stone, etc.
4. Natural phenomena: rain, dew, cloud, ice, fog, etc.

The Noun: Number


[Singular and Plural]

A noun that tells you about one person or thing is said to be a Singular Noun.
E.g. chair, leaf, man
A noun that tells you about two or more persons or things is said to be a Plural
Noun.
E.g. chairs, leaves, men

Rules for changing Singular Nouns to Plural Nouns


1. Most of the nouns become plural by adding the letter‘s’ to the singular form of
the noun.
Example:

Singular Plural Singular Plural


lamp – lamps disc – discs
radio – radios school – schools
mountain – mountains island – islands
computer – computers carpet – carpets

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 31
2. Most of the nouns ending in ‘e’ form the plural by adding ‘s’.

Example:

Singular Plural Singular Plural


castle – castles bicycle – bicycles
home – homes nose – noses
store – stores college – colleges
orange – oranges machine – machines
pebble – pebbles office – offices

3. Nouns ending in ‘s’, ‘ss’, ‘sh’, ‘ch’, ‘x’, or ‘z’ form the plural by adding ‘es’.

Example:

Ending in ‘ch’
bench – benches
church – churches
couch – couches
hutch – hutches

Ending is ‘s’ inch – inches Ending in ‘sh’


bus – buses match – matches brush – brushes
gas – gases watch – watches dish – dishes
lotus – lotuses sandwich – sandwiches marsh – marshes
lens – lenses wish – wishes
Ending in ‘ss’ Ending in ‘x’ or ‘z’
class – classes box – boxes
glass – glasses fox – boxes
pass – passes tax – taxes
dress – dresses waltz – waltzes

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 32
4. Nouns ending in ‘o’ form their plurals in the normal way by adding ‘s’ to the
singular noun.
Example:

stereo – stereos photo – photos


dynamo – dynamos quarto – quartos
kilo – kilos piano – pianos
logo – logos cello – cellos

Many nouns ending in ‘o’ form their plurals by adding ‘es’ to the
singular form.
Example
uffalo – buffaloes
tomato – tomatoes

Some nouns ending in ‘o’ form their plurals in two ways : by


adding ‘s’ or ‘es’ to the singular form.
Example
cargo – cargos / cargoes
motto – mottos / mottoes

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 33
5a. Nouns ending in ‘y’ preceded by a consonant change the ‘y’ to ‘i’ and
add ‘es’.

Example:

army – armies family – families


baby – babies fly – flies
bunny – bunnies gallery – galleries
berry – berries gypsy – gypsies

copy – copies lorry – lorries


country – countries party – parties
cry – cries pastry – pastries
daisy – daisies pony – ponies

5b. Nouns ending in ‘y’ preceded by a vowel follow the general rule of
adding ‘s’ to the singular.

Example:

boy – boys donkey – donkeys


toy – toys
chimney – chimneys holiday – holidays
tray – trays
day – days jockey – jockeys
valley – valleys
monkey – monkeys key – keys
way – ways
play – plays ray – rays

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 34
6. Nouns ending in ‘f’ or ‘fe’ generally form their plurals by changing the ‘f’ or ‘fe’
to ‘v’ and adding ‘es’.
Example:

calf – calves loaf – loaves


elf – elves shelf – shelves
half – halves thief – thieves
knife – knives wolf – wolves
leaf – leaves wife – wives
life – lives shelf – shelves

 For some nouns ending in ‘f’ of ‘fe’, plural is formed by


adding –s.
e.g.: safe – safes, chief – chiefs.

 Some nouns ending in ‘f’ take either –s or –ves in the


plural.

e.g.: dwarf - dwarfs or dwarves

Some Different Rules

1. Some nouns form their plurals by a change in the vowel.


Example:

chairman – chairmen man – men


foot – feet mouse – mice
goose – geese postman – postmen
gentleman – gentlemen tooth – teeth
louse – lice woman – women

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 35
2. Certain nouns are used only in the plural.
Example:
billiards scissors trousers mathematics
innings socks tongs mechanics
pants shorts breeches mumps
drawers scales politics measles
forceps spectacles physics news

3. Certain nouns do not have a plural form.


Example:
information furniture gossip scenery
poetry advice news

4. Some nouns have the same form for both the singular and the plural.
Example:
fish fish
deer deer
sheep sheep
salmon salmon

 For the noun ‘fruit’, the plural form ‘fruits’ will be used only
if more than one kind of fruit is discussed.
 The same holds too in the case of ‘fish’ and ‘fishes’.

For example:
If there are 10 apples in a basket, we say - The fruit is in the
basket (here we do not consider the number of apples but the
kinds of fruit in the basket i.e. only one – apple)
If, however, there are apples, mangoes, grapes and oranges in the
basket, we say – The fruits are in the basket (plural ’fruits’ is used
as there are more than one kind of fruit in it.)
Similarly for the noun ‘fish’ , the plural form ‘fishes’ will be used
only if there are more than one species of fish are discussed.

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 36
4. There are several nouns that have irregular plural forms.
Example:
ox – oxen
child – children
person – persons / people

5. Certain collective nouns, though singular in form are used in the plural form.
Example:

people police crowd clergy poultry cattle

A list of a few difficult words and their plural forms:


formula – formulae / formulas
index – indices / indexes
axis – axes
basis – bases
oasis – oases
radius - radii
syllabus - syllabi / syllabuses

The plural of compound nouns are generally formed by adding ‘s’ to the
‘principle (main) word’ in the compound noun. This significant word may be at the
beginning or end of the term.
Example: Adding ‘s’ to the first word
daughter-in-law – daughters-in-law
father-in-law – fathers-in-law
Example: Adding ‘s’ to the last
fountain pen – fountain pens
close-up – close-ups

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 37
NOUNS: COUNTABLE AND UNCOUNTABLE

1. Countable Nouns: They represent nouns that can be counted. These could be
people or objects.

Examples:
We bought ten books from two different shops.
The moon and two stars formed a smiley in the sky.

2. Uncountable Nouns: They represent nouns that cannot be counted. These could
be substances, values, feelings, etc.
Try counting
me!
Examples:
We ate plenty of rice since we had nothing else to eat.
The leaves on the tree had the fresh glow of spring.

Most Abstract Nouns are uncountable nouns.

However, determining whether an Abstract Noun is

countable or uncountable, depends on its usage in a sentence.

Examples:

Living under fear is difficult. (uncountable noun)

I have a fear which I wish to overcome. (countable noun)

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 38
An uncountable noun always takes a singular verb.

Examples:
The sand (uncountable noun) is (singular verb) pearly white.
There was (singular verb) some water (uncountable noun) in the pitcher.

However, a countable noun takes a singular verb in its singular form and a
plural verb in its plural form.

Examples:
The table (singular countable noun) is (singular verb) made of wood.
The children (plural countable noun) were (plural verb) ready to come to the
party.

A list of some of the most common uncountable nouns:

advice news money


baggage traffic happiness
bread peace sadness
furniture trouble air

Note how countable nouns can be derived from uncountable nouns:

Uncountable Countable Uncountable Countable

money rupe furniture table

music song electricity battery

luggage suitcase sauce bottle

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 39
Remember to keep the following rules in mind when using uncountable nouns:

1. The indefinite article ‘a’ / ‘an’ is NOT usually used with uncountable nouns. Terms
such as "an information" or "a music" are incorrect. Instead, phrases like ‘a piece of’,
‘a grain of’, etc. can be used as shown under:

Examples:
I want to share a piece of information with you.
Not a drop of rain has fallen this season.

2. Adjectives such as ‘some’, ‘many’, ‘a little’ and ‘much’ can be used with
uncountable nouns.

Examples:
Have you got any rice?
I've got a little money.

3. Food items are generally uncountable. Hence, they are measured in terms of the
containers in which they are served. These measurements or containers are
countable.

Examples:
I drink 14 glasses of water every day.
I bought a bottle of ketchup from the store.

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 40
Usage of ‘some’ and ‘any’:
‘Some’ and ‘any’ can be used for countable as well as
uncountable nouns.
Examples:
Are there any biscuits (countable noun) in the tin?
Do not put any sugar (uncountable noun) in my tea.

‘A lot of’ and ‘no’ can be used with plural countable nouns as well
as with uncountable nouns.
Examples:
No computers (plural countable noun) were bought last week.
There was no oil (uncountable noun) in the curry.

NOUNS: GENDER
Gender means the class into which nouns and pronouns are placed in some
languages. The word Gender comes from the Latin word ‘genus’ which means ‘a sort
or kind’.

Do nouns have gender?


Yes, nouns, like living beings can be categorized by
their respective gender.
For example, notice the gender of the following nouns
and the category they are put in:
Masculine man tiger brother
Feminine lady lioness girl
Common parent bird child
Neuter book chair stone

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 41
So, Nouns can be classified into four gender types:

1. The Masculine Gender: It is used for representing males.

Examples:
The poor farmer wanted his son to compete at the Olympics.
The prince wanted the lion as his prize possession.

2. The Feminine Gender: It is used for representing females.

Examples:
The farmer accompanied his daughter to school.
The princess was afraid of the lioness.

3. The Common Gender: It is used for representing a noun that can be either male
or female.

Examples:
Voters turned out in large numbers on Election Day.
The doctor visited the clinic every Thursday.

4. The Neuter Gender: It is used for representing inanimate objects.

Examples:
The clock is a part of my antique collection.
Why have you taken my book? We too like
to be
grouped!

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 42
Ways of forming the feminine of nouns
We may change the form of a masculine noun to a feminine noun by using any of the
following methods where appropriate:

1. By adding the syllable, ‘ess’:

Examples:
Masculine Feminine Masculine Feminine
Noun Noun Noun Noun
Author Authoress Priest Priestess
Baron Baroness Prophet Prophetess
Count Countess Shepherd Shepherdess
Heir Heiress Steward Stewardess

2. By dropping the vowel of the masculine noun and then adding, ‘ess’:

Examples:

Masculine Feminine
Noun Noun
Director Directress Masculine Feminine
Enchanter Enchantress Noun Noun
Hunter Huntress Prince Princess
Instructor Instructress Seamster Seamstress
Tiger Tigress
Waiter Waitress

3. By adding the syllable, ‘ine’.

Examples:
Masculine Noun Feminine Noun
Hero Heroine

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 43
4. By replacing a word before or after.

Examples:

Masculine Noun Feminine Noun Masculine Noun Feminine Noun


Billy goat Nanny goat Fisherman Fisherwoman
Buck rabbit Doe rabbit Grandfather Grandmother
Cock-sparrow Hen-sparrow Great-uncle Great-aunt
Father-in-law Mother-in-law Landlord Landlady
He-goat She-goat Milkman Milkmaid
Manservant Maidservant Peacock Peahen
Tomcat Tabby cat Stepfather Stepmother

5. Some words form their feminine in an irregular way.

Examples:

Masculine Noun Feminine Noun Masculine Noun Feminine Noun


Bachelor Spinster Bridegroom Bride
Boar Sow Master Mistress/Miss
Buck Doe Widower Widow
Bullock Heifer Lad Lass
Colt Filly Hart Roe
Drone Bee Horse / Stallion Mare
Gander Goose Lad Lass
Drake Duck Monk/Friar Nun
Duke Duchess Nephew Niece
Emperor Empress Ram Ewe
Fiancé Fiancée Stag Hind
Wizard Witch

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 44
6. Sometimes the word "male" or "female" is added to denote gender.

Female penguin – Male penguin


Female butterfly – Male butterfly
Female bat – Male bat
Female cheetah – Male cheetah
Female grasshopper – Male grasshopper
Female turtle – Male turtle
Female snake – Male snake
Female gorilla – Male gorilla
Female mosquito – Male mosquito

NOUNS: CASE

Case shows the relation of a noun or pronoun to another word in the sentence.

Possessive Case of the noun

The Possessive Case shows possession or ownership.


It answers the question ‘whose?’

Example:
This is Ellie’s book.
The sentence clearly states that the book belongs to Ellie.
Ellie’s book = the book belonging to Ellie.
Note that the form of the noun Ellie is changed to Ellie’s to show possession or
ownership. The noun Ellie’s is therefore said to be in the Possessive Case.

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 45
The Possessive Case does not always denote possession.
Sometimes it is used to denote authorship, origin, kind etc.
Example:
 Lord Byron’s poems – the poems written by Lord Byron.
 A week’s holiday – a holiday which lasts a week
 Ellen’s school – the school that Ellen goes to (studies)
 A mother’s love – the love felt by a mother for her child

RULES FOR THE FORMATION OF THE POSSESSIVE CASE

1. When the noun is singular and does not end in ‘s’, the Possessive case is formed
by adding an apostrophe + ‘s’.

Examples:
Cécile’s book was lost.
Never pull a dog’s tail.

2. When the noun is singular and ends in ‘s’, the Possessive case is formed by
adding just an apostrophe (without ‘s’) OR by adding an apostrophe + ‘s’.

Examples:
Mrs. Thomas’ / Thomas’s brownies were cloyingly sweet.
The boss’ / boss’s cabin is being renovated.

3. When the noun is plural and does not end in ‘s,’ the Possessive case is formed by
adding an apostrophe + ‘s’.

Examples:
The women’s team won in the inter college basketball match.
The children’s job was to write the script of the play.

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 46
4. When the noun is plural and ends in ‘s,’ the Possessive case is formed by adding
just an apostrophe (without ‘s’) after the noun.

Examples:
We adopted our dog from the dogs’ home.
We live opposite a girls’ school.

5. In compound nouns, the Possessive case is formed by adding an apostrophe +‘s’


to the last word.

Examples:
My brother-in-law’s son is a fine guitar player.
The policeman’s duty is from 8am to 5pm.

6. In a title or a noun made up of many words, the Possessive case is formed by


adding an apostrophe +‘s’ to the last word.

Examples:
The Prince of Timbaktu’s visit was a memorable one.
The President of India’s speech was eloquent yet succinct.

7. When two nouns are in apposition (placed side by side), the Possessive case is
formed by adding an apostrophe +‘s’ to the last word.

Examples:
The red brick house is my cousin, Pritasha’s home.
The great artist Picasso’s paintings are worth millions of dollars.

8. When two nouns are closely connected, the Possessive case is formed by adding
an apostrophe +‘s’ to the last word.

Examples:
Anna and Miranda’s coordinated teamwork was praiseworthy.
Miss Mary and her daughter’s house is just round the corner.

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 47
9. When two nouns are closely connected, but indicate separate possession, the
Possessive case is formed by adding an apostrophe +‘s’ to each of the nouns.

Examples:
Both Ruskin Bond’s and R. K. Narayan’s novels are interesting and a pleasure to
read.
The school’s and the corporation’s offices have different headquarters.

USES OF THE POSSESSIVE CASE

1. The Possessive case is chiefly used with the names of living things and
personified objects:

Examples:
the bird’s (a living thing) eggs
Renuka’s (a living thing) doll
Nature’s (a personified object) laws
Fortune’s (a personified object) favours
boys’ (living thing) school

2. The Possessive case is also used with nouns of space, time and weight:

Examples:
a month’s (noun of time) salary
a pound’s (noun of weight) weight
a stone’s (noun of space) throw
an hour’s (noun of time) time
a foot’s (noun of space)length

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 48
1. The Possessive case is NOT USED when showing

possession of non-living things.

Examples:

The hand of the clock (NOT the clock’s hand)

The roof of the hut (NOT the hut’s roof)

The legs of the chair (NOT the chair’s legs)

The foreword of the book (NOT the book’s foreword)

2. The words house, school/college, shop / restaurant, church,

hospital, theatre are often omitted after the corresponding


nouns in the Possessive case:

Examples:

I was so excited to see the famous actor, Rahman Khan, at

Nirula’s (i.e Nirula’s restaurant)

Rohan had studied at St. Stephen’s (i.e St. Stephen’s

college)

Mr. White had his blood sugar tested at Duncan’s (i.e Duncan

hospital)

She has gone to the baker’s (i.e. baker’s shop)

I always watch films at Jaslok’s (i.e Jaslok theatre)

* * * * *
Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 49
4. PRONOUNS
A Pronoun is a word which is used instead of a noun. It prevents unnecessary
repetition of the noun.

The Main Types of Pronouns:


1. Personal Pronouns
2. Possessive Pronouns
3. Demonstrative Pronouns
4. Interrogative Pronouns
5. Reflexive Pronouns
6. Emphatic Pronouns
7. Relative Pronouns

1.PERSONAL PRONOUNS
A Personal Pronoun is a pronoun used in the place of a noun that is a person or a
thing.

The Personal Pronouns are I, we, me, us, you, he, she, it and they.

They refer to the following three persons.


The person speaking i.e. the first person (I, we, me, us)
The person or persons spoken to i.e. the second person (you)
The person or persons spoken of i.e. the third person (he, she, her, him, it and
they, them)

Examples:
Please give me a glass of water.
She does her homework regularly.
I will meet you at the bus stop.

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 50
2.POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS
A pronoun that indicates possession or ownership is called a Possessive Pronoun.
These pronouns show that the objects belong to a person or a thing.

The Possessive Pronouns are mine, his, hers, ours, yours and theirs.

Examples:
 This book is mine.
 That brother of hers is really a handful.

None of the possessive pronouns are

spelled with an apostrophe.

The apostrophe is used to show possession, but we DO NOT use the

apostrophe with ‘his’, ‘hers’, ‘its’, ‘theirs’, ‘ours’ or ‘yours’ as these

words themselves are possessives and do not need the apostrophe.

3.DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS
A Pronoun which points out or directs us to the objects which they are referring to is
called a Demonstrative Pronoun.

The demonstrative pronouns are this, that, these, and those.

Examples:
 This is my school.
 These are the shirts I have chosen for myself.

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 51
This and These
 Both refer to things that are near in time or place to the speaker.
 ‘This’ is used to refer to singular nouns or noun phrases.
 ‘These’ is used to refer to plural nouns or noun phrases.

That and Those


 Both refer to things that are farther away in time or place to the
speaker.
 ‘That’ is used to refer to singular nouns or noun phrases.
 ‘Those’ is used to refer to plural nouns and noun phrases.

4.INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS
An Interrogative Pronoun is a word that does the work of a noun and can be used for
asking questions.

The Interrogative Pronouns are who, whom, whose, which and what.

Examples:
 Who sang this song?
 What do you want?

5.REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS
Reflexive pronouns reflect the action towards the subject. A Reflexive Pronoun
usually comes after the verb. When –self is added to my, your, him, her, it and –
selves to our, your, them, we get Reflexive Pronouns.

The Reflexive Pronouns are: myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself in the
singular form and ourselves, yourselves, themselves in the plural form.

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 52
Examples:
 The prince looked at himself in the mirror.
 The children trained themselves for the singing contest.

6.EMPHATIC PRONOUNS
A pronoun which is used for emphasis is called an Emphatic Pronoun. The words
are the same as Reflexive Pronouns, but these pronouns are used only to stress
facts expressed in a sentence.

The Emphatic Pronouns are: myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself in the
singular form and ourselves, yourselves, themselves in the plural form.

Examples:
 I myself will drop you home after the show.
 She herself asked us to do this task.

How to distinguish between Reflexive Pronouns and Emphatic


Pronouns:
Reflexive Pronouns simply return the action to the subject who is the doer of the
action, while Emphatic Pronouns stress upon the subject.
Further, in the case of Emphatic Pronouns, it can be removed from the sentence
without changing the sense of the sentence.

Trick to find out if the pronoun is Reflexive or Emphatic:


 Read the sentence aloud, omitting the pronoun.
 If the meaning of the sentence changes or if it seems incomplete or
incorrect without the pronoun, it is a Reflexive Pronoun.
 If the meaning of the sentence remains the same even after omitting
the pronoun, it is an Emphatic Pronoun.
Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 53
Now let’s check the rule on the sentences given below:

1. Sally wrote the essay all by herself. 2. Sally herself wrote the essay.

After omitting the pronoun: After omitting the pronoun:

1. Sally wrote the essay all by. 2. Sally wrote the essay.

(Incorrect or incomplete without the word (The meaning of the sentence remains
‘herself’) the same even without the word ‘herself’)

Therefore the pronoun in this sentence is Therefore the pronoun in this sentence is
a Reflexive Pronoun. an Emphatic Pronoun.

Look at the same words used as Reflexive Pronouns and as Emphatic


Pronouns in different sentences:

Reflexive Pronouns Emphatic Pronouns


1. The old lady poured herself 1. The old lady herself poured
another cup of tea. another cup of tea.
2. I cut myself while slicing the 2. I myself saw the thief running
vegetables. away.
3. Robert and his children painted 3. Robert and his children
their house by themselves. themselves said that they
wanted to paint the house.

7. RELATIVE PRONOUNS

Relative Pronouns join or connect two sentences while serving as a pronoun to


refer to a person, animal or thing going before it. Unlike a conjunction, however, a
relative pronoun stands in place of a noun.

The Relative Pronouns are who, whom, whose, which, that, and what.

Examples:
Is this the boy who always disturbs the class?
(‘Who’ relates to the noun that is a person)

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 54
I found the book that I was looking for.
(‘That’ relates to the noun that is a thing)

RELATIVE PRONOUN SUBJECT (NOUN OR PRONOUN) REFERRED TO


1. Who, Whom, Whose 1. Refer to people
2. Which, Whose 2. Refer to things, objects or animals
3. That 3. Refers to animals, things and objects
4. What 4. Refers to things

Joining sentences using the Relative Pronoun

Relative Pronouns are used to join sentences. As they join sentences, they are
pronouns as well as conjunctions.
Since a Relative Pronoun directly refers to a noun or pronoun, it should be placed
as near as possible to the noun or pronoun it refers to. To do that, some words
may have to be dropped or rearranged in the two sentences.

Examples:
 We met Harry Potter. He is a wizard.
 We met Harry Potter who is a wizard.
[The Relative Pronoun ‘who’ refers to the noun ‘Harry Potter’ and so is placed near it]

 Kunal chased the robber. He saw the robber running away with the booty.
 Kunal chased the robber whom he saw running away with the booty.

 The precious vase has been found. It was stolen last month.
 The precious vase that was stolen last month has been found.

 This is the boy. His bag was stolen yesterday.


 This is the boy whose bag was stolen yesterday.

 This is the letter. It was written by my friend.


 This is the letter which / that was written by my friend.

* * * * *
Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 55
5. ARTICLES
The words ‘a’, ‘an’ and ‘the’ are called Articles. They modify nouns and pronouns.

Examples:
I saw a jackal in the field.
Here is an umbrella.

There are 2 kinds of Articles:


1. Indefinite Articles
2. Definite Articles

INDEFINITE ARTICLES
‘A’ and ‘An’ are called Indefinite Articles.

They are called so because they DO NOT speak of any particular person,
place, animal or thing.

Examples:
Susan wrote with a pencil as her pen ran out of ink. (any pencil, not
any specific or particular one)
He had an egg for breakfast. (any egg, not any specific or particular
egg)

DEFINITE ARTICLES
‘The’ is called the Definite Article.

It is called so because it is used to refer to a particular person, place, animal


or thing.

Examples:
The girl talked loudly in class. (a particular girl, not any girl)
Did you return the book to the library? (a particular book, not any book;
a specific library, not any library)

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 56
Use of the Indefinite Article

An Indefinite Article is used before a singular countable noun.

‘A’ is used before a singular countable noun beginning with a


consonant sound. [For e.g. a pen, a bus]

We use ‘a’ even before certain words that begin with a vowel.
Some of these words are ‘university’, ‘unicorn’, ‘European’,
‘useful’, ‘one’ etc.
This is because the words ‘university’, ‘unicorn’, ‘European’,
‘useful’ begin with the consonant sound of ‘yu’ and the word ‘one’
begins with the consonant sound of ‘w’. So the article ‘a’ is used
before them; for e.g.- a university, a unicorn, a European, a useful
thing, a one-rupee note.

‘An’ is used before a singular countable noun beginning with


a vowel sound. [For e.g. an umbrella, an apple]

We use ‘an’ even before certain words that begin with a


consonant.
Some of these words are ‘hour’, ‘honest’, ‘heir’ etc.
This is because these words begin with a vowel sound, as the
initial consonant ‘h’ is silent and is not pronounced. So the article
‘an’ is used before these words as an hour, an honest man, an
heir.

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 57
THE CONTEXTUAL USE OF “A” AND “AN”

The Indefinite Articles are used to refer to:

1) To point out a singular countable noun when the noun is NOT specific or when the
reader does not know which one is referred to:

Examples:
Please give me a book.
Do you plan to take a holiday next month?
Can you name a hero?

2) To denote one number:

Examples:
I have a coin.
The beggar pleaded for a blanket on that cold winter day.

3) When denoting ‘any’:

Examples:
A dog loves to play ‘Fetch’. (any dog)
An hour of practice every day would be enough. (any hour)

4) A Proper noun representing a Common noun:

Examples:
He is a Shakespeare (a renowned writer) in the making.
He was an Einstein (a renowned scientist) in his knowledge of science.

