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Smart Well Drilling Completion: Horizontal

Wells and Integrity


Presenter Name:
Mahmoud Farag Radwan

Mahmoud Radwan is a Subsurface & Integrity Operations Sec. Head at AMAL


Petroleum Company (AMAPETCO) with 12 years of experience in oil & gas
industry. Mahmoud worked in Well Intervention, Integrity & Work-over at
Short several companies, including Badr El-Din Pet. Co. (BAPETCO), Qarun Pet. Co.
(QPC) and Wadi El-Sahel Petroleum Co. (WASPETCO). Notable is his 1 year as
Biography a Well Service Supervisor; Consultant for Badr El-Din Pet. Co. (BAPETCO)
supervising rig-less operations W/L, logging and perforation, CT, stimulation,
well testing, and well integrity tests. Mahmoud received a BSc degree in
Petroleum Engineering from Al-Azhar University in 2007

- Evaluating Sustainable Annulus Pressure (SAP) in Sour Wells and the


Possible Causes to Avoid Recurrence in the Well Integrity Annual Middle East
Conference in Abu Dhabi; UAE in Apr 2015
- Implementing NDT methods for maintenance and inspection in the Asset
Publications Integrity Management North Africa Conference in Cairo; Egypt in Nov 2015
- Feasibility Evaluation of Using Downhole Gas-water Separation Technology in
gas Reservoirs with Bottom Water; paper number: SPE-183739-MS to the 20th
Middle East Oil & Gas Show and Conference in Mar 2017
http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/183739-MS
 To provide an overview of smart
well completions its components
and different design options to
meet.
 Safe deliverability, integrity and
work over operations.
 Case studies to understand more
aspects.
Course Contents
 Introduction to Completion
 Smart Completion Equipment
 Case History
 Swellable Packer Technology
 Smart Completion SPE Case Studies
 Hydraulic Line Wet Mate (HLWM) Connect System
 Types of ICDs
 ICD completion design optimization
 New ICD Technology
 Case Studies
 Smart Completion Fully Electric System
 i-Field
 Problem Solving Lab
Introduction to Completion
What is a Completion?
The design, selection and installation of
tubular, tools and equipment, in the wellbore,
for the purpose of conveying, pumping or
controlling production (or injection) fluids
Three Basic Functions of a completion
•Let reservoir fluids into the well, from where it can then
flow or be pumped to the surface.

•Keep over or underlying water out of the well.

•Keep the formation out of the well.


Top Level Completion Design Objectives
 Optimize Production

 Adequate Monitoring & Servicing

 Suitable Components for Well Environment and Changes

 Consistent with Reservoir Strategy

 Ensure ROI via:

Cost efficient Installation

Reliability

Risk Management

 Safe: Well security, environment


Secondary Level Completion Design Objectives

 Production Conduit with optimized flow

 Component selection and evaluation

 Installation, Stimulation, Production, and Removal

 Identify Failure Modes & Prioritize by severity and probability

 Generate Contingency Plans and integrate into design

 Ensure consistency with top level objectives


Completion Define & Justify
Key Well Objectives
Res. Exploitation Strategy
Surface Constraints Well
Lifetime Requirements
Design Well Proposal

Define Completion
Monitoring Requirements
Workover & de-completion

Process No
Objectives
Cost Model
Analogues and Field Data
Confirm Feasibility
Well Geometry Reservoir
Inflow Model Communication Reservoir
Rock Data
Yes Outflow Model Fluid Data
Feasible
Detailed Design Stimulation
Drill & Complete Sand Control
Tubing Size
Operate & Maintain
Artificial Lift
No Requirements Well Design Model
Met?
Facilities Model
No
Optimized
Solution Cost VS Benefit Analysis
Completion Design Parameters: Location

Land
•Remote
•Urban
Offshore
•Shelf
•Deep-water
Completion Design Parameters: Reservoir

Physical Parameters
• Depth Rock Properties
• Pressure • Permeability
• Temperature • Porosity
• Size • Fluid Saturation
• Shape • Wettability
• Height/Thickness Production Mechanism
Rock Composition • Water Drive
• Sand Stone, or • Solution Gas Drive
Carbonate • Gas Cap
• Consolidated or Weak • Injection
• Cementation material • Artificial Lift
Completion Design Parameters: Reservoir Fluid

Physical Parameters
• Oil Density (API gravity)
• Gas Gravity
• Bubble Point
• Viscosity
• Gas Oil Ratio
• Water Oil Ratio
Chemical Properties
• Composition
• Wax and Asphaltenes
• Corrosive & Toxic impurities
• Scaling agents
Completion Design Parameters: Wellbore Configuration

