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HISTORY

Packages Limited was established in 1957 as a joint venture between the Ali Group
of Pakistan and Akerlund & Rausing of Sweden, to convert paper and paperboard into
packaging for consumer industry.
Over the years, the Company continued to enhance its facilities to meet the growing
demand of packaging products. Additional capital was raised from sponsors,
International Finance Corporation and from the public in 1965.
Packages commissioned its own paper mill in 1968 having production capacity of
24,000 tones of paper and paperboard based on waste paper and agricultural by-
products i.e. wheat straw and river grass. With growing demand the capacity was
increased periodically and in January 2003 was nearly 100,000 tones per year.

COMPANY’S INFORMATION

Packages have its manufacturing units in Lahore and Karachi. Head office is in
Lahore and Registered office in Karachi. It has its Regional sales offices and zonal
offices in other key locations like Islamabad, Faisalabad, Multan and Sukkur. Further
details of the company are as follows

ASSOCIATED COMPANIES:

o First International Investment Bank Ltd.


o Nestle Milkpak Limited
o Tri-Pack Films Ltd
o Tetra Pak Pakistan Ltd
o Coca-Cola Beverages Pakistan Ltd.
o International General Insurance Company of Pakistan Ltd.

SUBSIDIARIES:

o Coates Lorilleux Pakistan Limited


o Packages Lanka (Private) Limited

TECHNICAL COLLABORATION:
o AMCOR Flexibles, Australia
o Stora Enso, Sweden

GLOBAL PARTNERS

Packages Limited has extended its expertise to a number of Third World countries in
the 1970s. Management and Technology is exported to Tanzania, Zambia, Indonesia,
Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Somalia and Nigeria where packaging companies required
assistance in running and managing their operations. Packages Limited has also
provided technical assistance to Tetra Pak for general packaging in Kuban, Russia.
Packages look forward to expanding its horizons for more multi-cultural experiences.

STRUCTURE OF THE ORGANIZATION


To study any organization, the structure is the most important thing to look at.
Packages LTD. has a Hybrid Structure combining both functional and divisional
structures as it can be clearly observed from its hierarchy chart attached in the
appendix. Since Packages has grown to a very large organization during the last 4
decades, it has small self-contained product divisions: Paper & Board, Carton Line,
Corrugator Line, Flexible Line, and Consumer Products. These divisions are
established mainly to compete with competitors in terms of specialization in various
packaging solutions. These small divisions cater to the need of customers and can
rapidly respond and adapt to environmental changes.
Whereas functional departments like Finance, Accounting, Marketing, Sales,
Industrial Relations, are centralized to provide support to each product division and to
promote efficiency. These departments help to develop in-depth skills and knowledge
hence promoting professionalism and expertise. It also helps experts of a particular
department to coordinate and communicate if any problem occurs, as Packages aims
to be a company, which provides customized products and quality services to its
customers. Packages have adopted this hybrid structure to meet the needs of
environment and organization.
STRUCTURAL DIMENSIONS OF THE ORGANIZATION
To measure and compare the organization, structural dimensions of Packages will be
taken into consideration. These dimensions will also give insight into the company’s
internal characteristics.

FORMALIZATION

There is a high level of formalization in Packages LTD. Tasks and duties, job
descriptions and working procedure are very well defined for employee at various
levels in Packages. A policy manual is maintained with the IR department, which
contains rules and regulations that must be followed by the employees as long as they
are in Packages. This policy manual guides the employees about their work and
contains rules for things like leaves, absentees, working hours, overtime etc. Facilities
that would be provided to the members of Packages are also enlisted in the Manual
for example details about Bonuses, Conveyance allowances, Employees contributory
welfare fund, Employees old age benefit scheme, Fair price shop, Hajj Pilgrimage,
Long service award, House rent allowance, Medical facilities, Personal hygiene
facilities, Provident Fund, Recreational facilities, Scholarships, Social security
schemes, Sports facilities, Subsidized food, Workers children education and Workers
participation fund.

At the time of recruitment, Proper orientation is done as per the documented


procedure. Jobs for individuals are well defined and are told during the orientation
For instance when a management trainee is hired, he/she is given an orientation for 1-
2 months. During this period he/she get well versed with the working procedure and
within a years time, he /she is made permanent member of the organization till the
time he gets retired.

Although in departments like HR&D and R&D, working procedures are not
formalized, but in other units like Production, Packaging and Printing, Finance,
Accounts, etc, most of the work to be done is documented. Hence it can be concluded
that level of formalization at Packages is High leading to efficiency and control.

STANDARDIZATION:

Uniformity in work activities varies from department to department. As mentioned


above, Departments like R&D, Marketing and HR&D have routine plus non-routine
activities to perform but in operations departments, there is more of the same work to
be done by the employees, hence most of the tasks to be performed are
standardized.
ISO 9000 certification also indicates that the manufacturing procedures adopted by
the organization are standardized. Initially due to the size of the operations, it was
decided to seek individual certifications for each product line, instead of organization
as a whole but by the year 2000, the whole organization was certified under ISO
9001.Packages was the 6th organization in Pakistan to have ISO certification. To
maintain the standardized quality, Packages, to the date has 57 “Quality Improvement
Teams” (QIT) working in the various departments of the company on the Japanese
Principle of Continuous improvement, called “Kaizen”. This edge of standardized
procedures makes Packages leading Printing and Packaging Company of Pakistan.