5) With certain quantities:

Examples:
This weekend we had a lot of fun.
You seem to know a great many people around here.
I have a couple of errands to do after school.
Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 58
6) When expressing a defined number:

Examples:
He won a hundred million dollars in the lottery!
I could give you a million reasons on why not to worry.
There is a five rupee note in my wallet.

7) With price, ratio and speed:

Examples:
The whole sale price of almonds is Rs. 100 a kilo.
We reached Pune in three hours driving at 40 miles an hour.
I eat five times a day!

8) While expressing exclamation:

Examples:
What a handsome man!
What a cute puppy!
What a beautiful day!
Such an intelligent child!

THE CONTEXTUAL USE OF “THE”


The following are examples of the contextual use of “the”:

1. To denote a particular person or thing that was already mentioned previously or


one well-known to us:

Examples:
I met the lady whose purse was lost.
I spoke to the teacher who taught you English.
The poem you quoted was anonymous.
The bottle you bought is broken.

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 59
2. When a singular noun represents a whole category. The singular noun could be
an animal or thing:

Examples:
The lion is the king of the jungle.
The laptop is a kind of computer.
Every part of the coconut is very useful.
The tiger is an endangered species.

3. When using the superlative degree of comparison:

Examples:
The most exquisite necklace I have ever seen was displayed in the showcase.
This is the finest dark chocolate.
You have the best taste in clothing.
He was wearing the dirtiest pair of shoes I have ever seen!

4. When we refer to classical books or scriptures, names of newspapers or


periodical publications:

Examples:
The old man is an authority on the Bhagavad-Gita.
The animated series of the Mahabharata is telecasted every Sunday.
The Iliad was written by Homer.
The Times of India is famous for its comic strip.

5. While referring to names of bays, canals, rivers, seas, gulfs, oceans, straits,
group of islands, ships, glaciers, mountain ranges, geographical imaginary lines
etc:

Examples:
The Bay of Bengal forms India’s eastern coast.
The explorers crossed the Nile with great difficulty.
It is said that no one can drown in the Dead Sea because of its high salt content.
Oil was discovered in the Persian Gulf in 1908.
Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 60
The Himalayas lie to the north of India.
The Equator runs through Indonesia, Ecuador, northern Brazil, the Democratic
Republic of Congo and Kenya.
On 21st June, the sun shines vertically on the Tropic of Cancer.

6. Before the names of directions when preceded by prepositions to, in, on, at etc:

Examples:
This year we found more birds migrating to the North.
We lived in the South for many years.
On the west coast of the city, the population is largely indigenous.

7. Before common nouns which are names of things unique of their kind: (when
there is only one in existence):

Examples:
The sun is shining brightly today.
Tides are caused by the movement of the moon.
The earth moves round the sun.

8. Before ordinals:

Examples:
The second chapter of the novel is very interesting.
I tried the skirt for the third time.
He attempted to jump over the wall for the fifth time.

9. Before the names of important events:

Examples:
The Mutiny of 1857 was instrumental in the departure of the British from India.
General unrest amongst the people of France led to the French
Revolution in 1789.
The Third Battle of Panipat was fought between the Afghans and
the Marathas.

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 61
OMISSION OF ARTICLES
Articles are omitted in the following cases:

1. Before certain Proper noun such as names of people, continents, countries,


cities, individual mountains or mountain peaks, individual islands, lakes, hills etc:

Examples:
Delhi is the capital of India.
Lake Eerie is spread across Canada and America.
Junko Tabei was the first woman to climb Mount Everest.

We place articles before names of rivers,



oceans. seas, canals, deserts, mountains and hills.

We don’t place articles before names of people, continents,



countries, cities, individual mountains or mountain peaks,

individual islands and lakes.

2. Before material nouns:

Fe
Examples: FE
Gold is the king of all metals.
Mud, sand, granite and rock are all building materials.

3. Before abstract (uncountable) nouns:

Examples:
Speech is silver and Silence is golden.
God has given everyone both virtue and vice.

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 62
If an uncountable noun is specified or defined,
it stops having a general meaning and so takes the
definite article.
Examples:
 Our team has the spirit to compete again.
 The courage that he displayed was appreciated by all.

4. Before plural countable nouns used in the general sense:

Examples:
Parrots like fruits.
Reading poems can be very refreshing.
Computers are useful machines.

If the plural countable is specified or defined, it stops having a


general meaning and so takes the definite article.
Examples:
 The parrots in the cages were set free.
 The poems, the gentleman recited were from our book.
 The computers in the lab were not working.

5. Before names of languages:

Examples:
We speak Tamil at home.
Rohit studied French for five years.
I learnt to write Bengali in school.

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 63
6. Before names of meals when used in a general sense.

Examples:
What do you plan to eat for supper?
Where are you going to eat dinner?
Mother cooked lunch at home.

However, we use ‘a /an’ when there is an adjective before the


name of the meal and ‘the’ when we specify:
Examples:
 We had an early lunch today.
 The dinner yesterday was cooked by Father.

7. Before names of academic subjects:

Examples:
Robert’s favourite subject is English.
Mathematics is compulsory in most schools.

However, an article is used when a certain subject is specified.


Examples:
 Have you done the mathematics homework?
 The social science lesson we had yesterday was so
interesting.

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 64
REPETITION OF ARTICLES
Repeating an article may entirely change the meaning of a sentence. Read the
following sentences to see the difference:

Examples:
Sarah has a red and white dress. (only 1 article)
Sarah has a red and a white dress. (the same article ‘a’ has been repeated)

Do you think the two sentences mean the same?


No, they DO NOT.
Sentence 1 means Sarah has one dress in two colours – red and
white.
Sentence 2 means Sarah has two dresses – one red and the other
white.

Keep the following rules in mind to avoid making mistakes in the usage of articles:

1. When two or more adjectives qualify the same noun, the article is used only
before the first adjective; but when they qualify different nouns, the article is used
before each adjective.

Examples:
The rock star drives a red, yellow and blue car. (only 1 article)
This means that the rock star drives one car in three colours – red,
yellow and blue.

The rock star drives a red, a yellow and a blue car. (The same article ‘a’ has been
repeated.)
This means that the rock star drives three cars – one red, one yellow and the other
blue.

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 65
2. When two or more connected nouns refer to the same person or thing, the article
is normally used ONLY before the first noun; but when two or more connected nouns
refer to different persons or things, the article is used before each noun.

Examples:
The captain and monitor is absent today.
(There is only one person who is a captain as well as a monitor.)

The captain and the monitor are absent today.


(There are two different persons; one is a captain, the other is a monitor.)

A
An
The

* * * * *

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 66
6. VERBS
Verbs are action words which show action or state of being, - they indicate the state
of a person/ object and various actions and activities being performed. A verb is the
most important part of a sentence.

VERBS TELL US ABOUT:

1. The general state of a person or a thing.

Examples:
The school children are very happy today.
My wrist watch has two hands.

2. The activity performed by a person or a thing.

Examples:
Manish is driving the car. (Here, the type of action performed
by Manish is indicated)
I remember that police officer very well. (Here, an act performed in the mind
is indicated)

3. The action that a person or a thing is subjected to.

Examples:
Marie was given a dose of medicine by her mother. (Marie is affected by an
action ‘was given’ that was performed by her mother)
The bottle was broken. (The bottle is affected by an action ‘was broken’)

A verb is not always made up of one word; it often


consists of more than one word.
E.g. My brothers are playing football now. (the word are is a verb
that helps to form the present continuous tense of the verb play)

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 67
AUXILIARY VERBS

Verbs that help other verbs to exist in a sentence are called ‘Auxiliary verbs’ or
‘Helping verbs’. Auxiliary verbs assist the main verbs to form various tenses, voices
and moods. Auxiliaries are placed before the main verbs or even before subjects.
They are very different from other regular verbs.

be, do, have, can, may, shall, will,


Auxiliary verbs are 12 in number:
must, ought, dare, need, used (to)

Auxiliary verbs help other verbs to:

Make the forms of past, present and future


tenses
Make the passive forms
E.g.
E.g.
 You must be surprised.
 The gate was opened.
 He had told you this yesterday!
 The matter will be looked into.
 You may go with me tomorrow.

Make questions
E.g. Make negatives
 How can I help you? E.g.
 Has any of this made sense to you?  I haven’t seen him today.
 I can’t write with my left hand.

Auxiliary Verbs are of two kinds:

1. Primary Auxiliaries: be, do, have.


2. Modal Auxiliaries: can (could), may (might), shall (should), will (would), must,
ought, used (to), need, dare.

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 68
Primary Auxiliaries

Primary Auxiliaries help in forming various sentence structures, such as tenses,


negatives, questions, and the passive voice. They indicate the status of the subject
when they are used as main verbs. They include the verbs be, do and have.

The forms of ‘be’: am, is, are, was, were, being, been.
The forms of ‘do’: do, does, did.
The forms of ‘have’: has, have, had.

The Primary Auxiliaries as Helping Verbs:


The Primary Auxiliaries change their forms according to the Number and Person of
the subject.

Examples:
He is doing his homework.
They are doing their homework.

The Primary Auxiliaries as Main Verbs:


The Primary Auxiliaries can also be used as main verbs in a sentence.

Examples:
The mango is the king of fruits.
Rohan does his work sincerely.

Modal Auxiliaries
The word “modal” comes from the root word “mood”. Thus, a modal auxiliary is
generally used before ordinary verbs to express moods of the intended statement.
They are used to indicate the intention and attitude of the speaker.

They include the verbs can (could), may (might), shall (should), will (would),
must, ought, used (to), need and dare.

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 69
Examples:
I can swim across the river.
He might be at home early in the evening.
May I look at the questions now?
They need to be cordial to them despite everything.
I dare not answer back.

The Modal Auxiliaries as Helping Verbs:


The Modal Auxiliaries DO NOT change their forms according to the Number and
Person of the subject

Examples:
He may go to Singapore next week.
They may go to Singapore next week.

The Modal Auxiliaries as Main Verbs:


Unlike the Primary Auxiliaries, the Modal Auxiliaries CANNOT function as Main
Verbs except in a few cases.
When the modal auxiliaries function as main verbs, they are used for special
emphasis, or as short answers to questions.

Examples:
They can.
He might.
Can I go to the park? Yes, you can.
Must she finish the work before leaving? Yes, she must.

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 70
AGREEMENT OF THE VERB WITH THE SUBJECT

Every complete sentence has a subject and a verb.


The verb in the sentence must always agree with the subject in number and in person.

The subject of a sentence is the part which speaks about


a person or a thing.
The subject is either a noun or pronoun. It may also be more than
one noun or pronoun or a compound word.

Examples:
The player (singular subject) on our side is (singular verb) strong.
The players (plural subject) on our side are (plural verb) strong.

Ralph (singular subject) plays (singular verb) guitar.


Ralph and his brother (plural subject) play (plural verb) guitar.

Rules for agreement of the verb with the subject

1. If two or more singular nouns or pronouns are joined by ‘and’, they require a
plural verb.

Examples:
Gold and silver are precious metals.
He and I were playing.

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 71
If the nouns talk of one idea, or refer to the same
person or thing, use a singular verb.

Examples:
Bread and butter is wholesome.
The novelist and poet is dead.
Time and tide waits for none.
My friend and benefactor has come.

2. Words joined to a singular subject by ‘with’, ‘as well as’ etc., require a singular
verb.

Examples:
The ship, with its crew, was lost.
The price of silver, as well as cotton, has fallen.

3. Two or more singular subjects connected by ‘or’, ‘either…or’ and ‘neither…nor’


necessitate a singular verb.

Examples:
No nook or corner was left unexplored.
Either a cat or a dog has been here.
Neither praise nor criticism seems to affect him.

If one of the subjects joined by either…or or neither…nor is plural,


the verb must be plural and the plural subject must be placed
near the verb.

Examples:
Neither Rahul nor his friends were prepared to take the test.
Either he or his sisters were present for the ceremony.

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 72
If the subjects are joined by either…or or neither…nor
and are talking of different people, the verb must
agree with the subject nearer to it.

Examples:
Either he or I am mistaken.
Neither you nor he is to blame.

4. ‘Either’, ‘neither’, ‘each’, ‘everyone’ and ‘many a’ must be followed by a


singular verb.

Examples:
He asked me if either of the applications was suitable.
Everyone loves to ride bikes.
Many a man has done so.

5. Some nouns which are plural in form, but singular in meaning, take a singular
verb.

Examples:
The news is not true.
Politics is not meant for the faint-hearted.
Mathematics is a compulsory subject in most schools.

6. Nouns that are made up of 2 parts take a plural verb.

Examples:
Your trousers are always well ironed.
My tweezers were finally found in the last drawer.
The scissors are lying under the table.

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 73
7. A collective noun takes a singular verb when the collection is thought of as a
whole.

Examples:
The army has left for the front.
The mob has dispersed because of the arrival of
the police.
The herd was moving towards the water.

8. If two singular nouns joined by ‘and’ are preceded by ‘each’ or ‘every’, the verb
is singular.

Examples:
Each day and each night is a gift of God.
Every boy and every girl was given a gift.

9. A singular verb follows ‘each’, ‘every’, ‘every one’, ‘everybody’, ‘anyone’,


‘anybody’, ‘someone’, ‘somebody’, ‘no one’ and ‘nobody’.

Examples:
Everybody was surprised at the results.
Anyone is allowed to enter the museum till 6 p.m.
Somebody is going to speak up sooner or later.
No one was prepared to take up the challenge.

10. A plural verb follows ‘several’, ‘few’, ‘both’ and ‘many’.

Examples:
Several children were late due to the strike.
Few students were standing to the left.
Both the children were sleeping.
Many boys are studying for the entrance test.

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 74
Some tricks to avoid mistakes
1. Most of the times, the subject-verb pair has only one ‘s’.
Usually, plural nouns end with an s. However, in the case of verbs, it is the exact
opposite. Singular verbs end with an s, while singular nouns don’t.
Examples:
The cars run, but the car runs.
The girl sings, but the girls sing.

2. Sometimes a Prepositional phrase separates the subject from the verb. In these
cases, it is not easy to identify the subject. Read the following sentence:
The dishes in the kitchen are dirty.
Cancel the phrase as it has been done in the sentence given below:
The dishes in the kitchen are dirty.
This will help you get the basic sentence. Now read it without the phrase.
The dishes are dirty.
Does the sentence sound correct? Yes, it does; since the dishes is the plural
subject of the verb are, and it, therefore, needs a plural verb.

AVOID THE ERROR OF PROXIMITY


Sometimes, the ‘noun’ next to the ‘verb’ is mistakenly
taken as the ‘subject of the verb.’ It might result into
an incorrect number agreement. This is called the
“error of proximity”. Such errors should be avoided.
The quality of the diamonds were not good. (incorrect)
The quality of the diamonds was not good. (correct - the subject
is ‘quality’ not ‘the diamonds’)
More examples:
The price of mangoes has gone down. (We’re talking about the
price of mangoes and NOT the mangoes themselves)
His knowledge of Indian languages is far more than anyone else.
(We’re talking about his knowledge of Indian languages and NOT
the languages themselves)

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 75
CLASSIFICATION OF VERBS

VERBS

TRANSITIVE INTRANSITIVE

FINITE NON-FINITE

INFINITIVE GERUND PARTICIPLE

TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS

Consider the following sentences:

A B
Alec threw the ball. Alec sings.

My brother heard a loud noise. My brother sleeps.

The little kitten licked her paws. The little kitten mews.

In the sentences under column A, each of the verbs ‘threw’, ‘heard’ and ‘licked’ has
an object.
o The action denoted by the verb ‘threw’ passes over to the object ‘ball’.
o The action denoted by the verb ‘heard’ passes over to the object ‘noise’.
o The action denoted by the verb ‘licked’ passes over to the object ‘paws’.

The verbs in these examples are called TRANSITIVE VERBS as they transit or
pass over the action from the subject to the object of the sentence.

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 76
In the sentences under column B, the verbs ‘sings’, ‘sleeps’ and ‘mews’ DO NOT
have objects. Therefore, the actions denoted by the verbs ‘sings’, ‘sleeps’ and
‘mews’ stop with their respective subjects, and DO NOT pass over to any object (as
these verbs have no objects).

The verbs in these examples are called INTRANSITIVE VERBS as they do not
transit or pass over the action from the subject to the object of the sentence.

TRANSITIVE VERBS

When the action of the subject of a verb affects some other person or thing, that
person or thing is called the object of the verb. The action starts from the subject
and ends with the object.

action (verb)
subject object

Examples:
Andy will write an essay.
Andy’s act of writing passes from Andy himself and produces an essay, a thing
separate and different from Andy. So, essay is the object of the verb will write.

The eagle built a nest.


The eagle’s act of building results in a nest, a thing that is separate from and
different from the eagle itself. So, nest is the object of the verb built.

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 77
Examples of transitive verbs:

The teacher wrote the answers.

You broke the vase.

The farmer was sowing the seeds.

The policeman stopped the car..

Most Transitive Verbs take a single object.


But there are some Transitive verbs that take two
objects after them. The first object after the verb
is called the Indirect Object while the next object
is called the Direct Object.
The teacher gave (verb) Sarah (Indirect Object) a book (Direct
Object).
Zeba told (verb) us (Indirect Object) a lie (Direct Object).

Each of the sentences above can be rewritten without any change


of meaning by putting the Direct Object before the Indirect
Object, and close to the verb of which it is the object.
In that case the prepositions ‘to’ or ‘for’ is placed before the
Indirect object and the Indirect Object becomes the Object of
the preposition ‘to’ or ‘for’.
The teacher gave (verb) a book (Direct Object) to Sarah
(Indirect Object).
Zeba told a lie (Direct Object) to us (Indirect Object).

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 78
INTRANSITIVE VERBS
Often the verb simply tells us something about the subject itself: what it is or what it
is like. The action described by the verb does not affect some other person or thing—
it stops with the subject.

action (verb)
subject subject

Examples:
Dave laughed.
The verb laughed tells us something about Dave, the subject itself.
It does not tell us how it affects some other person or thing. The verb laughed
therefore has no object.

The cat sleeps.


Here, we are told something about the subject itself. The action of sleeping
does not pass from the cat to some other thing or person. The verb sleeps
therefore has no object.

Examples of intransitive verbs:

The cat purrs.


The baby laughed.
The treasure chest sank immediately.
She spoke arrogantly.
The athlete ran.

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 79
How do we differentiate between
a Transitive and an Intransitive Verb?

A Transitive Verb has an object


while an Intransitive Verb does not have an object.

To find if a verb has an object or not, we ask the question what or whom after the verb.

Examples:
Andy will write an essay. ‘will write’ what? Answer: Essay
The eagle built a nest. ‘built’ what? Answer: Nest
Ashley loves his father. loves’ whom? Answer: His father

So, ‘essay’, ‘nest’ and ‘birds’ are the objects of the verbs will write, built and loves.

The meaning of a transitive verb is incomplete without a direct object.

Examples:
The shelf holds. [Incomplete]
The shelf holds three books and a vase of flowers. [Complete]

The committee named. [Incomplete]


The committee named a new chairperson. [Complete]

The child broke. [Incomplete]


The child broke the plate. [Complete]

An intransitive verb, on the other hand, cannot take a direct object.

Examples:
This plant has thrived on the south windowsill.
[The verb ‘has thrived’ is intransitive and takes no direct object in this sentence.
The prepositional phrase ‘on the south windowsill’ acts as an adverb describing
where the plant thrives.]

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 80
The sound of the choir carried through the cathedral.
[The verb ‘carried’ is used intransitively in this sentence and takes no direct
object. The prepositional phrase ‘through the cathedral’ acts as an adverb
describing where the sound carried.]

The train from Montreal arrived four hours late.


[The intransitive verb ‘arrived’ takes no direct object, and the noun phrase ‘four
hours late’ acts as an adverb describing when the train arrived.]

The object has to be somebody or something

different from the subject itself.

Examples:

The sky looks blue.

The sky looks … what? Answer: blue

Andy is a doctor.

Andy is … what? Answer: doctor

If we ask the question what after the verb, in each case we seem

to get an answer. But if we look at the answers carefully, we find

that each of them tells us something about the subject itself and

does not refer to somebody or something that is different from

the subject.

So, they are NOT really objects. These verbs - looks, is – are,

therefore, intransitive.

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 81
How to find whether a verb has an object or not?

1. First, we ask the question ‘what’ or ‘whom’ after the verb.


2. If we do not get an answer, we can straightaway say that the verb is intransitive.
3. If we get an answer, we have to look closely at the answer to see whether:
- it tells us something about the subject itself, or whether
- it refers to somebody or something that is separate/different from the subject.
4. If it tells us something about the subject itself then it is not an object. So the verb
is intransitive.
5. Only if it refers to somebody or something that is separate/different from the
subject, it is an object. Then, the verb is a transitive verb.

FINITE VERBS

A Finite Verb is a word that denotes some action. It specifies the time of the action
through the Tense and agrees with the subject of the sentence.
It is the most essential feature of a sentence. A sentence cannot exist without it.
Finite verbs help us form various tenses that assist in making language specific, and
streamlined.

Examples:
A person learns something new every day.
Here, the word learns is the action word of the sentence, and tells us what a
person is doing. It also tells us about the time of the action, that it is in the Simple
Present Tense. This form of the verb (learns) agrees with the subject (any
person) of the sentence which is in the Third Person Singular. This is what we
call a Finite Verb.]

NON - FINITE VERBS

Non-Finite Verbs are words that possess certain features of the verb, but cannot
stand on their own to form sentences. They do not possess tense or subject. Non-
Finite verbs assist a verb in completing the meaning of a sentence.
They can act as nouns, adjectives and phrases.

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 82
Kinds of Non-finites

Non-finite verbs are of three kinds:

1. The Infinitive
2. The Participle
3. The Gerund

1. THE INFINITIVE

An Infinitive is a Non-Finite Verb Phrase that consists of the words to + verb.


It can be used as a Noun, Adjective or Adverb.

Read the following sentences:


1. The child reads poems.
2. The child loves to read poems.

In sentence 1, the action word reads has a tense (Simple Present) and agrees with
the subject, ‘The child’. Thus it forms a meaningful sentence and, in fact, supports
the entire sentence. Undoubtedly, it is a Finite Verb.

Now look at sentence 2. Here the finite verb is loves. It is in the Simple Present
Tense and agrees with its subject, ‘The child’. In this sentence, the action word, to
read, refers to an action but has neither a definite tense nor subject with which to
relate. While it does assist in extending the meaning of the verb loves, it cannot
stand on its own. It is also preceded by the preposition to.
Thus, to read is an Infinitive.

More examples with infinitives:

The peacock loves to display its plumage.


It would be nice to start a book club in school.

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 83
The word ‘to’ is frequently used with the Infinitive,

but is not an essential part or a sign of it.

After certain verbs like bid, let, make, etc. we use the infinitive

without ‘to’.

Example:

Make him stand.

I will not let you go.

We need not go today.

2. The Participle

A participle is that part of a verb which acts as a Verb as well as an Adjective.

Read the following sentence:


The dancing doll attracted the little girl.
In the sentence given above, the word dancing tells us more about the doll.
Consequently, it acts as an adjective. At the same time, its structure lies in the verb
dance. Thus it acts as a verb too.

Examples:
The noise at the station did not disturb the sleeping passenger.
The crying child was pacified by a stranger.

The Three categories of Participles are:


1. Present Participle
2. Past Participle
3. Perfect Participle

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 84
1. The Present Participle:
A Present Participle consists of one word ending in -ing which refers to an action
or an incomplete action. It is formed using the verb in its –ing form.

Examples:
The singing bird amused all.
Everybody went to see the roaring lion.
[In the above sentences, the participles in bold italics end in - ing. Each of them
consists of a single word and represents an action or state of being that is going
on or incomplete.]

2. The Past Participle:


A Past Participle is a Non-Finite Verb which represents an action that has been
completed. It is formed using the verb + suffixes like –ed, –d, –t, –en, –n.

Examples:
Angered by the noise, the man used a microphone to disturb the neighbour’s
party.
Words spoken cannot be taken back.
[In the given sentences, the words in bold italics refer to a completed action or
state of being.]

3. The Perfect Participle:


A Perfect Participle represents an action that has been completed at some time
in the past. It is formed with the auxiliary verb having / having been + past
participle of the verb.

Examples:
Having spoken, the leader sat down.
Having slept, the children were ready to hike again.
[In the above sentences, these words function as adjectives cum verbs and refer
to actions that have been completed sometime in the past.]

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 85
3. The Gerund

A Gerund is word or group of words which functions as a Noun + Verb.

Read the following sentences:


1. Drawing is his hobby.
2. I like writing lyrics.

In sentence 1, the word drawing acts as the subject of the verb is, since it answers
the question What is his hobby? (Answer = Drawing). This makes it a noun.
However, it also acts as a verb since its origin lies in the verb draw.