Geometry Reservoir Interface


• Vertical • Produce / Inject
• Horizontal • Open Hole
• Casing Size • Cased & Perforated
• Open Hole Size • Single or multiple
• Trajectory reservoirs
• Perforation requirements • Sand Control
• Intervention requirements • Stand alone screens
• Gravel Pack
• Frac Pack
Parts of a completions
•Lower “Sandface” Completion: Productivity
• Vertical or Horizontal
• Open hole (Bare foot)
• Cased& Perforated
• Screens Packers
– Cased hole packers
• ICDs – Open hole packers
• Active Down Hole Flow Control – Swell Packers
– Multiport packers
• Monitoring
•Upper Completion: Safety & Connectivity
• ESP
• Safety Valve
• Nipples
• Sliding sleeves
• Injection Mandrels
• Monitoring
Completion Design optimization
Reservoir Challenges
• Early water / gas breakthrough
• High water production
• High Gas Production
• Sand Production
• Unbalanced Influx

Completion Objectives
• Well Target Rate
• Isolation Intervals
• Fractures control / isolation
• Overcome the above agreed Reservoir
Challenges

Well Data
Completion Skin

St  Sd  S p  S pp  Sturb  So  Ss  ......,
St =total skin effect, (+ damaged; - stimulated)
Sd = skin effect due to formation damage)+(
Spp =skin due to partial penetration)+(
Sp = skin effect due to perforation)+(
Sturb =Dq, skin effect due to turbulence)+(
So = skin effect due to slanting of well)-(
Ss = skin effect due to stimulation (generally)-
Sandface Vs Bottom hole IPR
2000

1800

1600
Flowing Bottomhole Pressure,

1400

1200
Sandface IPR
1000

800

600
psia

400
Bottomhole IPR
200

0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000
Rate, STB/D
Tubing Sensitivity
2000

1800
Flowing Bottomhole Pressure, psia Tbg A
1600 Tbg B

1400

1200 Tbg C
1000

800

600
Tbg D
Tbg E
400

200

0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000
Rate, STB/D
Completion Sensitivity
2000

1800 Flowing Bottomhole Pressure, psia


1600

1400

1200

1000

800

600
Tubing Curve
400

200

0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000
Rate, STB/D
Completion Pressure Drop
2000

1800 Flowing Bottomhole Pressure, psia

1600

1400

1200

1000

800
Tubing Curve
600

400 Sandface
IPR
200 Bottomhole IPR

0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000
Rate, STB/D
Vertical Wellbore Profile

Vertical wellbore Cap rock


No great productivity
benefit

May catch unwanted


water or gas Basement

Preferred for fracturing

18
Deviated Wellbore Profile

Cap rock
Increased productivity especially
in thin reservoirs

Extends reach within reservoir

Basement

19
Horizontal Wellbore Profile

Horizontal wellbore
Significant increase in Cap rock

productivity

Reduced influence of skin

Reduced influence on Water zone

coning
“Sandface” Completion Types: Bare foot

Open hole through reservoir


• Maximum area to flow
• Hole stability
• Homogeneous reservoir
Cap Rock
• Limited isolation options
Unconsolidated Sand
•Stand alone screens
•Open hole gravel pack Reservoir

Openhole Gravel Pack


Completion Completion
“Sandface” Completion Types: Cased & Perforated

Reservoir section Cased


Cemented and Perforated
• Better control of reservoir
Cap Rock
• Multiple zones through a single
well
• Better isolation options
Shale
Unconsolidated Sand
•Cased hole gravel pack Shale

•Frac Pack Reservoir


Cemented Cemented
casing liner
Basic Packer Completion

Circulation capability
(determined by design and
setting of packer)

Casing string protected from


fluid and pressure effects
Multizone Completion Configuration

Four zone selective production system

Dual production strings

Commingled or alternate production


controlled by sliding sleeves

System contains 28 major downhole


components
Case History
Case History
• The first Smart-well Completion was installed
at August 1997 Saga’s Snorre Platform in the
North Sea
• Initial Smart-wells use permanently downhole
electronic gauge and sensors
• In 1998 WellDynamics use Direct Hydraulic
and Mini Hydraulic system
• Development of new monitoring systems like
Fiber-optic with high level of reliability,
accuracy, resolution and stability.
Intelligent Completion Equipment
What is an Intelligent Completion?
Data Communications