SPECIALIZATION:

Each employee in Packages has specified task to perform. For these tasks, people in
each department are specialized and have to perform only the related activities. For
example a Production Engineer has to supervise people like Shift incharges and lower
staff supervisors and has to ensure efficient working of the machines. Similarly all
employees in other departments have to manage their own work and allied activities.
IT and Manufacturing departments of the organizations are epically equipped with
highly specialized personnel, hence ensuring quality management and products. So it
can be rightly said that the specialization in the organization is extensive.
HIERERCHY OF AUTHORITY:

The hierarchy of the organization is somewhat tall but the Top Management is now
trying to reduce the tiers in the vertical structure. At present, there are several levels
in the hierarchy as shown is the figure attached in appendix.
Span of control in the organization varies from department to department. It ranges
from narrow to moderate. Accountability is transparent, perpetual and both vertical
and horizontal. Taking an example of hierarchy of the production department.

Product Manager

Product Engg. (3) Planning Engg. (1)

Shift Incharges (4)

Supervisors (12)

Workers (70)

Fig: Hierarchy of Production Department Packages

Similarly in HR&D the span of control is comparatively small. One reason might be
its recent step in the organization. The Hierarchy of HR&D is as follows.

HR Manager

HR Executive HR Executive
Fig: Hierarchy of HR&D Packages
Hierarchy of R&D is as follows:

Manager R&D

Incharge In charge In charge In charge Research


Quality Cont. Chemical Pulp Lab Engineer
Lab Rubber R&D cell
Dept.
Engineers(2,3) Laboratory Supervisors (1 Supervisor (1
Technicians

Supervisor (1 Technicians Workers (6

Lab.
Assistance (3

CENTRALIZATION:

The decision making in the organization is rested mostly with the manager of each
department. For corporate decisions, top management is involved. But for day-to-day
decisions, General Managers, Finance, Commercial executives, Technical managers
and Supervisory staff take decisions as per requirement and urgency. Hence the
concentration of power is at top and Middle management levels therefore moderate
level of Centralization is there.

COMPLEXITY:

There are a number of subunits in the organization, which can be witnessed by the fact that at
present, there are 6 production departments along with other departments in the firm. This is
one main reason why the company is still focusing on efficiency and control. Packages, with
the changing time, is trying to incorporate the features of learning organizations due to
increased globalization and Turbulence. Biggest example of this effort is the reductions in the
hierarchical levels of the organization. The supervisory staff is being merged with the
managerial level and assistants with the subordinates. So, by this structural change, horizontal
expansion is taking place, converting tall structure into a flat one.
PROFESSIONALISM:

Professionalism is very high at Packages Ltd. as compared to most of the domestic


organizations of Pakistan this could be evidenced by the fact that out of 3089
employees, 800 employees are executives and remaining 2200 is line staff. The
following table shows the statistics of professional education of the employees
(2003)
Specialty

Techenical Ph.D 2
Engineers 109
M.Sc 13
Diploma Engineers 413
B.Sc 44 581

Finance and Commericial Chartered Accountant 7


F.C.M.A / A.C.M.A 4
M.Com / B.Com 73 84

General Management M.B.A / M.P.A / M.B.E 71


M.A 19
B.A 43 133
Total Management and
Supervisory Staff 798
Total No. of Employees 3,084

The management style of Packages Ltd. is one of the many distinguishing features
and may be best described as egalitarian, with every one having an equal opportunity
of development and growth. To help develop business know-how, employees are
given continuous training throughout their careers at Packages Ltd. A separate
department of Human Resource Development has been operations since 1996 to
educate and train the staff. The Harvard Business School (HBS), USA offers some
world-renowned, through very expensive, training programs for the senior
management, such as AMP(Advanced Management Program), ISMP(International
Senior Management), PMD ( Program for management development) etc. Packages
have sent a dozen of its senior managers to HSB for these training programs, despite
the enormous costs involved.
Packages Limited also makes full use of training facilities provided by local institutes
of repute such as LUMS, PIMS (Pakistan Institute of Management Sciences),
MAP(Management Association of Pakistan), AIE (Ali Institute of Education and
Employees Federation.

Packages entered into a learning partnership with LUMS in1997 and jointly
developed an in-house training program called DBM (Diploma in Business
Management). This training program, for example, offers a blend of courses on
traditional management such as Marketing, HR, Production, Finance, Accounting and
control system and contemporary trends such as TQM and Customers satisfaction.
Furthermore, this training program represents the first partnership of its kind in
Pakistan between an educational institute and a business enterprise.

To facilitate attendance of large group, Packages also regularly organizes numerous


in-house training courses and workshops. Example of courses offered is
Communication Skills, Time Management Leadership, Team-building, Personal
Development, Language Improvement, Productivity Enhancement, Project
Management, Presentation Skills, Computer Training and Development Courses for
Supervisors.

It is estimated that the company sends abroad 60 to 70 people annually for training
alone, while over 300 persons are trained locally every year. So we can certainly say
that there is high level of professionalism and training in Packages.

PERSONNEL CONFIGURATION:

People are recruited in the company by the HR department and the related unit
managers on the basis of pure merit and interview and with total disregard to
considerations of gender, race, color, and creed.
The personnel ratio again varies from department to department. For instance in
Production department the ratio of Managers to employees is 1 to 3. In Human
Resource Development, as shown above, the ratio is one to two. In accounts and
Finance department, this figure ranges form 1: 6 to 1 t: 10. But we can conclude that
the ratio of managerial to non managerial staff is, on average, 1:5

GOALS, STRATEGIES AND EFFECTIVENESS


Official Goals

Mission Statement
To be a leader in the markets we serve by providing quality products
and superior service to our customers, while learning from their
feedback to set even higher standards for our products.

To be a company that continuously enhances its superior


technological competence to provide innovative solutions to customer
needs.

o
T be a company that attracts and retains outstanding people by
creating a culture that fosters openness and innovation, promotes
individual growth, and rewards initiative and performance.

To be a company which combines its people, technology, management


systems, and market opportunities to achieve profitable growth while
providing fair returns to its investors.

b
To e a company that endeavors to set the highest standards in
corporate ethics in serving the society.