In sentence 2, the word writing acts as the object of the verb like, since it answers
the question Like what? (Answer = Writing lyrics.) However, it also acts as a verb
since its origin lies in the verb write. In this case, it also governs the object lyrics.

Examples:
Hunting is no longer a recommended sport.
My family is fond of reading after supper.

The Gerund and the Infinitive

A Gerund can easily be replaced by an infinitive because both function


simultaneously as Noun and Verb.

Example 1:
Teach me weaving. (Gerund)
Teach me to weave. (Infinitive)

Example 2:
Students like performing on stage. (Gerund)
Students like to perform on stage. (Infinitive)

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 86
Helpful tips to make the correct choice

Some verbs that take ONLY Infinitives as direct objects


hope propose pretend expect want
decide learn hesitate promise attempt
need agree neglect plan

Examples:
I hope to see you again. (Correct)
I hope seeing you again. (Incorrect)

Some verbs that take ONLY Gerunds as direct objects


recall enjoy dislike admit give up keep
appreciate detest stop regret risk tolerate
suggest avoid recommend finish practise mind
delay quit consider deny keep on postpone

Examples:
I enjoy solving problems after school. (Correct)
I enjoy to solve problems after school. (Incorrect)

Some verbs that take EITHER Gerunds or Infinitives as direct objects


start begin continue hate
love try prefer like

Examples:
The passengers started to leave the train. (Correct)
The passengers started leaving the train. (Correct)

Some “sense verbs” that take an object + a gerund or a simple verb


observe notice watch hear
smell see feel

Examples:
The neighbor heard the man knocking at our door. (object + gerund) (Correct)
The neighbor heard the man knock at our door.(Object + simple verb) (Correct)

* * * * *
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7. ADJECTIVES

Adjectives are describing words - they tell us more about nouns or pronouns.
Literally, adjectives mean, ‘added to’.
They add to the meaning of nouns or pronouns.

Examples:
The tall girl is playing basketball.
[In this sentence, ‘girl’ is the noun and ‘tall’ is the word that is describing the girl.
So ‘tall’ is an adjective.]
She is kind and often helps the poor.
[Here, ‘kind’ is used as an adjective to describe the pronoun ‘She’.]

The names of numbers and colours are adjectives too!


Examples:
Omi drives a red car.
Isha has five Barbie dolls.

IDENTIFYING AN ADJECTIVE

1. An adjective describes a noun or pronoun.

Examples:

A greedy fox His dog Many books A bright idea

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 88
2. An adjective often comes before the noun or the pronoun it modifies.

Examples:

Angry man Half-eaten apple This cat

3. Sometimes an adjective comes after the noun or pronoun that it modifies.

Examples:

Miss Betsy’s dress is beautiful.


(Modifying the noun ‘dress’)

The day was bright and sunny.


(Modifying the noun ‘day’)

Adjectives usually answer four questions


about the nouns or pronouns they describe

What kind of?


I saw a red flower in the garden.
[What kind of flower? Red]

Whose? Which one(s)?


Her book is on the shelf. I want to eat those muffins.
[Whose book? Her] [Which muffins? Those]

How many or How much?


Four tickets for the show, please.
[How many tickets? Four]

The chef put lots of oil to make the curry.


[How much oil? Lots]

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 89
1. When there is more than one noun in the

sentence, the adjective will qualify the noun

next to it.

The naughty boy pulled the puppy’s tail. (There are 3 nouns –

‘boy’, ‘puppy’ and ‘tail’, but the adjective ‘naughty’ describes

the noun next to it, i.e. ‘boy’)

The boy pulled the naughty puppy’s tail. (There are 3 nouns –

‘boy’, ‘puppy’ and ‘tail’, but the adjective ‘naughty’ describes

the noun next to it, i.e. ‘puppy’)

2. Some nouns or pronouns may have more than one adjective to

describe it.

The clever, old, black crow sat on the tree.

(‘clever’, ‘old’ and ‘black’ describe the same noun – ‘crow’)

3. Other than single words used to describe nouns and pronouns,

adjectives may have more than one word. These are called

Compound Adjectives.

good-looking woman

long-lasting furniture

sure-footed climber

well-dressed executive

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 90
KINDS OF ADJECTIVES

Adjectives are classified into the following types:


1. Adjectives of Quality
2. Adjectives of Quantity
3. Adjectives of Number
4. Interrogative Adjectives
5. Demonstrative Adjectives
6. Possessive Adjectives
7. Exclamatory Adjectives

1. Adjectives of Quality

Adjectives which show the kind or quality or characteristics of a noun or pronoun are
called Adjectives of Quality.
Adjectives of Quality answer the question ‘of what kind’.
They describe the kind, type, size, shape, colour etc. of a noun or pronoun.

Save our beautiful


Examples:
planet. Do not cut
Akbar was a wise ruler. (What kind of ruler? wise) the green trees.
The huge ship sank in an hour. (What kind of ship? huge)

Adjectives formed from Proper Nouns are Adjectives of Quality, but


sometimes they are called Proper Adjectives.
Australian team Indian tea Chinese goods
Roman Empire Russian flag Persian carpets

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 91
2. Adjectives of Quantity

Adjectives that show or indicate the amount of a thing involved are called Adjectives
of Quantity.
Adjectives of Quantity answer the question ‘how much’.

Examples:
I had eaten half the cake by the time Tina came home. (How much? half)
Little knowledge is a dangerous thing. (How much? little)

Adjective of Quantity do not tell the quantity in definite

terms.

Please give me some milk. (We can’t count ‘some milk’)

3. Adjectives of Number

Adjectives that show how many persons or things are involved or in what order a
person or a thing stands are called Adjectives of Number or Numerical Adjectives.
Adjectives of Number answer the question ‘how many’ and ‘in what order’.

Examples:
There are four pencils in the pencil box. (How many? four)
February is the second month of the year. (In what order? second)

Adjectives of Number can be classified into three classes:


a) Definite Numerical Adjectives
b) Indefinite Numerical Adjectives
c) Distributive Numerical Adjectives

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 92
a) Definite Numerical Adjectives:
Definite Numerical Adjectives denote an exact number.
They are of two kinds: Cardinals and Ordinals.

Examples:
Cardinals: one, two, three, four etc.
Ordinals: first, second, third, fourth etc.

b) Indefinite Numerical Adjectives:


Indefinite Numerical Adjectives do not denote an exact number. They include
words such as: all, no, many, few, some, any, certain, most, several etc.

Examples:
All the children were outdoors.
Few of my friends came to the wedding.

c) Distributive Numerical Adjectives:


Distributive Numerical Adjectives refer to each one of a number. They refer to
each single person or thing in a group. They include the words each, every, either
and neither.

Examples:
Each book costs Rs 100. (Each denotes two or more things taken separately.)
Every person in the room was surprised on hearing the news. (Every means
each of a whole collection separately stated or considered.)
You can buy either of the shirts; both will look good on you. (Either is any one
of two things. It means any one of the two will do.)
Neither of these mangoes is ripe. (Neither excludes each of two things. It
means neither the one nor the other.)

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 93
Adjectives of Quantity and Adjectives of Number
Words like some, any, all, no, enough, sufficient
etc. can be used both as Adjectives of Quantity and
Adjectives of Number.
If they describe uncountable nouns like milk, light etc, they are
Adjectives of Quantity.
If they describe countable nouns like boys, books etc, they are
Adjectives of Number.
I drank some water. (Adjective of Quantity)
Here are some berries for you to eat. (Adjective of Number)

4. Interrogative Adjectives

Adjectives which are used with nouns to ask questions are called Interrogative
Adjectives. They are what, whose and which.

Examples:
Which colour do you like?
What day was yesterday?

Interrogative Adjectives and Interrogative Pronouns


Some words that are used as Interrogative Pronouns
can ALSO be used with nouns and so become
Interrogative Adjectives in those sentences.
What plan did you follow? (Interrogative Adjective)
What is your plan? (Interrogative Pronoun)
Whose books are these? (Interrogative Adjective)
Whose are these? (Interrogative Pronoun)

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 94
5. Demonstrative Adjectives

Adjectives that point out which person or thing is involved are called Demonstrative
Adjectives.
They are placed before a noun and they answer the question ‘which one’.

Examples:
These colour pencils are mine, while those colour pencils are yours.
I do not like such habits.

Demonstrative Adjectives and Demonstrative Pronouns


If the word is used with a noun and is placed before a
noun, it is a Demonstrative Adjective.
If the word is used in place of a noun, it is a
Demonstrative Pronoun.
That bungalow is yours. (Demonstrative Adjective)
That is your bungalow. (Demonstrative Pronoun)

How to differentiate between the two?


Read the sentence omitting the pronoun.
If the sentence makes sense by omitting the pronoun and using an
article in its place, it is an Adjective.
If the sentence does not make sense after omitting the pronoun
and placing an article in its place, it is a Pronoun.
I will buy this book. OR I will buy a/the book. (correct)
(Demonstrative Adjective)
This is my book. OR A/The is my book. (incorrect)
(Demonstrative Pronoun)

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6. Possessive Adjectives

Adjectives which show possession are called Possessive Adjectives.


They are used with nouns to show possession or relationship.
They are usually placed before a noun and they answer the question ‘whose’.

Examples:
This is their dog. (Whose dog? their)
Her sister came to visit us in Canada. (Whose sister? her)

Possessive Adjectives and Possessive Pronouns


If the word describes a noun and is used with nouns,
it is a Possessive Adjective.
If the word is used to do the work of a noun and so is
used in place of a noun, it is a Possessive Pronoun.
This is his red bag. (‘his’ is used to describe a noun and shows
possession; so it’s a Possessive Adjective)
The red bag is his. (‘his’ is used in place of a noun and shows
possession; so it’s a Possessive Pronoun)

7. Exclamatory Adjectives

An adjective that is used to express an exclamation is an Exclamatory Adjective.


Exclamatory Adjectives are used in Exclamatory sentences.
The word 'what' is sometimes used as an Exclamatory Adjective.

Examples:
What a genius you are!
What a great idea!

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FORMATION OF ADJECTIVES

1. The formation of Adjectives from Nouns

With the suffix “able” With the suffix “al”

NOUNS ADJECTIVES NOUNS ADJECTIVES


comfort comfortable agriculture agricultural
memory memorable accident accidental
desire desirable music musical
irritation irritable nation national

With the suffix “ant” With the suffix “ent”

NOUNS ADJECTIVES NOUNS ADJECTIVES


abundance abundant confidence confident
defiance defiant deficiency deficient
reluctance reluctant difference different
significance significant intelligence intelligent

With the suffix “ate” With the suffix “ful”

NOUNS ADJECTIVES NOUNS ADJECTIVES


accuracy accurate beauty beautiful
compassion compassionate help helpful
passion passionate power powerful
privacy private truth truthful

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 97
With the suffix “ive” With the suffix “ish”

NOUNS ADJECTIVES NOUNS ADJECTIVES


attraction attractive book bookish
competition competitive fever feverish
creation creative girl girlish
information informative sheep sheepish

With the suffix “ic” With the suffix “tic”

NOUNS ADJECTIVES NOUNS ADJECTIVES


character characteristic Asia Asiatic
comedy comic democracy democratic
hero heroic ideal idealistic
magnet magnetic idiom idiomatic

With the suffix “ary” With the suffix “ory”

NOUNS ADJECTIVES NOUNS ADJECTIVES


compliment complimentary introduction introductory
moment momentary compulsion compulsory
supplement supplementary migration migratory

With the suffix “y” With the suffix “ly”

NOUNS ADJECTIVES NOUNS ADJECTIVES


length lengthy cowardice cowardly
rain rainy friend friendly
sleep sleepy month monthly

With the suffix “less”


With the suffix “ous”
NOUNS ADJECTIVES
NOUNS ADJECTIVES cloud cloudless
curiosity curious heart heartless
fame famous time timeless
suspicion suspicious
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2. The formation of Adjectives from Verbs

With the suffix “able” With the suffix “ible”

VERBS ADJECTIVES VERBS ADJECTIVES


accept acceptable convert convertible
laugh laughable flex flexible
manage manageable corrupt corruptible
adore adorable compress compressible

With the suffix “some” With the suffix “tive”

VERBS ADJECTIVES VERBS ADJECTIVES


burden burdensome describe descriptive
trouble troublesome talk talkative

With the suffix “ic” With the suffix “less”

VERBS ADJECTIVES VERBS ADJECTIVES


terrify terrific cease ceaseless
horrify horrific tire tireless

3. The formation of Adjectives from other Adjectives

ADJECTIVES OTHER ADJECTIVES


red reddish
black blackish
white whitish
sick sickly
whole wholesome
three threefold
tragic tragical
comic comical

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ADJECTIVES: DEGREES OF COMPARISON
The form of an adjective is often changed to show the extent or
degree to which a certain quality is present. There are three degrees
of comparison: Positive, Comparative and Superlative.

1. The Positive Degree of an Adjective


The Positive Degree of an adjective is used to denote the mere existence of some
quality that we talk about. It is the simple form of the adjective. It is nothing but the
adjective itself. It is used when no comparison is made. It shows that the quality is
present, but it does not show a comparison with anything else.

Examples:
The dessert is sweet.
The bed is small.

2. The Comparative Degree of an Adjective


The Comparative Degree of an adjective is used to compare three or more persons
or things. It shows that the quality exists to a greater or to a lesser degree in one of
the two persons or things compared.

Examples:
The dessert is sweeter than the drink.
The bed is smaller than the cupboard.

3. The Superlative Degree of an Adjective


The Superlative Degree of an adjective is used when a comparison is made between
more than two persons or things. It indicates that the quality is possessed to the
greatest or the least degree by one of the persons or things included in the
comparison.

Examples:
This is the sweetest dessert ever.
This is the smallest bed.

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 100


RULES TO COMPARE ADJECTIVES

RULE 1:

In most cases when the adjective is of only one syllable:


- Form the comparative degree by adding ‘er’ to the adjective in the positive degree.
- Form the superlative degree by adding ‘est’ to the adjective in the positive degree.

Examples:

POSITIVE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE


bold bolder boldest
calm calmer calmest
few fewer fewest
great greater greatest

sharp sharper sharpest

RULE 2:

When the adjective is of only one syllable and ends in ‘e’:


- Form the comparative degree by adding ‘r’ to the adjective in the positive degree.
- Form the superlative degree by adding ‘st’ to the adjective in the positive degree.

Examples:

POSITIVE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE


brave braver bravest
fine finer finest
late later latest
noble nobler noblest

wise wiser wisest

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RULE 3:

When the adjective is of only one syllable and ends in a single consonant
preceded by a vowel:
- Form the comparative degree by doubling the end consonant of the adjective in
the positive degree and adding ‘er’ to it.
- Form the superlative degree by doubling the end consonant of the adjective in the
positive degree and adding ‘est’ to it.

Examples:

POSITIVE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE


big bigger biggest
fat fatter fattest
hot hotter hottest
red redder reddest
sad sadder saddest

RULE 4:

When the adjective ends in ‘y’ and is preceded by a consonant:


- Form the comparative degree by changing the ‘y’ to ‘i’ and adding ‘er’.
- Form the superlative degree by changing the ‘y’ to ‘i’ and adding ‘est’.

Examples:

POSITIVE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE


costly costlier costliest
easy easier easiest
happy happier happiest
lazy lazier laziest
wealthy wealthier wealthiest

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 102


RULE 5:

When the adjective is made of two or more syllables:


- Form the comparative degree by placing ‘more’ or ‘less’ before the positive degree.
- Form the superlative degree by placing ‘most’ or ‘least’ before the positive degree.

Examples:

POSITIVE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE


cautious more or less cautious most or least cautious
delicate more or less delicate most or least delicate
famous more or less famous most or least famous
intelligent more or less intelligent most or least intelligent

useful more or less useful most or least useful

RULE 6:

Some adjectives have irregular comparative and superlative comparisons.


Their Comparative and Superlative are not formed from the Positive.

Examples:

POSITIVE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE


bad, ill worse worst
far farther / further farthest / furthest
fore former foremost / first
good, well better best
late later / latter latest
little less least
much (quantity) more most
many (number) more most
old older / elder oldest / eldest
near nearer nearest / next

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Some adjectives cannot be compared because

their meaning is already superlative.

Examples:

abundant, blind, dead, eternal, everlasting, extreme, fatal, final, full,

instantaneous, left, major, minor, mortal, numerous, perfect, right,

round, single, square, supreme, universal, unique, vertical, wrong etc.

This is the more / most final chapter of the book. (incorrect)

This is the final chapter of the book. (correct)

1. Some two syllable adjectives follow two rules.


The comparatives and superlatives of these adjectives may be
formed with ‘-er’ and ‘-est’ and also with ‘more’ and ‘most’
respectively.

POSITIVE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE


 clever -- cleverer / more clever -- cleverest / most clever
 gentle -- gentler / more gentle -- gentlest / most gentle

2. Some adjectives DO NOT have a Positive form.

POSITIVE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE


 x -- inner -- innermost
 x -- outer -- outermost

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POSITION OF ADJECTIVES

1. Adjectives placed before a Noun

Generally, adjectives are placed before a noun. These are called Attributive Adjectives.
These adjectives qualify the nouns before which they are placed.

Examples:
I wore a large hat to the farewell party.
Which book did you buy?

2. Adjectives placed after the words they describe

i) Adjectives that qualify a pronoun are always placed after it.

Examples:
We saw the clown and thought him funny.
The message was sent to all those concerned.

ii) When some word or phrase is linked to an Adjective to explain or clarify its
meaning, this Adjective and the entire group is placed after the noun it describes.
Examples:
The artist was a man enthusiastic about everything in life.
A soldier, courageous to the very end, was honoured by the nation.

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 105


iii) Placing an Adjective after the noun is sometimes used to influence the style and
rhythm of poetry.
Examples:

She was a lady sweet and kind.


There dwelt a farmer, hale and hearty,
Beside the Village Green.
[This placement of the Adjective is generally not done in prose.]

iv) Adjectives are placed after the noun when they are used with adjectives in the
superlative degree.
Examples:
It was the worst story imaginable.
The policeman came up with the smartest plan possible.

v) Adjectives are placed after the noun when there is need for emphasis in a
statement.
Examples:
Today we take a pledge, strong and resolute, to protect our city.
Our planet earth, magical, beautiful and amazing, is the only home we have.

3. Adjectives placed after the Verb

Some Adjectives are placed after Intransitive Verbs in a sentence.


Intransitive Verbs are those verbs whose action stops with the doer or the subject.
Hence, these verbs do not need a direct object.

Examples:
These apples seem rotten.
The number of flags at the parade was seven.

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Most Adjectives can occur freely before the

nouns they describe or after the verb in the

sentence. But some Adjectives may be placed

in one position only.

1. Some Adjectives can occur only in the Attributive Position

(Before the words they qualify).

Articles, Distributive, Interrogative, Demonstrative and

Possessive Adjectives are used only before nouns they qualify.

I found an oyster on the beach.


Every room was searched thoroughly.
Whose umbrella is lying on the floor?
These buildings should be renovated.
His watch stopped working under water.

2. On the other hand, there are certain adjectives which can

occur only in the Predicative Position (After the words they

qualify).

Words like afloat, afraid, aglow, alone, asleep, alive etc. can be

used only after the verb.

The soldiers were afraid to move forward. (correct)


The afraid soldiers…… (incorrect)

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ORDER OF ADJECTIVES

Have a look at the following sentences:


Amy wants to buy a blue car.
Amy wants to buy a new car.
Amy wants to buy a European car.
Amy wants to buy a beautiful car.

The adjectives blue, new, European and beautiful describe the car that Amy wants to
buy. If the above 4 sentences are to be combined into a single sentence, the
adjectives need to be put together.

Amy wants to buy a blue, new, European, beautiful car. 


[Does this sentence seem to be correct? No! The order of adjectives is incorrect.]

Now look at the following sentence:


Amy wants to buy a beautiful, new, blue, European car. 

When a sentence has more than one adjective, they are placed in a certain order.

Look at the following table to understand the order of adjectives:

Determiner Attitude / Appearance Age Colour Origin Material Purpose Noun


/ Number Opinion (Size, Shape)
a beautiful old Italian touring car
an expensive antique silver mirror

the rough stone statue


her short black hair
our big old English sheepdog

four gorgeous long- red silk roses


stemmed
six big brown Indian pots
some delicious Thai Food
that broken little hunting cabin
those wonderful square reading lamps

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 108


Look at a few examples:

Alice prefers antique, brown, mahogany furniture.


(age -- colour -- material)

These are delicious, huge, chocolate cookies!


(opinion -- size -- material)

Her pretty, italian, straw hat flew off.


(determiner -- opinion -- origin -- material)

Did you notice his exquisite, new, black, riding boots?


(determiner -- opinion -- age -- colour -- purpose)

When two Adjectives of the same group are

placed adjacently:

1. The word shorter in length will come before the longer word.

The grim, unhappy event was telecast.

2. The adjective that is more specific is placed first.

The pale blue dress was auctioned. (The word pale reveals the
exact shade from a wide variety of blues.)

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 109


THE CORRECT USE OF SOME ADJECTIVES

The difference between ‘Few’, ‘A few’ and ‘The few’

FEW A FEW THE FEW


It indicates not many. It refers to some. It means not many but
This word has a negative This phrase has a refers to all that are there.
connotation. positive connotation. It can have a positive or
Examples: Examples: negative connotation.
I have few pieces of A few good friends Examples:
candy left in my tuck can make all the The few ideas that I
box. difference in your life. came up with were
Few people really You can perform well used by the team.
understand the true with just a few hours (positive)
meaning of patriotism. of sincere preparation. The few mangoes that
were left in the basket
were spoilt. (negative)

The difference between ‘Little’, ‘A little’ and ‘The little’

LITTLE A LITTLE THE LITTLE


It means not much or It refers to some though It means not much but
hardly any. not too many / much. refers to all that there is.
This word has a negative This phrase has a It can have a positive or
connotation. positive connotation. negative connotation.
Examples: Examples: Examples:
The selfish group One can always put in The girl gave the little
showed little a little extra effort to water that she had left
sympathy for the poor make a difference in in the bottle to the
old man. life. thirsty child. (positive)
There is little you can He needs just a little The little gum that was
do at the last moment. time to adjust to the left in the bottle dried
group. up before I could use it.
(negative)

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 110


The difference between ‘Each’ and ‘Every’

EACH EVERY
The word each is used when referring The word every refers to the total
to two or more persons or things. group.
It draws attention to the individual that is It is more emphatic or stronger than
part of a group. It is used when the each. It is used when the number is
number in the group is limited. indefinite.
Examples: Examples:
Each day of the week begins with a Every day the sun rises in the east.
capital letter. The security unit screened every
A certificate was given to each visitor at the function.
winner.

The difference between ‘Some’ and ‘Any’

SOME ANY
The word some expresses quantity or The word any is used in negative or
degree in affirmative sentences. interrogative sentences.
It is also used in questions which are Examples:
actually requests or commands. I shall not give you any of my
Examples: answers in the exam hall.
I have some work to complete today. Do you have any change to pay for
Could you fetch some glasses? the tickets?

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 111


The difference between ‘later’, ‘latter’, ‘latest’, ‘last’

Please complete Using the scientific Laundry was one The last thing Tom
the work later. calculator is one of of the latter things does every night
(Refers to time) Jane’s latest on Jane’s to-do before going to
accomplishments. list. (Refers to bed is to drink a
(Refers to time) position) glass of milk.
(Refers to
position)

The difference between ‘elder’, ‘older’, ‘eldest’, ‘oldest’

Elder and eldest are used only for persons who are in relation.
Older and oldest are used for persons, animals and things.

Jeremy is John’s Jeremy is the John has an older My pet dog Rover
elder brother. eldest in the brother. Jeremy is is older than
(Refers to person family. (Refers to the oldest of the Lucy’s cat,
who is related) persons) three brothers. Tinkerbell. (Refers
(Refer to to animals)
persons)

This is the oldest


building in this
area. (Refers to
things)

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 112


The difference between ‘farther’, ‘further’

FARTHER FURTHER
Let us leave for the picnic without
Our new school is farther away from my
further delay. (Refers to something in
house than the old school. (Refers to
addition)
more distance)

The difference between ‘nearest’ and ‘next’

NEAREST NEXT

The nearest hotel is ten kilometers The girl standing next to me is my


away. (Refers to distance) sister. (Refers to position)

* * * * *

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8. ADVERBS

An adverb ‘modifies’ the meaning of a verb, an adjective or another adverb.


Alternatively, adverbs tell us something more about a verb, an adjective or
another adverb.

Examples of adverbs modifying the meaning of verbs:


 Vinita speaks loudly.
 Chris works hard.