Answer Products. And Control


-" -··-···· ···-- . - ...
Connecting to Your
Reservoir
rvoir Management
uction Optimization
Subsea Int

ion Sensors

(:frroduction/iso ·l
ation
packer
L Intelligentflowcontr
l vice with int
o de
Production Sensors
What is an Intelligent Completion?
“An Intelligent completion is defined as one that
provides the ability to both monitor and control at
least one zone of a reservoir”
i.e.
 Completion with permanent down hole monitoring
- Pressure and Temperature
- Flow rate
- Water cut
 And surface operated down hole flow control
-Hydraulic operated flow control valves
-Electric operated flow control valves
What is an Intelligent Completion?
What is an intelligent completion
 Surface operated down hole flow control
 Permanent down hole monitoring
 Minimal intervention
Intelligent completion benefits
 Intelligent completion applicable for all types of wells
 Optimize production in multi-lateral and MRC wells
 Improve sweep efficiency and recovery
 Produce multiple reservoirs from a single well
 Control unwanted fluids
 Continuously update reservoir model
 Back allocate production
 Reduce well slots required on offshore platforms
 Optimize cost, by reducing number of wells, facilities & ,
operating cost
 Manage reservoir uncertainties without Intervention
Components of an intelligent completion
 Permanent down hole sensors

 Surface operated down hole flow control valves

 Control lines and electric cables

 Cross coupling cable protectors

 Multiport Production and isolation packers

 Tubing hanger and X-mass tree

 Surface control and data acquisition system

 Data visualization and interpretation software


Permanent Down hole sensors
 Single point Pressure

 Single point temperature

 Fiber optic (Distributed temperature survey)

 Flow meter

 Water cut

 Temperature arrays
Permanent Pressure and Temp
 Benefits
• Continuous pressure & temperature without
intervention
• Low cost data for the life of the well
• High accuracy- High resolution data
 Features
• H2S and CO2 service in accordance with ISO
15156
• Hermetically sealed welded construction
• shock vibration resistance
• Multiple gauge combinations
Reliability
• Welded Connections
• Eliminate the weakest link
• NACE Compliant
• Zone-I certified

Butt Weld

EDMC-W Splice Socket Weld


Down hole flow control valves
 Hydraulically actuated are most common

 Direct hydraulic valves require minimum of one


control line per valve

 Multi-drop systems share control lines but add


complexity to the system

 Valves can be On/Off, Discrete position or infinitely


variable

 Electric valve
hydraulic flow control valves
 Multi-positions choke plus fully open/closed

 Custom choke design for the application

 Reliable, time-tested hydraulic technology for


actuator operation

 Hydraulic control line / gas-spring closure

 Flow area equivalent to tubing flow area

 Suitable for high-volume applications


Control lines & cables
 Hydraulic lines
• Control down hole valves and other devices
 Electric cable
• Provides power and communication for down
hole gauges
 Optical fiber (Distributed Temperature Sensing)
• Can use independent line or share electric/
hydraulic line
 Multiple lines are usually combined in a flat pack
for ease of handling
 Different encapsulations available for different
down hole environments
Cable protectors
 Control lines & cables are run outside the
tubing
 Cross coupling protectors are the most
commonly used protectors
 Mid-Joint and other special application
protectors are also available
 Cast Iron or Molded metal
Multi Port Packers
 Allow passing of control lines

 Production packers

• Provide isolation and anchoring

 Isolation packers

• Provide isolation only

 Open Hole packers

• Swell or Mechanical
Wellhead and Tubing Hanger
 Wellhead and Tubing Hanger

 Control line and cable penetrations


How does it all come together
Control Lines and cables

SCSSSV

P/T Gauges

SSD & Seating Nipple


P/T
GauFgleosw control
Multi-port Multi-port valve Flow control
Packer Packer valve

Multi-port Bull nose


Flow control P/T
P/T Packer
valve Gauges
Gauges
Surface Control System
 Electro Hydraulic controls for downhole valves

 Monitoring of downhole sensors

 SCADA Compatible

3
2
1
0
Example of an Intelligent Injector completion

Conventional
 No real time measurements
 Periodic logs to measure injection Packer

rate & profile


Example of an Intelligent Injector completion

 FlowWatcher
 Real time measurements
•Injection rate Multi-port Packer
Flow Control valve
•Volume FlowWatcher

•Pressure Packer

•Temperature
Example of an Intelligent Injector completion

 FlowWatcher
 Fiber Optic DTS
 Real time measurements
Multi-port Packer
•Injection rate
Flow Control valve
• Injection profile FlowWatcher
Multi-port Packer
•Volume
•Pressure Slotted Tail Pipe

Fiber optic
•Temperature
Intelligent Injector with passive control

 FlowWatcher
 Fiber Optic DTS
 Real time measurements
Multi-port Packer
•Injection rate
Flow Control valve
•Injection profile
Multi-port Packer
•Volume

•Pressure Slotted Tail Pipe

Fiber optic
•Temperature
 Balanced injection Profile, ICD
Data Communications
Well Site Acquisition
Answer Products And Control

Connecting to Your
Reservoir
Reservoir Management
Production Optimization
Subsea Interfaces

Formation Sensors

Production Sensors

INTELLIGENT COMPLETIONS
+
ESP
Why use Electric Submersible Pumps?
Lift wells which are incapable of producing naturally
• Due to low reservoir pressure
• Or wells with high water cut
Enhance production and extend economic limit of the field
Surface transport from wellhead to facilities (specially
offshore)
Wide performance range and versatility
Can operate in deep, high angle & horizontal wells
Most efficient and economical lift method on a cost-per-
barrel basis
Benefits of combining IC with ESP
 Dedicate ESP energy to lifting oil rather than water

 Apply higher drawdown to lower productivity zones

 Reduce the size of down hole ESP gas separator and gas
handling equipment

 Reduce ESP size to better match oil lifting requirements

 Reduce wear-and-tear due to gas slugging

 Reservoir protection during ESP work over


Challenge of combining IC with ESP
Control Line Management
 ESPs have a short life span and require replacement every few
years

 Most conventional ICs have a longer life than ESPs and are not
designed for retrieval

 Managing IC control lines when retrieving ESP for replacement is


the main challenge

 Space for control line penetrations through packers and well heads
is limited, and both IC and ESP must share the same space
Retrievable IC SCSSSV

In cased holes ICs can be designed for easier


retrieval by using non-anchoring isolation packers
POD ESP
between zones

ICs have been retrieved successfully and well re-


Productio
completed n Packer

Flow
control
Currently retrievable ICs are being installed and valve
Isolation
Packer

evaluated Flow
control
valve
Flow
control
valve
Isolation
Packer
Bull nose
Retrievable IC: Limitations SCSSSV

Not recommended for use with open hole packers

Must use POD ESP design to carry the weight of IC

Retrieved control lines and clamps are not POD ESP

recommended for re-use


Productio
n Packer

Flow
control
valve
Isolation
Packer

Flow
control
valve
Flow
IC Cable clamps recovered from a well control
valve
Isolation
Packer
Bull nose
Hydraulic Wet Mate Connect SCSSSV

 Provides connections for hydraulic control lines in


two-stage Smart Well Completions
POD ESP

 IC Packers, sensors, and flow control valves


Expansion
remain in place joint
Down hole
Disconnect
Production Packer
 Allows retrieval of control lines and clamps above
Flow
control
the top IC packer with ESP valve
Open
hole

 Consists of Packer
Flow
control
valve

• Receptacle that is run with the lower completion


Open
hole

• Stinger that is run with the upper completion PaFclkoer


control
w
Bull vnaolsve
Production Liner deployed IC
Intelligent completion is deployed on ”7
production liner

All IC Control lines and cables are run outside


7” Tubing

the 7” production liner ”5/8 9Casing


shoe

ESP system is deployed inside the ”7


Production Packer

Flow

production liner control


valve
Multi-port
Packer
IC and ESP Systems are completely separate Flow
control
valve
Multi-port
Packer
Flow
control
Bull
vnaolsve
Conventional ESP inside liner IC SCSSSV

”½ 3Tubing

ESP system deployed on jointed tubing


ESP Packer

ESP Cable clamped to the outside of Conventional


ESP System

production tubing ”7Tubing

”5/8 9Casing

Fluid flows inside the production tubing shoe

Production Packer

Flow
control
valve
Multi-port
Packer

Flow
control
valve
Multi-port
Packer
Flow
control
Bull
vnaolsve
Conventional ESP inside liner IC SCSSSV

”½ 3Tubing
Benefits
Allows ESP retrieval while leaving IC in place ESP Packer

Requires minimal amount of special equipment Conventional


ESP System

7” Tubing
Limitations
”5/8 9Casing
shoe
Applicable only in large production casings Production Packer

Production tubing size and therefore max flow rate that Flow
control
valve
can be achieved is limited Multi-port
Packer

Needs multi-bowl wellhead to allow landing of two Flow


control
valve
tubing hangers with penetrations Multi-port
Packer
Flow
control
Bull
vnaolsve