OPERATIVE GOALS
Besides the official goals, Packages has various goals to achieve optimal output.
These goals are as following

OVERALL PERFORMANCE:

Company’s overall performance is evaluated through the increase in sales and profits
at the end of the year which is targeted at the beginning of the following year. For
year 2003, company decided to increase its sales and profits up to 5 %. The sales
increased from 5157.82 million to 5,360.88 million i.e. 3.96%.The profits increased
from 424.88 million to 655.37 million. Also, EPS increased from 8.94 to 13.79.

RESOURCES:

As resources are limited in the environment, Packages tries to acquire the required
resources with minimal cost. For this, every year goals are made to attain maximum
information, required human resource, Sufficient Finances and Raw material at
cheaper rates.

MARKET:

Packages is committed to be a leader in the packaging industry by providing complete


packaging solutions to its customers and it plans to continue investing in new
technology, accounting for changing trends in customers demand in its field to
increase its market share, which is at present 20%.

EMPLOYEE DEVELOPMENT:

Packages believe that to be the leader, you can not have first class machines without
first class people. Management has established the HR development program to
reorganize, restructure and smoothly coordinate the functions of the organization.
Also, they are spending a lot on training their employees for the hardware.

INNOVATION AND CHANGE


To sustain continuous and consistent progress in quality packaging, they continue to
explore and develop usage of new fibers, films, chemicals, adhesives, coatings and
resins. With well equipped laboratories and research resources, Packages is a
happening place in the area of research.

PRODUCTIVITY

Despite slow recovery of country economy, the company has shown improvement in
sales as planned (up to 4%). Paper production was also increased as Paper machine 4
was upgraded increasing capacity from 3,500 tones to 8,500 tones. Paper machine 5
has also started commercial production in year 2003. This new equipment with
sophisticated electronic systems shall provide better process control for consistency in
quality for the customers.

ENVIORNMENTAL
ISO 14000: (Working for it…) Realizing its responsibility toward environment,
Packages started its ambitious comprehensive program on "Environment, Health and
Safety". In the past few years, over US$100 million have been invested on new
processes and technology out of which US$20 million were spent exclusively on
environmental projects including a chemical recovery plant. Under this program, they
are focusing to improve:

o Energy Conservation
o Water Management
o Effluent Management

ENVIRONMENT, HEALTH AND SAFETY (EH & S) POLICY

Packages LTD. belief that they must do everything practically possible to lessen the
load they place on the environment and make every effort so that sustainable
development becomes a reality. It has formulated its environment, health and safety
(EH&S) policy to address these issues in a more effective way. It is very clear to
them that these objectives cannot be realized by the efforts of the Management alone.
Management along with the help of all the employees will be required to transform
these ambitions into reality.

Packages Limited shall:

• Minimize its environmental impact, as is economically and practically


possible
• Save raw materials including energy and water, avoid waste
• Ensure that all its present and future activities are conducted safely, without
endangering the health of its employees, its customers and the public
• Develop plans and procedures and provide resources to successfully
implement this policy and for dealing effectively with any emergency
• Provide environmental, health and safety training to all employees and other
relevant persons to enable them to carry out their duties safely without causing
harm to themselves, to other individuals and to environment
• Ensure that all its activities comply with national environmental, health and
safety regulations

This policy shall be reviewed as and when required for betterment of the same.

EH&S programs are for employees. Their employees are equipped with earplugs,
which save them from noise pollution. It has launched a project named as “Green
Field Project” to keep the environment for society safe and healthy.

OUTPUT
• FORM OF OUTPUT

PAPER & BOARD:


Produce paper and board of high quality since 1965 with the help of environment
friendly processes manufacture. Specialized in making variety of duplex boards and
paper including liquid packaging board, food grade board, wood-free writing/printing
paper as well as corrugating medium paper and liner board. There production
capacities exceed 100,000 tons per annum.
CARTON LINE:

With the state-of-the-art seven color high speed Rotogravure Lemanic and up to six
color offset printing presses, they produce various packaging material on paper
boards. These are then cut, creased, folded and glued. Among other, they supply these
products to cigarette, tea, soap, detergent, biscuit, shoe, pharmaceutical and match
industries. New Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) Line enables to ensure
high precision cutting and creasing of paper board.

CORRUGATORS LINE:

Packages has been manufacturing corrugated cartons since 1974. Produced in a


variety of sizes, these cartons are of great value for in-country distribution and export
of fresh fruit, garments, shoes, textiles, etc. Capacity increase and product
development continue to be based on customer needs.

FLEXIBLE LINE:

There is an upward trend and shift in the industry for flexible packaging due to its
better barrier properties and lower cost compared to rigid packaging. Flexible line
makes high quality packaging films and laminates providing Flexographic and
Rotogravure Printing, Lamination, Extrusion, Slitting, Bag & Sleeve making to a
broad spectrum of multinational customers covering soap, cigarette, tea, food, dairy,
ice-cream and confectionary industries.

CONSUMER PRODUCTS:

Packages manufactures market standard consumer products i.e. hygiene tissue


products, femcare products, paper cups/paper plates.

SERVICES:

They believe that their whole operation has to be in line with the needs of the
customer and it is therefore necessary to provide good quality products on time every
time. With this in view, a Customer Services Department has been established.