Examples of adverbs modifying the meaning of adjectives:


 Sara cooks very spicy food.
 Raol is an extremely naughty boy.

Examples of adverbs modifying the meaning of other adverbs:


 Vinita speaks quite loudly.
 The mother sang to her baby very softly.

1. Adverbs typically answer questions such as how? when?,

where?, why?, how often and to what extent?.

2. They often end in -ly.

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 114


An Adverb can also modify a sentence when placed at the
beginning of the sentence.
 Certainly I am not going to leave this for the last minute.
 Evidently you were absent when this lesson was taught.
 Luckily we happen to have a back up.
 Probably he is mistaken.
 Possibly it was raining when the plane left the runway.
 Unfortunately I was not selected for the position of the Head boy.

KINDS OF ADVERBS

1. ADVERBS OF MANNER
Adverbs of Manner show ‘the manner in which the action was performed’.
Adverbs of Manner answer the question ‘how’ or ‘in what manner’.

Examples:
bravely, agreeably, clearly, easily, hard, quietly, quickly, sadly, silently, soundly,
slowly, well etc.

Examples in sentences:
The peasants work hard.
Tom was agreeably pleased by the report.
The old lady worked quietly and diligently.

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 115


How to identify Adverbs of Manner?

Consider the sentence:

Nancy talks quickly.

Standard question employed to identify Adverbs of Manner:

How or in what manner does Nancy talk?

Answer: Nancy talks quickly.

So ‘quickly’ is the Adverb of Manner in the above sentence.

2. ADVERBS OF TIME
Adverbs of Time tell us about ‘the time of the action’.
Adverbs of Time answer the question ‘when’.

Examples:
already, after, before, early, formerly, late, last week, later, lately, now, since, soon,
then, today, tomorrow, yesterday etc.

Examples in sentences:
Please meet me afterwards.
We were early for the movie.
My parents left for Pune last week.

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 116


How to identify Adverbs of Time?

Consider the sentence:

We are going to the zoo today.

Standard question employed to identify Adverbs of Time applied to

the sentence:

When are we going to the zoo?

Answer: We are going to the zoo today.

So ‘today’ is the Adverb of Time in the above sentence.

3. ADVERBS OF PLACE

Adverbs of Place indicate ‘the place of the action’.


Adverbs of place answer the question ‘where’.

Examples:
here, there, anywhere, somewhere, everywhere, away, above, below, backward,
forward, up, down, far, near, in, inside, out, outside, under, within etc.

Examples in sentences:
The stray dog follows me anywhere I go.
During our athletic training sessions the coach made us run backwards too.
Don’t look down; you’ll feel giddy.

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 117


How to identify Adverbs of Place?

Consider the sentence:

The stray dog follows me anywhere I go.

Standard question employed to identify Adverbs of Place applied

to the sentence:

Where does the stray dog follow me?

Answer: The stray dog follows me anywhere I go.

So ‘anywhere’ is the Adverb of Place in the above sentence

4. ADVERBS OF DEGREE OR QUANTITY

Adverbs of Degree or Quantity tell us about ‘the intensity’ or ‘degree’ or ‘the extent’
of the action.
Adverbs of Degree or Quantity answer the question ‘how much’ or ‘in what degree’
or ‘to what extent’.

Examples:
almost, altogether, any, barely, enough, fully, little, most, much,
nearly, no better, partly, quite, rather, so, too, very etc.

Examples in sentences:
I almost gave up hope of getting the prize.
The file was too big to fit into my school bag.
Sally knows as much as you do.

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 118


How to identify Adverbs of Degree?

Consider the sentence:

The chocolate is extremely bitter.

Standard question employed to identify Adverbs of Degree applied

to the sentence:

‘How much’ or ‘to what degree’ or ‘to what extent’. is the

chocolate bitter?

Answer: The chocolate is extremely bitter.

So ‘extremely’ is the Adverb of Degree in the above sentence.

5. ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY
Adverbs of Frequency tell us about ‘the regularity of the occurrence’ of the action.
Adverbs of Frequency answer the question ‘how often’.

Examples:
usually, often, once, always, hardly, never, sometimes, thrice, frequently, forever,
rarely, seldom, now and then etc.

Examples in sentences:
He always tries to help everyone in the class.
We frequently study in a group.
They were friends for ever.

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 119


How to identify Adverbs of Frequency?

Consider the sentence:

She eats at the cafeteria sometimes.

Standard question employed to identify Adverbs of Frequency

applied to the sentence:

‘How often’ does she eat at the cafeteria?

Answer: She eats at the cafeteria sometimes.

So ‘sometimes’ is the Adverb of Frequency in the above sentence.

6. INTERROGATIVE ADVERBS
When an adverb is used to ask questions it is called an ‘Interrogative Adverb’.

Examples:
When? Where? How? Why?

How to identify Interrogative adverbs?


Interrogative Adverbs are always used in the beginning of
sentences to ask questions.

Examples in sentences:
When did they begin on their journey?
How did he fall asleep in class?
Where have you kept my new dress?
Why is your pet dog tied up?

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 120


There is also another kind of Adverb called
the Adverb of Reason.
Adverbs of Reason answer the question, ‘why’ or show the reason for an
action.
Examples:
Hence, therefore, consequently, doubtlessly, likewise etc.
He did not study; therefore he got poor grades.
He did not start in time; consequently he did not win the race.
Paula never reads the entire document; hence I don’t even bother with
the details.

Some words are used both as Adverbs as well as Adjectives. The difference lies in
their use in the sentence.

Example 1:
Alice did not have enough time to complete the test paper.
The word ‘enough’ is modifying the word ‘time’ which is a noun (Abstract Noun). So
in this sentence ‘enough’ is an Adjective.

The empty parking lot was good enough for the gypsies to put up their tents.
The word ‘enough’ is modifying the word ‘good’ which is an Adjective. So in this
sentence ‘enough’ is an Adverb.

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 121


Example 2:
Most people wake up late on Sundays.
The word ‘most’ is modifying the word ‘people’ which is a noun. So in this sentence
‘most’ is an Adjective.

I expect to score full marks as the test was most easy.
The word ‘most’ is modifying the word ‘easy’ which is an Adjective. So in this
sentence ‘most’ is an Adverb.

If the word modifies a noun, it is an Adjective.

If the word modifies a verb, an adjective or another adverb,

it is an Adverb.

POSITION OF ADVERBS

There are three specific positions for Adverbs.

1. At the beginning of the sentence (before the subject)

Examples:
Here, it is customary for people to visit the beach in the evening.
Today, smart people like to spend time in some useful activity.

2. In the middle of the sentence (between the subject and the verb)

Examples:
I often dance with the monkeys at the zoo.
Mohan frequently performs on stage.

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 122


3. At the end of the clause or sentence

Examples:
I purchased a new car yesterday.
The children marched smartly.

Many Adverbs have unique rules regarding where they are placed.

Position: Adverb of Manner

a) Adverbs of Manner are generally placed after the verb.

Examples:
The pilgrims walked solemnly.
The postmen worked tirelessly around Christmas.
The critic observed the painting minutely.
The participants hoisted the flag proudly.

If there is a preposition before the object, like “at” or “to”, Adverbs of Manner
can be placed either before the preposition or after the object.
Examples:
Mary spoke sternly to the boy. OR Mary spoke to the boy sternly.

b) Sometimes Adverbs of Manner are placed between the subject and the verb
or at the beginning of the sentence to get the attention of the reader (for the
purpose of emphasis).

i) Between subject and verb


Examples:
Jane gently lifted the little child.
The frightened traveller quickly picked up his bag.

ii) At the start of the sentence


Examples:
Slowly, Jim turned towards the animal.
Silently, the man walked out of the house.

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 123


Where you place Adverbs of Manner in a sentence could

change the meaning of the same sentence.

Compare the two sets of examples given below:

Examples:

The teacher quietly asked the children to complete

their work. (This means that the teacher spoke softly.)

The teacher asked the children to complete their work

quietly. (This means that the teacher wanted the

children to be quiet while completing their work.)

Some adverbs like well, badly, hard, fast….can never be placed

before the verb and are always placed after it.

Examples:

Sachin bats well.

The police caught the thief who could not run fast.

Position: Adverbs of Place and Time

a) At the end of a sentence (after the verb): Adverbs of Place and Time are
generally placed at the end of a sentence.

Examples:
My pictures are everywhere.(Adverb of Place)
The cobbler will mend my shoes tomorrow. (Adverb of Time)
We posted the cards yesterday.(Adverb of Time)
We caught sight of the comet in the east. (Adverb phrase of Place)

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 124


b) At the start of a sentence: Adverbs of Time and Place can also be positioned at
the start of a sentence for the purpose of emphasis or for the smooth flow of words.

Examples:
Here we are, standing in an orderly file. (Adverb of Place)
Now is the time, to raise our voices. (Adverb of Time)
At the office, we saw people talking to the manager. (Adverb phrase of Place)
Recently, we attended a party hosted in honour of the new neighbour. (Adverb of
Time)

If the sentence contains more than one Adverb of the

same kind, the more specific Adverb is placed first.

Example 1:

The tourists stayed here in Delhi. (Adverbs of Place)

Note: The Adverb, here, is more specific than the entire city of

Delhi, and therefore, it comes before in.

Example 2:

I went to the market early this morning.(Adverbs of Time)

Note: The adverb phrase early is more specific than the adverb this

morning, and therefore it is placed before the latter adverbial


phrase.

Look at this too:

In examples such as the ones given above, note how only the more

general of the two can be placed at the start of the sentence:

In Delhi, the tourists visited the Red Fort.

This morning, I went to the market at eleven o’clock.




Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 125


Position: Adverb of Frequency

a) Adverbs of Frequency which answer the question “how often” are generally
placed between the subject and the verb.

Examples:
I often travel by train.
People rarely visit the theatre today.

b) If the verb happens to be either “am”, “is”, “are”, “was”, or “were”, Adverbs
of Frequency are placed after the verb.

Examples:
We are always at home before sunset.
The students are never here after three o’clock.

c) If the verb consists of two words: a main verb and an auxiliary verb, these
Adverbs are placed between the two parts of the verb.

Examples:
I have sometimes seen the shadow of mountain over the plain.
 I have never seen you talking in class

d) When Adverbs of Frequency (e.g., every morning, quite regularly, twice a


week…) consist of many words, they are placed after the verb or at the
beginning of the sentence.

Examples:
We visit the shelter once every fortnight.
At regular intervals, we could hear the sound of bells.

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 126


Position: Adverb of Degree

Adverbs of Degree are placed immediately before the adjective or adverb they
modify.

Examples:
People are rather careless when dealing with environmental issues.
The snacks were quite tasty.
It was pretty hot this afternoon.
I spoke quite well at the inauguration ceremony.

A look at the position of some unique adverbs


a) The Adverb “Enough”: The Adverb “enough” is always placed after the
word it modifies.

Examples:
The boats on the Titanic were big enough to seat a large number of people.
(modifies big)
The boy was confident enough to speak on stage.(modifies confident)

b) The Adverb “Only”: The adverb “only” is generally placed before the word it
modifies.

Examples:
I ate only two small bits of candy. (modifies two)
The winner said that he needed to play only one hour a day. (modifies one)

c) The Position of “Merely”, “Not” and “Never”: The rule of placing the adverb
before the word it modifies—also applies to ‘merely’, ‘not’ and ‘never’. Yes,
they are all placed before the words they modify.

Examples:
They merely questioned the lost boy. (Merely modifies questioned)
Many Indians are not rich. (Not modifies rich)
We must never betray our country. (Never modifies betray.)
Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 127
ORDER OF ADVERBS

When there are two or more adverbs coming after the verb, here is the general
order to be followed:

(1) Manner (2) Place (3) Time (4) Purpose (Phrase)

THE ORDER OF ADVERBS


Subject + Manner Place Time Purpose
Verb

1. Betty jogs briskly indoors every to keep fit.


evening

2.Jim worked hard outside on to earn


Sundays, pocket
after tea money.
3. Tania sincerely in the every to succeed
studies library afternoon in her
exams.

The golden rule of adverb etiquette

It’s all very well to know about the order of Adverbs, but what is equally important is
to knowing the rules of etiquette while using Adverbs. Indeed, it would be considered
highly offensive to have more than three adverbs strung together one after the other
in a sentence. So, these highly innovative words have formulated a smart solution to
stay within the boundaries of social norms. They move some of their kind to the
start of the sentence. Generally, the larger group of words is moved to the
front position.

See how sentences from the table can be rewritten:


To keep fit, Betty jogs briskly indoors every evening.
On Sundays, after tea, Jim worked hard outside to earn pocket money.
Every afternoon, Tania studies sincerely in the library to succeed in her
exams.

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 128


More examples:
The kite rose steadily above into the clouds in a few seconds.
In a few seconds, the kite rose steadily into the clouds

The pilot guided the plane steadily above the clouds on that memorable day
in May to escape radar detection.
To escape radar detection, the pilot guided the plane steadily above the
clouds on that memorable day in May. (Here, emphasis in on ‘To escape radar
detection’)
On that memorable day in May, the pilot guided the plane steadily above the
clouds to escape radar detection. (Here, emphasis in on ‘that memorable day
in May’)

I saw my brother rush desperately outside early one Saturday morning on
that day in June.
Early one Saturday morning, in the month of June, I saw my brother rush
desperately outside.

My father would sing devotional songs loudly at eight every evening before
dinner.
At eight, every evening, before dinner, my father would sing devotional songs
loudly.

DEGREES OF COMPARISON OF ADVERBS


Some Adverbs, like Adjectives, can be compared. They have three degrees of
comparison – the Positive degree, the Comparative degree and the Superlative
degree.

 Not all adverbs can be compared. There is no Comparative or

Superlative form of certain adverbs like “here’, ‘now’, ‘then’, ‘very’,

‘yet’, ‘where’, ‘once’ etc.

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 129


There are three degrees of comparison, they are:

Positive

Comparative

Superlative

Rule 1, when an adverb that has only one syllable (unit of pronunciation):
To form the comparative degree we add, ‘er’ to the positive form.
To form the superlative degree we add, ‘est’ to the positive form.

Examples:

POSITIVE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE


Hard Harder Hardest
Near Nearer Nearest
Quick Quicker Quickest

Rule 2, when an adverb ends in, ‘ly’:


To form the comparative degree we add, ‘more’ or ‘less’ to the positive form.
To form the superlative degree we add, ‘most’ or ‘least’ to the positive form.

Examples:

POSITIVE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE


skilfully more or less skilfully most or least skilfully
foolishly more or less foolishly most or least foolishly
beautifully more or less beautifully most or least beautifully
loudly more or less loudly most or least carefully

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 130


EXCEPTIONS:

POSITIVE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE


Early Earlier Earliest

The following adverbs have irregular comparative and superlative degrees and
would need to be memorized.

POSITIVE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE


far farther farthest
forth further furthest
badly worse worst
late later latest , last
little less least
much more most
near nearer nearest, next
well better best

* * * * *

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9. VOCABULARY
The body of words used in a particular language or known to an individual person is
termed as his/her vocabulary. An extensive vocabulary aids expression and
communication. Given below, are certain segments of vocabulary in the English
language for you to peruse.

1. HOMOPHONES AND HOMONYMS

Homophones are words that have the same sound but different spellings and
meanings.
Examples:
deer – dear
plain – plane
Hair
tale – tail
sale – sail.
Hare

Examples of Homophones

Air, Heir Current, Currant Flair, Flare Meddle, Medal


Aloud, Allowed Check, Cheque Flee, Flea Miner, Minor
Altar, Alter Callous, Callus Flower, Flour Might, Mite
Ball, Bawl Chews, Choose Foul, Fowl Peer, Pier
Be, Bee Dew, Due Gate, Gait Pane, Pain
Bear, Bare Die, Dye Hanger, Hangar Pole, Poll
Been, Bean Doe, Dough Heel, Heal Paws, Pause
Band, Banned Dual, Duel Herd, Heard Peak, Peek
Berth, Birth Fair, Fare Holy, Wholly Peddle, Pedal
Brake, Break Feet, Feat Knew, New Peel, Peal
Colonel, Kernel Fir, Fur Maid, Made Piece, Peace

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 132


Pore, Pour Sealing, Ceiling
Rode, Road Serial, Cereal
Roll, Role Soul, Sole
Root, Route Stare, Stair
Rows, Rose Steak, Stake
Red, Read Steal, Steel
Soar, Sore Shear, Sheer
Principle, Principal Shone, Shown
Quiet, Quite Tale, Tail
Suite, Sweet Weather, Whether

Sight, Site, Cite


Praise, Prays, Preys
So, Sow
Vein, Vain, Vane

Homonyms, on the other hand, are words that have the same sound, same
spelling, but different meanings.
Examples:
ring : The princess wore a diamond ring.
ring : Hurry up and finish your work as the bell will ring soon.

light: Students should carry light bags to school.


light: Please switch on the light.

Examples of Homonyms

advocate
Andrew is an advocate who has won many cases.(term for
a lawyer)
I advocate the use of organic vegetables.(to recommend or
support)

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 133


arms
The police confiscated a lot of arms from the smuggler.(weapons)
My arms are aching after the hard work.(upper limb of human body)

bass
 He caught a bass and we roasted it for dinner.(a kind of fish)
 I sang bass in the church choir. (low musical note)

block
The block of ice in the shop was melting due to the heat.(a solid piece of something)
I blocked the attacker and escaped the blow.(to obstruct)
He approached the block of flats that were still under construction. (row of
buildings)

bow
The child wore a fancy bow to the function. (a fancy knot with
two circles and two ends)
The ancient Indian mythological figures used the bow and arrow. (wooden
weapon for showing arrows)
You should go up on stage and give a bow at the end of the show. (bend

forwards to show respect)

coach
The coach was drawn by four black horses.(enclosed passenger carriage)
The swimming coach trained the students well.(sports trainer)

dear
The pet dog was very dear to its owners. (much loved)
The poor man could not buy the necklace as it was very dear. (expensive)

jam
I love to have jam and bread for breakfast. (a preserve made from fruits
boiled in sugar)

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 134


Jane was late as she was stuck in a traffic jam. (traffic hold-up)
I could not play the music as the key of the player jammed. (unable to
operate due to a part becoming stuck)

record
I have a record of the new music album by Hanna Montana.(a disc carrying
recorded sound that may be played on a recorder)
There is no record of the case in any file. (account of something that is kept
for information)
The athlete completed the race in less than 3 minutes and broke the previous
record. (the best performance that has been officially recognised)

refuse
After the party was over, James threw the refuse in the trash
can. (garbage)
I never refuse to help the needy. (say or show that one is
unwilling to do something)
will
I will never enter that haunted house again! (expressing the
future tense)
In his will, he left his entire estate to his daughter. (a legal document having
instructions how one’s property and money will be distributed after his / her
death)
The proverb, ‘Where there is a will there is a way’ is really a golden truth.
(determination or mental powers)

Here are a few Homonym Jokes for you to enjoy!

What do runners do when they forget something? They jog their memory.
Why did the boy take the pencil to bed? – Because he wanted to draw the
curtains.

Why did the king draw straight lines? – Because he was the ruler.

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 135


Why was the boy scared to go to baseball practice? Because
he was scared of bats!

Why was the ocean sad? Because it was blue.


Why was the ice cube so happy? Because he felt cool!

Here is a quick reference to help you differentiate between


‘Homonyms’ and ‘Homophones’

Different Same sound Same spellings


spellings Different
Meanings

The Homophones – Homonyms Song


A pretty deer is dear to me,
A hare with downy hair,
A hart I love with all my heart,
But I can barely bear a bear

‘Tis plain that no one takes a plane


Homonyms
To get a pair of pears,
Although a rake may take a rake
To tear away the tares. and

Quails do not quail before a storm,


A bow will bow before it; Homophones
We can not rein the rain at all,
No earthly power reigns o’er it.
Set a tune to the song and sing it.
‘Tis meet that man should mete out meat
To feed one’s sunny son;
The fair should fare on love alone,
Else one can not be won.

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 136


I would a story here commence, But you might think it
stale;
So we’ll suppose that we have reached The tail end of our tale.

2. PREFIX AND SUFFIX


a. What is a prefix?
A prefix is a word part that is added to the beginning of
a root word to form a new word. As you can see, the word ‘prefix’ is made up
of the word part ‘pre’ and the word ‘fix’.
Therefore, a prefix is a letter or group of letters added to the beginning of a
word to form a new word. e.g.
A prefix comes
un (prefix) + happy (root word) = unhappy before the
bi (prefix) + cycle(root word) = bicycle word.

A list of prefixes and the words formed with them:


PREFIX WORD PREFIX WORD
a aboard, asleep, non nonsense
auto autobiography, automatic, over overflow, overcharge
autograph pre predict, prefix
anti antisocial, antiseptic, post postpone, postdated
anticlockwise re replay, regain
be beside, belittle semi semifinal, semicircle
bi bicycle, biweekly super superman, supermarket
de dethrone, devoid to today, tonight, tomorrow
dis disappear, disagree tri tricycle, triangle
extra extraordinary, extravagant un untrue, unkind, untie
fore foresee, foretell under undergo, underground
il illegible, illiterate with withdraw, withstand
im impossible, impatient mis mispronounce, mislead
in inadequate, insecure mono monorail, monologue
inter international, interactive multi multi-purpose,
milli millisecond, milligram multimillionaire

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 137


Important facts about the prefix:

* A prefix never changes the root


word to which it is attached.
* A new word is formed when we
add a prefix to a root word.
* We can also form opposites by
attaching a prefix to a root word.

What is a root word?


A root word is a word that can stand on its own as a
word.
However, we can make new words from it by adding
beginnings (prefixes) and endings (suffixes).

b. What is a suffix?

A suffix is a word part that is placed at the end of a root


word to form a new word. It can be a letter or a group of
letters.
e.g.
beauty (root word) + ful (suffix) = beautiful
meddle (root word) + some (suffix) =
A suffix comes meddlesome
after the word.

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 138


A list of suffixes and the words formed with them

SUFFIX WORD SUFFIX WORD

-ment amazement, judgment -ed gifted, learned


-dom kingdom, wisdom -en written, bitten
-hood childhood, motherhood -ing saying, praying,
-ness darkness, happiness -er taller, smaller
-ship kingship, friendship -tion education, vacation
-sion division, revision -cal symmetrical, critical

SUFFIX WORD SUFFIX WORD

-ful beautiful, helpful -dom freedom, wisdom


-est largest, funniest -fy terrify, simplify
-less useless, cloudless -ism patriotism, atheism
-al accidental, national -less heartless, hopeless
-ary imaginary, necessary -ly godly, kindly

SUFFIX WORD SUFFIX WORD

-age brokerage, sewerage -er baker, joker


-ance assistance, defiance -ess poetess, goddess
-ant assistant, servant -fic scientific, specific
-cian magician, physician -ic metallic, heroic
-cy intimacy, accuracy -ling duckling, weakling
-ee employee, refugee -ish foolish, reddish
-ence difference, conference -ward forward, wayward
-wise likewise, otherwise -ty cruelty, frailty
-ship friendship, membership -ity flexibility, scarcity

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 139


A suffix changes or adds to the meaning of the root
word.
e.g.
1. friend (root word) + ship (suffix) = friendship (different meaning
than that of the root word)
2. meaning (root word) + less (suffix)= meaningless (different
meaning than that of the root word)

A suffix sometimes forms a new word by changing the


spelling of the root word and then adding the suffix to it.

e.g.
1. divide + sion (suffix)= division (formed by removing ‘e’ from the root
word and then adding a suffix to it)
2. happy + ly (suffix) = happily (formed by removing ‘y’ from the root word,
adding an ‘i’ and a suffix to it)

A suffix sometimes forms a new word that belongs


to a different part of speech than that of the root
word.
e.g.
1. help (noun or verb) + ful (suffix)= helpful (adjective)
2. kind (adjective) + ly (suffix) = kindly (adverb)

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 140


3. COMPOUND WORDS
When one word is added to another, a new word is formed. Such a new word is
called a Compound Word.
Example:
sun + set = sunset
day + dream = daydream
+ =

Most often, the meaning of the new word is very different


from what the other two words mean.
Example:
butter + milk = buttermilk (This is not milk made from
butter but made from curd.)

Compound Words may be spelt as one word.

e.g. indoor, tablecloth

Compound Words may be written with a space between the two words.

e.g. waiting room, health care

Compound Words may be written with a hyphen between the two words.

e.g. far – off, passer – by

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 141


A list of Compound Words

Compound Words spelt as one word


airport eyelid milkman policeman
briefcase fingerprint moonlight rainbow
clockwise handwriting motherland shopkeeper
downstairs headache newspaper superman
earthquake indoor nightmare tablecloth
endless keyboard notebook teaspoon

Hyphenated Compound Words


fire-proof ice-cold chess-board
skin-deep looking-glass skin-deep
snow-white check-up world-wide
down-fall anti-hero blood-red
drawing-room writing-desk pitch-dark
hay-stack close-up stone-deaf
walking-stick man-made non-stop
forget-me-not passer-by mother-in-law

Compound Words with space between the two words

club sandwich flower pot


clothes peg black eye
food chain black sheep
grass roots science fiction
life cycle table tennis
green room waiting room

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 142


4. SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS

Synonyms are different words that have the


same meaning.