• CONFORMING TO CONSUMERS NEED:

Packages LTD. is proud of being the only entity in the world that provides diverse
packaging solutions under one roof. They are able to provide unique and desired
Packaging, which help its industrial clients in selling their products.
For instance when Unilever Pakistan relaunched Lipton Yellow Label Tea in 2003,
they require new Packaging, which shows the picture of the sun coming out that gives
a feeling of another bright day. Packages have been the one to provide this new
packaging and were able to achieve this target in the shortest possible time. Again
when Unilever Pakistan relaunched Lux, it was Packages who produced Metallized
wrappers of Lux for them in green, pink, orange and white colors in a very little time,
hence satisfying its customers completely. It also provides successful packaging of
Super Cornetto launched by Unilever Pakistan.
Another example is of Nestle’, when it relaunched its NIDO powder in 2003, it
requires a complicated design of packaging, Packages successfully made all the
changes required. Packages also provided the packaging for Nestle’ Cerelac and
Butter scotch Candy under the name of Nestle’ Toffo.
Packages also serve the need of Packaging of Colgate Palmolive’s Softlan (fabric
softener).

SYSTEM
Employees are continuously controlled whether they are implementing system
successfully or not. Feedback is also taken from them after regular intervals.
“Management by walking” is practiced. Managers always keep their eyes on their
subordinates. They visit machines, invite ideas from employees; attend different
seminars, ceremonies to generate new/innovative ideas for the company. All these
practices ensure internal of the organization with focus on Growth.
• SIZE:
Packages is a large organization with 3,084 employees and this number is increasing
continuously. Packages is engaged in continuous production with high tech imported
machinery and skilled labor force. Its interaction with number of task and general
environment components further proves that Packages is a large organization.

• HEALTH:
Packages employees also have free medical facilities. Laborers have free access to
social security hospital. Executives also go to clinic, which is situated in Gulberg.
Special arrangements are done to protect them from noise pollution.

PRODUCT
Packages Ltd. produces products in bulk; they have non stop production and
employees work even on occasions like Eid and Christmas (although with double
salaries).

Packages Limited is committed to produce quality products, which conform to their


customers' requirements and strengthen their position as a quality-managed company.
Their pledge is to provide the market with the best quality products through a
customer-driven and service-oriented, dynamic management team. To meet this
obligation, the company continues to update skills of its employees by training,
acquisition of new technology, and regular re-evaluation of its quality control and
assurance systems. Appropriate resources of the company are being directed towards
achieving the quality goals through employee's participation. Products can be broadly
categorized into two large classes:

1. products which are directly sold to end users( tissue line, paper plates,
sketchbooks, printing papers, Femcare products etc)
2. and products which help other businesses in selling their products (Packaging)

The variety is immense in both the categories. For instance tissue come in a variety
and serve all the sectors of the market like students use its Pocket Pack, executives
use its perfumed tissues, Airlines give wet tissues of Rose Petal to their passengers.
Ladies buy their Luxury and Supreme Packs for homes etc.
Packages also produces unique designs of Packaging for its customers like Nestle’
Unilever Pakistan and Colgate Palmolive, Pakistan Tobacco Company etc.

SUBUNIT
Subunits of each department vary from department to department. For instance,
Human Resource department has no subunit. On the other hand, Industrial Relation
department has three subunits Labor Welfare Department, Legal Department, and
Time Office. Similarly Marketing department has two subunits; Sales and CSD
(Customer Service Division).

ORGANIZATIONAL STRATEGIES

EFFECTIVENESS

Top management at Packages Ltd is using “Customer Delight” and “Employee


Satisfaction” as an indicator to measure effectiveness of their organization. They are
pursuing the following strategies and are using them as a factor of measuring the
effectiveness of their organization.

PORTER’S COMPETITIVE STRATEGY

Industrial customers can get packing of their products at relatively lower prices from
other organizations. So why most of the clients are ready to pay a bit higher prices at
Packages Ltd? Why is it so that customers perceive its products better in quality,
variety, style and uniqueness?

It is all because of the differentiation strategy, which Packages Ltd is using to have
an edge over its competitors. The company is trying to compete through the ability to
offer unique or customized products that can command a premium price on a broad
scope using new and latest technology. It is serving mostly MNCs who are concerned
about quality rather than prices. Packages Limited is the only organization in the
world that uses wheat straw to manufacture liquid packaging board for aseptic
packing of milk, juices and other items. Furthermore it has the only plant in the world
that employs a chemical thermo-mechanical process (CTMP) for producing high
yield pulps from wheat straw. Last but not the least; it is the only wheat straw pulping
plant in the world that is equipped with a chemical recovery unit. All these facts
ensure its output to be a quality, customized and differentiated output

One of the reasons for customer loyalty is that Packages Ltd recruits professionals
and specialized personnel (who prepare carefully the products for the customers by
having check on departments every time) and provides them with extensive training
in related fields. Employees’ Knowledge as well as their ability to interact with
customers, is the key to hip image & quality of products that keeps customers coming
back. Employees at Packages constantly interact with their customers throughout the
process –from order taking to order fulfillment- so that customers can have what they
exactly want. Company is continuously having meetings among its managers of
different departments to explore new and innovative techniques to use technology for
the sake of increasing customer satisfaction as well as productivity.

Packages Ltd is as strong as ever. Companies that have tried to compete have had a
tough time. Differentiation strategy which is working and is successful requires a
number of costly activities such as R&D has to be well equipped, both in terms of
human resources and equipment, to provide technical support to the production and to
the external customers, high tech plants, etc. Its employees are given resources and
time to seek novel ideas. There is a strong horizontal linkage among departments as
elaborated above. Employees at different departments and levels communicate with
each other about ideas they have and are awarded if their idea works because
differentiation strategy requires that employees be constantly probing for uniqueness.
Hence, Packages Ltd is trying to gain market share and customer satisfaction by
focusing on its technology and employees.
MILES AND SNOW’S STRATEGY:

Packages Ltd is striving for a fit between internal organization characteristics,


strategy & the external environment by adopting “Prospector Strategy”.

Employees are given learning orientation when they are recruited & are provided
with the complete understanding of the organization. It’s a tradition at Packages Ltd.
that every management trainee has to go through at least one month’s orientation
program at the time of hiring. People at Packages are tailored with frequently in-
house training to groom for the comprehensive understanding of the function of the
various departments.