Here’s a list of synonyms for your reference:

Word Synonym Word Synonym

anger fury /rage glad pleased

attempt try happy joyful

brave courageous huge enormous

bright brilliant / vivid holy sacred

cautious careful identical alike

clever intelligent care concern

confused puzzled opportunity chance

cry weep rare uncommon

defeat beat sad unhappy

delicate weak / fragile save rescue

eternal everlasting see observe

eager keen timid shy

essential necessary truth reality

false artificial / untrue tired exhausted

funny humorous wealthy rich / prosperous

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 143


Words which are opposite in meaning are

called antonyms.

We can form antonyms (opposites) in 2 ways

1. By adding a prefix before a word

appear – disappear
important – unimportant
2. By using a totally different word

rise – fall
accept – decline

Both ‘the word’ and its ‘synonym’/ ‘antonym’ should


be of the same part of speech.
Synonyms
Cautious (adjective) – careful (adjective)
Cautiously (adverb) – carefully (adverb)
Antonyms
poverty (noun) – wealth (noun)
poor (adjective) – wealthy (adjective)

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 144


Here’s a list of antonyms for your reference:

Antonyms with a totally


Antonyms with a prefix: different word:

secure x insecure attract x repel

audible x inaudible haste x delay

obedient x disobedient seldom x often

belief x disbelief create x destroy

mortal x immortal senior x junior

partial x impartial inferior x superior

tie x untie traditional x modern

used x unused gloomy x cheerful

legitimate x illegitimate reject x accept

logical x illogical glory x shame

replaceable x irreplaceable hope x despair

reproachable x irreproachable accepted x declined

functional x non-functional knowledge x ignorance

conformist x nonconformist voluntary x compulsory

direct x misdirect humble x proud

manage x mismanage virtue x vice

optimism x pessimism

fact x fiction

conceal x reveal

ancient x modern

advance x retreat

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 145


5. WORD ORIGINS AND DERIVATIONS

AND

USE OF WORDS FROM OTHER LANGUAGE

We speak English but do we know where it comes from?


English is a West Germanic language that was brought to Britain by Germanic
invaders from various parts of what is now northwest Germany and the Netherlands.

Studying the historic and linguistic roots of English words is important as well as
enjoyable because an understanding of the common root words will help us make
educated guesses about the meaning of new words and substantially strengthen our
vocabulary.

The English language has its roots in languages like Greek and Latin.

Given below is a list of commonly used root words, their meaning and some
examples of words formed using these root words.

ROOT MEANING EXAMPLE WORDS


Aqua Water  Aquarium – Artificial environment for water plants
and animals
 Aquatic – Plant or animal living in water
Art Skill  Artistic – Natural skill in art
 Artisan – Skilled manual work
Auto Self  Automatic – Working by itself
 Autonomous – Having self-government
Bio Life  Biology – Study of living things
 Biohazard – Risk to living things
Cardio Heart  Cardiology – Branch of medicine dealing with the
heart
 Cardiovascular – Pertaining to the heart and blood
vessels

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 146


Cent Hundred  Centenary – Hundredth Anniversary
 Centenarian – Person who is hundred or more
years old
Chrono Time  Chronology – Study of events in the order of their
occurrence
 Chronograph – Instrument that records time with
high accuracy
Dem People  Democracy – System of government elected by
the people
 Demography - Statistics of births, deaths,
mortality etc. of people
Derm Skin  Dermatologist – Doctor specialized in the study of
skin disorders
 Dermatitis – Inflammation of the skin
Flor Flower  Florist – Person who sells flowers
 Floral – Decorated with flowers
Gastro Stomach  Gastritis – Inflammation of the stomach lining
 Gastroenterologist – Doctor specialized in the
study of stomach and intestinal disorders
Grat Pleasing  Gratify – Delight or please someone
 Gratuity – Tip, token of appreciation
Hept Seven  Heptagon – Figure with seven sides
 Heptathlon – Athletic event having seven events
Hex Six  Hexagon – Figure with six sides
 Hexavalent – Having a valency of six
Jud Law  Judiciary – Collective of judges
 Judgment – Decision of a court
Kilo Thousand  Kilogram – Thousand grams
 Kilolitre – Thousand litres
Lacto Milk  Lactic – Obtained from mil
 Lactose – Sugar occurring in milk
Mal Bad  Malevolent – Wishing bad things on others
 Malice – Intention to do evil

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 147


Mort Death  Mortuary – Place where dead bodies are kept until
they are cremated or buried
 Mortician – Undertaker (a person who arranges
funerals)
Narr Tell  Narrate – To tell a story
 Narrator – Person who tells a story.
Nov New  Novelty – Newness or originality
 Novice – Beginner
Oct Eight  Octagon – Figure with eight sides
 Octave – Stanza of eight lines
Omni All  Omnipresent – Present everywhere at the same
time
 Omnivorous – Eating all kinds of foods
Ped Foot  Pedicure – Treatment of the feet
 Pedal – Foot operated lever
Psych Mind  Psychiatry – Study of mental diseases
 Psychology – Study of mind and behaviour
Quad Four  Quadruple – Increase four times
 Quadrangle – Figure having four sides
Semi Half  Semi-circle – Half of a circle
 Semiaquatic – Animal living partly on land and
partly in water
Trans Across  Transpacific – Across the Pacific Ocean
 Transnational – Across national boundaries
Uni One  Unitarian – People who believes God is one
person
 Unique – One of a kind
Vince Conquer  Invincible – One who cannot be conquered
 Convince – Persuade a person

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 148


Use of words from other languages

English has borrowed words from a variety of sources and other languages.
Here are a few examples to show this:

CHOCOLATE
When the Spanish arrived in Mexico they came across the Aztecs. The Aztecs had a
drink which they made from a bean they called CHOCO (bitter). They would put this
bean into water (ATL) to produce CHOCO-ATL (bitter water).

The TL sound is common in the Aztec language but not in Spanish. The Spaniards
mispronounced the drink CHOCOLATO.

This drink was brought to Europe (with sugar added) where the pronunciation and
spelling in English became CHOCOLATE.

ALGEBRA
This is a mathematical term. It comes from Arabic.

Mohammad al-Khwarizmi was a mathematician who lived in Baghdad around the


year 800. He wrote a book about the solving of equations. It was called ilm al-jabr
wa'l muqabalah (the science of transposition and cancellation).

The term al-jabr from this title gave the English word, ALGEBRA.

CHECKMATE
This is a term in chess. It is from the Farsi language spoken in Iran and Afghanistan.
The original phrase is SHAH-K-MATE (every syllable pronounced) which means
"The King is Dead".

The word SHAH means a "king" as in the last monarch (or SHAH) of Iran. MATE has
the same root as the English "murder" and the Spanish "matador" (killer).

The word came via French (where the SH became a CH) and into English where the
MA-TE (two syllables) became MATE (one syllable) to give CHECKMATE.

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Here is a list of some more words derived from different languages:

Bonsai Although we think the tree-cultivating art is Japanese, it originated in


China.

Coleslaw Supposedly eaten in ancient Rome, it comes from the Dutch kool-
salade (''cabbage salad").

Enthusiasm From the Greek “entheos”, which means ''to be within energy",
suggesting being spiritually ''possessed".

Hotchpotch Used in Norman legal jargon to denote property collected and then
divided.

Juggernaut Sanskrit for a giant carriage used to transport an image of the god
Krishna.

Lilac Comes from the Persian ‘nilak’, meaning ''of a bluish shade".

Onslaught From the Dutch ‘aanslag’ - related to a word in Old High German for a
shower.

Orange Originated from the word ‘NARANJ’ in Sanskrit.

Sabotage Supposed to be derived from the tendency of striking workers to


damage machinery by throwing shoes into it - sabot being an old
French word for a wooden shoe.

Yogurt A mispronunciation of a Turkish word.

Zero Its immediate source is French or Italian, but its origins are in Arabic -
and before that in the Sanskrit word sunya, which meant both
''nothing" and ''desert".

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Here is a list of some words originating from Hindi:

Bandanna from Bandhna meaning to tie a scarf around the head.

Bangle from Bāngri meaning a type of bracelet.

Bungalow from bangla meaning ‘a house’ in the Bengal style.

Chutney from ‘chatni’, meaning "to crush".

Cot from Khāt, meaning a portable bed.

Curry from karī, basically from Tamil.

Dacoit from Dakait, meaning a member of a class of criminals who engage in


organized robbery and murder.

Garam from Hindi and Urdu, literally "warm ( = hot) mixture".


Masala

Gymkhana A term which originally referred to a place where sporting events take
place or referred to any place where contests were held to test the
skill of the competitors.

Jodhpurs Full-length trousers, worn for horseback riding, that are close-fitting
below the knee and have reinforced patches on the inside of the leg.
Named after Jodhpur where similar garments are worn by Indian men
as part of everyday dress.

Jungle from jangal, another word for wilderness or forest.

Khaki from khākī "of dust colour, dusty, grey", cf. Hindi -

[ultimately from Persian].

Loot from Loot, meaning 'steal'.

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Pundit from Pandit, meaning a learned scholar or Priest.

Pyjamas from Hindi, (paijaamaa), meaning "leg garment.

Shampoo from chāmpo, the imperative of chāmpnā "to smear, knead the
muscles, massage" (the scalp massage with some kind of oily or
treacly mixture just before a bath).

Thug from Thagi, meaning "thief or conman".

Verandah Courtyard

The word silly meant blessed or happy in the 11th century. It


went through pious, innocent, harmless, pitiable, feeble, feeble-
minded before finally ending up as foolish or stupid.

The word pretty began as crafty then changed via clever, skilfully made,
fine to beautiful.

The word nice meant stupid and foolish in the late 13th Century. It went
through a number of changes including wanton, extravagant, elegant,
strange, modest, thin, and shy. By the middle of the 18th Century it had
gained its current meaning of pleasant and agreeable.

Words are changing meaning EVEN now!!!

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6. ONE WORD FOR A PHRASE
One word may often express the idea of a phrase or a ‘group of words’. Given below
are the examples of the same:

1. The original inhabitant of a place – Aborigine

2. A person who learns a skill for pleasure rather than monetary profit – Amateur

3. Able to use both hands equally well – Ambidextrous

4. A statement that has more than one meaning – Ambiguous

5. Without bearing the name of the writer – Anonymous

6. One who does not believe in the existence of God – Atheist

7. Belonging to the same time – Contemporary

8. Consisting of people from different places – Cosmopolitan

9. A person who has extreme and sometimes irrational beliefs, especially in

religion or politics – Fanatic

10. One who knows many languages – Linguist

11. A piece of art created by joining photographic images – Montage

12. One travelling on foot – Pedestrian

13. Acting on one’s free will – Voluntary

14. No longer in use – Obsolete

15. Of animals who like to live together in groups – Gregarious

16. A person who helps others especially the poor and helpless – Philanthropist

17. The collection and study of postage stamps and related items – Philately

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7. SAME WORD USED AS DIFFERENT PARTS OF SPEECH

The same word can be used as different parts of speech depending on its function in
a sentence.
Observe the following sentences:
The child received a present on his birthday.
People usually present the chief guest with a little token of appreciation.

Look at the role of the words in the sentences in which they occur.

In the first sentence, the word present is the object of the verb receives because it
answers the question received what? That makes the word present in the first
example a noun, because it is the object of the verb received, doesn’t it?
In the second example, the word present denotes the action of handing the chief
guest a token. Hence the word present is used as a verb in the sentence.

Observe the following sentences:


 Draw near and listen carefully to the instructions.
The bell was placed near the watchman

In the first sentence, the word near indicates the place or position where the
listener should move in order to listen to the instructions. That makes it an adverb.
In the second sentence, the word near is placed before the noun watchman and is
a link between the two nouns, bell and watchman. Therefore, the word near is a
perfect example of a preposition.

The function of a noun in a sentence: A noun is either:


 the subject of a verb,
 object of a verb
 object of a preposition

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The function of a Pronoun in a sentence: A Pronoun stands for a noun
that has gone before it.

The function of a Verb in a sentence: A verb denotes an action in time


present, past or future. It also agrees with its subject in person and number.

The function of an Adverb in a sentence: An adverb modifies a verb,


adjective or any other adverb.

The function of a Preposition in a sentence: A Preposition comes before a


noun or pronoun to indicate what relation the person or thing denoted by it
has with regard to something else.

The function of an Adjective in a sentence: An Adjective, describes or


modifies a noun.

The function of an Interjection in a sentence: An Interjection expresses


some emotion. It is not grammatically related to any part of the sentence.

The function of a Conjunction in a sentence: A conjunction is a word that


joins two separate sentences.

Here are some useful examples on how the same word may be used as a
different part of speech.

Present

On my birthday, I just wait to open the presents I have received. (Noun)
The first speakers of any debate always present the theme of the
discussion.(Verb)

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Gift

Health is a gift we must truly appreciate.(Noun)


We generally gift people with the things they like.(Verb)

Place

The family found a nice place near the flower beds where they could relax.
(Noun)
When you are reading, always place your reading lamp at a location that is
above and behind you. (Verb)

What

What! Have you started talking loudly again?(Interjection)


I wrote what I could.(Conjunction)

Before

The room had been searched before. (Adverb)


The leader stood before his people. (Preposition)
It started raining before we reached home. (Conjunction)

About

The two children walked about aimlessly.(Adverb of Place)


Martin Luther King Jr. told his audience about his strange dream.(Preposition)

Above

The balloon rose above and disappeared.(Adverb)


My banner was placed above the gate. (Preposition)

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After

The family discussed the party after the guests had left. (Conjunction)
We waited for the chief guest to arrive and left soon after. (Adverb)

Fast

We made a mistake by entering the fast train. (Adjective)


Muslims observe a month long fast during Ramzan. (Noun)
People sometimes fast to cleanse their internal system.(Verb)

Both

They teach French and Sanskrit in school, and I would like to learn both
languages.(Adjective)
Two children reached the finishing line first, and so both were given
prizes.(Pronoun)

Free

People wanted a free ride on the luxury coach. (Adjective)


People must free themselves of their imagined fears. (Verb)

Help

The stranded passengers received help from passers-by. (Noun)


We receive inner satisfaction when we help the needy. (Verb)

Last

The advertisements last an hour! (Verb)


Nobody wants to be the last person while competing in a race. (Adjective)

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 157


All

All diets do not contribute to good health.(Adjective)


After hearing a strange sound, she was all alert.(Adverb)
All marched in unison. (Pronoun)
Abhinav Bindra gave his all to win Olympic gold. (Noun)

Any

They did not carry any water with them. (Adjective)


If you like my books, you may borrow any of them. (Pronoun)
The situation was not getting any better and the refugees panicked. (Adverb)

Next

The new recruit will report to work next Monday.(Adjective)


The doctor will see you next. (Adverb)
The library is next to the school. (Preposition)

why

Why is there no sugar in my tea? (Interrogative Adverb)


Why! It’s you once again to the rescue! (Interjection)

Yet

The minister is yet to make his speech.(Adverb)


I started my assignment late yet completed it on time. (Conjunction)

Round

There was a round of applause when the best speaker stepped onto the
stage. (Noun)
The round box was forgotten in the scramble to run out of the house.
(Adjective)
The moon revolves round the earth. (Preposition)

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8. CHANGE OF A WORD FROM

ONE PART OF SPEECH TO ANOTHER


You must surely remember the various parts of speech, such as nouns, verbs,
adjectives and adverbs. These words take the help of one another to extend
themselves into their alternate forms. In the box given below, you will see examples
of the various forms of words. Generally, the forms have a common root, and it is
suffixes that help make the transformation from one part of speech to another.

NOUN VERB ADJECTIVE ADVERB

argument argue arguable arguably


attention attend attentive attentively
beauty beautify beautiful beautifully
conspiracy conspire conspiratorial conspiratorially
darkness darken dark darkly
despair despair desperate desperately
force force forcible forcibly
fright frighten frightful frightfully
memory memorise memorable memorably
origin originate original originally
practice practise practical practically
warmth warm warm warmly

Knowing about these forms is not enough. Being able to manipulate these various
forms in sentences is what gives you an advantage in the use of language. Observe
how words can be replaced by a different part of speech in the same sentence:

Example 1:
The watch you bought me is very beautiful. (Adjective)
The watch you bought me possesses great beauty. (Noun)

Example 2:
In summer, people frequently visit the local beaches. (Adverb)
In summer, people frequent the local beaches. (Verb)
In summer, people make frequent visits to the beach. (Adjective)

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9. FIGURES OF SPEECH

Language is the dress of thought. It may be simple or decorative. Decorative


language is called figurative language. Just as the dress of a person creates an
impression on the minds of others, in the same way figurative language creates an
impression on the mind of the listener or reader.

A Figure of Speech is a remarkable way of saying something. It is a form of


expression that intentionally deviates from the ordinary mode of speech for the sake
of more powerful or pleasing effect. A Figure of Speech adds colour, beauty and
life to language. It often provides emphasis, freshness of expression, or clarity.

Figures of Speech serve two roles:

1. Ornamentation:
Without figures of speech, our writing would be plodding and boring. Just
like show-pieces in our homes give beauty and variety in the same way
figures of speech too add beauty and variety to language.

2. Clarity:
It is a mistake to believe that figures of speech are used only by stylists to enrich
their writings. They are in fact, a part of everyday speech and often help to explain a
point better and with greater clarity. A complex subject can best be conveyed by an
analogy (a comparison between two things made for the purpose of explanation).

So Figures of Speech are both artistic and explanatory.

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SIMILE
The word ‘simile’ means ‘likeness’. A simile is a
definite expression of a likeness between two people,
objects or events. Such definite comparisons are done
using words like ‘as’, ‘like’, ‘so’ etc.

Examples:
The money lender was as cunning as a fox.
Here, a comparison is made between the cunning
nature of a moneylender with that of a fox.

The righteous shall flourish as the palm tree.


Here, a comparison is made between the righteous
people and the palm tree, saying that they shall flourish in the same manner as
the palm tree.

Words are like leaves: and where they most abound,


Much fruit of sense beneath is rarely found.
Here, a comparison is drawn between words and leaves; and they have at least
one thing in common, that is – just as too many words often make no sense, in
the same way, few fruits are found where there are too many leaves.

His feet were as big as boats.


Here, a comparison is made between the size of a person’s feet with that of
boats; emphasizing that both of them are big.

The two objects compared must be different in kind. A comparison of


two things of the same kind cannot be called a Simile.
Examples:
His eyes are like those of his father. (Here there is no Simile).
The point of likeness must not be too remote or uncertain; and should
be distinctly stated.

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 161


A few similes that have been created and used by authors to add to the beauty
of their writing:


 My song will be like wings to your dream.
 Lives fade like a passing shadow.
 The experience was like a bad dream.
 It was like being in a fairy tale.
 The place was eerie and still as a graveyard.
 The table top was smooth as silk.
 The prisoner struggled like a wild beast tangled in a net.
 The kittens hissed and roared like dragons.
 The wind made the doors rattle like snare drums.
 A gap under the corrugated roof wailed like a flute.

A simile is used in poems - as the examples provided above; and is also used in
everyday speech. When we use phrases like- “as clear as crystal”, “as cool as a
cucumber”, “as tough as leather”, “as good as gold”, etc, we are making use of
a simile.

METAPHOR
A metaphor is an implied simile. Unlike the simile, it does not say that one thing is
like another. On the contrary, it takes this similarity for granted and proceeds as
though the two things were one. It compares two subjects without using 'like' or
'as'. It is a comparison between two different things that have an important
characteristic in common.
Compared to simile, the metaphor takes us one step further than the simile. Instead
of asking us to picture one thing as being like another, the metaphor asks us to
picture one thing as being the other.

Examples:
All the world's a stage,
And all the men and women merely players;

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 162


In this example, "the world" is said to be a stage; the aim being to describe the
world as a stage where men and women live their lives. The men and women are
told to be the actors on a stage; the meaning is that just as actors play out their
roles on stage, men and women in this world fulfill their roles in this world by
living their lives from childhood to death.

The camel is the ship of the desert.


This means that camels help people travel across the desert, just
as ships help people travel across the ocean. However, this
similarity is implied and not stated using words of similarity like ‘as’
or ‘like’.

Freddie is a pig when he eats.


This means that both Freddie and a pig are sloppy eaters.

Life is a dream.
Here, life is said to be beautiful like a wonderful dream. Here the comparison is
implied and is made without using the words ‘as’ or ‘like’.

More examples of metaphors:

After years of misbehaving, he turned


She is a couch potato.
over a new leaf this year.
A storm of controversy followed her.
A new crop of students entered school.
That is a half-baked idea.
Anne is the apple of my eye.
That is food for thought.
A tidal wave of donations came in.
That is the sweet smell of success.
He is a mountain of strength.
The comic had the audience eating out of
He showered her with gifts.
her hand.
He was boiling mad.
Their ideas are difficult to swallow.
I got cold feet before I was supposed to
The ribbon of highway stretched for miles.
talk in class.
They hatched a new plan.
I felt the weight of the world on my
You are my sunshine.
shoulders.
He tried to help but his legs were rubber
I have butter fingers today; I keep
I'm all thumbs; I just spilled my milk.
dropping things.

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Some metaphors are so common that we may not even notice that they are
metaphors. Take the familiar metaphor of life as a journey, for example. We find it in
advertising slogans:

Life's a journey--travel light. Life is a journey. Enjoy the Ride.


(Hugo Boss Perfume) (Nissan)

Life is a journey, travel it well.


(United Airlines)

ONOMATOPOEIA
Onomatopoeia is one or more words that imitate or suggest the source of sound they
are describing. It is a figure of speech based on the device of sound. Common
examples are animal noises such as ‘moo’, ‘hiss’, ‘meow’ or ‘roar’.

Examples:
The children were scared to hear the rattle of hail upon the roof.
The cooing of doves, the chirping of the birds and the buzzing of bees greeted
us when we reached the farm.
Ron heard the hiss of a snake in the tunnel.
The hoot of his owl roused Harry Potter from a deep sleep.

Examples of onomatopoeia are also commonly found in poems and nursery


rhymes written for children. Onomatopoeic words produce strong images that can
both delight and amuse children when listening to their parents read poetry.
Some examples of onomatopoeia poems for children are:
Baa Baa Black Sheep
Old Macdonald
Both these poems use onomatopoeic representations of animal noises to entertain.

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 164


Other than the sounds made by humans and
animals, there are sounds that describe the
actions of objects. Some of these sounds have
been listed below.

Drone: make a continuous low dull sound. An airplane droned overhead.

Clatter: make a loud unpleasant noise, when hard objects are hit. The tray

slipped and clattered to the floor.

 Scrape: make a rough unpleasant noise by rubbing against a hard surface.

I scraped one of the chairs while bringing it up the stairs.

Creak: make a long high noise, like what a wooden floor makes when

somebody walks on it. The stair creaked as she walked up. The door creaked

open.

Pitter-Patter: make short quiet sounds by hitting a surface. Raindrops pitter-

pattered against the windows.

Honk: make a loud noise using a horn. The drivers honked his horn but the

demonstrators didn't move.

Tinkle: light metallic sounds, as those of a small bell. I heard the tinkle of

glass chimes.

Swish: make a soft sound by moving something quickly through the air. Her

ball-gown swished as she walked.

Wail: A long, loud, high-pitched sound. I heard the wail of a siren.

Rustle: make a sound like the one that leaves or sheets of paper make when

they move. The leaves on the branch rustled in the wind.

Clink: make a short, high sound, like glass or metal objects hitting each other.

As she carried the tray, the glasses clinked.

Screech: make a loud, unpleasant, high noise like a squeal. Brakes

screeched and then we heard a crash.

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 165


Zoom: to move with or make a continuous buzzing or humming sound. The

car zoomed past us in full speed.

Bang: make a loud noise, when hitting something hard. I banged on the

window to get her attention.

Plop: make a sound like dropping into water. The frog plopped into the pond.

Sizzle: make a sound like bacon being fried in a pan. The sausages started to

sizzle in the pan.

Boom: A deep resonant sound, as of an explosion. Bombs boomed all around

the battlefield.

Squelch: make a sucking sound, like walking in mud. Her shoes squelched as

she walked in the mud.

Rattle: make a series of short sounds, like small objects hitting each other.

The bottles rattled as he carried the crates.

Blare: make a loud, unpleasant noise. We could hear horns blaring outside.

Rumble: make a series of short, low sounds. We could hear thunder rumbling.

Pop: To burst open with a short, sharp, explosive sound. Mary popped all the

balloons after the party.