Packages Ltd has open culture and people are honest and cooperative. They are
welcomed to try out their ideas. For example, IT Department at the company is
decentralized to take decisions about the improvement of existing setup and to bring
about innovative soft wares according to the required needs. This indicates the effort
of the organization in movement towards learning organization.

To sustain continuous and consistent progress in quality packaging, they continue to


explore and develop usage of new fibers, films, chemicals, adhesive, coatings and
resins. With well-equipped laboratories and research resources at their disposal,
company is a happening place in the area of research.

BALANCED EFFECTIVENESS APPROACHES:

CONSTITUENCY STAKEHOLDER APPROACH

Packages Ltd. focuses on its stakeholders for organizational effectiveness. Given


below is the brief summary that how organization satisfy its stakeholders for the sake
of effectiveness and performance.

EMPLOYEES
What usually employees need for their own satisfaction is better working
environment, enough pay, facilities, job security etc. This is what Packages is doing
exactly by providing them what they need as said by “Mr. Saulat Saeed,General
Manager” in an interview that

“For us, at Packages, people are the most important factor. We do not seek
employees, only people who can think, feel, express themselves, learn, teach and
hence grow. Their growth is the company’s growth. That’s how personal it is, for
us. Employment versus employability therefore, is not a debate here. ”

So, it is very much clear from this statement that Packages has a caring attitude
towards its employees. Apart from a reasonable salary, it provides attractive Car
Finance Facility during service and comforting post-annuation benefits in the form of
pension, gratuity and provident fund. Job security is another major factor. Employees
are not sacked from service for petty reasons. Termination is a rare incidence, which
is necessitated in case of serious misconduct or indiscipline. The lush green grounds
and the blossoming flowers refresh employees exhausted minds. Packages provides
the perfect working environment. They believe in the concept that a "healthy body
has a healthy mind" and we therefore encourage our people to take part in sports
and other social and welfare activities.

These all factors show that employees are treated as company’s asset and there is
ample effort to satisfy them. We have conducted an interview with some managers of
the company about their working experience in Packages and we are pleased to hear
that employee feel like working in a family and they want to work here till the end of
job tenure. So, it exposes that employees at Packages Ltd. are very well satisfied
hence improving organization effectiveness.

CUSTOMERS

Customers need quality of products and services. One of the slogan at Packages is
“Customer Confidence means more Business”. Packages Ltd. has always tried to
find out new ways to fulfill the demands of its customers. A similar attempt is “Zero
Defect Supply” (ZDS) project with Unilever Pakistan which started in 2000. As the
name suggests, ZDS means that Packages will ensure and certify that packaging
material sent to Unilever has all quality specifications and has been approved by their
Quality Control department.

On the other hand, as mentioned earlier that Packages encourage its employees to be
in contact till the end level of order fulfillment process so that customers can get what
they exactly want hence, increasing customer satisfaction towards the products they
receive.

Management at Packages sometimes involve their customers in problem solving


procedures like if, employees come up with any sort of problem regarding customer’s
product development or design, Packages may call their customer to have meeting
with manufacturing teams to find out some appropriate solution as product
development is an important consideration at Packages. So, by involving customers in
the process of their own product give them a sense of importance and make them feel
like ‘partners’ in the company. Customers do feel that company is manufacturing
their product with full interest. This concludes that customer satisfaction is increasing
effectiveness of organization.

GOVERNMENT

Packages Ltd is trying its level best to have good relationship with government. This
company is an excellent example for abiding by the government laws as it is paying
full taxes in time and developing environmental policies in response to government
regulations regarding environment. Packages Ltd has installed a Chemical Recovery
Plant in which all chemicals from the effluent are recovered and recycled. Company
also has a process to filter out smoke that is thrown out by machines. So, these all
factors show that company is trying to be effective by satisfying government.

COMPETING VALUE APPROACH

INTERNAL PROCESS MODEL


Packages is more concerned about the well being and efficiency of its employees as
its structural consideration is stability and stability reflects managements value for
efficiency and top-down control. Organization is maintaining itself in an orderly way
as it is well established in the environment and simply wants to maintain its current
position. The dominant values at Packages are productivity and profits characterized
by planning and goal setting. Company is achieving its foresaid goals through

• Strong horizontal & vertical communication across & within departments.


• Information management by installing efficient computer integrated
manufacturing and design system, Local Area networks (LAN), Wide area
networks (WAN), Distributed Data Entry (DDE) and above to all SAP.

As mentioned above, organizational focus is internal to employees with stable


environment, company is trying to attain its objectives and satisfying its customers by
motivating its employees by giving them best working environment and opportunity
to grow( some detail is given in previous section).

THE EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT


ENVIRONMENTAL DOMAIN

TASK ENVIRONMENT: Task environment of Packages involves those


external sectors, which directly interact and have a direct impact on the organization’s
ability to achieve its goals. These are:

RAW MATERIAL:

To meet the quality standards of its valued customers, Packages LTD went through
backward integration to set up its own paper and board mill in 1965. Later on in
1974, to keep in pace with the rapid expansion of the market, it also started the
production of corrugated cartons which requires paper, which is manufactured by
Packages itself and machines for manufacturing are imported. In 1994, its joint
venture with Coates Lorilleux has enabled Packages to manufacture ink required for
the printing purposes. . Moreover they are importing some raw material such as straw
pulp and wood pulp from Canada, Sweden and USA. They have good relationship
with suppliers and do negotiate over prices of raw material.

The ever-increasing production capacities of Packages Ltd., as a whole, also made


necessary to significantly improve the power supply situation. This was attempted in
1984 by installing a WAPDA grid station (to generate electricity) inside the factory
with a sanctioned load of 8 megawatt. In 1990, a new steam turbine of 10-
megawatt/hr capacity, with a high pressure boiler capable of delivering 65tons/hr of
steam was installed at the powerhouse have acquired sites where power in the form of
steam and electricity is generated needed for the organization. To regulate the supply
of water to the various operations of Pulp, Paper and Board Mill, a 1000 cubic meter
water tank was constructed which collects the water-flow from different tube wells
before its supply to operations.

INDUSTRY:

The world is ever changing and ever growing competition is also a concern for giants
like Packages LTD. The competition as such is not intense, but there are few
competitors who are operating on a small scale and are catering the needs of the
customers who are concerned about price rather than quality. Packages have
competitive edge due to their Name (Goodwill), their high-tech machinery and skilled
professionals who fulfills customer requirements, which others cannot. Mainly
competition exist in the consumer products especially tissue papers. Competitors
import tissues papers and sell at the same prices as Packages do. But still “Rose
Petal” is preferred by most of the people in Pakistan. Packages is offering over 80
items of tissues under three brand names and is enjoying the major share of tissue
market in Pakistan, despite of all the competition. Rose Petal alone has 75% market
share in the tissue market of our country.
HUMAN RESOURCE:

Packages LTD strongly beliefs that it is people and not machines that make the
difference. It has no problem regarding human resource. They have well-educated,
highly skilled and computer literate workers and are offered life long employment.
They have over 400 diploma and graduate engineers on board and a number of highly
qualified specialists in other areas. Their education is not just stopped after becoming
an employee in Packages but they continuously learn from the ongoing scheduled
training here and enhance their skills and qualification for the betterment of both the
organization and themselves. Hence organization grows as its employees grow.

GENERAL ENVIRONMENT: Task environment of Packages involves those


external sectors, which do not have a direct impact on the daily operations of the
organization but will indirectly influence it. These are:

POLITICAL:

Packages Ltd. has good relationships with government as they pay taxes regularly.
They share their company’s information with government through annual reports.
Packages initiated Green Field Project in Kasur. The plan is to shift Paper and Board
Mill to Kasur by the end of this year(2004) because people nearby complain that
hazardous chemicals are emitted in the environment which is effecting the health of
the people .The government, for this reason is pressurizing the Owners to make Pulp
and Paperboard Mill shift to Kasur.

ECONOMIC:

Packages has always tried its level best to cope with the Economic instabilities
whenever and however. An example which proves the statement is when in 1971,
Pakistan was involved in an unfortunate war with India, which resulted in the loss of
half of the country through the creation of Bangladesh. The government that took
over in 1972 had a strong socialist agenda and one of its first orders was the
immediate reinstatement of all industrial workers irrespective of the cause of their
dismissal. The service of about 100 workers of Packages Ltd. had also been
terminated over the years due to reason of gross indiscipline. Later, authorities
provided assurance of their peaceful behaviors and the company was obliged to
reinstate all workers again. In this and other similar occasions, the situation was
controlled through proper management without causing any anxiety to the staff.

TECHNOLOGICAL:

Packages Ltd. has invested heavily in technology and it has become a basis of
competitive edge for the company. It has the gearless printing press, which uses an
inbuilt electronically driven and controlled PLC system to print. It is the eight colors
Flex Press. After the installation of this latest technique customers change their
designs and include the latest 3D (dimensional) graphics and vinniarts that were not
possible earlier. For instance, National Foods launched its Table Salt and Iodized
bags with entirely new designs on this Flexo; Sufi Soap, Unilever Pakistan, Nestle,
Colgate Palmolive and a few tea customers followed it. The quality of flexo printing
was acknowledged by the German Repro agency “ Flexicon” and Packages LTD. was
awarded the certificate for the qualified printers and regional suppliers of P&G.
Furthermore, they have the latest and costly soft wares installed which their
competitors cannot afford. For instance, earlier they had Electronic Data Interchange
(EDI) but now they have the latest version of it i.e., SAP which is keeping
information flow to and from all directions of the organization. Moreover the
Company has latest technology for inventory management like VMI (vendor
Managed Inventory) that eliminates the excess cost of inventory from the whole
supply chain management system.

ENVIRONMENTAL UNCERTAINTY

SIMPLE OR COMPLEX:

Packages LTD. has complex environment. Large number of elements like


government, technology, industry, human resource, raw material and economic
factors are making the organizational domain complex, creating a complex
environment.

STABLE OR UNSTABLE:

All these elements are more or less stable and changes in them are gradual and
predictable. Demand and supply for the company’s products usually remains the
same. If any change is occurred, it is predicted and circulars regarding change are sent
to all departments to make them informed.

Hence, by keeping view of Environmental Change i.e., stable and Environmental


Complexity, which is simple, we can conclude that environmental uncertainty for the
Packages LTD. is low to moderate.

ADAPTING TO ENVIRONMENTAL UNCERTAINTY:

POSITIONS AND DEPARTMENTS:


As mentioned earlier the external environment of Packages LTD. is complex. So to
deal with that complexity the organization has more number of departments. Each
external sector is dealt by a particular department. Following are the few examples of
departments and their related sectors:

Human resource deals with unemployed people who want to work for
the company

Marketing /Sales department creates demand.

Procurement employees obtain raw material from suppliers

Finance department deals with financial institutions.

Legal department deals with the cases related to labor laws.


Information Technology department deals with the increasing
complexity of computerized information and knowledge management
system.

BUFFERING AND BOUNDARY SPANNING:

To control the environmental uncertainty there are very few buffer departments in
Packages Ltd. to absorb uncertainty. For instance Human resource department
buffers the technical core by handling the uncertainty associated with finding, hiring
employees required by them. Suppose when an engineering department requires a
mechanical engineer, its manager inform this need to HR manager who, then, gives
add, collects CVs, selects appropriate candidates for interview. Manager of related
department also present at the time of interview to ask technical questions.