Bleep: make a high electronic sound, like a pager, a mobile phone or a timer.

The timer began to bleep indicating that the eggs were cooked.

Crackle: make short sounds, like something burning in a fire. The logs

crackled on the fire.

Gurgle: make a low sound, like water flowing. He could hear the river gurgling

down in the forest.

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ALLITERATION
Alliteration is when two or more words in the same sentence begin with the same
letter, sound or syllable.

A classic example is the Mother Goose tongue twister.


‘Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers.’

Now look closely at the sentence above.


The sound of the letter ‘P’ is prominent.

Examples:
A strong man struggling with the storms of fate.
How high his highness holds his haughty head.
She sells sea shells on the sea shore.
The pleasant Prince pleaded for peace.

Alliteration is mostly used in poetry for musical effect.


Example:

Mmm, muffins!
I love munching muffins.
Make me muffins for my lunch,
Please, O please and thanks a bunch.
When the first sounds sound alike
As in Betsy bought a bike,
Or Steve's still standing at the station,
We call that alliteration.

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PERSONIFICATION

Personification is a figure of speech in which we treat nature, animals and even


abstract ideas as having human qualities as if they were human beings.
Personification is a special kind of metaphor. In it, inanimate objects and abstract
ideas are spoken of as if they were persons.
Thus when we say, ’The moon veiled her face’ we personify the moon;
that is, we speak of it as if it were conscious of being capable of doing
the action.

Examples:
Let not Ambition mock their useful toil. (‘Ambition’ which is an abstract idea is
given the human quality of having the ability to ‘mock’).
Opportunity knocks at the door but once. (‘Opportunity’ which is an abstract
idea is attributed with the human quality of having the ability of ‘knocking).
The moon shone with delight. (The ‘moon’, an inanimate object is given the
human quality of being delightful.

More examples of alliteration:

Fear knocked on the door. Faith answered. There was no one there.
The wind stood up and gave a shout.
The stars danced playfully in the moonlit sky.
The first rays of morning tiptoed through the meadow.
Time flew and before we knew it, it was time for me to go home.
The thunder grumbled like an old man.
The car raced by, screaming for attention.

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REPETITION
A Repetition as a figure of speech is a mode of emphasizing a point by saying it
more than once.

This can take two forms:

Repetition is used
1. Repetition of the same words: to emphasize or
stress on a point.
The same word is repeated over and over.

Examples:

Water, water, everywhere and not a drop to drink.


Half a league, half a league, half a league onward.

2. Repetition of different but connected words:

Examples:
At her feet he bowed, he fell, he lay down.
A horse! a horse! my kingdom for a horse!

Note the Use of Repetition in a Rousing Speech by Winston Churchill -

We shall not flag or fail. We shall go on to the end. We


shall fight in France, we shall fight on the seas and
oceans, we shall fight with growing confidence and
growing strength in the air, we shall defend our island,
whatever the cost may be, we shall fight on the beaches,
we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the
fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills, we shall
never surrender.

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10. IDIOMS

To write good English, we must use the correct word in the correct place. However,
sometimes this is not enough. The words that we use to express ourselves not only
should be correct, but should also add to the beauty of the sentence.

Observe the following sentences:


Winning five events at the Sports Meet has made Sammy very
proud. He is now walking with all five medals around his neck.
The medals jangle around his neck and draw more attention
because of the light coloured shirts that he insists on wearing.

The same sentences may be re-written as:


Sammy has become too big for his boots. His victory at the Sports Meet has
added plumage to his already proud feathers and he can be seen strutting
around like a peacock with all five medals around his neck being set off by the
light coloured shirts that he insists on wearing.

Did you notice how the same passage has been re-written using certain words and
phrases that have added beauty to the sentences? Well, these words and phrases
are Idioms, Proverbs and Figures of Speech like the Simile and the Metaphor.

Let’s clarify:
 too big for his boots – an Idiom that means to become very proud.
 added plumage to his already proud feathers – a Metaphor implying a
comparison between Sammy and a bird.
 strutting around like a peacock – a Simile showing a direct comparison
between Sammy’s style of walking and that of a peacock.
 set off – an Idiom that means to make it look more attractive so that attention
is drawn towards it

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 170


An idiom is an expression or phrase that has a meaning of its own when taken
together. This meaning is different from the actual meaning of the words.

For example, "to roll out the red carpet" is to extravagantly welcome a guest; no
red carpet is needed. The phrase is misunderstood when interpreted in a literal
fashion. In the same way, "the cat was let out of the bag" means "the secret was
revealed." A live cat was NOT let out of a bag!

So it is clear that idioms are sayings that have hidden meanings. The expressions
don't exactly mean what the words say. They most often refer to a phrase or
expression that cannot be understood by knowing what the individual words in the
phrase mean.

Examples:
I can’t believe that
 To have something up one’s sleeve – to have a secret
Robin has allowed
 A feather in one’s cap – something to be proud about me to use the
computer. I smell a
 Tie the knot – to get married
rat!!
 To hit the ceiling / Have a fit – to be very angry
 lips are sealed - will not disclose anything
 open somebody’s eyes – cause him to realize
 hold one’s tongue – to be silent
 smell a rat – have a feeling that something is wrong somewhere
 a bed of roses – an easy life
 to put one’s cards on the table – to be open and straightforward

Some examples of idioms in sentences:

The thief led the police on a wild goose chase (foolish adventure).
Tom and his sister were shaking in their shoes (very scared), when they left the
theatre after watching the horror film.
The exhausted student hit the sack (went to sleep), the moment he reached
home.

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 171


Alice has promised to turn over a new leaf (to improve in conduct) and do her
studies regularly.
At the ball, Cinderella felt like a fish out of water (feeling uncomfortable).
He has a very nice car, but he drives it once in a blue moon (rarely, almost
never).
The new restaurant was bursting at the seams (very crowded, very busy) this
weekend.
The police left no stone unturned (adopted every possible method) to trace the
robbers.
The young man was born with a silver spoon in his mouth (born in wealth and
luxury).
My hair stood on end (to be terrified) when I suddenly realised that I was
standing at the edge of a cliff!
I will not reveal anything, my lips are sealed (will not disclose anything).
Sarah was hurt when her best friend gave her the cold shoulder (ignore, to
behave in an unfriendly manner) at the party.
Mr Roy is very short-tempered; he hits the ceiling (becomes very angry) all of a
sudden for no concrete reason.

Do not try to change any word / vocabulary in an

English idiom! Also be careful, when you use idioms

in your writing exercises. They can be very effective if used carefully

and sparingly, but the writing becomes very unnatural, if too many

idioms are used in one paragraph or essay.

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Look at these literal representations of a few idioms. Isn’t it funny if idioms are
taken at face value?

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 173


11. PROVERBS

Proverbs are short, wise sayings which are truths. They are based on common
sense and practical experience. Proverbs, like Idioms, enrich our language and
make it more picturesque and effective.

Examples:

Absence makes the heart grow fonder: We feel more affection for our relatives
and friends when we are parted from them.
All work and no play make Jack a dull boy. We should not always be working.
Unless we can enjoy some form of recreation, our work suffers in consequence.
A bird in hand is worth two in a bush: It is better to accept something small
than to reject it and hope to get more later on.
Better late than never: It is better to do a thing even after much postponement
than not do it at all.
Blood is thicker than water: Family ties are very strong despite differences.
A burnt child dreads fire: Any painful experience is not forgotten soon.
Another proverb similar in meaning to the above is ‘Once bitten twice shy’
Empty vessels make the most noise - Foolish or witless persons are the most
talkative or noisy.
All that glitters is not gold: Do not judge a thing by its attractive appearance.

Why did you Remember, all that


trust her? glitters is not gold.
Because she was
so well-dressed
and had a sweet
voice.

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Charity begins at home: One should help the members of one’s family before
helping others. For example, Anita spends hours and hours on volunteer work
and neglects the children, forgetting that charity begins at home.
Discretion is the better part of valour: Caution is often better than rashness.
For example: Tom says to Harry, ‘I dare you to walk along the edge of the cliff.’
Harry says, ‘Why should I risk my life just to prove that I am brave? Don’t forget
that discretion is the better part of valour.’
Pour oil over troubled waters – try to calm a disturbance or quarrel with
soothing words.
Rome was not built in a day – perseverance will bring success.
Where there’s a will, there’s a way – a person will always find a way to succeed
or do or obtain something if he is willing and has determination.
Variety is the spice of life – variety of objects and experiences make life
interesting.
Make hay while the sun shines – make the earliest use of one’s opportunities.
The early bird catches the worm: Good advice to those who get up late in the
morning, or miss opportunities by not acting promptly.
Here’s a piece of good advice ---
Early to bed and early to rise,
Makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise.

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12. JOBS PEOPLE DO

WHERE DO THEY
JOB WHAT DO THEY DO?
WORK?

Someone who studies people and At a site where they can


Archaeologist what they did in the past from the dig out evidence about the
things they left behind past

A biologist specializing in the study In botanical gardens,


Botanist
of plants museums and laboratories

Chambermaid Cleans and tidies rooms In a hotel

Chef Prepares and cooks food In a kitchen

A doctor who is specially trained to


Dentist In a dental clinic
care for teeth

Dramatist Someone who writes plays Any where

A health professional trained in


Druggist Medical store/Laboratory
preparing and dispensing pills

Fishmonger Sells fish In a fish market

Butcher Prepares and sells meat In a butchery

Ensures safety and comfort of


Flight attendant In an airplane
passengers

Hair dresser Cuts and styles people's hair In a hair salon

Judge Judges and sentences people In a law court

Defends and prosecutes people. (to


In a law court and in a
Lawyer have somebody tried in a court of
lawyer’s office
law for a civil or criminal offence)

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Nutritionist A specialist in the study of food In clinics/hospitals/gyms

Sells lenses, eyeglasses, and other


Optician At the optician’s
optical instruments

Physician A licensed medical practitioner In a hospital/clinic

Physicist A scientist trained in physics In a laboratory

In a hotel or railway
Porter Carries other people's luggage
station.

Arranges appointments, types letters


Secretary In an office
and organises meetings

Surgeon Operates on people who are sick In a hospital

In a veterinary surgery or
Vet Treats animals
vet’s clinic

* * * * *

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10. LISTENING SKILLS
“Good listening skills set up a person for life.”

THE WISE OWL

A wise old owl The less he spoke,


Sat in an oak. The more he heard.
The more he saw, Why can't we be like
The less he spoke. That wise old bird?

Listening is one of the most important skills you can have. How well you listen has a
major impact on your effectiveness, and on the quality of your relationships with
others. A good listener will be able to better assimilate what is being said and thus
respond appropriately. She/he will also be able to add to their existing knowledge.

Listeners process sounds and meanings to be able to complete the given tasks.

Processing sounds includes:


 recognizing word boundaries (the beginning and end of each word, where
one word ends and another begins)
 contractions (isn’t, can’t, etc.)
 lexical items (vocabulary i.e. single words like cat, ball, etc. and word sets
like traffic light, by the way, in place of, etc.)
 stress, intonation, pitch and rhythm (the pronunciation, tone, etc.)

Processing meaning involves:


 Organising the sounds into meaningful ‘chunks’
 discarding or ignoring irrelevant language and anticipating what is coming
next. These are very important listening sub-skills for any listening exercise.
Processing occurs automatically. Speakers do not consciously arrange a sentence
into chunks but listeners without consciously meaning to, structure or pattern the
sentence as they hear it. For eg: {The kind old lady} {gave some food to the beggar}

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 178


What does it mean to really listen?

We listen to obtain information.


We listen to understand.
We listen for enjoyment.
We listen to learn.

Real listening is an active process that has three basic steps.

Hearing: Hearing just means listening enough to catch what the speaker is saying.

For example, say you were listening to a report on zebras, and the speaker

mentioned that no two are alike. If you can repeat the fact, then you have heard what

has been said.

Understanding: The next part of listening happens when you take what you have

heard and understand it in your own way. Let's go back to that report on zebras.

When you hear that no two are alike, think about what that might mean. You might

think, "Maybe this means that the pattern of stripes is different for each zebra."

Judging: After you are sure you understand what the speaker has said, think about

whether it makes sense. Do you believe what you have heard? You might think,

"How could the stripes be different for every zebra? But then again, the fingerprints

are different for every person. I think this seems believable."

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Tips for being a good listener

Give your full attention to the person who is speaking. Don't look out of the

window or at what else is going on in the room.

Make sure your mind is focused, too. It can be easy to let your mind wander if

you think you know what the person is going to say next, but you might be wrong!

If you feel your mind wandering, change the position of your body and try to

concentrate on the speaker's words.

Let yourself finish listening before you begin to speak! You can't really listen if

you are busy thinking about what you want say next.

Listen for main ideas. The main ideas are the most important points that the

speaker wants to get across. They may be mentioned at the start or end of a talk,

and repeated a number of times. Pay special attention to statements that begin

with phrases such as "My point is..." or "The thing to remember is..."

Think fast: Remember: time is on your side! Thoughts move about four times as

fast as speech. With practice, while you are listening you will also be able to think

about what you are hearing, really understand it, and give feedback to the

speaker.

* * * * *

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11. SPEAKING SKILLS
Some people can stand in front of a crowd and have them spellbound within
minutes. What's the magic? Surprisingly, there's no magic at all. In large part, public
speakers shine because they're completely prepared. They understand the different
speeches they're called upon to deliver in public. They know how speeches are
organised, so they can deliver speeches that work. Now, so you can, by just
following the guidelines given below.

Steps for giving a speech:

2. Introduce the
topic in the first few
sentences.

3. Develop the
1. Begin the speech speech further by
by addressing the elaborating on the
audience. topic.

4. Repeat words /
6. End the speech sentences for
with words of emphasis.
inspiration or a Use rhetorical
pledge to motivate questions.
the audience.
5. Use simple words
and simple sentence
constructions

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 181


Speech Delivery Tips:

 Make sure that your appearance is neat.

 Speak clearly, and adjust your voice so that everyone can hear you.

 Don't shout for the sake of being loud.

 It is common to speak rapidly when nervous; but try to speak slowly and with

proper voice modulation and intonation.

 Use pauses in your speech to emphasize a point, or to allow the audience to

react to a fact, anecdote or joke.

 Make eye contact with your audience. This helps to build trust and a

relationship between the speaker and the listeners.

 If the language is strong, you must present a physical force to go along with

your deliveries.

 Use hand gestures effectively.

 Do not fidget or make other nervous gestures with your hands.

 Do not keep your hands in your pockets.

 Be yourself, allow your own personality to shine in your speech.

 You have to assume that not everyone will agree with you from the start, and

it is your job to make them see things your way. The goal of your speech is to

change someone's mind or way of thinking about a topic.

 You’ve got to listen to yourself. You do not want to say something you’ll

eventually regret. Some things might be private matters to others in the

audience, or certain words can be offensive to others.

* * * * *
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12. ESSAY WRITING

An essay is a written composition, giving expression to one’s personal ideas or


opinions on a specific topic. It is a systematic exposition of a subject. An essay, like
a paragraph, develops a main idea. However, an essay is a longer piece of writing
and is made up of a number of paragraphs designed and developed sequentially on
the given subject.

The word essay comes from the French word ‘essai’ which means
to try or attempt. Michel di Montaigne who first used this word wrote
about his feelings on topics such as idleness and agony. He implied
that he was making an attempt to put his thoughts into words.

CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD ESSAY

1. UNITY:
An essay must possess unity of a theme and a defined purpose. It should
deal with one single central idea.
Keeping the subject of the writing in mind keeps an essay focused, defined
and coherent (following a logical order).
Connected ideas and sentences form paragraphs and a good
essay must have all its paragraphs linked.
Nothing irrelevant should be written in the essay.

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2. ORDER:
An essay should follow a certain ordered line of thought and come to a
definite conclusion.
It should not consist of haphazard reflections put down anyhow.
The paragraphs should be structured with a beginning, middle and an end.
A single tense should be used in an essay.

3. BREVITY:
An essay should be a brief exercise, concisely expressed.
It should contain only what is important.
Writing concisely makes a writer think more clearly, thereby giving clarity of
thought to an essay.
The word limit should be approximately 200 - 300 words or as stated in the
question.

4. STYLE:
The style of an essay must be dignified and literary.
The language should be clear, simple, direct and natural.
Colloquial terms, slangs, abbreviations and contractions should not be used in
an essay. Numerals should be spelled out.
Sentences should be well structured and adhere to the rules of punctuation.
Good vocabulary, adjectives, synonyms, idioms and analogies add more
meaning to an essay.
The repetitive use of thoughts, sentiments, expressions and
key words should be avoided.

5. PERSONAL TOUCH:
An essay is a written composition of an individual's perspective on a topic that
lends its own personal touch.
It should reveal the personal feelings and opinions of the writer. As otherwise,
the essay loses its scope of individual expression.

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 184


KEY ELEMENTS FOR WRITING AN ESSAY

The advantage of written expression over impromptu verbal expression is


that one has more time to articulate one’s thoughts. Reading, observation,
conversation and practice are key elements to write a good essay.

1. Reading:
Get into the habit of reading. Try to read books of various types and topics.
Reading enables one to collect facts and information.
Reading helps in having a good command over grammar.
It empowers one to express oneself correctly and
interestingly.

2. Observation:
Observe carefully all that goes around you. Use all your five
senses to observe life in all its shades.
Observation will give you material to write your essay. It will
help you to use description more effectively.

3. Conversation:
Conversation is the most unavoidable resource of information or learning.
Listening is a great way to learn new information.
People like to talk about what they do and what their experiences are or were.
You will learn a lot from their experiences.

4. Practice:
Make it a habit to write everyday. Write out your thoughts and feelings.
Practice writing short descriptions of anything you fancy in daily life.
Go over them and examine how effective your writing is. Check to see how
organised your thoughts are.

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 185


STEPS TO WRITE A GOOD ESSAY

1. Read and understand the topic: Read the subject carefully: You
must first know what exactly you are supposed to write.
2. Think and reflect on what you will write: Think over the subject.
As you think over a topic, you will recollect information in the form of
ideas, facts and illustrations.
3. Collect and note the ideas: To ensure that you don’t lose these
ideas, jot them down immediately.
4. Select what you will write: Examine the content of your
notes.Select only those points that are helpful to develop the given
subject and those that you may elaborate on.
5. Organise and logically arrange the points: Organise these ideas
or points in a logical order, so that they combine together effortlessly
to create a meaningful whole. Without a logical arrangement, the
essay may be filled with irrelevant information.
6. Make the outline: Decide which points are to be put in the
introduction, which ones are to be used in the middle and
conclusion.
7. Fill in the outline: You have the outline of the essay which you have
to fill in with clear, correct and simple language in good handwriting.
8. Revise: Never forget to revise. Read your essay once again for
incorrect spellings or punctuation, faulty grammatical constructions
and logical flow. Correct them, if necessary.

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THE FORMAT OF AN ESSAY

An essay is divided into three parts.

The Introduction The Body The Conclusion

It usually consists of It is the main part of It deals with the
a single paragraph the essay. summary of the
and states the main It consists of several features of the essay.
idea. paragraphs. It should be effective
It should be brief and Each paragraph and interesting.
interesting. should deal with It may consist of an
It should lead to the certain aspects of the intelligent and eye-
subject. topic. catching summing up
It may consist of a The paragraphs of the arguments of
suitable quotation, a should be well the essay.
proverb, an incident constructed and
or a general remark. connected to one
another.

The DOs and the DON’Ts while writing an essay

DOs DON’Ts

Reserve your best sentences Do not misunderstand

for first and last paragraphs. the meaning of the topic.

Be direct and clear. Write Do not write irrelevant

simple short sentences. details or long descriptions.

Strictly stick to the topic. Do not repeat the same idea.

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CLASSIFICATION OF ESSAYS

Essays may be classified into various kinds. However, it should be noted that the
classification of essays does not mean that the essays are mutually exclusive. Thus,
the different types of essays do contain overlapping elements.

This is how essays are generally subdivided:


1. Narrative Essay: It is generally about narrating a story, an event or an incident.
2. Descriptive Essay: It gives a description of any subject which could be a living
being, an object, a scene, a phenomenon of nature or any similar situation.
3. Expository Essay: It explains or defines a topic.
4. Persuasive Essay: It presents a topic with two points of view.
5. Reflective Essay: It reflects on abstract issues.
6. Imaginative Essay: It asks the writer to imagine being in various situations.

NARRATIVE ESSAYS

A narrative essay narrates / tells a story or an event.


The narration can be about events, incidents, accidents, festivals,
functions, a street quarrel, a journey, a natural disaster etc.

Ingredients of a Narrative Essay

An interesting incident.


Some characters. Let the characters describe themselves by their speech and
action.
A suitable background which may be a home, a school, a hospital, a factory, a
shop, a farm, etc.
A particular mood, for example, humorous, sad or frightening.
Appropriate dialogue and language.

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Points to note while writing a Narrative Essay

1. Maintain coherence or order: Maintain the chronological order of


actions or events.

2. Begin with a bang: Begin a narrative essay in an interesting


manner. One may begin with a bang in one of the following ways:

a) By getting straight to the action:

Example:
The girl jumped over the fence and stood in front of the lion.

b) By an unusual detail:

Example:
It was Friday, the thirteenth and the clock had just struck twelve.

c) By setting the scene of the story:

Example:
It was an island in the middle of nowhere. The shipwrecked
sailor sat under the coconut tree, waiting to be rescued.

d) By a rhetorical question (a question that does not require an answer):

Example:
How would you like to make a trip to the moon and be back again to Earth
to resume your normal school life?

e) By a dialogue:

Example:
“I am planning to go to Timbuktu”, Sarah announced at the breakfast table,
“whether you like it or not.”

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 189


3. Choose the characters and anecdotes: Give some thought into
the characteristics that your characters will have. Focus on the
peculiarities or distinctive characteristics. Create a clear visual
image of each individual. Get the reader to see the characters.

4. Consider the importance of the scene and the time of the incident: For
narratives that relate adventures or ghost stories, the scene of action is
important. In other narratives, the time of action is significant.

5. Do not end your essay with flat sentences: Do not end your essay with flat
sentences like ‘In conclusion …’, ‘So it was obvious that it was an enjoyable
experience …’, ‘So ended my experience in the …’ etc.
The conclusion should be definitive, effective and interesting. A surprise ending
may be used since it captivates the reader even at the end.

6. Choose your points of emphasis and draw your personal opinion: Do not
emulate others. Write from your own knowledge, experiences, imagination and
point of view. Express your own ideas and feelings and not those of others.

Narratives are usually written in first person

singular, i.e. using ‘I’.

However, writers may also use third person

pronouns (he, she, or it).

If it's your story, use ‘I’.

If it's a story about what happened to a friend or group of

friends (including yourself), use she or he or we, as appropriate.

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 190


Sample Narrative Essays

A celebration of a different kind

We heard another “boom!” It was ten pm on a dark cold


night. I could not begin to contain my excitement at the
occasion of Diwali.

I was at my grand parents’ home where we traditionally celebrated this ‘huge’ festival
of lights. Diwali, or the festival of lights, marks the home coming of Lord Rama after
fourteen years in exile. It is celebrated with pomp and glory in India. This Diwali, we
had decided to mark the occasion by treating some homeless children to ice cream.
My friends, Zara, Natasha, Vishnu and I had planned to go out to the nearest ice
cream parlour for the same purpose.

After decorating the house with candles, we made our way to the parlour. We arrived
to see quite a few homeless children around the door, waiting for crumbs that are on
offer. Zara ordered sixteen scoops of butterscotch in cups. The four of us decided
not to have ice creams to ensure that each child got a share. Seeing their happy
faces as they licked their ice cream, I realised how much I had to be grateful for.

An interesting transformation occurred as the manager noticed that we weren’t


eating any ice cream ourselves. I had seen that initially, the manager had judged us
to be ‘a bunch of rich kids out to blow up money on yet another excuse to celebrate’.
The transformation in the manager’s attitude towards us left me with yet another
realisation - ‘How the attitude of giving can warm a person’s heart’.

Eventually as we were getting ready to drive home, the manager came running out
and said, “I have some extra ice cream; won’t you like to help me finish it?” Vishnu
went in and got us some ice cream. It was great!

I think I received more than I gave. I had the most memorable Diwali celebration that
night.

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DESCRIPTIVE ESSAYS

A descriptive essay contains detailed descriptions about something.


This type of essay could focus on a person, a place, an incident, an object, a
situation or some phenomena of nature. The subject being described in such an
essay could be real or imaginary. The objective here is to reproduce a clear image of
the person, place or thing described, in the mind of the reader.

Points to note while writing a Descriptive Essay

a. Choose your perspective: There are several ways to describe something.


Decide what aspect of the subject you wish to concentrate on. If you are
describing a train journey, it could be described as pleasant or unpleasant. You
could choose either perspective. Whichever way you choose, be consistent
(unchanging) and describe only from that angle. However, certain topics may
require a description from more than one perspective.

b. Mention significant, concrete details: One needs to be specific when


attempting such an essay. A person may have an individualistic or a distinctive
way of walking, speaking, arguing, sitting or eating. Minute details make a
description more credible and realistic.

Example:
If you were describing your favourite aunt, you would have to
provide definite details, such as the trouble she would take to wish
her nephews and nieces on their birthdays, that she would visit the
sick and volunteer to help the community whenever she could. Add
a few anecdotes to substantiate your opinion. You could briefly
describe how she had baked your favourite cake on your birthday.

c. Show instead of tell: Create a vivid picture in words with the help of the five
senses. Do not limit yourself to only what you see. Include what you hear, smell,
taste and feel too.

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 192


Example:
If you are describing A DAY IN THE FOREST, here’s how to go about it.

SIGHT SOUND
The trees rose high into the sky. A rabbit We could hear the sound of monkeys
scampered into its hole. The forest was chattering in the distance while birds
so dense, that it looked dark and scary twittered in the trees. The grass swished
in the distance. Birds displayed their under our feet. Suddenly we heard a
colourful crests and plumes. loud, threatening roar in the distance.

SMELL TASTE
The air smelt of fresh, wet earth. The I felt thirsty and we drank from the
fragrance of wild forest flowers was nearby stream where the water tasted
enchanting. The aroma of the grass was bland, pure and fresh. We then ate wild
so different from the unnatural smell of berries that were sweet and tangy at the
city exhaust fumes. same time.

TOUCH
The stones felt rough under my feet and soon
my feet felt sore after five minutes of walking
on the bare earth. Mosquitoes stung viciously
but the gentle breeze patted my face
affectionately and that helped me for a while.

d. Use descriptive vocabulary: Use adjectives, verbs, idioms and figures of


speech such as similes and metaphors to make your essay more interesting.

Example:
Her blue eyes and copper coloured hair made her feel like a fish out of water.

e. Use comparisons: Feel free to compare objects, scenes and people to make the
details more vivid and easy to imagine.

Example:
Bent with the weight of the huge trunk, she was walking like an ant, climbing
the stairs slowly and with immense difficulty.

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 193


A. The Description of a Person usually comprises of:

1. The name of the person and the writer’s relationship with him/her.
2. Physical features: The height, looks, body shape, stature.
3. Clothing, posture, speech, mannerisms.
4. Life history, family background.
5. His/her opinions, interests and actions.
6. What others say about him/her.
7. How he/she affects other people.
8. His/her impact on your life, why you like or dislike him/her.

Examples of topics:
The rag picker, The person I admire most, My favourite sportsperson, My
father etc.

B. The Description of an Object usually comprises of:

1. The class to which the object belongs. For example, a racket is a sport object.
2. The general appearance of the object: its shape, size, colour, material etc.
3. Particular or peculiar features which identify the object.
4. Comparison to other things.

Examples of topics:
Swings, The magic of the aeroplane, Clouds, Mobile phones etc.

C. The Description of a Scene usually comprises of:

1. A general impression of the scene. For example, a busy market place, a clean
beach, a deserted railway platform etc.
2. Specific appearance: Sights, sounds, smells, colours, shapes
that make up the scene.
3. Include people if they are a part of the scene.
4. The impact the scene has on you.
5. Any association or prior memories that the scene has triggered in you.

Examples of topics:
A beautiful garden, A village, One winter morning, The city at night etc.

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 194


Sample Descriptive Essays

My Friend, Philosopher and Guide

Did you ever have a friend, philosopher and guide all rolled into one? A person who
would show you the right path, but never held it against you when you faltered? I
had. Her name was Rebecca.

Rebecca was my neighbour, my mentor and my best friend.


She was one of those people who were friends with
everybody. I had never seen her cross and she was always in
a good mood. No matter what was going on, she could get you
to smile. I cannot remember a time when she had something
unpleasant to say about someone. That was one of the many
valuable lessons I learned from her and have made a part of
my life.

Rebecca was a few years older than me. She was tall for her age and always kept
her long, golden hair pulled back into a pony tail because she was a bit of a tomboy.
But when she let it down and it flew in waves in the gentle breeze, there was no
doubt she was a beautiful girl. Her face was soft and sweet! Her deep, green eyes
would sparkle bright and when she flashed her pearly white teeth, she would light up
an entire room. There would be laughter and happiness everywhere she went.

At one point of time when I began to neglect my studies, it was Rebecca who
explained to me that every moment is precious and we should not waste time in
unnecessary activities as that will affect us adversely, in the future. She was my
friend, philosopher and guide.

Years have passed and today I am in a higher grade while Rebecca is in college. But
even now, at the hint of any trouble, I fall back upon my best friend, Rebecca, and
she NEVER fails me. I am really lucky to have a friend, philosopher and guide like
her.

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 195


Matheran

Are you tired of concrete jungles, more commonly called


cities? Do you wish to be embraced by cool, pristine air
and get lost in pathways painted in shades of green,
brown and red? If your answer is yes, then Matheran is
the place you are looking for. This little hill resort in the
district of Raigad, just a two and a half hour ride from
Mumbai, is a leaf taken out of paradise.

Matheran is nature’s defiant way of stating that it can thrive even when it is so
dangerously close to urban life. Indeed, this hill station offers you a version of back-
to-nature experience because it rejects development in the form of concrete roads or
paths. The only form of transport is horseback, carriages, man pulled rickshaws and,
of course, your two loyal feet.

Matheran is a trekker’s delight where you can walk aimlessly through a riot of
greens, the twitter of birds and the chatter of naughty monkeys. There are leaves, in
the colour of jade, emerald, bottle-green, light green, lemon green---you name it! And
guess what! They complement the red laterite soil beneath your feet and the dark
brown of the sturdy tree trunks. This is where the sky and the leaves compete for
space and the sky cannot be seen.

There are amazing spots, all interconnected by bridle paths. There’s the steep and
picturesque descent to Monkey Point; there’s Charlotte Lake where sunlight through
the trees lends a magical effect to everything; there’s the wondrous path to Louisa
Point where the tree trunks and glistening leaves sometimes seem like nature’s
shrines to God. It’s quite easy for anyone to whisper a short prayer in these places.
Even the market place where you buy the traditional chikki, chewda and Kolhapuri
chappals is quaint and beautiful as if taken out of a fairy tale. Charming little shops
and bungalows line the street.

Matheran is one of the last surviving natural spots which remind us that nature needs
to be a part of our everyday life. As you return to the inevitable life of the city, you are
thankful to God for this miracle called Nature.

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PERSUASIVE ESSAYS

A persuasive takes a position FOR or AGAINST an issue and convinces the reader
to believe or do something. It attempts to persuade a reader to adopt a certain point
of view or to take a particular action. The argument must always use sound
reasoning and evidence by stating facts, giving logical reasons, using examples, and
quoting experts’ opinions and sayings. The purpose of a persuasive essay is to
convince the reader to embrace your idea or point of view.

Points to note while writing a Persuasive Essay

1. An impressive introduction: Begin a persuasive essay in an interesting manner.


Capture the attention of the reader and set the tone for your essay.
The introduction should include a thesis. The thesis is your focus statement or
statement of purpose. It tells the readers the specific topic of your essay and
informs them of your point of view. Remember to be brief and concise.

You may begin with a bang in one of the following ways:

a) By an unusual detail:

Example:
Manitoba, because of its cold climate, is not thought of as a great place for
a reptile. Actually, it has the largest seasonal congregation of garter
snakes in the world.

b) By a strong statement:

Example:
Cigarettes are the number one cause of lighter sales in Canada.

c) By a quotation:

Example:
Mark Twain once said, “Action speaks louder than words but not nearly as
often.”

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 197


d) By an emphatic rhetorical question (a question that does not require an
answer):

Example:
Have you considered how many books we’d read if it were not for
television?

e) By an interesting statistic or fact

f) By a short anecdote

2. Body: The body should consist of at least three paragraphs. Each should present
the points in support of your thesis or focus statement or main idea.
Be sure to provide evidences to support your argument.

You may support your idea or provide evidences in one of the following ways:

a) Facts: These are a powerful means to convince your reader.

b) Statistics: These provide excellent support to your argument. But be sure your
statistics come from responsible sources. Always cite your sources to establish
authority.

c) Quotes: Direct quotes from experts or famous people are powerful evidence.

d) Examples: These enhance your meaning and make your ideas concrete.

As persuasive essays are written on debatable topics, both sides have their own
arguments and counter-arguments. A good persuasive essay generally tries to
disprove the opposing idea or viewpoint.

3. A strong conclusion: Restate your thesis or focus statement once again.


Summarise the main points of your essay. The conclusion enables your reader to
recall the main points of your argument.

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 198


A nice way to conclude the persuasive essay is to write a personal comment or
call for action or an appeal. You can do this:

a) With a Prediction: You may suggest or predict what the results may or may
not be in the situation discussed.

b) With a Question: Concluding with a question, lets your readers make their
own predictions, draw their own conclusions.

c) With Recommendations: A recommendation usually stresses on the actions or


remedies that should be taken to solve a problem.

d) With a Quotation: An apt quotation may summarise, predict, question, or call


for action.

4. Techniques and Language:

a) Repetition: Repetition is critical in persuasive writing, since readers cannot


agree with you if they don’t truly get what you are saying. Make your point in
several different ways, such as directly, using an example, in a story, via a quote
from a famous person, and once more in your summary.

b) Comparisons: In making comparisons, you can relate your point to what the
readers already accepts as true, so they can draw their own conclusions. The
most effective comparison writing techniques are the use of metaphors, similes,
and analogies.

c) Storytelling: Stories allow people to convince themselves. Relaying your


information through stories makes it relatable to readers.

d) Make use of clear, simple, and vivid language; logical construction, and
effective transitions. [Transitions are words and phrases that connect ideas and
show how they are related]

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 199


Examples of transitions:
To repeat an idea just stated:
In other words; That is; To repeat; Again, etc.

To illustrate an idea:


For instance; In particular; To illustrate; In this manner; Thus, etc.

To mark a new idea as an addition to what has been said:


Similarly; Also; Too; Besides; Further; Moreover; In addition, etc.

To announce a contrast, a change in direction:


Yet; However; Still; Nevertheless; On the other hand; In contrast; Instead of;
On the contrary, etc.

Time:
At once; At length; Immediately; Meanwhile; Presently; At the same time;
Shortly; Temporarily; Thereafter, etc.

To show cause and effect:


As a result; For this season; Therefore; Hence; Consequently, etc.

To restate an idea more precisely:


To be exact; To be specific; To be precise; More specifically, etc.

Conclusion:
In short; In brief; On the whole; In summary; To sum up, etc.

5. Be consistent and stay focused on your point of view throughout the essay.

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Sample Persuasive Essays

A Stitch in Time Saves Nine

The meaning of this age-old proverb is quite literal. It effectively means that we must
attend to things well in time, so that we can save ourselves a lot of trouble later on, if
it becomes unmanageable. Just as it takes only a spark to start a fire, which if not
put out in time causes great devastation. Similarly, the minutest problem if not
attended immediately could lead to a major catastrophe.

As one immediately attends to a small hole in one’s pocket with a stitch, which if left
unattended could develop into a tear, leading to nine stitches at a later date; similarly
if we postpone attending to minor day to day problems, they do not disappear, but
come back to us in a much more gigantic form. A small breach in a canal, if not
attended in time not only breaches the entire embankment, but also inundates large
cities and villages. Kingdoms can be lost by neglecting to replace such a small thing
as a nail in a horse’s shoe. As most of us would have heard of the saying “For want
of a nail, the shoe was lost, for want of a shoe, the horse was lost, for want of a
horse, the rider was lost, for want of a rider the battle was lost, for want of the battle,
the kingdom was lost.” This is the most practical and sound advice, that is given by
our elders including parents and teachers. However, we in our haste, tend to
overlook the small details, which is the cause of major problems at a later date.

History is replete with examples validating the above saying. Had Germany got a
honourable settlement after World War I, the conflagration and destruction of the
World War II could have been avoided. Had the national leaders shown maturity and
understanding, the partition of the country could have been avoided. These are all
glaring examples of what can happen to great countries, if small problems and
differences are not resolved at once.

Therefore, we must attend to even minor problems immediately and not postpone
action for a later date, which may be a little too late. This is a sound piece of advice
that is relevant even today and would always stand us in good stead in our life. We
can ignore this to our own peril.

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The Path to Success

‘Nothing succeeds like success’; for one who has tasted success, this comes to him
naturally. Thus we find some people achieving great heights in whatever they do,
while on the other hand, there are quite a few unfortunate ones who have to bear the
ignominy of failure. There is, however, no mistaking the external facade of success,
for behind it are qualities that are imperative for achieving it.

Success is ninety-nine per cent perspiration and one percent inspiration, signifying
that there is no short cut to success. There are many instances where people have
risen from extreme poverty to achieve great success, by sheer dint of hard work. We
have such illustrious examples of Abraham Lincoln and Lal Bahadur Shastri who
rose from a very humble beginning to become the President and the Prime Minister
of their respective country.

Besides perseverance, there is need for a keen and sharp mind, with a clear vision
of what one wants to achieve in life. This ambition acts like a beacon of light, which
impels us to strive relentlessly in the pursuit of one’s goal. Thus, it is not sufficient to
have an ambition alone, we should also be ambitious. We should have the courage
of conviction, to move away from the beaten track in the pursuit of our goals.

Besides, we should also be patient to wait for the outcome of events, before rushing
in without a thought of the implications. We must also be a good listener, by hearing
the views of subordinates or superiors before coming to a decision. Having once
taken a decision, we must lead by setting an example for others to emulate. We
must have implicit faith in our colleagues and subordinates, to whom power and
responsibility must be delegated. It was said of Napoleon, that in the thickest of
battles, he slept on the horseback, for it was the general who was actually in
command. Such was his faith in his generals.

The last but not the least prerequisite for success is a positive mind-set, which is not
unduly pessimistic. This optimistic approach enables one to see an opportunity even
when the going is not good. Such a person is not easily disheartened and his
perseverance does pay in the long run for, ‘Life’s battle does not always go, to the
stronger and the fastest man, But sooner or later the man who wins, is the man who
thinks he can’, said H. W Longfellow.

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 202


These are all but attributes that are essential for success, but there is another
essential factor over which we have no control and that is destiny. This is an
important ingredient for success. Abraham Lincoln humbly recognised it when he
said, “I claim not to have controlled events, but plainly confess that events controlled
me.”

Success, therefore, does not come by chance. We have to assiduously work for it
with dedication and perseverance, without waiting for reward or recognition, for this
is what Karma is. “Honour and shame from no condition arise. Act well your part thus
all the honour lies.”

* * * * *

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13. LETTER WRITING

Letter writing is one of the oldest forms of communication.


Writing a letter is about conveying a message. It is a skill with which we
communicate through written words.

Traditional letter writing still continues to be popular compared to the other means of
communication.
Letters serve as a record of communication which can be retrieved as and when
we want. A letter is permanent – it is always there to refer to.
Letters have a personal touch. A letter adds a personal touch to communication.
It may be typed or handwritten, and then delivered by electronic network or by
post. All the same, its value is undeniable.
Letter writing is also very useful in practical life, regardless of the profession one
chooses later on in life.
Moreover, while electronic mail is a preferred mode of communication nowadays,
the traditional letter writing skills are still applicable to e-mail.

TYPES OF LETTERS
Letters may be used to inform, enquire, complain, request, thank, congratulate,
console, direct, invite, explain, narrate, reply etc. Depending on their purpose and
objectives, letters can be divided into two main categories:
1. Formal or Business Letters: These are formal and business-like in tone and are
generally written to people not personally known. Formal letters are written for
various official purposes.
2. Informal or Social or Friendly Letters: These are friendly or personal in tone.
Informal letters are written to friends, relatives and acquaintances.

There is a third category, Semi-formal Letters. These are less friendly than informal
letters. We may write semi-formal letters to our friends’ parents, teachers, principals
or persons of repute to invite them to be a chief guest or to judge a competition.

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 204


INFORMAL LETTERS

An Informal Letter is written:


To keep in touch with people
To share or describe experiences
To convey some news
To send an invitation
To accept an invitation
To thank someone
To congratulate
To wish someone luck
To request
To enquire
To apologise and explain one’s behaviour
To express sympathy and consolation

PARTS OF AN INFORMAL LETTER

An informal letter consists of the following six parts:

1. The Heading
2. The Salutation or Greeting
3. The Body
4. The Subscription or Leave-taking
5. The Signature
6. The Superscription on the envelope

While writing a letter, the various parts must be properly arranged so that the letter is
clearly understood by the receiver. There are basically two kinds of layout:
1. The Block or Box Form: All the units are placed on the left side of the page
close to the left hand margin.
2. The Indented or Traditional Form: The heading, salutation, subscription and
signature are on the right side of the page, close to the right hand margin. New
paragraphs are indented.

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 205


1. The Heading:
The heading consists of the writer’s address and the date.
Place the heading on the top left-hand corner of the letter.
Do not use indentation, i.e. write the address one below the other without
leaving space from the margin.
Place the date directly below the address. The name of the month
must be spelt out.
The heading may or may not be punctuated.

Write the address in the following order:


Number and/or name of the house / apartment
Name of the locality
Name of the street / road
Name of the Town / City and Pin Code
Name of the State
Name of the Country (may be omitted, if the letter is being
written to someone within the country)

Write the date in any one of the following formats:


15th May 2011 / 15th May, 2011
May 15, 2011

An example of the Heading

With Punctuation Without Punctuation

Flat 5, Flat 5
Blue Haven, Blue Haven
Candy Lane, Candy Lane
Dadar (W), Dadar (W)
Mumbai 28. Mumbai 28

25th April, 2011 25th April 2011

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 206


2. The Salutation or Greeting:
The writer of the letter greets the receiver, when he/she starts the
communication. This is called the Salutation of the letter.
Place the salutation on the left-hand margin of the letter, about one / two lines
below the heading.
The form of the salutation can be either ‘My dear’ or ‘Dear’ depending on the
writer’s relationship with the one to whom the letter is written.
The first word of the salutation and the words indicating a relationship are
capitalised. E.g. Dear Father, My dear Grandpa.
The salutation always ends with a comma.

A few examples of the Salutation:


Friends / Near relatives : Dear Daddy, My dear Mom, Dear Aunt Mabel,
Dear Shrikant, My dear Paula, Dear Uncle, etc.
Acquaintances : Dear Mr. Goel, Dear Miss Shaina, etc.

3. The Body:
The body of the letter is the most important part of the letter. It explains what the
letter is about.
The position of the body is one line below the salutation.
Divide the letter into paragraphs, unless the letter is very short. Organise your
thoughts and arrange them in the following paragraphs:

a) The opening sentence OR introduction:


Introduce the topic of the letter. Mention the purpose of writing the letter.
Alternatively, the opening sentence could refer to an earlier letter, if one is
in continued correspondence.
The introductory paragraph should be brief, personal and honest. It should
only consist of a sentence or two. It may even include a little humour.
Here are some useful suggestions for the opening sentence:
I was delighted to hear of your success…
Do you know what has happened to…
How can I ever thank you for…
It’s a real pleasure to congratulate you on…

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 207


b) The main content:
Plan what you are going to write, so that the letter follows a logical order.
Divide your letter into 3-4 paragraphs; each paragraph dealing with a new
idea or piece of information.
Use correct spellings and appropriate punctuation marks.
Write neatly, if your letter is handwritten.
Use simple language and short sentences.
Phrases like, It was great, What fun!, I’m amazed, We had a blast, Our
performance rocked, Just chill, Don’t worry etc. can be used.
Use contractions like, isn’t, can’t, shouldn’t etc.
Use the first person pronouns like, I, me, we, us etc.
Use phrasal words like, to keep up with, look down upon etc.

c) The closing sentence OR conclusion:


The last part of the body is the closing.
Let the last paragraph reflect the theme of the entire letter thus conveying
your feelings.
Conclude the letter with a sentence which has some connection with the
topic of the letter.
The last sentence may be in the form of conveying love and respect to the
family members. It should leave the reader with a friendly impression.
Here are some useful suggestions for the concluding sentence:
With love… / With affectionate regards… / Please give my regards to…
I look forward to hearing from you soon…
We all miss you here…
Don’t hesitate to write again if I can be of any further help…

4. The Subscription or Leave-taking:


The subscription consists of an appropriate and courteous leave-taking phrase.
Place the subscription on the left-hand side of the letter, about one / two lines
below the body.
The subscription depends on the relation of the writer with the one to whom
the letter is written.

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 208


The first word of the subscription is capitalised.
There is no apostrophe in the word ‘Yours’.
The subscription always ends with a comma.

A few examples of the Subscription:


Friends : Your friend, Your loving friend, Yours sincerely, etc.
Near relatives : Yours affectionately, Your loving sister, With love,
Your affectionate son, etc.
Acquaintances : Yours sincerely, Yours truly, Yours faithfully, etc.

5. The Signature:
The signature consists of the name of the writer (the first name only and NOT
the surname).
Place the signature on the left-hand side of the letter, one line below the
subscription.
The signature does not consist of a title such as, ‘Mr’, ‘Ms’ or ‘Mrs’.
There is no full stop after the signature.

6. The Superscription on the envelope:


The superscription on the envelope or postcard consists of the name and the
address of the receiver.

.
To
Ms Sakshi Mehra
B-7, Indraneel Nagar
A.B. Road
Indore - 452001
Madhya Pradesh

Prepare the envelope only if asked to do so in the


question.

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 209


LAYOUT OF AN INFORMAL LETTER

While writing a letter, the various parts must be properly arranged so that the letter is
clearly understood by the receiver. There are basically two kinds of layout:
1. The Block or Box Form
2. The Indented or Traditional Form

BLOCK OR BOX FORMAT

Blk 103
Sender’s
Lorong Ah Soo
Address
01-304
Singapore 559335

Date 10th October 2011

Salutation Dear Uncle,

How have you been? I heard from Aunt that you will
finally be visiting Singapore. ………………………….……...
……………………………………………………..………….…….

………………………………………..………..……............…...…
…………………………………………………………..…….........
Body
………………………………..

………………………………………..………..……............…...…
………………………………………………………….…….......…
………………………………..

Subscription Your loving niece,

Signature Alexia

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 210


INDENTED OR TRADITIONAL FORMAT

66, Red Road


Sender’s Bhavanipur
Address Kolkata 700 012

Date 10th October 2011

Salutation Dear Susan,

// …………………………………………….……….……...
……………………………………………………..………….…….

// …………………………………………..……….……....
………………………………………………………….…….......…
Body
………………………………..

// …………………………….…………….…..…….……...
………………………………………………………….…….......…
………………………………..

Subscription Yours affectionately,

Signature Sarah

The Block Form is generally used when letters are typed out.
The Indented Form is used when letters are handwritten.
You may choose any form when writing letters.
However, the Block Format is more widely used nowadays.

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_T1_hn 211


Sample Letter - Block Form

Write a letter to your friend informing him of your inability to go to school for
two weeks after the summer holidays.

B-5, Juhu -Tara Road


Mumbai 400 049

12th June 2011

Dear Annie,

I expect, you will be surprised to receive a letter from me; especially now when
school is going to re-open in a few days. Actually, something very unexpected has
happened!

Do you remember my telling you that I was going to stay with my uncle during the
holidays? Well, I had done just that and had had a lot of fun too when my cousin
caught the measles! Though I have not caught it, I am in quarantine and won’t be
able to go to school for the next two weeks. The doctor says that the disease is
very infectious and I may pass it on to someone else, if I am allowed to attend
school.

So here I am, stuck in the house and feeling really sorry for myself. I suppose I
ought to be pleased that my holidays are getting extended, but I’ll be missing the
basketball match against St. Michael’s as well as the school picnic!

Would you do me a favour and return my library book next Thursday? It’s in my
locker and the keys are with Miss Roy.

I must end my letter now as I have to write to Mr Ronald, our Principal, explaining
everything. Bye and do write a letter if you get time. See you soon.

You may choose any form when writing letters.


Your loving friend,
Kylie

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LETTER NARRATING AN INCIDENT

Points to remember:

Such kind of letters cover biographies, incidents (good or bad), journeys or


voyages, experiences and stories - real or imaginary.
Imagine that you have witnessed the incident or have been told about it and write
accordingly.
Follow a logical sequence; as such a letter narrates a story / incident that has a
beginning, middle and an end that must come in the chronological order.

Sample letter narrating an experience

Write a letter to your friend giving an account of a competition that you took
part in and won. Prepare an envelope.

21, Ganesh Villa


Sardar Patel Marg
New Delhi 110 021

19th December 2011

My dear Divya,

I’m writing this letter to tell you about the super-duper victory we had yesterday. It
was a surprise debate on the topic ‘The internet is a bane to society’ in which we won
hands down and the applause at the end was thundering.

The day began as usual with the mad rush to school. I settled down on my seat only
to hear the teacher telling us to prepare ourselves for a debate. She divided the class
into two groups to speak ‘for’ and ‘against’ the topic. I belonged to the group that
would speak against the topic. We sat down with pen and paper and jotted down
points. My friends Aryan, Sammy and I were chosen to speak on the topic.

Soon, it was time for the debate to be conducted. Annie from the other group started
with her arguments and tried to prove that the internet is really harmful for us. I was
itching to get up and counter argue; which I soon did. I reminded her that she is
directly indebted to it for the straight A’s that she gets in her various projects.

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Heated attacks and counter attacks followed one another, and at last it was time for
the result. Breaking the pin drop silence, the teacher announced that our group had
won and I had been chosen the Best Speaker! Isn’t that great?

I really wanted to share my happiness with you; so writing this letter to you. Hope you
are having fun in school too. Convey my regards to uncle and aunty. Do write soon.

Your loving friend,


Rashi

Envelope

To
Divya Parekh
53, Law College Road
Pune 411 033
Maharashtra

Note: Refer to the unit on Narrative Essay writing to


learn more about how to write a Narrative letter.

DESCRIPTIVE LETTERS

Points to remember:

A descriptive letter consists of a description of some person, place or thing.


In such letters we express in words what the eyes see and the ears hear.
We describe a scene, an object or a person we have met
and sometimes even an incident.

Note: Refer to the unit on Descriptive Essay writing to


learn more about how to write a Descriptive letter.

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Sample descriptive letter

Write a letter to your cousin describing the exhibition that was held in your
city. Describe what you saw there. Prepare an envelope.

A-12, Balaji Apt


Nerul (E)
Navi Mumbai 410 216

22nd February 2011

Dear Sandra,

It’s been a long time since I heard from you. Hope you are fine and going to school
regularly. We are having an interesting time in school and going for many field trips.
Last week, we were taken to the ‘Indian Fair’ where we saw the exquisite handicraft
work of different states of our great country. It was my first visit to such an exhibition.

The exhibition ground looked like a fairyland. The bright colours and teeming crowd
created a carnival like atmosphere. At the handicrafts pavilion, craftsmen from
various parts of the country were displaying their work. There were items made of
jute, silk, rayon, plastic, bamboo and even paper. We got a glimpse of the real India
as we went through those exquisite handmade objects showcasing the talent of
people from remote corners of India.

Children crowded around the amusement and toy section. There were also puppet
shows, street theatre, short film displays and live fashion shows. I thoroughly enjoyed
the exhibition and also learnt about the different states of India and the handicraft
specific to a state. We plan to make a powerpoint presentation on ‘Handicrafts of
India’ soon.

Bye for today! I look forward to hearing from you soon. Please give my regards to
uncle and aunty and lots of love to Tania.

Your friend,
Tejas

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Envelope

To
Sandra Henderson
33, Lansdowne Road
Kolkata - 700 029
West Bengal

A few topics that you may practise writing Narrative letters on:

Write a letter to your cousin telling her about the picnic that you were taken to
from the school.
Write a letter to your friend narrating an interesting happening that took place in
the market near your house.
Write a letter to your cousin telling him / her about the magic show that you
witnessed last week.

A few topics you may practise writing Descriptive letters on:

Write a letter to your uncle describing the place you visited during your holidays.
Write a letter to your friend describing how a quick action taken by a person
saved the life of a patient.
Write a letter to your cousin describing the interesting person you met while
travelling last week.

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LETTER OF THANKS
Points to remember:

Be sure to thank the person for the specific gift and mention the gift by name.
Acknowledge the effort and energy the giver put into selecting, buying or making
that gift.
Let the giver know how you have used or will use the gift.
When thanking someone for a gift of money, do not mention the amount in your
letter of thanks. A reference to “your generous gift” will suffice.

Sample letter of thanks

Your aunt sent you a birthday present. Write a letter thanking her for the
present and sharing with her how useful the present was to you. Prepare an
envelope.

456, Sunrise Apartments


Srinivasa Avenue Road
R. A. Puram
Chennai 600 028

31st January 2011

My Aunt Martha,

I just received the birthday gift that you sent me. Thank you so much. I could not
imagine receiving a more appropriate gift during this phase of my life.

I am planning to use the bicycle you sent to me, to ride to school every day. I already
have friends who do so. Going to school will not be such a boring, mundane ritual
anymore. I am pretty sure that I will learn more about the driving rules that govern
road traffic en route. I plan to stick with the group in order to be safe.

Mother knows about my intention to ride the bicycle to school and surprisingly, she is
okay with it. Father is delighted with the idea of me riding the bike to school since
that would mean that I don’t have to carry, ‘the perpetually heavy school bag’ for too
long.

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I am excited about riding the bicycle to and from school, since I don’t have to sit in
the school bus and just waste my time. It will also help me to be useful to the family
by running errands occasionally.

I look forward to you visiting me again so that you can see me in action on the bike.
Thank you once again for such a lovely present.

Yours affectionately,
Samuel

Envelope

Postage
To Stamp
Mrs Martha Fernandez
12, Saibaba Colony
Coimbatore 641 038
Tamil Nadu

LETTER OF CONGRATULATIONS

Points to remember:

State in the beginning, the specific occasion that has motivated you to write a
congratulation letter.
Express praise and approval of the reader's accomplishment.
Keep the letter simple, concise and positive. Do not include any negative
comments or unhappy news.
Do not exaggerate the congratulatory words or your letter may seem sarcastic.
Do not suggest that the fortunate event should benefit the letter-writer (i.e. you) in
any way.

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Sample letter of congratulations

Write a letter to your friend congratulating her on her success in a recent


examination.

974, St Theresa Road


Mahim
Mumbai 400 053

15th September, 2011

Dear Christina,

I am absolutely delighted to hear about your exam results. Hearty congratulations on


your brilliant success in the Senior Secondary Examination, with distinction in four
subjects. I am so happy for you and I am sure that everyone in your family must be
celebrating your outstanding accomplishment.

This morning, I read a proverb that reminded me of you. The proverb highlighted that
achievements are a result of both efficiency and proficiency. I recollect how you were
a relentless stickler for your study schedule. After all, we are what our time, energy
and money investments are. You really deserved such a success. It is the fruit of
your hard work, concentration and commitment. All in all, you have set a benchmark
for the rest of the family youngsters to follow.

My parents are also very pleased at your splendid achievement and convey their
best wishes and blessings. Now you will be joining a college. You will be entering a
wider world with larger responsibilities. I pray for you a bright and prosperous future.
Do write to me about the various options available to you and the subjects that you
are planning to take up.
Please convey my regards to your parents.

Your loving friend,


Neil

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LETTER OF SYMPATHY

Letters of sympathy are written when someone close to you has had to experience
an unfortunate situation.

A letter of sympathy is written in the following situations:

Failure in an exam.
Failure to qualify for a job or join a team.
Somebody is inflicted by an illness.
Becoming a victim of an accident.
The loss of some relative or friend.

Points to remember:

Show empathy: Understand the person’s problem.


Avoid dramatic expressions and be simple: Here are some useful suggestions.
I was saddened to hear about… / It was very distressing to hear about….
You have been in my thoughts and prayers ever since I heard…
It was heart-breaking to learn of your unsuccessful attempt…
I am writing to tell you how sorry I am…
Be brief: Convey your message in the shortest possible way.
Respect and encourage: Respect the other person. Do not preach. If you need to
give advice, let it be a mild suggestion. Encourage the person to hope for a better
future.
Keep your good fortune out of the letter: Refrain from talking about your vacation
trips or strokes of luck in a letter of sympathy.
Offer practical help: Offer help to a distressed person wherever it is required.
Here are some useful suggestions:
Since its exam time, could I drop by and help little Mary with her studies?
If you need any financial assistance let me know if I can help.
Would you like me to accompany you to the doctors?
Could I visit you to see how you are doing?
Conclude with love and concern: Here are some useful suggestions.
My thoughts and prayers are with you.
I share in your grief and keep you in my prayers / and send you my love.

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Sample letter of sympathy

Your cousin Sumeet is a good cricketer and represents the state of Karnataka.
In the recent ‘Sanjet Trophy’ his team lost and he did not do well on the wicket.
He is extremely upset about his performance. Write a letter to Sumeet,
expressing your sympathy at the manner in which things turned out and make
an attempt to encourage him and boost his morale.

42, Krishnavilas Road


Mysore 570 024

23rd November, 2011

Dear Sumeet,

Ever since the finals of the cricket tournament of Sunday, I have been thinking about
you constantly I am so sorry that you and your team had such a disappointing
experience on the field. I want you to know that I share your disappointment and
wish to remind you that any good performer or team continues to shine irrespective
of final outcomes.

Yes, it was very upsetting to see a good team like yours lose at the finals, especially
after putting up such a brilliant performance in the knock out rounds. It was also sad
to see you get out even before you could open your account in the finals, after such
dazzling centuries in the previous matches. As captain of the team, you led all
through and such feats should never be dimmed by a failure. I think you know better
than I do that it’s the effort and spirit of the person that finally matters.

Success and failure are never totally in our hands. What is in our hands is our
attitude and our sincere endeavour. And what is most important is that we rise after a
disappointing fall. That is where true greatness lies. And this, I know, is what you
possess. Indeed, it is one of your greatest qualities. I’m sure you will not let one
defeat knock the ground from under your feet. I’m sure this experience will make you
more determined to do better. After all, isn’t that what disappointments do for us?

Cheer up cousin! You are a great player and, above all, a great human being. I have
great regard for you and love you a lot. Do convey my regards to aunt and uncle.

Your loving cousin,


Kiran

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LETTER OF APOLOGY

Letters of apology are written, when a person has made a mistake or offended
someone and he / she wishes to apologise for his / her behaviour.

A letter of apology is written in the following situations:

You have spoken rudely to another person.


You have distressed someone by misusing or destroying his / her belongings.
You have not shown up at an occasion where your presence was expected.
You have failed to keep a promise or heed a request.
You have been insensitive to the situations people are in and have not acted in
an appropriate or socially acceptable manner.

Points to remember:

Write immediately: A letter of apology loses its meaning, if it is not sent


immediately.
Admit your guilt honestly and frankly: Do not make allowances for your acts of
omission or commission.
Apologise sincerely: Be respectful. It’s nice when the person concerned is aware
that you are genuinely sorry. Here are some useful suggestions.
I am very sorry that I have hurt you by…
I truly regret my failure to attend….
I am writing to apologise for my rude….
If you have damaged property, make amends by restoring it at your own cost.
Assure the person that you will take care not to cause offence again.

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Sample letter of apology

While visiting your aunt during the summer vacation, you carelessly broke her
favourite vase. Write a letter to your aunt apologising for your careless act.

D-22, Suncity Apartment


Cart Road
Shimla 171 001

30th May 2011

Dear Aunt Rose,

I must let you to know how upset I am for breaking your precious Wedgewood vase,
during my visit to your house, last week. I feel miserable and have many regrets over
my thoughtless and careless action which has undoubtedly caused you much
sadness and pain.

Aunt Rose, I am truly sorry for breaking such a beautiful antique piece of art. I wish I
had listened to you and played with the ball in the garden. Mother explained to me
that the vase was very precious to you since it had been a gift from a very close
friend. I have now understood how even a moment of thoughtless and irresponsible
action can lead to situations that can cause pain to anyone and, consequently, many
feelings of regret. This experience has also taught me to be careful--especially about
things that belong to others. When we damage such things, we destroy a bit of the
precious family history we need to treasure.

Mother and I have decided that I use my pocket money to buy you another vase of
the same kind. I am only too willing to fill up that empty space in your beautiful
drawing room, even though I am fully aware that another piece of the same kind can
never be a substitute for the original one. I will be extremely grateful to you, if you
allow me to undo some of the harm I have caused.
I love you very much and I will take care never to upset you again.

Your loving nephew,


Ashley

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Lucidity in writing style helps in effective

communication.

The repetitive use of a single word shows poor vocabulary.

The form of the letter, i.e. the appearance or structure, should

not be neglected.

Requesting a reply for a letter should be done courteously, so

as to not appear to be demanding a reply. Here are some

suggestions:

I would appreciate a reply from you regarding this matter.

Please keep me posted regarding this in your spare time.

It will be nice to hear from you regarding this.

Just drop a line when you have a chance.

Simple language, appropriate punctuation, correct spellings,

neatness and legible handwriting are the keys to a good letter.

* * * * *

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14. NEWSPAPER REPORT

Newspapers are the original form of communication, a distinction not always


recognised in the age of the Internet. Long before we had computers, television,
radio, telephones and telegraph, newspapers were the cheapest and most efficient
way to reach mass audiences with news, commentary and advertising.

A newspaper report is the description of an event or a situation. Reports about


events, accidents, burglaries, matches, etc, are often published in newspapers.

A typical newspaper report contains six parts:


1. Headline: This is a short, attention-getting statement about the event. This
is like a caption; so it shouldn’t be a complete sentence. All newspaper
reports start off with a good headline that will entice the reader to follow up
and read the whole report.

2. Byline: This tells who wrote the report. You can write the name of the writer
or ‘By a Staff Reporter’ or “By a correspondent’.

3. Place and Date: This is the name of the place where the incident occurred
and the month and date when the report was written.

4. Lead paragraph: The lead paragraph has ALL the who, what, when,
where, why and how in it. A writer must find the answers to these questions
and write them in the opening sentence(s) of the report. The first paragraph
should also contain a hook, something that grabs the reader's attention and
makes the reader want to read the rest of the article. Use verbs in the Active
voice (Dog kills rat); not in the Passive voice (Rat killed by dog). Be specific
and clear and use simple language.

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Who?

When? Where?
Newspaper
Report

Why?
What?

Answer these questions to write the lead paragraph of the report:

Q.1 Who is the main person in the


story?
Q.2. What has happened to him/her?

Q.3. Where did the event take place?

Q.4.When did it happen?

Q.5.Why did it happen?

Q.6. How did it take place?

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_hn_T1 226


5. Explanation: After the lead paragraph has been written, the writer must
decide what other facts or details the reader might want to know. The writer
must make sure that he/she has enough information to answer any important
questions that a reader might have after reading the headline and the lead
paragraph.

When you are writing the body of the report:


 Write to the point. The facts should be plain
and simple.
 Be objective -- never state your opinion. Newspaper reports
should NOT have any personal opinion or evaluation.
 Do not write in the first person (i.e. DO NOT use ‘I’, ‘we’, ‘us’).
Write in the third person (he, she, it, they).
 This section should also include direct quotes from witnesses
or bystanders. Nothing attracts people like quotes. It will make
your article more agreeable and give it a human quality, plus it
will allow you to break the flow of facts. However, make sure
that your quotes are relevant and factual.

6. Additional Information: This information is the least important. Thus, if


the news report is too long for the space it needs to fill, it can be shortened
without rewriting any other part. Wrap it up; don’t leave the reader hanging.
Please don't say...."In conclusion" or "To finish..." (yawn!)

Try ending with a quote or a catchy phrase.


This part can include information about a similar event.

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Newspaper articles require a different style of writing
from what is used when writing a story.

When writing a newspaper report, picture an inverted triangle like the


one given below.
The newspaper article has all of the important information in the
opening paragraph. This information includes who, what, when, where,
why and how.

It is written this way because most people do not read an entire


newspaper report all the way through.
So newspaper writers put the most important facts at the
beginning.

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Format of a Newspaper Report

Heading
By…(a name)
or
By a Staff Reporter

Place, Month & Date: Begin the newspaper


report here (Body of the report – to be divided into
paragraphs including the concluding paragraph).

Example
Metro work leaves holes in water mains!
By a Staff Reporter
Or
By Cynthia Lewis
Kolkata, April 20: Residents of Lansdowne Road have scarcely received any
water for the last four days due to holes in the main water pipes; a result of the metro
work in the area ………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………….……………………………
………………………………………………………..
…………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………

DO NOT underline the heading, headline or the

place, month and date!

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Sample

 Write a report for the local newspaper about how child actors on the
television are preparing themselves for their exams.

‘Small’ stars steal study breaks


By Bharti Dubey

Mumbai, March 3: Don’t be disappointed if you see a little less of your favourite
child stars on TV for a few days. The reason is that like most children, they too are
busy with their exams. Producers are trying to prepare episode banks or introduce
slight changes in the track.

Be it Aanandi of Balika Vadhu or Ichcha of Uttaran, the kids have been taking
leave from the sets for studies. Even on the sets, they study between shoots.
Producer Sanjoy Wadhwa said, “We are trying to make a bank of as many episodes
as possible so that there is no hindrance to their exams.”

Avika Gaur will get 20 days off from the sets. “Her exams begin in the first week of
April. “My daughter does not miss school and only shoots after school,” father
Sameer Gaur said.

Sparsh Khanchandani, or Ichcha of Uttaran has also been allowed concessions.


Producer Rupali Guha said, “We have a small bank, so there should not be much of
a problem. Earlier, we would shoot from 11 am to 6 pm but now Sparsh comes on
sets by 1.30 pm after her exams and leaves early.” Tutors are also seen on the sets
helping the children during break time.

But Class VII student Sawri, the newest addition to the Saat Phere cast is practically
there in every scene and is hence finding difficult to study. Her father, Gagan Gupta,
said, “My kid studies while travelling to the studio or at her tuition classes. We are
trying our best to see her studies are not affected.”

All in all, it is a difficult time for the child actors in doing the balancing act. The
producers have promised to give them off on the exam days and also off days to
prepare for the examination.

* * * * *
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15. EXPOSITORY WRITING

Expository writing is a type of writing that explains, describes, or gives information


about something. Generally, such writing does not call for imaginative, personal or
creative response. Examples of expository writing can be found in magazine and
newspaper articles, non-fiction books, travel brochures, business reports,
memorandums, professional journal and encyclopedia articles and many other types
of informative writing.

USE OF EXPOSITORY WRITING

The situations where one might use this style are easy to identify. Expository writing
is used to give instructions or describe a procedure in the following situations:

1. Giving directions or guiding people to various locations.


2. Recipes.
3. How to make various items like, models, kits or crafts.
4. Scientific experiments.
5. During an emergency.
6. Written instructions that come along with “Assemble-it-yourself” kits.
7. General instructions on a question paper.
8. General rules informing people about their duties.

WHO? WHY?
WHAT? IF?
Do it WHEN? THEN?
Yourself WHERE? FROM?
kit

Recipes
How to

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GENERAL RULES TO BE OBSERVED

1. Arrangement of facts for clarity: A well-written exposition lists events in


chronological order. The instructions should be clear, concise, well organised and
arranged in a logical order.

Guidelines to organise your content:


Make a list of the articles or ingredients required, such as thread, glue, etc.
Put the instruction in the correct order / sequence.
Mention clearly the atmosphere, temperature, settings or time wherever
required.

2. Objectivity: Be objective. Provide facts, not what you think. While reporting
scientific observations, report what you observe and not what you think may be
the result.

3. Precision: Be specific, exact and precise. Do not give vague instructions.

Examples:
Heat the oven to a moderate temperature. (VAGUE)
Heat the oven to 200o C. (PRECISE)

4. Relevant facts. A well-written exposition remains focused on its topic. Use only
those facts which are required for the procedure. Irrelevant facts are not only a
distraction but could upset the entire procedure

5. The required language:

a)Write in simple, concise and natural style. Use simple language.


Avoid the use of figurative language.

b) Use Simple Present Tense.

c) Write in active voice. Avoid the use of passive voice.

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_hn_T1 232


d) Use simple sentence construction. Write short and simple sentences.
Examples:
Mix flour and baking powder and divide the mixture into two parts putting
one part in the mixing bowl and leaving the other part for later use.
(UNCLEAR)
Mix the flour and the baking powder. Divide the mixture into two parts. Put
one part in the mixing bowl and keep the other aside for later use. (CLEAR)

e) Give instructions through the use of commands and orders. Use imperative
sentences.
Examples:
One generally puts 200 gms of flour in a dish. (INAPPROPRIATE)
Put 200 gms flour in a dish. (APPROPRIATE)

f) Use words that assist in following the sequence of the activity.


Examples:
First, then, after this, finally, this is followed by.

g) Use numerals while indicating measurements of any kind.


Examples:
Put 100 gms sugar in a bowl.

The past tense may be used in expository writing, occasionally.

Oxygen was formed in the test tube.

The liquid did not change colour.

Modal Auxiliaries such as should, would, may, will, must, etc, are also

sometimes used.

The sugar should not turn brown.

The chairperson will maintain order at the meetings of the council.

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ORGANISING THE INFORMATION

The instructions in an expository composition could be in the form of:

1. A paragraph
2. A bulleted / numbered list

EXAMPLES OF EXPOSITORY WRITING

(Paragraph form)

Flying a Kite

What you need:


 A kite
 A reel of kite string
 A friend

Where and when to fly a kite:


The best place to fly a kite is an open field or any other safe and open place. Windy
days are the best time to fly a kite.

How to fly a kite:


First get your friend to hold the kite vertically at its edges with both hands. Make sure
that the kite is facing you and the wind. Hold the reel in your hands and unwind
about 20 metres of string. Take care to see that the string between the kite and your
fingers is firm and taut. After this, signal your friend to raise his hands high and
release the kite. As soon as the kite is released, pull on the string to enable your kite
to rise into the air. Lastly, release lengths of string to allow the kite to go higher. Now,
you can call yourself a successful kite flier.

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_hn_T1 234


(List)

How to make Mashed Potato

Ingredients:

 1 large potato per person


 A pan with a lid
 A peeler
 A knife
 A potato masher
 Milk and butter to taste
 Water

Method:

 Carefully peel the potatoes with a peeler.


 With a sharp knife, cut the potatoes into small pieces.
 Fill the pan two-thirds with water.
 Place the potatoes in the pan.
 Boil for 15 minutes, until soft.
 Drain the water off the potatoes.
 Mash the potatoes with the help of a masher.
 Add milk and butter to taste.

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(List)

Duties of the School President

1) The School President should carry out his/her duties with responsibility,
sincerity and capability.
2) He/she should be neutral in his/her demeanour and refrain from being
prejudiced or biased in his/her actions.
3) He/she should, at all times, have the student’s and the school’s best interests in
mind as he/she carries out this responsible task.
4) He/she should guide and support the Student Council in all its duties and
endeavour to get them to work in co-operation.
5) He/she should arrange meetings of the Student Council together with the
teachers-in-charge at regular intervals.
6) He/she should assist the Principal in conducting the daily assembly and
organising the activities on special occasions like Republic Day, Annual Day,
etc.
7) Finally, the School President should provide a regular report of the activities of
the Council to the Coordinator and Principal.

* * * * *

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_hn_T1 236


Learning Outcomes:
Grades 5, 6, 7

Sr.No Topic Grade 7


1. Comprehension 1. Reading and
comprehending a given passage and answering
questions based on it.

2. Capitalisation 1.Revision of
and Punctuation capitalisation, full stop, comma, exclamation mark,
question mark and quotation marks, apostrophe,
semi colon, colon, hyphen, parenthesis.

3. Nouns Recap of all kinds of


nouns.
4 Pronoun Recap of all kinds of
Pronouns.
5. Articles ---

6. Verbs 1. Participle
2. Gerund
7 Adjective 3.
1. Infinitive
Position, Order ,
4. Usage
2. Agreement
andof the verb withofthe adjectives
Formation subject
Formation of
adjectives from nouns and verbs
Correct use of 'few', 'a few', 'the few'; 'little', 'a
little', 'the little'; etc

8 Adverb 1. Order of adverbs


2. Placement of adverbs

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_hn_T1 237


9 Vocabulary 1. Same words used
as different parts of speech.
2. Change of a word from one part of speech
to another
3. Idioms
4. Proverbs
[Term 1]
--------------------
1. Figures of speech - (recap: simile,
metaphor, onomatopoeia and alliteration),
repetition, personification.
2. Idioms.
3. Proverbs.
[Term 2]

10 Listening Skills 1. Learns to listen


carefully for details.
2. Distinguishes one speaker from the other in
a conversation.
3. Recognises the sequence and development
of ideas in the conversations.
4. Follows instructions correctly.
5. Answers questions based on their
understanding of the

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_hn_T1 238


comprehension
passage.
11 Speaking Skills 1. Giving
Speech/Declamation/E xtempore speech on a
given topic.
2. Using effective body language, appropriate
pitch, volume, articulation, pronunciation and
speed to deliver a speech.

12 Essay Writing 1. Descriptive Essay


2. Persuasive Essay

13 Letter Writing 1. Letter of apology


(Informal) 2. Letter of sympathy

14 Newspaper ----
Report

15 Expository Writing an Exposition


writing

* * * * *

Sec_gr5,6,7_eng lang_hn_T1 239