There are few boundary-spanning departments in the Packages LTD. to cope with
the environmental uncertainty. Departments like Research & Development detect
new technological developments, innovations and raw materials from the
environment and bring into the organization. In marketing department, sales and
customer service division (CSD) represent the organization in a favorable light to
customers. Packages have their own website which is also helpful and effective to
influence customers’ perception about the company.

DIFFERENTIATION AND INTEGRATION:

Packages have various departments, which are different from each other with respect
to formal structure among them. Each department has specific function to perform
and have special expertise. For instance R&D department has a goal of “quality
work”, an informal structure and task-oriented employees. On the other hand, Sales
has a goal of “customer satisfaction”, it has formal structure and employees are
socially oriented. In manufacturing department where goal is towards efficiency,
structure is formal and employees are task oriented.
All of these departments are integrated with each other. Communication is very
strong and mostly done through meetings, telephones, emails, and information
systems. Whenever there is a problem, representative of each department is being
called and problem is looked into and solved through coordination and discussions.
There are also informal meetings or gatherings (among employees) that are organized
by the company such as farewell, flower shows, Rose Petal Pond’s Promo, Tours
Abroad. Lunch and Dinner time (informal) meetings are also very helpful in bringing
employees of various departments closer to each other.

ORGANIC VS MECHANISTIC MANAGEMENT PROCESSES:

As Packages have hybrid structure; it has both the characteristics of functional and
divisional structures. There are written rules and regulations, which have to be
adopted by employees. Employees have specialized tasks to perform. Hierarchy of
authority is there and decisions are made at the top and middle level of management.
But company also enjoys some characteristics of organic structure. As Mr. Saulat
Said in his interview: “we have a very OPEN culture at packages. We are very frank,
open and honest. Doors are open for everyone. There are no formalities and most of
all mistakes are allowed. You are welcome to try out your ideas. We have very
personalized relationships and they are very strong. This may have some
disadvantages but the advantages outweigh them”.
According to assistant HR&D manager, Ms Fouzia Chawala,
“Informal and formal structure both work parallel at Packages”

PLANNING AND FORECASTING:

Planning in Packages is done annually. All departments fill the form at the beginning
of the year in which they write what will be their objectives for the coming year. Each
department head is told about their objectives in t he Annual General Meeting.

CONTINGENCY FRAMEWORK FOR ORGANIZATIONAL


RESPONSE TO ENVIRONMENTAL UNCERTAINTY:

As required in a low-moderate uncertain environment, where external environment


is complex and stable, Packages have large number of departments which are
integrated with each other formally as well as informally. Some boundary spanning is
also done and there are few buffer departments. Mostly structure is formal and
centralized but organic structure is also there. Planning is also done as per the
requirement.

INTERORGANIZATION FRAMEWORK
Packages have exceptionally strong Inter organizational Linkages. Packages had its
First Joint Venture in1982 with Tetrapak International of Sweden. The company by
this time had grown into the world’s largest liquid packaging organization and
specialized in the aseptic packing of fresh milk.

The second joint venture came in1987, when Nestle’ AG of Switzerland-the worlds
large food processing company – took charge of the operations at Milkpak –A dairy
plant in sheikhapura that was establishes in 1980 by Packages Limited to promote the
Tetra Pak system of Packaging long life milk in Pakistan.

The third Joint venture was established in 1993 when Packages signed an aggrement
with Mitsubishi Corporation of Japan –One of the largest industrial enterprise- to
put up the facilities for the manufacture of Biaxially Oriented Polypropylene films in
the duty free are of Hattar in NWFP. This joint venture was termed as Tri-Pack Films
Limited.

In 1994, it signed a joint venture with Coates Lorilleux of France, to form a


subsidiary Company, called Coates Lorilleux Pakistan Limited. After the takeover
of all Coates companies internationally by Dainippon Inks chemicals (DIC) of Japan,
this company is now working under the umbrella of the worlds largest printing Ink
manufacture.

Last but not the least, has been the establishment of a subsidiary company by
Packages Limited in1996 in Collaboration with the Print Care Group of Sirilanka
called Packages Lanka Pvt. Limited. The company is engaged in manufacture and
sales of flexible Material for food, confectionary, cosmetic and allied industries and is
managed by the technical staff from the parent company of Lahore.

To plot Packages in the frame work, the above facts show that the Company falls in
the Collaborative Network. The reason is that the Businesses of all other companies
are dissimilar than that of Packages but they are cooperating with each other.
Looking from another Side, Packages is also involved in making cooperative
linkages with companies that are involved in the similar businesses. Initially,
Swedish Companies involved in Paper and Board Mill manufacturing (Akerlund &
Rausing) supported Packages in its efficient manufacturing and procedures. The time
came when Packages stood on its foot, and was willing to share its expertise with
those who needed it. The process started in 1970, when the company took over the
responsibility of Managing Kibo Paper Industries Ltd in Tanzania. It continued,
subsequently, through the technical assistance to other companies namely P.T Guru
(Indonesia), Printpak (Tanzania), Incas (Somalia), Century Packages Ltd (Zambia),
Nasco Packages Ltd (Nigeria), Carton Industrial Company S.A.K (Kuwait) and
TetraPak AB (Russia).
So according to this view, Packages Ltd, in the Framework of inter-organizational
relationship, falls in the Institutionalism view.

TECHNOLOGY

ORGANIZATION LEVEL TECHNOLOGY

Packages LTD. is basically a manufacturing company. It manufactures variety of


customized products and provides services to industrial customers and end users.
Variety of products and services are discussed in detail earlier. Packages is
continuously working to meet the requirements of its customers which include:
choice of materials, type of packaging and the designing itself. Their engineers design
and plan each product to satisfy specific needs. . New Computer Integrated
Manufacturing (CIM) Line enables to ensure high precision cutting and creasing of
paper board. Vibrant designs are created by a team of artists and colors separations
are made on computerized equipment, which are then used for the actual print run.
DEPARTMENTAL TECHNOLOGY FRAMEWORK

PERROW’S FRAMEWORK

• ROUTINE TECHNOLOGIES:
In packages, production and sales departments are characterized by little
task variety and the use of objective computational procedures. Workers at
production halls perform the routine duties according to set standards. There
tasks are standardized and formalized. Sales persons perform the same jobs.
Clerical staff also performs the routine tasks which are highly analyzable.

• ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGIES:
Engineering and accounting departments of packages lie in this category of
departmental technology. These departments perform highly complex jobs
with a lot of variety in tasks performed. Engineers and accountants refer to a
well-established body of knowledge to perform their daily duties and to solve
any problem.

• NON-ROUTINE TECHNOLOGIES:
Research and development, strategic planning and human resource and
development departments fall in this category of departmental technology.
In these departments personnels put a lot of effort to analyze and solve
problems and to perform activities. Experience and related knowledge are
used to perform jobs in these departments. Labor welfare department (sub
department of Industrial relations department) of packages also comes
under the category of non-routine technology because they have to perform
variable jobs and solve diverse problems of labor.

IMPLICATIONS FOR THE DEPARTMENT DESIGN


The specific design elements of organization design like: formalization
,decentralization, worker skill level, span of control, and communication and
coordination depend upon the departmental technology in Packages and vary from
department to department as already have been discussed in contextual dimensions of
organization design earlier
1. FORMALIZATION:
Formalization is high in departments with routine technology like sales and
production. People carry out their specialized tasks that are governed by
formal rules .whereas in Research and development, strategic planning,
&human resource and development departments, structure is less formal.
These departments have to perform activities with a lot of variety so lesser
number of formal procedures is followed.
2. DECENTRALIZATION:
The departments where wok is routine (production and sales), decision
making authority lies with management. Whereas in Research and
development &human resource and development departments power is
delegated to employees and decision making authority is granted to
employees.
3. WORKER SKILL LEVEL:
In Packages high level of skill and education is required in all the
departments
4. SPAN OF CONTROL :
Span of control also varies from department to department depending upon
the departmental technology, since in production departments span of control
is wide and in HRD department span of control is very narrow.
5. COMMUNICATION AND COORDINATION:
Communication and coordination is also very high in Packages within and
among departments. In R&D and HR&D departments communication is
horizontal (and is normally in the form of face-to face direct contact,
telephone calls and meetings)because they perform a wide range of tasks. And
it is vertical in production and sales departments as task variety is low here
(and is in form of formal memos and written reports)
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

Company has IT department and have the latest softwares installed to gain
advantage of the latest technology. It has its internal intranet which is keeping
employees of various departments closer to each. Information is also shared with
customers and employees through emails and computer integrated information
system. Latest software SAP – Systems Application and Products is installed in
Packages LTD. to make complex systems manageable by focusing on the most
important business processes and to combine functional and technical
implementation by focusing on process-oriented operations management.
Now company is starting online recruitment process and this process is also
helpful.

INTERDEPENDENCE AMONG DEPARTMENTS

IMPLICATIONS FOR THE STRUCTURE

Packages LTD. is facing sequential interdependence among departments, and


structure is designed to fit their needs. Product development phase is a sequential
process and departments are interdependent on each other to move on to the next
phase. First, they prepare printing sheets these sheets are then sent to cutting
departments which cut them and forwarded them to freezing department. Freezing
department separate the whole sheet into small and then send them to folding and
gluing department, where sheets are creased, folded and glued according to customer
specifications. Coordination among departments is through scheduled meetings and
on telephones also through integrated information system.

Whenever company go thorough the process of new product development, the


company faces various levels of interdependence among departments. For example to
design a product design, engineering, purchasing, manufacturing and sales
departments are reciprocally interdependent and high level of communication is
facilitated through horizontal structure to handle the back-and-forth flow of
information and resources.
Once a product is designed its actual manufacturing requires sequential
interdependence as discussed above. And finally the actual ordering and delivery of
products is pooled interdependence, with warehouses working independently. And
there is less communication is required. And divisional structure is preferred.

ORGANIZATION LIFE CYCLE, SIZE & CONTROL


Packages is large size organization with 3,084 employees. There are 14 support
departments and 7 product divisions.
Packages has grown up a very large and mature organization with the passage of time
and has reached the “Elaboration Stage” of organizational life cycle.
Overall organization has well defined rules and regulations and policies according to
the need of each department and its functionality. Efficiency is the main focus of the
organization but Innovation and risk taking are encouraged and rewarded.

MANAGEMENT CONTROL SYSTEM


Regarding management control system, budgets, reward systems and standard
operating procedures are used to monitor and control the organization.

1) BUDGETS

In Packages, managers use budgets to plan for future and to reduce uncertainty about
the availability of human and material resources to perform departmental tasks. The
operating budgets are used to set the financial targets for a specific period for each
department in packages limited. Mangers also use budgets to allocate the resources to
each department to perform and attain objectives and operating goals of the
organization.

2) REWARD SYSTEMS
At Packages it is the responsibility of HR&D department to develop a questionnaire
and distribute among the employees at the beginning of each year. Employees are
asked to set their individual and team performance goals for the next year. At the end
of year, employees’ actual performance is evaluated and compared with the set
objective. These are than analyzed to how much extent employees have been able to
meet their self-maintained goals about their performance. Eventually according to this
evaluation, employees are rewarded.

3) OPERATING PROCEDURES

In packages there are set operating procedures for employees to perform and behave
in a certain manner .Industrial Relations department at packages has developed a
policy manual which guides the behavior of employees while they are at packages.

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS