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The introduction of European standards to UK construction is a significant event as, for the
first time, all design and construction codes within the EU will be harmonised. The ten design
standards, known as the Eurocodes, will affect all design and construction activities as all current
British Standards for structural design are due to be withdrawn in 2010.
The cement and concrete industry recognised the need to enable UK design professionals to use
Eurocode 2, Design of concrete structures, quickly, effectively, efficiently and with confidence.
Supported by government, consultants and relevant industry bodies, the Concrete Industry
Eurocode 2 Group (CIEG) was formed in 1999 and this Group has provided the guidance for a
coordinated and collaborative approach to the introduction of Eurocode 2.
As a result, a range of resources are being delivered by the concrete sector (see www.eurocode2.info).
The aim of this publication, Worked Examples to Eurocode 2: Volume 1 is to distil from Eurocode 2,
other Eurocodes and other sources the material that is commonly used in the design of concrete
framed buildings.
These worked examples are published in two parts. Volume 2 will include chapters on Foundations,
Serviceability, Fire and Retaining walls.

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The original ideas for this publication emanates from the research project `Eurocode 2: Transition
from UK to European concrete design standards’, which was led by the BCA and part funded by
the DTI under their PII scheme and was overseen by a Steering Group and the CIEG. The work has
been brought to fruition by The Concrete Centre from early initial drafts by various authors listed
on the inside back cover. The concrete industry acknowledges and appreciates the support given
by many individuals, companies and organisations in the preparation of this document. These are
listed on the inside back cover.
We gratefully acknowledge the authors of the initial drafts and the help and advice given by Robin
Whittle in checking the text. Thanks are also due to Gillian Bond, Kevin Smith, Sally Huish and the
design team at Michael Burbridge Ltd for their work on the production.
The copyright of British Standards extracts reproduced in this document is held by the British Standards Institution (BSI).
Permission to reproduce extracts from British Standards is granted by BSI under the terms of Licence No: 2009RM010. No other
use of this material is permitted. This publication is not intended to be a replacement for the standard and may not reflect the
most up-to-date status of the standard. British Standards can be obtained in PDF or hard copy formats from the BSI online shop:
http://shop.bsigroup.com or by contacting BSI Customer Services for hard copies only:
Tel:+44 (0)20 8996 9001, Email: cservices@bsigroup.com.

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<^f^gmZg]<hg\k^m^Bg]nlmkrIn[eb\Zmbhgl!<<BI"Zk^ikh]n\^]makhn`aZgbg]nlmkrbgbmbZmbo^mh
in[eblam^\agb\Ze`nb]Zg\^bglniihkmh_\hg\k^m^]^lb`gZg]\hglmkn\mbhg'<<BIin[eb\ZmbhglZk^
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All advice or information from MPA - The Concrete Centre is intended only for use in the UK by those who will evaluate the
significance and limitations of its contents and take responsibility for its use and application. No liability (including that for
negligence) for any loss resulting from such advice or information is accepted by MPA - The Concrete Centre or its subcontractors,
suppliers or advisors. Readers should note that the publications from MPA - The Concrete Centre are subject to revision from time
to time and should therefore ensure that they are in possession of the latest version.

Printed by Michael Burbridge Ltd, Maidenhead, UK.

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jd <aZkZ\m^kblmb\oZen^h_ZoZkbZ[e^Z\mbhgi^kngbme^g`mahkZk^Z
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ji I^Zdpbg]ik^llnk^
ji!s^" I^Zdo^eh\bmrik^llnk^Zmk^_^k^g\^a^b`ams^%!pbg]"
K K^lblmZg\^4F^\aZgb\Zek^lblmZg\^!bg_bk^"
K: K^Z\mbhgZmlniihkm:
K; K^Z\mbhgZmlniihkm;
K] =^lb`goZen^h_ma^k^lblmZg\^mhZgZ\mbhg
k KZ]bnl
kf KZmbhh__bklmhk]^k^g]fhf^gmlbg\henfglZmNEL
LEL L ^kob\^Z[bebmrebfbmlmZm^!l"¾\hkk^lihg]bg`mh\hg]bmbhgl[^rhg]pab\ali^\b_b^]l^kob\^k^jnbk^f^gmlZk^gh
ehg`^kf^m
l LiZ\bg`
l LghpehZ]hgZkhh_

v
Symbol Definition
ld <aZkZ\m^kblmb\`khng]lghpehZ]
lk KZ]bZeliZ\bg`h_i^kbf^m^klh_la^Zkk^bg_hk\^f^gm
lm MZg`^gmbZeliZ\bg`la^Zkk^bg_hk\^f^gmZehg`i^kbf^m^klh_la^Zkk^bg_hk\^f^gm
m Mab\dg^ll4Mbf^[^bg`\hglb]^k^]4;k^Z]mah_lniihkm
m) Ma^Z`^h_\hg\k^m^Zmma^mbf^h_ehZ]bg`
NEL NembfZm^ebfbmlmZm^!l"¾Zllh\bZm^]pbma\heeZil^hkhma^k_hkflh_lmkn\mnkZe_Zbenk^
n I^kbf^m^kh_\hg\k^m^\khll&l^\mbhg%aZobg`Zk^Z:\
n I^kbf^m^kh_maZmiZkmpab\abl^qihl^]mh]krbg`
n <bk\nf_^k^g\^h_hnm^k^]`^h_^__^\mbo^\khll&l^\mbhg!mhklbhg"
n) I^kbf^m^kZ]cZ\^gmmh\henfgl!ing\abg`la^Zk"
n* ;Zlb\\hgmkhei^kbf^m^k!Zm+]_khf_Z\^h_ehZ]"!ing\abg`la^Zk"
n*# K^]n\^]\hgmkhei^kbf^m^kZmi^kbf^m^k\henfgl!Zm+]_khf_Z\^h_ehZ]"!ing\abg`la^Zk"
nb E^g`mah_ma^\hgmkhei^kbf^m^kng]^k\hglb]^kZmbhg!ing\abg`la^Zk"
nhnm I^kbf^m^kZmpab\ala^Zkk^bg_hk\^f^gmblghehg`^kk^jnbk^]
O La^Zk_hk\^
O>] =^lb`goZen^h_ma^Ziieb^]la^Zk_hk\^
OK]%\ La^Zkk^lblmZg\^h_Zf^f[^kpbmahnmla^Zkk^bg_hk\^f^gm
OK]%fZq La^Zkk^lblmZg\^h_Zf^f[^kebfbm^][rma^\knlabg`h_\hfik^llbhglmknml
OK]%\fbg Fbgbfnfla^Zkk^lblmZg\^h_f^f[^k\hglb]^kbg`\hg\k^m^Zehg^
OK]%l La^Zkk^lblmZg\^h_Zf^f[^k`ho^kg^][rma^rb^e]bg`h_la^Zkk^bg_hk\^f^gm
o[ ;Zlb\pbg]o^eh\bmr
o[%) M a^_ng]Zf^gmZe[Zlb\pbg]o^eh\bmr[^bg`ma^\aZkZ\m^kblmb\*)fbgnm^pbg]o^eh\bmrZm*)fZ[ho^`khng]e^o^ebg
hi^g\hngmkr
o[%fZi ?ng]Zf^gmZe[Zlb\pbg]o^eh\bmr_khf?b`nk^G:'*f(l
o>] Ing\abg`la^Zklmk^ll
o>] La^Zklmk^ll_hkl^\mbhglpbmahnmla^Zkk^bg_hk\^f^gm!6O>] ([p]"
o>]%s La^Zklmk^ll_hkl^\mbhglpbmala^Zkk^bg_hk\^f^gm!6O>] ([ps6O>] ([p)'2]"
oK]%\ =^lb`gla^Zkk^lblmZg\^h_\hg\k^m^pbmahnmla^Zkk^bg_hk\^f^gm^qik^ll^]ZlZlmk^ll
oK]%fZq <ZiZ\bmrh_\hg\k^m^lmknml^qik^ll^]ZlZlmk^ll
P* ?Z\mhk\hkk^lihg]bg`mhZ]blmkb[nmbhgh_la^Zk!ing\abg`la^Zk"
P^ I^Zd^qm^kgZepbg]ehZ]
Pd  aZkZ\m^kblmb\oZen^h_pbg]Z\mbhg!G;ghmbgma^>nkh\h]^lZg]lahne][^k^`Zk]^]ZlZ_hkfh_Jd%
<
\aZkZ\m^kblmb\oZen^h_ZoZkbZ[e^Z\mbhg"
pd <aZkZ\m^kblmb\ngbmpbg]ehZ]'
pd <kZ\dpb]ma
pfZq Ebfbmbg`\Ze\neZm^]\kZ\dpb]ma
Q)%Q:%Q< <hg\k^m^^qihlnk^\eZll^l
Q=%Q?%QL
q G^nmkZeZqbl]^ima
q =blmZg\^[^mp^^g[nbe]bg`l!pbg]"
q =blmZg\^h_ma^l^\mbhg[^bg`\hglb]^k^]_khfma^\^gmk^ebg^h_ma^lniihkm
q%r%s <h&hk]bgZm^l4IeZg^lng]^k\hglb]^kZmbhg
qn =^imah_ma^g^nmkZeZqblZmma^nembfZm^ebfbmlmZm^Z_m^kk^]blmkb[nmbhg
S Shg^gnf[^kh[mZbg^]_khffZi!lghp"
s E^o^kZkfh_bgm^kgZe_hk\^l

vi
Symbol Definition
s K^_^k^g\^a^b`am!pbg]"
s^ K^_^k^g\^a^b`am_hkpbg]pZk]pZeelh_k^\mZg`neZk[nbe]bg`l!pbg]"
a :g`e^4:g`e^h_la^Zkebgdlmhma^ehg`bmn]bgZeZqbl4KZmbh
a: :\h^__b\b^gm_hknl^pbmaZk^ik^l^gmZmbo^oZkbZ[e^Z\mbhgmZdbg`bgmhZ\\hngmZk^Zlniihkm^]
a*%a+%a, ?Z\mhkl]^Zebg`pbmaZg\ahkZ`^Zg]eZilh_[Zkl
a-%a.%a/
a\\!a\m" :\h^__b\b^gmmZdbg`bgmhZ\\hngmehg`m^kf^__^\mlh_\hfik^llbo^!m^glbe^"ehZ]Zg]ma^pZrehZ]blZiieb^]
a^ Fh]neZkkZmbh6>l (>\]
ag :\h^__b\b^gm_hknl^pbmaZk^ik^l^gmZmbo^oZkbZ[e^Z\mbhgmZdbg`bgmhZ\\hngmgnf[^kh_lmhk^rllniihkm^]
b :g`e^4KZmbh4<h^__b\b^gm
b ?Z\mhk]^Zebg`pbma^\\^gmkb\bmr!ing\abg`la^Zk"
g IZkmbZe_Z\mhk
g< IZkmbZe_Z\mhk_hk\hg\k^m^
g? IZkmbZe_Z\mhk_hkZ\mbhgl%?
g@ IZkmbZe_Z\mhk_hki^kfZg^gmZ\mbhgl%@
g@d%lni IZkmbZe_Z\mhkmh[^Ziieb^]mh@d%bg_
g@d%bg_ IZkmbZe_Z\mhkmh[^Ziieb^]mh@d%lni
gJ IZkmbZe_Z\mhk_hkoZkbZ[e^Z\mbhgl%J
gF IZkmbZe_Z\mhk_hkfZm^kbZe!nlnZeerg<hkgL"
gL IZkmbZe_Z\mhk_hkk^bg_hk\bg`lm^^e
d K^]blmkb[nmbhgkZmbh^jnZelkZmbhh_ma^k^]blmkb[nm^]fhf^gmmhma^^eZlmb\[^g]bg`fhf^gm!*¾k^]blmkb[nmbhg"
e\n NembfZm^\hfik^llbo^lmkZbgbgma^\hg\k^m^
e\n+ NembfZm^\hfik^llbo^lmkZbgebfbmbg\hg\k^m^pab\ablghm_neerbgink^ZqbZe\hfik^llbhgZllnfbg`nl^h_ma^
iZkZ[heb\¾k^\mZg`neZklmk^ll¾lmkZbgk^eZmbhglabi!gnf^kb\Zeere\n+6e\n,"
e\n, NembfZm^\hfik^llbo^lmkZbgebfbmbg\hg\k^m^pab\ablghm_neerbgink^ZqbZe\hfik^llbhgZllnfbg`nl^h_ma^
[bebg^Zklmk^ll¾lmkZbgk^eZmbhglabi
el\ <hfik^llbo^lmkZbgbgk^bg_hk\^f^gm
elm M^glbe^lmkZbgbgk^bg_hk\^f^gm
n ?Z\mhk]^_bgbg`^__^\mbo^lmk^g`ma!6*_hk©<.)(/)"
n* <h^__b\b^gm_hk[hg]\hg]bmbhgl
n+ <h^__b\b^gm_hk[Zk]bZf^m^k
y :g`e^4:g`e^h_\hfik^llbhglmknml!la^Zk"
yb Bg\ebgZmbhgnl^]mhk^ik^l^gmbfi^k_^\mbhgl
l Le^g]^kg^llkZmbh
l ?Z\mhk]^_bgbg`ma^a^b`amh_ma^\hfik^llbhgshg^!6)'1_hk©<.)(/)"
l_b Le^g]^kg^llbg_bk^
lebf Ebfbmbg`le^g]^kg^llkZmbh!h_\henfgl"
mb%m*%m+ LghpehZ]laZi^_Z\mhkl
m_b  Zmbhh_ma^]^lb`gZqbZeehZ]ng]^k_bk^\hg]bmbhglmhma^]^lb`gk^lblmZg\^h_ma^\henfgZmghkfZem^fi^kZmnk^
K
[nmpbmaZg^\\^gmkb\bmrZiieb\Z[e^mh_bk^\hg]bmbhgl
v Lmk^g`mak^]n\mbhg_Z\mhk_hk\hg\k^m^\kZ\d^]bgla^Zk
j K^]n\mbhg_Z\mhk(]blmkb[nmbhg\h^__b\b^gm'?Z\mhkZiieb^]mh@dbg;L>G*22)>qi'!/'*)["
r K^jnbk^]m^glbhgk^bg_hk\^f^gmkZmbh
r =^glbmrh_Zbk!pbg]"
r K^bg_hk\^f^gmkZmbh_hkk^jnbk^]\hfik^llbhgk^bg_hk\^f^gm%:l+([]

vii
Symbol Definition
r* I^k\^gmZ`^h_k^bg_hk\^f^gmeZii^]pbmabg)'/.e)_khfma^\^gmk^ebg^h_ma^eZi[^bg`\hglb]^k^]
re K^bg_hk\^f^gmkZmbh_hkehg`bmn]bgZek^bg_hk\^f^gm
rer%res K^bg_hk\^f^gmkZmbhh_[hg]^]lm^^ebgma^rZg]s]bk^\mbhg
r) K^_^k^g\^k^bg_hk\^f^gmkZmbh_\d)'.£*)¾,
s`] =^lb`goZen^h_ma^`khng]ik^llnk^
sl Lmk^llbgk^bg_hk\^f^gmZmLEL
sl :[lhenm^oZen^h_ma^fZqbfnflmk^lli^kfbmm^]bgma^k^bg_hk\^f^gmbff^]bZm^erZ_m^kma^_hkfZmbhgh_ma^\kZ\d
sl\!slm" Lmk^llbg\hfik^llbhg!Zg]m^glbhg"k^bg_hk\^f^gm
sl] =^lb`glmk^llbgma^[ZkZmma^nembfZm^ebfbmlmZm^
sln Ngfh]b_b^]l^kob\^lmk^llbgk^bg_hk\^f^gm]^m^kfbg^]_khfNELehZ]l!L^^?b`nk^<,"
h!e%m)" ?bgZeoZen^h_\k^^i\h^__b\b^gm
h^_ >__^\mbo^\k^^i_Z\mhk
f ;Zk]bZf^m^k
c ?Z\mhkl]^_bgbg`k^ik^l^gmZmbo^oZen^lh_oZkbZ[e^Z\mbhgl
c) <hf[bgZmbhgoZen^h_ZoZkbZ[e^Z\mbhg!^'`'nl^]pa^g\hglb]^kbg`NEL"
c* ?k^jn^gmoZen^h_ZoZkbZ[e^Z\mbhg!^'`'nl^]pa^g\hglb]^kbg`pa^ma^kl^\mbhgpbeeaZo^\kZ\d^]hkghm"
c+ JnZlb&i^kfZg^gmoZen^h_ZoZkbZ[e^Z\mbhg!^'`'nl^]pa^g\hglb]^kbg`]^_hkfZmbhg"
w F^\aZgb\Zek^bg_hk\^f^gmkZmbh6:l_r] (:\_\]©*

viii
Bgmkh]n\mbhg

* Introduction
*'* Aim
Ma^Zbfh_mablin[eb\ZmbhgblmhbeenlmkZm^makhn`aphkd^]^qZfie^lahp;L>G*22+¾*¾*T*V
!>nkh\h]^+"fZr[^nl^]bgikZ\mb\^mh]^lb`gbg&lbmn\hg\k^m^[nbe]bg`lmkn\mnk^l'Bmblbgm^g]^]
maZm ma^l^ phkd^] ^qZfie^l pbee ^qieZbg ahp \Ze\neZmbhgl mh >nkh\h]^ + fZr [^ i^k_hkf^]'
>nkh\h]^+lmkb\mer\hglblmlh__hnkiZkml!IZkml*¾*%*¾+%+Zg],"T*&-V[nm_hkma^inkihl^lh_
mablin[eb\Zmbhg%>nkh\h]^+k^_^klmhiZkm*¾*hger%nge^lljnZebË^]'Ma^phkd^]^qZfie^lpbee
[^\Zkkb^]hnmpbmabgma^^gobkhgf^gmh_hma^kk^e^oZgmin[eb\Zmbhgleblm^][^ehp%Zg]beenlmkZm^]
bg?b`nk^*'*3
N Ma^hma^kmak^^iZkmlh_>nkh\h]^+'
N Hma^k>nkh\h]^l'
N FZm^kbZeZg]^q^\nmbhglmZg]Zk]l'
N In[eb\Zmbhgl[rma^\hg\k^m^bg]nlmkrZg]hma^kl'

Ma^k^ Zk^% ma^k^_hk^% fZgr k^_^k^g\^l mh hma^k ]h\nf^gml Zg] pabe^ bm bl bgm^g]^] maZm mabl
in[eb\Zmbhg%k^_^kk^]mhZlPhkd^]^qZfie^l%\ZglmZg]Zehg^%bmblZgmb\biZm^]maZmnl^klfZr
k^jnbk^ l^o^kZe h_ ma^ hma^k k^_^k^g\^l mh aZg]% bg iZkmb\neZk% <hg\bl^ >nkh\h]^ +T.V% pab\a
lnffZkbl^l ma^ kne^l Zg] ikbg\bie^l maZm pbee [^ \hffhger nl^] bg ma^ ]^lb`g h_ k^bg_hk\^]
\hg\k^m^_kZf^][nbe]bg`lmh>nkh\h]^+'

STANDARDS WORKED CONCRETE INDUSTRY PUBLICATIONS


EXAMPLES PUBLICATIONS BY OTHERS

NA

BS EN 1990 CONCISE
BASIS OF EUROCODE
DESIGN 2

MANUALS
VOL 2
NA
BS EN 1991–2 HOW TO
NA DESIGN
BS EN 1991–1–1
–2 NA WORKED EXAMPLES CONCRETE
NA TO EUROCODE 2
–3 NA STRUCTURES
ACTIONS –4 VOL 1
NA
–6 DETAILERS
HANDBOOK
Densities and
imposed loads
Fire www.
Eurocode2
Snow
Wind .info
Execution
DESIGN
GUIDES

PD6687
NA
NA RC SPREAD
BS EN 1992–1–1 1–2 NA SHEETS
DESIGN OF NA
–2
CONCRETE –3
STRUCTURES BS EN 13670
EXECUTION
General OF
Fire CONCRETE
STRUCTURES PRECAST PRECAST
Bridges DESIGN WORKED
Liquid retaining MANUAL EXAMPLES

Ghm^
Ma^m^kfLmZg]Zk]l^g\hfiZll^l;kbmblaLmZg]Zk]l%>nkh\h]^l%GZmbhgZe:gg^q^l!G:"Zg]In[ebla^]=h\nf^gml

?b`nk^*'*
Phkd^]^qZfie^lbg\hgm^qm

Ma^]^lb`glZk^bgZ\\hk]Zg\^pbma;L>G*22+¾*¾*T*V%Zlfh]bË^][rma^NDGZmbhgZe:gg^qT*ZV
Zg]^qieZbg^]bgI=//10T/V'
1
@^g^kZeer% ma^ \Ze\neZmbhgl Zk^ \khll&k^_^k^g\^] mh ma^ k^e^oZgm \eZnl^l bg Zee _hnk iZkml h_
>nkh\h]^ +T*¾-V Zg]% pa^k^ ZiikhikbZm^% mh hma^k ]h\nf^gml' L^^ ?b`nk^ *'+ _hk Z `nb]^ mh
ik^l^gmZmbhg'K^_^k^g\^lmh;L1**)T0Vk^_^kmhIZkm*nge^llhma^kpbl^lmZm^]'

@^g^kZeer%ma^Âlbfie^Ã^qZfie^l]^i^g]hg^jnZmbhglZg]]^lb`gZb]l]^kbo^]_khf>nkh\h]^+'
Ma^]^kbo^]^jnZmbhglZk^`bo^gbg:ii^g]bq:Zg]ma^]^lb`gZb]l_khfL^\mbhg*.h_<hg\bl^
>nkh\h]^+T.VZk^k^i^Zm^]bg:ii^g]bq;'

Ma^^qZfie^lZk^bgm^g]^]mh[^ZiikhikbZm^_hkma^bkinkihl^%pab\ablmhbeenlmkZm^ma^nl^h_
>nkh\h]^+_hkbg&lbmn\hg\k^m^[nbe]bg`lmkn\mnk^l'Ma^k^Zk^lbfie^^qZfie^lmhbeenlmkZm^ahp
mrib\ZeaZg]\Ze\neZmbhglfb`am[^]hg^nlbg`ZoZbeZ[e^\aZkmlZg]mZ[e^l]^kbo^]_khfma^<h]^'
Ma^l^Zk^_heehp^][rfhk^]^mZbe^]^qZfie^lbeenlmkZmbg`ma^]^mZbe^]phkdbg`lh_ma^<h]^l'
Bghk]^kmh^qieZbgma^nl^h_>nkh\h]^+%l^o^kZeh_ma^\Ze\neZmbhglZk^ik^l^gm^]bg]^mZbe_Zk
bg^q\^llh_maZmg^\^llZkrbg]^lb`g\Ze\neZmbhglhg\^nl^klZk^_ZfbebZkpbmama^<h]^'MhZg
^qm^gm%ma^]^lb`glZk^\hgmkbo^]mhlahpoZeb]f^mah]lh_]^lb`gbg`^e^f^gml%mh`bo^bglb`am
Zg]mha^eibgoZeb]Zmbg`\hfinm^kf^mah]l'Ma^rZk^ghmg^\^llZkberma^fhlmZiikhikbZm^%ma^
fhlm^\hghfb\hkma^hgerf^mah]lh_]^lb`gbg`ma^f^f[^klbeenlmkZm^]'

Sections 1 and 2 Worked examples


K^e^oZgm\eZnl^lhk_b`nk^gnf[^kl_khf;L>G
Cl. 6.4.4 *22+¾*¾*!b_ma^k^_^k^g\^blmhhma^kiZkml%hma^k Cl. 6.4.4
>nkh\h]^lhkhma^k]h\nf^gmlmablpbee[^bg]b\Zm^]"

?khfma^k^e^oZgmNDGZmbhgZe:gg^q!`^g^kZeermh
NA
;L>G*22+¾*¾*" NA

Cl. 6.4.4 & NA ?khf[hma;L>G*22+¾*¾*Zg]NDGZmbhgZe:gg^q Cl. 6.4.4 & NA

Fig. 2.1 Fig. 2.1


K^e^oZgmiZkmlh_mablin[eb\Zmbhg
Section 5.2 Section 5.2

?khfhma^k>nkh\h]^l3;L>G*22)%;L>G*22*%
EC1-1-1: 6.4.3
;L>G*22+¾*¾+%^m\ EC1-1-1: 6.4.3

;Z\d`khng]iZi^kmhNDGZmbhgZe:gg^q^l
PD 6687[6]
;L>G*22+¾* PD 6687[6]

Concise <hg\bl^>nkh\h]^+T.V Concise

How to: Floors [8]


Ahpmh]^lb`g\hg\k^m^lmkn\mnk^lnlbg` How to:
>nkh\h]^+T1V3?ehhkl Floors[8]
Bg:ii^g]b\^l%]^kbo^]\hgm^gmbgmZ[e^lghm_khf
Grey shaded tables
>nkh\h]^+

?b`nk^*'+
@nb]^mhik^l^gmZmbhg

:llhf^h_ma^]^mZbebg`kne^lbg>nkh\h]^+Zk^`^g^kZeerfhk^bgoheo^]maZgmahl^mh;L1**)%
lhf^ h_ ma^ ]^lb`gl ik^l^gm^] bg mabl in[eb\Zmbhg aZo^ [^^g ^qm^g]^] bgmh Zk^Zl maZm aZo^
mkZ]bmbhgZeer[^^gma^k^lihglb[bebmrh_]^mZbe^kl'Ma^l^^qm^g]^]\Ze\neZmbhglZk^ghmg^\^llZkber
iZkm h_ÂghkfZeà ]^lb`g [nm Zk^ bg\en]^] Zm ma^ ^g] h_ lhf^ \Ze\neZmbhgl' Bm bl Zllnf^] maZm
ma^]^lb`g^kpbee]bl\nllZg]Z`k^^pbmama^]^mZbe^kZk^Zlh_k^lihglb[bebmrZg]ma^]^`k^^h_
kZmbhgZeblZmbhg% ma^ ^qm^gm h_ ]^lb`gbg` ]^mZbel% Zll^llf^gm h_ \nkmZbef^gm Zg] hma^k Zli^\ml
maZmma^]^mZbe^klahne]ng]^kmZd^'Bmblk^\h`gbl^]maZmbgma^oZlmfZchkbmrh_\Zl^l%ma^kne^l
`bo^gbg]^mZbebg`fZgnZelT1%2Vpbee[^nl^]'Ahp^o^k%ma^^qZfie^lZk^bgm^g]^]mha^eipa^g
\nkmZbef^gm%Zg\ahkZ`^Zg]eZie^g`malg^^]mh[^]^m^kfbg^]'

2
Bgmkh]n\mbhg

*'+ Eurocode: Basis of structural design


Bg ma^ >nkh\h]^ lrlm^f ;L >G *22)% >nkh\h]^3 ;Zlbl h_ lmkn\mnkZe ]^lb`gT*)V ho^kZk\a^l Zee ma^
hma^k>nkh\h]^l%;L>G*22*mh;L>G*222';L>G*22)]^Ëg^lma^^__^\mlh_Z\mbhgl%bg\en]bg`
`^hm^\agb\Ze Zg] l^blfb\ Z\mbhgl% Zg] Ziieb^l mh Zee lmkn\mnk^l bkk^li^\mbo^ h_ ma^ fZm^kbZe h_
\hglmkn\mbhg'Ma^fZm^kbZe>nkh\h]^l]^Ëg^ahpma^^__^\mlh_Z\mbhglZk^k^lblm^][r`bobg`kne^l_hk
]^lb`gZg]]^mZbebg`h_\hg\k^m^%lm^^e%\hfihlbm^%mbf[^k%fZlhgkrZg]Zenfbgbnf'!l^^?b`nk^*',"'

BS EN 1990, Eurocode: Structural safety,


Basis of structural design serviceability and durability

BS EN 1991, Eurocode 1: Actions on structures


Actions on structures

BS EN 1992, Eurocode 2: Concrete


BS EN 1993, Eurocode 3: Steel
BS EN 1994, Eurocode 4: Composite Design and detailing
BS EN 1995, Eurocode 5: Timber
BS EN 1996, Eurocode 6: Masonry
BS EN 1999, Eurocode 9: Aluminium

BS EN 1997, Eurocode 7: BS EN 1998, Eurocode 8: Geotechnical


Geotechnical design Seismic design and seismic
design

?b`nk^*',
Ma^>nkh\h]^ab^kZk\ar

;L>G*22)ikhob]^lma^g^\^llZkrbg_hkfZmbhg_hkma^ZgZerlblh_lmkn\mnk^lbg\en]bg`iZkmbZe
Zg]hma^k_Z\mhklmh[^Ziieb^]mhma^Z\mbhgl_khf>nkh\h]^*'Bm^lmZ[ebla^lma^ikbg\bie^lZg] EC0: 2.1
k^jnbk^f^gml_hkma^lZ_^mr%l^kob\^Z[bebmrZg]]nkZ[bebmrh_lmkn\mnk^l'Bm]^l\kb[^lma^[Zlbl_hk
]^lb`gZl_heehpl3
:lmkn\mnk^laZee[^]^lb`g^]Zg]^q^\nm^]!\hglmkn\m^]"bgln\aZpZrmaZmbmpbee%]nkbg`bml
bgm^g]^]eb_^%pbmaZiikhikbZm^]^`k^^lh_k^ebZ[bebmrZg]bgZg^\hghfb\ZepZr3
N LnlmZbgZeeZ\mbhglZg]bg_en^g\^lebd^ermhh\\nk]nkbg`^q^\nmbhgZg]nl^'
N K^fZbg_bm_hkma^nl^_hkpab\abmblk^jnbk^]'

Bghma^kphk]l%bmlaZee[^]^lb`g^]nlbg`ebfbmlmZm^likbg\bie^lmhaZo^Z]^jnZm^3
N LmZ[bebmr'
N Lmkn\mnkZek^lblmZg\^!bg\en]bg`lmkn\mnkZek^lblmZg\^bg_bk^"'
N L^kob\^Z[bebmr'
N =nkZ[bebmr'

?hk[nbe]bg`lmkn\mnk^l%Z]^lb`gphkdbg`eb_^h_.)r^Zklblbfieb^]'
;L>G*22)lmZm^lmaZmebfbmlmZm^llahne][^o^kbË^]bgZeek^e^oZgm]^lb`glbmnZmbhgl3i^klblm^gm%
mkZglb^gmhkZ\\b]^gmZe'Ghk^e^oZgmebfbmlmZm^laZee[^^q\^^]^]pa^g]^lb`goZen^l_hkZ\mbhgl
Zg]k^lblmZg\^lZk^nl^]bg]^lb`g'Ma^ebfbmlmZm^lZk^3
N NembfZm^ebfbmlmZm^l!NEL"%pab\aZk^Zllh\bZm^]pbma\heeZil^hkhma^k_hkflh_lmkn\mnkZe
_Zbenk^'
N L^kob\^Z[bebmrebfbmlmZm^l!LEL"%pab\a\hkk^lihg]mh\hg]bmbhgl[^rhg]pab\ali^\b_b^]
l^kob\^k^jnbk^f^gmlZk^ghehg`^kf^m'
:eeZ\mbhglZk^Zllnf^]mhoZkrbgmbf^Zg]liZ\^'LmZmblmb\Zeikbg\bie^lZk^Ziieb^]mhZkkbo^Zmma^
fZ`gbmn]^h_ma^iZkmbZeehZ]_Z\mhklmh[^nl^]bg]^lb`gmhZ\ab^o^ma^k^jnbk^]k^ebZ[bebmrbg]^q
!e^o^eh_lZ_^mr"'Ma^k^blZgng]^kerbg`ZllnfimbhgmaZmma^Z\mbhglma^fl^eo^lZk^]^l\kb[^]bg
lmZmblmb\Zem^kfl'
3
*', Eurocode 1: Actions on structures
:\mbhglZk^]^Ëg^]bgma^*)iZkmlh_;L>G*22*>nkh\h]^*3:\mbhglhglmkn\mnk^lT**V3
;L>G*22*¾*¾*3+))+3=^glbmb^l%l^e_&p^b`am%bfihl^]ehZ]l_hk[nbe]bg`l
;L>G*22*¾*¾+3+))+3:\mbhglhglmkn\mnk^l^qihl^]mhËk^
;L>G*22*¾*¾,3+)),3LghpehZ]l
;L>G*22*¾*¾-3+)).3Pbg]Z\mbhgl
;L>G*22*¾*¾.3+)),3Ma^kfZeZ\mbhgl
;L>G*22*¾*¾/3+)).3:\mbhgl]nkbg`^q^\nmbhg
;L>G*22*¾*¾03+))/3:\\b]^gmZeZ\mbhgl
;L>G*22*¾+3+)),3:\mbhglhglmkn\mnk^l'MkZ_Ë\ehZ]lhg[kb]`^l
;L>G*22*¾,3+))/3<kZg^lZg]fZ\abg^kr
;L>G*22*¾-3+))/3LbehlZg]mZgdl

Mabl in[eb\Zmbhg bl fZbger \hg\^kg^] pbma ]^lb`gbg` _hk ma^ Z\mbhgl ]^Ëg^] [r IZkm¾*¾*3
=^glbmb^l%l^e_&p^b`am%bfihl^]ehZ]l_hk[nbe]bg`l'

=^lb`goZen^lh_Z\mbhglZg]ehZ]ZkkZg`^f^gmlZk^\ho^k^]bgL^\mbhg+'

*'- Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures


>nkh\h]^+3=^lb`gh_\hg\k^m^lmkn\mnk^lT*¾-Vhi^kZm^lpbmabgZg^gobkhgf^gmh_hma^k>nkhi^Zg
Zg];kbmblalmZg]Zk]l!l^^?b`nk^*',"'Bmbl`ho^kg^][r;L>G*22)T*)VZg]ln[c^\mmhma^Z\mbhgl
]^Ëg^]bg>nkh\h]^l*T**V%0T*+VZg]1T*,V'Bm]^i^g]lhgoZkbhnlfZm^kbZelZg]^q^\nmbhglmZg]Zk]l
Zg] bl nl^] Zl ma^ [Zlbl h_ hma^k lmZg]Zk]l' IZkm +% ;kb]`^lT,V% Zg] IZkm ,% Ebjnb]k^mZbgbg`Zg]
\hgmZbgf^gmlmkn\mnk^lT-V%phkd[r^q\^imbhgmhIZkm*¾*Zg]*¾+%maZmbl%\eZnl^lbgIZkml+Zg],
\hgËkf%fh]b_rhkk^ieZ\^\eZnl^lbgIZkm*¾*'

BS EN 1990
EUROCODE
Basis of Structural Design

BS EN 1997 BS EN 1998
EUROCODE 7 EUROCODE 8
Geotechnical Design Seismic Design
BS EN 1991
EUROCODE 1
Basis of Structural Design

BS 8500 BS 4449
BS EN 206 Specifying Reinforcing
Concrete Concrete Steels
BS EN 1992
EUROCODE 2
BS EN 13670 Design of concrete structures BS EN 10080
Execution of Part 1–1: General Rules for Reinforcing
Structures Structures Steels
Part 1–2: Structural Fire Design

BS EN 1995 BS EN 1992 BS EN 13369


EUROCODE 5 BS EN 1992 EUROCODE 2
EUROCODE 2 Precast
Design of Part 3: Concrete
Composite Part 2:
Bridges Liquid Retaining
Structures Structures

Ghm^
?hk\eZkbmrGZmbhgZe:gg^q^lZg]^qieZgZmhkr]h\nf^gml!^'`'I=//10%Zg]
Ghg&<hgmkZ]b\mhkr<hfie^f^gmZkrBg_hkfZmbhg¾G<<B"Zk^ghmlahpg'

?b`nk^*'-
>nkh\h]^+bg\hgm^qm

4
Bgmkh]n\mbhg

*'. National Annexes


Bmblma^ik^kh`Zmbo^h_^Z\a<>GF^f[^kLmZm^mh\hgmkhee^o^elh_lZ_^mrbgmaZm\hngmkr':lZ
k^lnem%lhf^lZ_^mr_Z\mhklZg]hma^kiZkZf^m^klbgma^>nkh\h]^l%ln\aZl\ebfZmb\\hg]bmbhgl%
]nkZ[bebmr\eZll^lZg]]^lb`gf^mah]l%Zk^ln[c^\mmh\hgËkfZmbhghkl^e^\mbhgZmZgZmbhgZee^o^e'
Ma^]^\blbhglfZ]^[rma^gZmbhgZe[h]b^l[^\hf^GZmbhgZeer=^m^kfbg^]IZkZf^m^kl!G=Il"
pab\a Zk^ in[ebla^] bg Z GZmbhgZe:gg^q !G:" _hk ^Z\a iZkm h_ ^Z\a >nkh\h]^'Ma^ GZmbhgZe
:gg^q fZr Zelh bg\en]^ k^_^k^g\^ mh ghg&\hgmkZ]b\mhkr \hfie^f^gmZkr bg_hkfZmbhg !G<<B"%
ln\aZlgZmbhgZelmZg]Zk]lhk`nb]Zg\^]h\nf^gml'

Mablin[eb\Zmbhgbg\en]^lk^_^k^g\^lmhma^k^e^oZgmGZmbhgZe:gg^q^lZlZiikhikbZm^'

*'/ Basis of the worked examples in this publication


Ma^]^lb`g\Ze\neZmbhglbgmablin[eb\ZmbhgZk^bgZ\\hk]Zg\^pbma3
 N ;L>G*22)%>nkh\h]^3;Zlblh_lmkn\mnkZe]^lb`gT*)VZg]bmlNDGZmbhgZe:gg^qT*)ZV'
 N ;L>G*22*%>nkh\h]^*3:\mbhglhglmkn\mnk^lbg*)iZkmlT**VZg]ma^bkNDGZmbhgZe
 :gg^q^lT**ZV'

 N ;L>G*22+¾*¾*%>nkh\h]^+¾IZkm*¾*3=^lb`gh_\hg\k^m^lmkn\mnk^l¾@^g^kZekne^lZg]
 kne^l_hk[nbe]bg`lT*VZg]bmlNDGZmbhgZe:gg^qT*ZV'
 N ;L>G*22+¾*¾+%>nkh\h]^+¾IZkm*¾+3=^lb`gh_\hg\k^m^lmkn\mnk^l¾@^g^kZekne^l¾
 Lmkn\mnkZe_bk^]^lb`gT+VZg]bmlNDGZmbhgZe:gg^qT+ZV'
 N I=//10%;Z\d`khng]iZi^kmhma^NDGZmbhgZe:gg^q^lT/V'
 N ;L>G*220%>nkh\h]^03@^hm^\agb\Ze]^lb`g¾IZkm*'@^g^kZekne^lT*+VZg]bmlNDGZmbhgZe
 :gg^qT*+ZV'


 Ma^rnl^fZm^kbZel\hg_hkfbg`mh3
 N ;L1.))¾*3<hg\k^m^¾<hfie^f^gmZkr;kbmblaLmZg]Zk]mh;L>G+)/¾*3F^mah]h_li^\b_rbg`
 Zg]`nb]Zg\^mhma^li^\b_b^kT*-V'
 N ;L---23Lm^^e_hkma^k^bg_hk\^f^gmh_\hg\k^m^¾P^e]Z[e^k^bg_hk\bg`lm^^e¾;Zk%\hbeZg]
 ]^\hbe^]ikh]n\m¾Li^\b_b\ZmbhgT*.V'

 Ma^rfZd^k^_^k^g\^mhl^o^kZein[eb\Zmbhgl%fhlmghmZ[er3
 
N <hg\bl^>nkh\h]^+_hkma^]^lb`gh_bg&lbmn\hg\k^m^_kZf^][nbe]bg`lmh;L>G*22+¾*¾*3
 +))-Zg]bmlNDGZmbhgZe:gg^q3+)).T.V'
 T1V'
 
N Ahpmh]^lb`g\hg\k^m^lmkn\mnk^lnlbg`>nkh\h]^+
 Ma^^q^\nmbhgh_ma^phkdlblZllnf^]mh\hg_hkfmh3

 N I=//10;Z\d`khng]iZi^kmhma^NDGZmbhgZe:gg^q^l;L>G*22+¾*'T/V
 N GL<L%GZmbhgZelmkn\mnkZe\hg\k^m^li^\b_b\Zmbhg_hk[nbe]bg`\hglmkn\mbhg%,k]^]bmbhgT*/VFZr
 +))-'
 Hk%pa^gZoZbeZ[e^
 N ;L>G*,/0)3>q^\nmbhgh_\hg\k^m^lmkn\mnk^l'=n^+)*)T*0V':lbfie^f^gm^][r
 li^\b_b\Zmbhglln\aZl3

 N GL<L%GZmbhgZelmkn\mnkZe\hg\k^m^li^\b_b\Zmbhg_hk[nbe]bg`\hglmkn\mbhg%-ma^]bmbhgT*1V
 <<BI&).)%]n^+)*)'








5
*'0 Assumptions
*'0'* Eurocode 2
 >nkh\h]^+Zllnf^lmaZm3
Cl. 1.3  N =^lb`gZg]\hglmkn\mbhgpbee[^ng]^kmZd^g[rZiikhikbZm^erjnZeb_b^]Zg]^qi^kb^g\^]i^klhgg^e'
 N :]^jnZm^lni^koblbhgZg]jnZebmr\hgmkhepbee[^ikhob]^]'
 N FZm^kbZelZg]ikh]n\mlpbee[^nl^]Zlli^\b_b^]'

 N Ma^lmkn\mnk^pbee[^Z]^jnZm^erfZbgmZbg^]Zg]pbee[^nl^]bgZ\\hk]Zg\^pbmama^]^lb`g[kb^_'
PD 6687[6]  N Ma^k^jnbk^f^gml_hk^q^\nmbhgZg]phkdfZglabi`bo^gbg>G*,/0)Zk^\hfieb^]pbma'

*'0'+ The worked examples
Nge^llghm^]hma^kpbl^%ma^\Ze\neZmbhglbgmablin[eb\ZmbhgZllnf^3

EC0: Table 2.1 N :]^lb`geb_^h_.)r^Zkl'

Table 3.1 N Ma^nl^h_<,)(,0\hg\k^m^'

BS 4449 N Ma^nl^h_@kZ]^:%;hk<k^bg_hk\^f^gm%]^lb`gZm^]ÂAÃbgZ\\hk]Zg\^pbma;L1///T*2V'

Table 4.1,
N >qihlnk^\eZllQ<*'
BS 8500: Table A.1

Building Regs[20,21] N *ahnk_bk^k^lblmZg\^'

@^g^kZeer^Z\a\Ze\neZmbhgblkhng]^]Zg]bmblma^khng]^]oZen^maZmblnl^]bgZgr_nkma^k\Ze\neZmbhg'

*'1 Material properties


FZm^kbZeikhi^kmb^lZk^li^\bË^]bgm^kflh_ma^bk\aZkZ\m^kblmb\oZen^l'MablnlnZeer\hkk^lihg]l
mhma^ehp^k._kZ\mbe^h_ZgZllnf^]lmZmblmb\Ze]blmkb[nmbhgh_ma^ikhi^kmr\hglb]^k^]'

Ma^oZen^lh_g<Zg]gL%iZkmbZe_Z\mhkl_hkfZm^kbZel%Zk^bg]b\Zm^]bgMZ[e^*'*'

MZ[e^*'*
Table 2.1 & NA IZkmbZe_Z\mhkl_hkfZm^kbZel

=^lb`glbmnZmbhg g<¾\hg\k^m^ gL¾k^bg_hk\bg`lm^^e


ULS – persistent and transient *'.) *'*.
Accidental – non-fire *'+) *'))
Accidental – fire *')) *'))
SLS *')) *'))

*'2 Execution
Bgma^ND%==>GO*,/0)T++Vbl\nkk^gmerZoZbeZ[e^[nmpbmahnmbmlGZmbhgZe:iieb\Zmbhg=h\nf^gm'
?hk[nbe]bg`lmkn\mnk^lbgma^ND%ma^[Z\d`khng]]h\nf^gmI=//10T/V\hglb]^klma^ikhoblbhglh_
ma^GZmbhgZeLmkn\mnkZe<hg\k^m^Li^\bË\Zmbhg!GL<L"T*/Vmh[^^jnboZe^gmmhmahl^bg>G*,/0)_hk
mhe^kZg\^\eZll*'Pa^gin[ebla^]%;L>G*,/0)T*0VZg]%b_ZiikhikbZm^%ma^\hkk^lihg]bg`GZmbhgZe
:iieb\Zmbhg=h\nf^gmpbeemZd^ik^\^]^g\^'

6
:gZerlbl%Z\mbhglZg]ehZ]ZkkZg`^f^gml

+ Analysis, actions and load arrangements


+'* Methods of analysis
+'*'* ULS
:mma^nembfZm^ebfbmlmZm^!NEL"ma^mri^h_ZgZerlbllahne][^ZiikhikbZm^mhma^ikh[e^f[^bg`
\hglb]^k^]'Ma^_heehpbg`Zk^\hffhgernl^]3
N Ebg^Zk^eZlmb\ZgZerlbl' Cl. 5.1.1(7)
N Ebg^Zk^eZlmb\ZgZerlblpbmaebfbm^]k^]blmkb[nmbhg'
N IeZlmb\ZgZerlbl'

?hk NEL% ma^ fhf^gml ]^kbo^] _khf ^eZlmb\ ZgZerlbl fZr [^ k^]blmkb[nm^] ikhob]^] maZm ma^
k^lnembg`]blmkb[nmbhgh_fhf^gmlk^fZbglbg^jnbeb[kbnfpbmama^Ziieb^]Z\mbhgl'Bg\hgmbgnhnl
[^ZflhkleZ[lpbma_\d©.)FIZma^fbgbfnfZeehpZ[e^kZmbhh_ma^k^]blmkb[nm^]fhf^gmmh Cl. 5.5.4 & NA
 ma^fhf^gmbgma^ebg^ZkZgZerlbl%d%bl)'0)pa^k^<eZll;hk<eZll<k^bg_hk\^f^gmblnl^]hk
)'1)pa^k^<eZll:k^bg_hk\^f^gmblnl^]'
Pbmabgma^ebfbmll^m%\h^_Ë\b^gml_hkfhf^gmZg]la^Zk]^kbo^]_khf^eZlmb\ZgZerlblfZr[^
Cl. 5.1.1
nl^]mh]^m^kfbg^_hk\^lbgk^`neZklmkn\mnk^l!l^^:ii^g]bq;"'Ma^]^lb`gh_\henfgllahne][^
[Zl^]hg^eZlmb\fhf^gmlpbmahnmk^]blmkb[nmbhg'
IeZlmb\ZgZerlblfZr[^nl^]_hk]^lb`gZmNELikhob]^]maZmma^k^jnbk^]]n\mbebmr\Zg[^Zllnk^]%
Cl. 5.6.2
_hk^qZfie^3[rebfbmbg`qn (]!mh©)'+._hk\hg\k^m^lmk^g`ma\eZll^l©<.)(/)"4nlbg`<eZll;
hk<k^bg_hk\^f^gm4hk^glnkbg`ma^kZmbhh_fhf^gmlZmbgm^kf^]bZm^lniihkmlmhfhf^gmlbg
liZglbl[^mp^^g)'.Zg]+')'

+'*'+ SLS
:mma^l^kob\^Z[bebmrebfbmlmZm^!LEL"ebg^Zk^eZlmb\ZgZerlblfZr[^nl^]'Ebg^Zk^eZlmb\ZgZerlbl
fZr[^\Zkkb^]hnmZllnfbg`3
N <khll&l^\mbhglZk^ng\kZ\d^]Zg]k^fZbgieZg^!b'^'ZgZerlblfZr[^[Zl^]hg\hg\k^m^
Cl. 5.4(1)
`khlll^\mbhgl"'
N Ebg^Zklmk^ll¾lmkZbgk^eZmbhglabil'
N Ma^nl^h_f^ZgoZen^lh_^eZlmb\fh]nenl'

+'+ Actions

 :\mbhglk^_^kmhehZ]lZiieb^]mhma^lmkn\mnk^Zl]^Ëg^][^ehp3

N I^kfZg^gmZ\mbhglZk^Z\mbhgl_hkpab\ama^oZkbZmbhgbgfZ`gbmn]^pbmambf^blg^`eb`b[e^' EC1-1-1: 2.1

N OZkbZ[e^Z\mbhglZk^Z\mbhgl_hkpab\ama^oZkbZmbhgbgfZ`gbmn]^pbmambf^blghmg^`eb`b[e^' EC1-1-1:
2.2, 3.3.1(2)

N :\\b]^gmZeZ\mbhglZk^Z\mbhglh_lahkm]nkZmbhg[nmh_lb`gb_b\ZgmfZ`gbmn]^maZmZk^
EC1-1-7
 ngebd^ermhh\\nkhgZ`bo^glmkn\mnk^]nkbg`ma^]^lb`gphkdbg`eb_^'
 Bfihl^]]^_hkfZmbhglZk^ghm\hglb]^k^]bgmablin[eb\Zmbhg'

+', Characteristic values of actions


 Ma^oZen^lh_Z\mbhgl`bo^gbgma^oZkbhnliZkmlh_>nkh\h]^*3:\mbhglhglmkn\mnk^lT**VZk^mZd^g
Zl\aZkZ\m^kblmb\oZen^l'Ma^\aZkZ\m^kblmb\oZen^h_ZgZ\mbhgbl]^Ëg^][rhg^h_ma^_heehpbg` EC0: 4.1.2

 mak^^Zem^kgZmbo^l3
 N Bmlf^ZgoZen^¾`^g^kZeernl^]_hki^kfZg^gmZ\mbhgl'

7
 N :gnii^koZen^pbmaZgbgm^g]^]ikh[Z[bebmrh_ghm[^bg`^q\^^]^]hkehp^koZen^pbmaZg
bgm^g]^]ikh[Z[bebmrh_[^bg`Z\ab^o^]¾ghkfZeernl^]_hkoZkbZ[e^Z\mbhglpbmadghpg
lmZmblmb\Ze]blmkb[nmbhgl%ln\aZlpbg]hklghp'
N :ghfbgZeoZen^¾nl^]_hklhf^oZkbZ[e^Zg]Z\\b]^gmZeZ\mbhgl'

+'- Variable actions: imposed loads


+'-'* General
Bfihl^]ehZ]lhg[nbe]bg`lZk^]bob]^]bgmh\Zm^`hkb^l'Mahl^fhlm_k^jn^gmernl^]bg\hg\k^m^
]^lb`gZk^lahpgbgMZ[e^+'*'

<Zm^`hkr =^l\kbimbhg
EC1-1-1: A :k^Zl_hk]hf^lmb\Zg]k^lb]^gmbZeZ\mbobmb^l
Tables 6.1, 6.7, 6.9
B H__b\^Zk^Zl
& NA
C :k^Zlh_\hg`k^`Zmbhg
D Lahiibg`Zk^Zl
E LmhkZ`^Zk^ZlZg]bg]nlmkbZenl^!bg\en]bg`Z\\^llZk^Zl"
F MkZ__b\Zg]iZkdbg`Zk^Zl!o^ab\e^l5,)dG"
G MkZ__b\Zg]iZkdbg`Zk^Zl!o^ab\e^l7,)dG"
H Khh_l!bgZ\\^llb[e^^q\^im_hkfZbgm^gZg\^Zg]k^iZbk"
I Khh_l!Z\\^llb[e^pbmah\\niZg\r\Zm^`hkb^l:¾="
K Khh_l!Z\\^llb[e^_hkli^\bZel^kob\^l%^'`'_hka^eb\him^keZg]bg`Zk^Zl"
MZ[e^+'* Ghm^l
<Zm^`hkb^lh_ 1<Zm^`hkrCblghmnl^]'
bfihl^]ehZ]l 2?hk_hkdeb_mehZ]bg`k^_^kmh;L>G*22*¾*¾*<e'/'+','

+'-'+ Characteristic values of imposed loads


<aZkZ\m^kblmb\oZen^l_hk\hffhgernl^]bfihl^]ehZ]lZk^`bo^gbgMZ[e^l+'+mh+'1'
MZ[e^+'+
:3]hf^lmb\Zg]k^lb]^gmbZe
EC1-1-1:
Tables 6.1, 6.2 Ln[& >qZfie^ Bfihl^]ehZ]l
& NA.3 \Zm^`hkr
jd!dG(f+" Jd!dG"
A1 :eenlZ`^lpbmabgl^e_&\hgmZbg^]]p^eebg`ngbml'<hffngZe *'. +')
Zk^Zl!bg\en]bg`dbm\a^gl"bglfZeeZ[eh\dlh__eZml
A2 ;^]khhflZg]]hkfbmhkb^l%^q\^immahl^bgl^e_&\hgmZbg^] *'. +')
lbg`e^_Zfber]p^eebg`ngbmlZg]bgahm^elZg]fhm^el
A3 ;^]khhflbgahm^elZg]fhm^el4ahlibmZepZk]l4mhbe^mZk^Zl +') +')
A4 ;beebZk](lghhd^kkhhfl +') +'0
A5 ;Ze\hgb^lbglbg`e^&_Zfber]p^eebg`ngbmlZg]\hffngZeZk^Zl +'. +')
bglfZeeZ[eh\dlh__eZml
A6 ;Ze\hgb^lbgahlm^el%`n^lmahnl^l%k^lb]^gmbZe\en[l'<hffngZe Fbg',')[ Fbg'+')\
Zk^ZlbgeZk`^kZ[eh\dlh__eZml
A7 ;Ze\hgb^lbgahm^elZg]fhm^el Fbg'-')[ Fbg'+')\
Ghm^l
aLfZee[eh\dlh__eZmlZk^mahl^pbma©,lmhk^rlZg]©-_eZmli^k_ehhk(lmZbk\Zl^'Hma^kpbl^ma^rZk^
\hglb]^k^]mh[^eZk`^k[eh\dlh__eZml
bLZf^Zlma^khhflmhpab\ama^r`bo^Z\\^ll%[nmpbmaZfbgbfnfh_,')dG(f+hk-')dG(f+
c<hg\^gmkZm^]Zmma^hnm^k^]`^

MZ[e^+',
;3h__b\^l
EC1-1-1:
Tables 6.1, 6.2 Ln[& >qZfie^ Bfihl^]ehZ]l
& NA.3 \Zm^`hkr
jd!dG(f+" Jd!dG"
B1 @^g^kZenl^hma^kmaZgbg;+ +'. +'0
B2 :mhk[^ehp`khng]_ehhke^o^e ,') +'0
8
:gZerlbl%Z\mbhglZg]ehZ]ZkkZg`^f^gml

MZ[e^+'-
<3Zk^Zlh_\hg`k^`Zmbhg
EC1-1-1:
Ln[& >qZfie^ Bfihl^]ehZ]l Tables 6.1, 6.2
\Zm^`hkr & NA.3
j d Jd
<* :k^ZlpbmamZ[e^l
C11 In[eb\%bglmbmnmbhgZeZg]\hffngZe]bgbg`khhflZg] +') ,')
ehng`^l%\Z_^lZg]k^lmZnkZgml!Ghm^3nl^<-hk<.b_
ZiikhikbZm^"
C12 K^Z]bg`khhflpbmagh[hhdlmhkZ`^ +'. -')
C13 <eZllkhhfl ,') ,')
<+ :k^Zlpbma_bq^]l^Zml
C21 :ll^f[erZk^Zlpbma_bq^]l^Zmbg`a -') ,'/
C22 IeZ\^lh_phklabi ,') +'0
<, :k^Zlpbmahnmh[lmZ\e^l_hkfhobg`i^hie^
C31 <hkkb]hkl%aZeepZrl%Zble^lbgbglmbmnmbhgZemri^[nbe]bg`l% ,') -'.
ahlm^el%`n^lmahnl^l%k^lb]^gmbZe\en[lZg]\hffngZe
Zk^ZlbgeZk`^kb[eh\dlh__eZml
C32 LmZbkl%eZg]bg`lbgbglmbmnmbhgZemri^[nbe]bg`l%ahlm^el% ,') -')
`n^lmahnl^l%k^lb]^gmbZe\en[lZg]\hffngZeZk^Zlbg
eZk`^kb[eh\dlh__eZml
C33 <hkkb]hkl%aZeepZrl%Zble^lbghma^kc[nbe]bg`l -') -'.
C34 <hkkb]hkl%aZeepZrl%Zble^lbghma^kc[nbe]bg`lln[c^\m^]mh .') -'.
pa^^e^]o^ab\e^l%bg\en]bg`mkhee^rl
C35 LmZbkl%eZg]bg`lbghma^kc[nbe]bg`lln[c^\m^]mh\khp]l -') -')
C36 PZedpZrl¾Eb`am]nmr!Z\\^lllnbmZ[e^_hkhg^i^klhg% ,') +')
pZedpZrpb]maZiikhq/))ff"
C37 PZedpZrl¾@^g^kZe]nmr!k^`neZkmph&pZri^]^lmkbZg .') ,'/
mkZ__b\"
C38 PZedpZrl¾A^Zor]nmr!ab`a&]^glbmri^]^lmkbZgmkZ__b\ 0'. -'.
bg\en]bg`^l\Zi^khnm^l"
C39 Fnl^nf_ehhklZg]Zkm`Zee^kb^l_hk^qab[bmbhginkihl^l -') -'.
<- :k^Zlpbmaihllb[e^iarlb\ZeZ\mbobmb^l
C41 =Zg\^aZeelZg]lmn]bhl%`rfgZlbZ%lmZ`^ld .') ,'/
C42 =kbeeaZeelZg]]kbeekhhfld .') 0')
<. :k^Zlln[c^\m^]mheZk`^\khp]l
C51 :ll^f[erZk^Zlpbmahnm_bq^]l^Zmbg`%\hg\^kmaZeel%[Zkl .') ,'/
Zg]ieZ\^lh_phklabid,e
C52 LmZ`^lbgin[eb\Zll^f[erZk^Zld 0'. -'.
D^r
a?bq^]l^Zmbg`bll^Zmbg`pa^k^bmlk^fhoZeZg]ma^nl^h_ma^liZ\^_hkhma^kinkihl^lblbfikh[Z[e^
bLfZee[eh\dlh__eZmlZk^mahl^pbma©,lmhk^rlZg]©-_eZmli^k_ehhk(lmZbk\Zl^'Hma^kpbl^ma^rZk^
\hglb]^k^]mh[^ÂeZk`^kÃ[eh\dlh__eZml
cHma^k[nbe]bg`lbg\en]^mahl^ghm\ho^k^][r<,*Zg]<,+%Zg]bg\en]^ahm^elZg]fhm^elZg]
bglmbmnmbhgZe[nbe]bg`lln[c^\m^]mh\khp]l
d?hklmkn\mnk^lmaZmfb`am[^lnl\^imb[e^mhk^lhgZg\^^__^\ml%k^_^k^g\^lahne][^fZ]^mhG:'+'*
e?hk`kZg]lmZg]lZg]lmZ]bZ%k^_^k^g\^lahne][^fZ]^mhma^k^jnbk^f^gmlh_ma^ZiikhikbZm^
\^kmb_rbg`Znmahkbmr

9
MZ[e^+'.
=3lahiibg`Zk^Zl
EC1-1-1:
Tables 6.1, 6.2 Ln[& >qZfie^ Bfihl^]ehZ]l
& NA.3 \Zm^`hkr
jd!dG(f+" Jd!dG"
= Lahiibg`Zk^Zl
D1 :k^Zlbg`^g^kZek^mZbelahil -') ,'/
D2 :k^Zlbg]^iZkmf^gmlmhk^l -') ,'/

MZ[e^+'/
EC1-1-1: >3lmhkZ`^Zk^ZlZg]bg]nlmkbZenl^!bg\en]bg`Z\\^llZk^Zl"
Tables 6.3, 6.4
& NA.4, NA.5 Ln[& >qZfie^ Bfihl^]ehZ]l
\Zm^`hkr
jd!dG(f+" Jd!dG"
>* :k^Zllnl\^imb[e^mhZ\\nfneZmbhgh_`hh]lbg\en]bg`Z\\^llZk^Zl
E11 @^g^kZeZk^Zl_hklmZmb\^jnbif^gmghmli^\b_b^] +') *'1
^el^pa^k^!bglmbmnmbhgZeZg]in[eb\[nbe]bg`l"
E12 K^Z]bg`khhflpbma[hhdlmhkZ`^%^'`'eb[kZkb^l -') -'.
E13 @^g^kZelmhkZ`^hma^kmaZgmahl^li^\b_b^]Z +'-(f 0')
E14 ?be^khhfl%_bebg`Zg]lmhkZ`^liZ\^!h__b\^l" .') -'.
E15 LmZ\dkhhfl![hhdl" +'-(fa^b`am 0')
!fbg'/'."
E16 IZi^klmhkZ`^Zg]lmZmbhg^krlmhk^l -')(fa^b`am 2')
E17 =^gl^fh[be^lmZ\dbg`![hhdl"hgfh[be^mkhee^rlbg -'1(fa^b`am 0')
in[eb\Zg]bglmbmnmbhgZe[nbe]bg`l
E18 =^gl^fh[be^lmZ\dbg`![hhdl"hgfh[be^mkn\dlbg -'1(fa^b`am 0')
pZk^ahnl^l !fbg'*.')"
E19 <he]lmhkZ`^ .')(fa^b`am 2')
!fbg'*.')"
>+ Bg]nlmkbZenl^ L^^;L>G*22*¾*¾*3
?hkdeb_ml<eZll^l?E*mh?E/ MZ[e^l/'./'/
D^r
aEhp^k[hng]oZen^`bo^g'Fhk^li^\b_b\ehZ]oZen^llahne][^Z`k^^]pbma\eb^gm

MZ[e^+'0
?Zg]@3mkZ__b\Zg]iZkdbg`Zk^Zl

Ln[& >qZfie^ Bfihl^]ehZ]l


\Zm^`hkr
jd!dG(f+" Jd!dG"
? MkZ__b\Zg]iZkdbg`Zk^Zl!o^ab\e^l5,)dG"
MkZ__b\Zg]iZkdbg`Zk^Zl!o^ab\e^l5,)dG" +'. .')
@ MkZ__b\Zg]iZkdbg`Zk^Zl!o^ab\e^l7,)dG"
MkZ__b\Zg]iZkdbg`Zk^Zl!o^ab\e^l7,)dG" .') Mh[^
]^m^kfbg^]_hk
li^\b_b\nl^

10
:gZerlbl%Z\mbhglZg]ehZ]ZkkZg`^f^gml

MZ[e^+'1
A%BZg]D3khh_l
EC1-1-1:
Ln[& >qZfie^ Bfihl^]ehZ]l 6.3.4.1(2), Tables 6.9,
\Zm^`hkr 6.10, 6.11 & NA.7
jd!dG(f+" Jd!dG"
A Khh_l!bgZ\\^llb[e^^q\^im_hkfZbgm^gZg\^Zg]k^iZbk"
Khh_lehi^%a™ 5,)™ )'/
,)™5a5/)™ )'/!/)¾a"(,) )'2
5/)™ )
B Khh_l!Z\\^llb[e^pbmah\\niZg\r\Zm^`hkb^l:¾="
<Zm^`hkb^l:¾= :lMZ[e^l+'+mh+'.Z\\hk]bg`mh
li^\b_b\nl^
D Khh_l!Z\\^llb[e^_hkli^\bZel^kob\^l%^'`'_hka^eb\him^keZg]bg`Zk^Zl"
A^eb\him^k\eZllA<*!5+)dG"!ln[c^\mmh ¾¾ +)
]rgZfb\_Z\mhkf 6*'-"
A^eb\him^k\eZllA<+!5/)dG" ¾¾ /)
Ghm^l
1Khh_lZk^\Zm^`hkbs^]Z\\hk]bg`mhma^bkZ\\^llb[bebmr'Bfihl^]ehZ]l_hkkhh_lmaZmZk^ghkfZeer
EC1-1-1:
Z\\^llb[e^Zk^`^g^kZeerma^lZf^Zl_hkma^li^\b_b\nl^Zg]\Zm^`hkrh_ma^Z]cZ\^gmZk^Z'Bfihl^]
6.3.4 & NA
ehZ]l_hkkhh_lpbmahnmZ\\^llZk^`bo^gZ[ho^'
2Ma^k^blgh\Zm^`hkrC'

Movable partitions
Ma^l^e_&p^b`amh_fhoZ[e^iZkmbmbhglfZr[^mZd^gbgmhZ\\hngm[rZngb_hkfer]blmkb[nm^]ehZ]%
EC1-1-1:
jd%pab\alahne][^Z]]^]mhma^bfihl^]ehZ]lh_ÌhhklZl_heehpl3 6.3.1.2 (8) & NA

N ?hkfhoZ[e^iZkmbmbhglpbmaZl^e_&p^b`amh_*')dG(fpZeee^g`ma3
jd6)'.dG(f+'
N ?hkfhoZ[e^iZkmbmbhglpbmaZl^e_&p^b`amh_+')dG(fpZeee^g`ma3
jd6)'1dG(f+'
N ?hkfhoZ[e^iZkmbmbhglpbmaZl^e_&p^b`amh_,')dG(fpZeee^g`ma3
jd6*'+dG(f+'

A^Zob^kiZkmbmbhgllahne][^\hglb]^k^]l^iZkZm^er'

+'-', Reduction factors


General
Khh_l ]h ghm jnZeb_r _hk ehZ] k^]n\mbhgl' Ma^ f^mah] `bo^g [^ehp \hfieb^l pbma ma^ ND EC1-1-1:
GZmbhgZe:gg^q[nm]b__^kl_khfmaZm`bo^gbgma^>nkh\h]^' 6.3.1.2 (10)
6.3.1.2(11) & NA
Area
: k^]n\mbhg _Z\mhk _hk bfihl^] ehZ]l _hk Zk^Z% a:% fZr [^ nl^] Zg] lahne] [^ ]^m^kfbg^] EC1-1-1:
nlbg`3 6.3.1.2 (10)
& NA Exp. (NA.1)
a:6*')¾:(*)))ª)'0.
pa^k^
 :blma^Zk^Z!f+"lniihkm^]pbmaehZ]ljnZeb_rbg`_hkk^]n\mbhg!b'^'\Zm^`hkb^l:mh>Zl
eblm^]bgMZ[e^+'*"'

11
EC1-1-1: Number of storeys
6.3.1.2 (11) :k^]n\mbhg_Z\mhk_hkgnf[^kh_lmhk^rl%ag%fZr[^nl^]Zg]lahne][^]^m^kfbg^]nlbg`3
& NA Exp. ( NA.2)
ag6*'*¾g(*) _hk*©g©.
ag6)'/ _hk.5g©*)
ag6)'. _hkg7*)
pa^k^
g6gnf[^kh_lmhk^rlpbmaehZ]ljnZeb_rbg`_hkk^]n\mbhg!b'^'\Zm^`hkb^l:mh=Zleblm^]bg
MZ[e^+'*"'

EC1-1-1:
Use
6.3.1.2 (11) & NA :\\hk]bg`mhma^NDG:%a:Zg]agfZrghm[^nl^]mh`^ma^k'

+'. Variable actions: snow loads


Bgi^klblm^gmhkmkZglb^gmlbmnZmbhgl%lghpehZ]hgZkhh_%l%bl]^Ëg^]Zl[^bg`3
EC1-1-3:
5.2(3)
l6mb<^<mld

pa^k^
 mb 6lghpehZ]laZi^_Z\mhk%%^bma^km*hkm+
EC1-1-3:
5.3.1, 5.3.2 & NA
   m*6ng]kb_m^]lghplaZi^_Z\mhk
   m+6]kb_m^]lghplaZi^_Z\mhk
   ?hkÌZmkhh_l%)™6a!pbmaghab`a^klmkn\mnk^l\ehl^hkZ[nmmbg`"%
m*6m+6)'1
   ?hklaZeehpfhghibm\akhh_l%)™5a5,)™!pbmaghab`a^klmkn\mnk^l\ehl^hk
Z[nmmbg`"%m*6)'1%m+6)'1!*$a(,)"?hkhma^k_hkflh_khh_Zg]eh\Ze^__^\ml
k^_^kmh;L>G*22*¾*¾,L^\mbhgl.',Zg]/

EC1-1-3:  <^ 6 ^qihlnk^\h^_Ë\b^gm


5.2(7) &Table 5.1    ?hkpbg]lp^immhih`kZiar<^6)'1
   ?hkghkfZemhih`kZiar<^6*')
   ?hkla^em^k^]mhih`kZiar<^6*'+
EC1-1-3:  <m 6 ma^kfZe\h^_Ë\b^gm%<m6*')hma^kmaZg_hklhf^`eZll&\ho^k^]khh_l%hklbfbeZk
5.2(8)

EC1-1-3:  ld 6 \aZkZ\m^kblmb\`khng]lghpehZ]dG(f+


& NA 2.8   6 )  '*.!)'*S$)')."$!:$*))"(.+.
 pa^k^
 S 6 shg^gnf[^kh[mZbg^]_khfma^fZibg;L>G*22*¾*¾,G:?b`nk^G:'*
 : 6 lbm^Zembmn]^%f
 ? b`nk^G:'*h_ma^G:mh;L>G*22*¾*¾,Zelh`bo^lË`nk^l_hkldZm*))fZ'f'l'e'
Zllh\bZm^]pbmama^shg^l'
 ? hkma^fZchkbmrh_ma^Lhnma>Zlm%ma^Fb]eZg]l%Ghkma^kgBk^eZg]Zg]ma^ghkmah_
>g`eZg]ZiZkm_khfab`a`khng]%ld6)'.)dG(f+'

 ? hkma^P^lm<hngmkr%P^lmPZe^lZg]Bk^eZg]ma^Ë`nk^ble^ll'?hkfhlmh_L\hmeZg]
Zg]iZkmlh_ma^^Zlm\hZlmh_>g`eZg]%ma^Ë`nk^blfhk^'L^^?b`nk^+'*'
LghpehZ]bl\eZllbË^]ZlZoZkbZ[e^Ëq^]Z\mbhg'>q\^imbhgZe\bk\nflmZg\^lfZr[^mk^Zm^]Zl
Z\\b]^gmZeZ\mbhglbgpab\a\Zl^k^_^k^g\^lahne][^fZ]^mh;L>G*22*¾*¾,'

12
:gZerlbl%Z\mbhglZg]ehZ]ZkkZg`^f^gml

5
4
55

1 Zone 1 = 0.25 kN/m2 at 100 m a.m.s.l.


2 2 Zone 1 = 0.40 kN/m2 at 100 m a.m.s.l.
3
3 4 4 3 Zone 1 = 0.50 kN/m2 at 100 m a.m.s.l.
3 4 Zone 1 = 0.60 kN/m2 at 100 m a.m.s.l.
4
2 2 5 Zone 1 = 0.70 kN/m2 at 100 m a.m.s.l.
2 4 EC1-1-3: NA Fig.
4 NA.1
1 2
1
2 3 4
1 2 3
2
1 4 2
2 3
1

?b`nk^+'*
<aZkZ\m^kblmb\`khng]lghpehZ]fZi!`khng]lghpehZ]Zm*))fZ'f'l'e'!dG(f+"

+'/ Variable actions: wind loads


Mabl L^\mbhg ik^l^gml Z o^kr lbfie^ bgm^kik^mZmbhg h_ >nkh\h]^ *T**% **ZV Zg] bl  bgm^g]^] mh
ikhob]^ Z [Zlb\ ng]^klmZg]bg` pbma k^li^\m mh k^\mZg`neZk&ieZg [nbe]bg`l pbma ÌZm khh_l' Bg
`^g^kZe%fZqbfnfoZen^lZk^`bo^g3pbmafhk^bg_hkfZmbhgZehp^koZen^fb`am[^nl^]'Ma^
nl^klahne][^\Zk^_nemh^glnk^maZmZgrbg_hkfZmbhgnl^]blpbmabgma^l\hi^h_ma^Ziieb\Zmbhg
^goblZ`^]'Ma^ nl^k bl k^_^kk^] mh fhk^ li^\bZeblm `nb]Zg\^T+,% +-V hk ;L >G *22*¾*¾-T+.V Zg]
bmlNDGZmbhgZe:gg^qT+.ZV'Ma^GZmbhgZe:gg^qbg\en]^l\e^ZkZg]\hg\bl^Ìhp\aZkml_hkma^
]^m^kfbgZmbhgh_i^Zdo^eh\bmrik^llnk^%ji'

Bg^ll^g\^\aZkZ\m^kblmb\pbg]ehZ]\Zg[^^qik^ll^]Zl3
pd6\_ji!s"
pa^k^
 \_ 6 _hk\^\h^_Ë\b^gm%pab\aoZkb^l%[nmblZfZq'h_*',_hkho^kZeeehZ]
 ji!s"6 \^!s"\^Mj[
 pa^k^
 \^!s" 6 ^qihlnk^_Z\mhk_khf?b`nk^+',
EC1-1-4:
 \^M 6 mhpgm^kkZbg_Z\mhk_khf?b`nk^+'- Figs NA.7, NA.8
 j[ 6 )'))/o[+dG(f+
 pa^k^
 o[ 6 o[%fZi\Zem
 pa^k^
 o[%fZi6 _ng]Zf^gmZe[Zlb\pbg]o^eh\bmr_khf?b`nk^+'+
 \Zem 6 Z embmn]^_Z\mhk%\hgl^koZmbo^er%\Zem6*$)'))*: EC1-1-4:
Fig. NA.1
 pa^k^
 :6Zembmn]^Z'f'l'e
Lrf[hel Z[[k^obZmbhgl Zg] lhf^ h_ ma^ \Zo^Zml Zk^ ^qieZbg^] bg ma^ l^\mbhgl [^ehp% pab\a
mh`^ma^kikhob]^Zikh\^]nk^_hk]^m^kfbgbg`pbg]ehZ]mh;L>G*22*¾*¾-'

13
+'/'* Determine basic wind velocity, vb
o[6\]bk\l^Zlhg\ikh[o[%)
pa^k^
EC1-1-4:  \]bk 6 ]bk^\mbhgZe_Z\mhk
4.2(1) Note 2 <hgl^koZmbo^er%\]bk6*')
& NA 2.4, 2.5 !\]bkblZfbgbfnfh_)'0,hk)'0-_hkpbg]bgZg^Zlm^ker]bk^\mbhg%
,)™mh*+)™"
EC1-1-4:  \l^Zlhg 6 l^Zlhg_Z\mhk
4.2(2) Note 3 ?hkZ/fhgmak^mnkgi^kbh]%bg\en]bg`pbgm^k%hk`k^Zm^k%
& NA 2.7: Fig. NA.2 \l^Zlhg6*'))
EC1-1-4:  \ikh[ 6 ikh[Z[bebmr_Z\mhk
4.2(1) Notes 4 & 5   6 *'))_hkk^mnkgi^kbh]h_.)r^Zkl
& NA 2.8  o[%) 6 o[%fZi\Zem
EC1-1-4:  pa^k^
4.2(1) Note 2  o[%fZi 6 _ng]Zf^gmZe[Zlb\pbg]o^eh\bmr_khf?b`nk^+'+
& NA 2.4: Fig. NA.1

EC1-1-4:  \Zem 6 Z embmn]^_Z\mhk


4.2(2) Note 1 <hgl^koZmbo^er%\Zem6*$)'))*:
& NA 2.5
 pa^k^
 :6Zembmn]^h_ma^lbm^bgf^mk^lZ'f'l'e'
Pa^k^hkh`kZiarbllb`gbË\Zgm!b'^'ma^lbm^bl\ehl^mhZlehi^
lm^^i^kmaZg)')."%k^_^kmhG:+'.

+'/'+ Calculate basic wind pressure, qb


j[6)'.r o[+
pa^k^
EC1-1-4: 4.5(1)
Note 2 & NA 2.18
 o[ 6 ZlZ[ho^
 r 6 ]^glbmrh_Zbk
  6 *'++/d`(f,!6*+')G(f,"_hkND

+'/', Calculate peak wind pressure, qp(z)


ji!s"6\^!s"j[_hk\hngmkreh\Zmbhgl
EC1-1-4: 4.5(1)
Note 1 & NA 2.17
 6\^!s"\^Mj[_hkmhpgeh\Zmbhgl
pa^k^
EC1-1-4: 4.5(1)
Note 1, NA 2.17
 j[  6 ZlZ[ho^
& Fig. A.NA.1

EC1-1-4: 4.5(1)  \^!s" 6 ^qihlnk^_Z\mhk]^kbo^]_khf?b`nk^+',Zma^b`ams!l^^[^ehp"


Note 1 & NA 2.17:
Fig. NA.7

EC1-1-4: 4.5(1)  \^%M 6 ^qihlnk^\hkk^\mbhg_Z\mhk_hkmhpgm^kkZbg]^kbo^]_khf?b`nk^+'-


Note 1 & NA 2.17:
Fig. NA.8

EC1-1-4: 7.2.2(1),  s  6 ma^a^b`amZmpab\ajibllhn`am


Note & NA 2.26    ?hkZpbg]pZk]pZeeZg]pa^ga©[%jibl\Ze\neZm^]Zmma^k^_^k^g\^a^b`am
   s^6a'?hkhma^kZli^\mkZmbhla3[h_ma^pbg]pZk]pZee%ji%bl\Ze\neZm^]Zm
   ]b__^k^gmk^_^k^g\^a^b`aml_hk^Z\aiZkm!l^^;L>G*22*¾*¾-"'
 pa^k^
 a 6 a^b`amh_[nbe]bg`
 [ 6 [k^Z]mah_[nbe]bg`
 ?hke^^pZk]Zg]lb]^pZeel%
 s6a^b`amh_[nbe]bg`
14
:gZerlbl%Z\mbhglZg]ehZ]ZkkZg`^f^gml

200 200
Use 1.0 in this area
31
30 4.0
29 100 100
28 90 90
27 80 80
70 70
26 60 60
50 50
3.5
40 40

30 30
10

z -hdis(m)

z -hdis(m)
20 20
3.0

25 0.9
23
10 10
22 9 2.5 9
8 8
24 7 7
6 6 0.8
5 5
4 2.0 4
0.7
3 3

2 1.5 2
≤0.1 1 10 ≥100 ≤0.1 1 10 ≥20
Distance upwind to shoreline (km) Distance inside town terrain (km)

Ghm^ Ghm^
Ln[c^\mmhZembmn]^\hkk^\mbhg' @^g^kZeera]bl6)'?hkm^kkZbg\Zm^`hkrBO!mhpgl^m\'"l^^;L>G*22*¾*¾-3:'.'

?b`nk^+'+ ?b`nk^+', ?b`nk^+'-


FZih__ng]Zf^gmZe[Zlb\pbg] >qihlnk^_Z\mhk\^!s"_hklbm^lbg\hngmkr Fnembieb^k_hk^qihlnk^\hkk^\mbhg_hk
o^eh\bmr%o[%fZi%!f(l" hkmhpgm^kkZbg lbm^lbgmhpgm^kkZbg

EC1-1-4: 4.2(1) EC1-1-4: 4.5(1) EC1-1-4: 4.5(1)


Note 2 & NA 2.4: Fig. NA.1 Note 1 & NA 2.17: Fig. NA.7 Note 1 & NA 2.17: Fig. NA.8

+'/'- Calculate characteristic wind load, wk


pd6ji!s"\_
pa^k^
 ji!s" 6 ZlZ[ho^
EC1-1-4:
 \ _ 6 _hk\^\h^_Ë\b^gm_hkma^lmkn\mnk^hklmkn\mnkZe^e^f^gm 7, 8 & NA
   @^g^kZeer
  6 \i^$\ib
 pa^k^
 \i^6 ! ^qm^kgZe"ik^llnk^\h^_Ë\b^gm]^i^g]^gmhglbs^h_Zk^Z\hglb]^k^]Zg]shg^' EC1-1-4:
?hkZk^ZlZ[ho^*f+%\i^%*)lahne][^nl^]' 7.2.1(1) Note 2 &
NA. 2.25
 Overall loads EC1-1-4:
 ?hkma^pZeelh_k^\mZg`neZk&ieZg[nbe]bg`l%\i^%*)fZr[^]^m^kfbg^]_khf 7.2.2(2) Note 1 &
MZ[e^0'*h_;L>G*22*¾*¾-' NA.2.27

  hp^o^k%_hkma^]^m^kfbgZmbhgh_ho^kZeeehZ]lhg[nbe]bg`l%ma^g^mik^llnk^
A EC1-1-4:
\h^_Ë\b^gml`bo^gbgMZ[e^+'2fZr[^nl^]'Bgmabl\Zl^bmpbee[^ngg^\^llZkr 7.2.2(2) Note 1 &
mh]^m^kfbg^bgm^kgZepbg]ik^llnk^\h^_Ë\b^gml' NA.2.27, Table NA.4

Cladding loads EC1-1-4:


 ?hkZk^ZlZ[ho^*f+%\i^%*)lahne][^nl^]'\i^%*)fZr[^]^m^kfbg^]_khf 7.2.2(2) Note 1 &
MZ[e^0'*h_;L>G*22*¾*¾-'L^^MZ[e^+'*)' NA.2.27

15
EC1-1-4:
 Flat roofs
7.2.3, NA.2.28 & NA  ?hkÌZmkhh_l%Z\\hk]bg`mhma^:]oblhkrGhm^bgma^G:lhf^h_ma^oZen^l
advisory note h_\i^%*)bgMZ[e^0'+h_;L>G*22*¾*¾-!l^^MZ[e^+'**"Zk^lb`gbË\Zgmer
]b__^k^gm_khf\nkk^gmikZ\mb\^bgma^ND'Bmk^\hff^g]lmaZm]^lb`g^kllahne]
BS 6399: \hglb]^knlbg`ma^oZen^lbg;L/,223+mhfZbgmZbgma^\nkk^gme^o^elh_lZ_^mr
Table 8 & Fig. 18 Zg]^\hghfr'L^^MZ[e^+'*+'
EC1-1-4:  ? hkhma^k_hkflh_khh_k^_^kmh;L>G*22*¾*¾-Zg]ma^NDG:'
NA.2.28 & NA  BmpbeeZelh[^g^\^llZkrmh]^m^kfbg^bgm^kgZepbg]ik^llnk^\h^_Ë\b^gml_hk
advisory note ma^]^lb`gh_\eZ]]bg`'
EC1-1-4:  \ib 6 bgm^kgZeik^llnk^\h^_Ë\b^gm'
7.2.9(6) Note 2    ?hkgh]hfbgZgmhi^gbg`l\ibfZr[^mZd^gZlma^fhk^hg^khnlh_$)'+Zg]¾)',

EC1-1-4: MZ[e^+'2
NA 2.27, Table NA.4 G^mik^llnk^\h^__b\b^gm%\i^%*)%_hkpZeelh_k^\mZg`neZkieZg[nbe]bg`l#
a(] G^mik^llnk^\h^__b\b^gm%\i^%*)
5 *',
1 *'*
ª 0.25 )'1
Ghm^l
*#bg^__^\mma^l^oZen^lZk^_hk\^\h^__b\b^gml_hk]^m^kfbgbg`ho^kZeeehZ]lhg[nbe]bg`l'
+a6a^b`amh_[nbe]bg`'
,[6[k^Z]mah_[nbe]bg`!i^ki^g]b\neZkmhpbg]"'
-]6]^imah_[nbe]bg`!iZkZee^emhpbg]"'
.OZen^lfZr[^bgm^kiheZm^]'
/>q\en]^l_ngg^eebg`'

MZ[e^+'*)
EC1-1-4: >qm^kgZeik^llnk^\h^__b\b^gm%\i^%*)%_hkpZeelh_k^\mZg`neZk&ieZg[nbe]bg`l
7.2.2(2) Table 7.1,
Note 1 & NA 2.27: Shg^ =^l\kbimbhg \i^%*)
Tables NA.4a , NA.4b FZq' Fbg'
Zone A ?hkpZeeliZkZee^emhma^pbg]]bk^\mbhg%Zk^Zlpbmabg ¾*'+
)'+fbgT[4+aVh_pbg]pZk]^]`^
Zone B ?hkpZeeliZkZee^emhma^pbg]]bk^\mbhg%Zk^Zlpbmabg ¾)'1
)'+fbgT[4+aVh_pbg]pZk]^]`^
Zone C ?hkpZeeliZkZee^emhma^pbg]]bk^\mbhg%Zk^Zl_khf  ¾)'.
)'+fbgT[4+aVmhfbgT[4+aVh_pbg]pZk]^]`^
Zone D Pbg]pZk]pZee $)'1
Zone E E^^pZk]pZee ¾)'0
Zones D G^m $*',
and E
Ghm^l
*a6a^b`amh_[nbe]bg`'
+[6[k^Z]mah_[nbe]bg`!i^ki^g]b\neZkmhpbg]"'

EC1-1-4: MZ[e^+'**
7.2, Table 7.2 & NA >qm^kgZeik^llnk^\h^__b\b^gm%\i^%*)_hk_eZmkhh_l#
Shg^ =^l\kbimbhg \i^%*)
LaZki^]`^ PbmaiZkZi^m
Zm^Zo^l
Zone F Pbmabg)'*fbgT[4+aVh_pbg]pZk]^]`^Zg]pbmabg ¾*'1 ¾*'/
)'+fbgT[4+aVh_k^mnkg^]`^!iZkZee^emhpbg]]bk^\mbhg"
Zone G Pbmabg)'*fbgT[4+aVh_pbg]pZk]^]`^Zg]hnmpbma ¾*'+ ¾*'*
)'+fbgT[4+aVh_k^mnkg^]`^!iZkZee^emhpbg]]bk^\mbhg"
Zone H Khh_[^mp^^g)'*fbgT[4+aVZg])'.fbgT[4+aV_khf ¾)'0 ¾)'0
pbg]pZk]^]`^
Zone I K^fZbg]^k[^mp^^g)'.fbgT[4+aVZg]e^^pZk]^]`^ ¨)'+ ¨)'+
Ghm^l
*#:\\hk]bg`mhG:mh;L>G*22*&*&-%mablmZ[e^blghmk^\hff^g]^]_hknl^bgma^ND'
+a6a^b`amh_[nbe]bg`'
16 ,[6[k^Z]mah_[nbe]bg`!i^ki^g]b\neZkmhpbg]"'
:gZerlbl%Z\mbhglZg]ehZ]ZkkZg`^f^gml

MZ[e^+'*+ EC1-1-4:
>qm^kgZeik^llnk^\h^__b\b^gm%\i^%_hk_eZmkhh_l 7.2.3, NA.2.28 &
NA advisory note.
Shg^ =^l\kbimbhg \i^

LaZki^]`^ PbmaiZkZi^m BS 6399:


Zm^Zo^l Table 8 & Fig. 18
Zone A Pbmabg)'*fbgT[4+aVh_pbg]pZk]^]`^Zg]pbmabg ¾+') ¾*'2
)'+.fbgT[4+aVh_k^mnkg^]`^!iZkZee^emhpbg]]bk^\mbhg"
Zone B Pbmabg)'*fbgT[4+aVh_pbg]pZk]^]`^Zg]hnmpbma ¾*'- ¾*',
)'+.fbgT[4+aVh_k^mnkg^]`^!iZkZee^emhpbg]]bk^\mbhg"
Zone C Khh_[^mp^^g)'*fbgT[4+aVZg])'.fbgT[4+aV_khf ¾)'0 ¾)'0
pbg]pZk]^]`^
Zone D K^fZbg]^k[^mp^^g)'.fbgT[4+aVZg]e^^pZk]^]`^ ¨)'+ ¨)'+
Ghm^l
*a6a^b`amh_[nbe]bg`'
+[6[k^Z]mah_[nbe]bg`!i^ki^g]b\neZkmhpbg]"'

+'/'. Calculate the overall wind force, Fw


?p6\l\]Spd :k^_ EC1-1-4:
pa^k^ 5.3.2, Exp. (5.4)
& NA

EC1-1-4:
 pd 6 ZlZ[ho^ 6.2(1) a), 6.2(1) c)
 \l\] 6 lmkn\mnkZe_Z\mhk%\hgl^koZmbo^er
EC1-1-4:
  6 *') 6.2(1) e) & NA.2.20
   hkfZr[^]^kbo^]
 pa^k^
 \l 6 lbs^_Z\mhk EC1-1-4:
   \lfZr[^]^kbo^]_khf>qi'!/'+"hkmZ[e^G:','=^i^g]bg`hgoZen^lh_ 6.3(1), Exp. (6.2) &
![$a"Zg]!s¾a]bl"Zg]]bob]bg`bgmhShg^:%;hk<%ZoZen^h_\l NA.2.20, Table NA3
!Z_Z\mhk5*'))"fZr[^_hng]'
 \]6 ]rgZfb\_Z\mhk EC1-1-4:
   \]fZr[^]^kbo^]_khf>qi'!/',"hkË`nk^G:'2'=^i^g]bg`hgoZen^lh_dl 6.3(1), Exp. (6.3) &
!eh`Zkbmafb\]^\k^f^gmh_lmkn\mnkZe]Zfibg`"Zg]a([%ZoZen^h_\]!Z_Z\mhk7 NA.2.20: Fig. NA9
*'))"fZr[^_hng]'
   \ ]fZr[^mZd^gZl*')_hk_kZf^][nbe]bg`lpbmalmkn\mnkZepZeelZg]fZlhgkr EC1-1-4:
bgm^kgZepZeel%Zg]_hk\eZ]]bg`iZg^elZg]^e^f^gml 5.3.2, Exp. (5.4)
& NA
 :k^_6k^_^k^g\^Zk^Zh_ma^lmkn\mnk^hklmkn\mnkZe^e^f^gm

+'0 Variable actions: others EC1-1-6, EC1-2,


EC1-1-2, EC1-1-5,
:\mbhgl]n^mh\hglmkn\mbhg%mkZ_Ë\%Ëk^%ma^kfZeZ\mbhgl%nl^Zllbehlhk_khf\kZg^lZk^hnmlb]^ EC1-3 & EC1-4
ma^l\hi^h_mablin[eb\ZmbhgZg]k^_^k^g\^lahne][^fZ]^mhli^\bZeblmebm^kZmnk^'

17
+'1 Permanent actions
Ma^ ]^glbmb^l Zg] Zk^Z ehZ]l h_ \hffhger nl^] fZm^kbZel% la^^m fZm^kbZel Zg] _hkfl h_
\hglmkn\mbhgZk^`bo^gbgMZ[e^l+'*,mh+'*.'

:\mbhglZkblbg`_khfl^mme^f^gm%]^_hkfZmbhgZg]\k^^iZk^hnmlb]^ma^l\hi^h_mabl]h\nf^gm
[nm `^g^kZeer Zk^ mh [^ \hglb]^k^] Zl i^kfZg^gm Z\mbhgl' Pa^k^ \kbmb\Ze% k^_^k mh li^\bZeblm
ebm^kZmnk^'
MZ[e^+'*,
;ned]^glbmb^l_hklhbelZg]fZm^kbZelT**%+/V

;ned]^glbmb^l dG(f, ;ned]^glbmb^l dG(f,


Lhbel FZm^kbZel
<eZr¾lmb__ *2¾++ <hg\k^m^¾k^bg_hk\^]  +.')
<eZr¾lh_m */¾*2 <hg\k^m^¾p^mk^bg_hk\^]  +/')
@kZgneZk¾ehhl^ */¾*1 @eZll  +.'/
@kZgneZk¾]^gl^ *2¾+* @kZgbm^  +0',
Lbemr\eZr%lZg]r\eZr */¾+) AZk]\hk^  *2')
FZm^kbZel Ebf^lmhg^!IhkmeZg]lmhg^¾f^]'p^b`am"  ++')
:liaZem  ++'. Ebf^lmhg^!fZk[e^¾a^Zorp^b`am"  +/'0
;eh\dl¾Z^kZm^]\hg\k^m^!fbg'"  .') FZ\Z]ZfiZobg`  +*')
;eh\dl¾Z^kZm^]\hg\k^m^!fZq'"  2') F=?  1')
;eh\dl¾]^gl^Z``k^`Zm^  +)') IeZlm^k  *-'*
;eh\dl¾eb`amp^b`am  *-') Ierphh]  /',
;hhdl¾[nedlmhkZ`^  1¾** LZg]lmhg^  +,'.
;kb\dphkd¾[en^  +-') L\k^^]¾lZg](\^f^gm  ++')
;kb\dphkd¾^g`bg^^kbg`  ++') Lm^^e(bkhg  00')
;kb\dphkd¾_e^mmhg  *1') M^kkZ\hmmZ  +)'0
;kb\dphkd¾Ehg]hglmh\d  *2') Mbf[^k¾=hn`eZl_bk  .'+
;kb\dphkd¾lZg]ebf^  +*') Mbf[^k¾>nkhi^Zg[^^\a(hZd  0'*
<abi[hZk]  /'2 Mbf[^k¾@kZ]^<*/  ,'/
<hg\k^m^¾Z^kZm^]  *)') Mbf[^k¾@kZ]^<+-  -'*
<hg\k^m^¾eb`amp^b`am  *1') Mbf[^k¾Bkhdh(m^Zd  /'-
<hg\k^m^¾ieZbg  +-')

18
:gZerlbl%Z\mbhglZg]ehZ]ZkkZg`^f^gml

MZ[e^+'*-
Mrib\ZeZk^ZehZ]l_hk\hg\k^m^leZ[lZg]la^^mfZm^kbZelT**%+/V

Mrib\ZeZk^ZehZ]l dG(f+ Mrib\ZeZk^ZehZ]l dG(f+


<hg\k^m^leZ[l La^^mfZm^kbZel
Ik^\Zlm\hg\k^m^lheb]ngbml!*))ff" +'.) IeZlm^kldbf\hZm )').
Ik^\Zlm\hg\k^m^aheehp\hk^ngbmlZ!*.)ff" +'-) IeZlm^k[hZk]!*+'.ff" )')2
Ik^\Zlm\hg\k^m^aheehp\hk^ngbmlZ!+))ff" +'10 IeZlm^k[hZk]!*2ff" )'*.
Ik^\Zlm\hg\k^m^'aheehp\hk^ngbmlZ!,))ff" -')0 Ierphh]!*+'.ff" )')1
Ik^\Zlm\hg\k^m^aheehp\hk^ngbmlZ!-))ff" -'1- Ierphh]!*2ff" )'*+
Kb[[^]leZ[[!+.)ff" -')) JnZkkrmbe^lbg\en]bg`fhkmZk[^]]bg` )',+
Kb[[^]leZ[[!,))ff" -',) KZbl^]_ehhk¾a^Zor]nmr )'.)
Kb[[^]leZ[[!,.)ff" -'0) KZbl^]_ehhk¾f^]bnfp^b`am )'-)
PZ__e^leZ[\¾lmZg]Zk]fhne]l!,+.ff" /')) KZbl^]_ehhk¾eb`amp^b`am )',)
PZ__e^leZ[\¾lmZg]Zk]fhne]l!-+.ff" 0',) K^g]^k!*,ff" )',)
PZ__e^leZ[\¾lmZg]Zk]fhne]l!.+.ff" 1'/) L\k^^]¾.)ff *'*.
La^^mfZm^kbZel L\k^^]¾eb`amp^b`am!+.ff" )'-.
:liaZem!+)ff" )'-/ LmZbge^lllm^^ekhh_bg`!)'-ff" )').
<Zki^mZg]ng]^keZr )'). Lnli^g]^]\^bebg`¾lm^^e )'*)
<abi[hZk]!*1ff" )'*+ Lnli^g]^]_b[k^[hZk]mbe^l )').
=krebgbg`hglmn]!+)ff" )'*. M@[hZk]l!*.'.ff" )')2
?Zel^\^bebg`¾lm^^e_kZfbg` )'*) M@[hZk]l!++ff" )'*+
?^em!,eZr^k"Zg]\abiibg`l )',. Mbe^l¾\^kZfb\_ehhkhg[^]]bg` *'))
@eZll¾]hn[e^`eZsbg` )'.+ ;Zmm^gl_hkleZmbg`Zg]mbebg` )'),
@eZll¾lbg`e^`eZsbg` )',) Mbe^l¾\eZrkhh_!fZq" )'/0
BglneZmbhg¾`eZll_b[k^!*.)ff" )'), Mbe^l¾gZmnkZeleZm^!mab\d" )'/.
IZobg`lmhg^l!.)ff" *'+) Mbe^l¾bgm^keh\dbg`\hg\k^m^ )'..
IeZlm^k¾mph\hZm`rilnf!*+ff" )'+* Mbe^l¾ieZbg\hg\k^m^ )'0.
D^r
ZAheehp\hk^_b`nk^lZllnf^ghmhiibg`!.)fflmkn\mnkZemhiibg`:*'+.dG(f+"
[Kb[[^]leZ[l3*.)p^[90.)\^gmk^lpbma*))ffmab\d_eZg`^(leZ['P^[lehi^*3*)
\PZ__e^leZ[l3*.)kb[l92))\^gmk^lpbma*))ffmab\d_eZg`^(leZ['P^[lehi^*3*)

19
+'.\EhZ]l_hkmrib\Ze_hkflh_\hglmkn\mbhg
MZ[e^+'*. MZ[e^+'*-
EhZ]l_hkmrib\Ze_hkflh_\hglmkn\mbhgT+/V +'.\EhZ]l_hkmrib\Ze_hkflh_\hglmkn\mbhg
<ZobmrpZee !dG(f+" K^lb]^gmbZe_ehhk !dG(f+"
;kb\dphkd*)+'.ff +'-) <Zki^m )').
BglneZmbhg.)ff )')+ ?ehZmbg`_ehhk )'*.
;eh\dphkd*))ff *'-) L^e_&p^b`amh_+.)fflheb]leZ[ /'+.
IeZlm^k )'+* Lnli^g]^]\^bebg` )'+)
MhmZe -')
L^kob\^l )'*)
Eb`amp^b`am\eZ]]bg` !dG(f+"
MhmZe /'0.
BglneZm^]iZg^e )'+)
L\ahhe_ehhk !dG(f+"
Inkebgl )').
<Zki^m(_ehhkbg` )').
=krebgbg`hglmn] )'*.
L^e_&p^b`amh_+.)fflheb]leZ[ /'+.
MhmZe )'-)
Lnli^g]^]\^bebg` )'*.
<nkmZbgpZeebg` !dG(f+"
:eehp *')) L^kob\^l )'+)

Ik^\Zlm\hg\k^m^\eZ]]bg` !dG(f+" MhmZe /'/)


?Z\bg` *')) AhlibmZe_ehhk !dG(f+"
Ik^\ZlmiZg^e!*))ff" +'-) ?ehhkbg` )').
BglneZmbhg )'). L^e_&p^b`amh_+.)fflheb]leZ[ /'+.
=krebgbg`hglmn] )'*. L\k^^] +'+)
MhmZe ,'/) Lnli^g]^]\^bebg` )'*.
=krebgbg` !dG(f+" L^kob\^l![nm\Zg[^`k^Zm^k" )').
F^mZelmn]l )'). MhmZe 1'0)
IeZlm^k[hZk]Zg]ldbf+ )'-)
?eZmkhh_(^qm^kgZem^kkZ\^ !dG(f+"
MhmZe )'-.
IZobg`hk`kZo^e%Zeehp +'+)
Mbf[^klmn]pZee !dG(f+"
PZm^kikhh_bg` )'.)
Mbf[^klmn]l )'*)
BglneZmbhg )'*)
IeZlm^k[hZk]Zg]ldbf+ )'-)
L^e_&p^b`amh_+.)fflheb]leZ[\^bebg` /'+.
MhmZe )'.)
Lnli^g]^]\^bebg` )'*.
H__b\^_ehhk !dG(f+"
<Zki^m )'), L^kob\^l )',)

KZbl^]_ehhk )',) MhmZe 2'.)


L^e_&p^b`amh_+.)fflheb]leZ[ /'+. Mbf[^kibm\a^]khh_ !dG(f+"
Lnli^g]^]\^bebg` )'*. Mbe^l!kZg`^)'.)¾)'0." )'0.
L^kob\^l )',) ;Zmm^gl )').
MhmZe 0'), ?^em )').
H__b\^\hk^Zk^Z !dG(f+" KZ_m^kl )'*.
Mbe^lZg][^]]bg`%Zeehp *')) BglneZmbhg )').
L\k^^] +'+) IeZlm^k[hZk]ldbf )'*.
L^e_&p^b`amh_+.)fflheb]leZ[ /'+.
L^kob\^l )'*)
Lnli^g]^]\^bebg` )'*.
<^bebg`chblml )'*.
L^kob\^l )',)
MhmZei^ki^g]b\neZkmhkhh_ *'-.
MhmZe 2'2)
MhmZehgieZgZllnfbg`,)™ibm\a *'/)
LmZbkl !dG(f+"
F^mZe]^\dbg`khh_ !dG(f+"
*.)ffpZblm! z *0.9+.dG(f," -'-)
BglneZm^]iZg^e )'+)
Mk^Z]l)'*.)'+.-(+9+.dG(f, *'11
L\k^^])').9++dG(f, *'*) Inkebgl )'*)

IeZlm^k )'+* Lm^^ephkd )',)


?bgbla3mbe^l[^]]bg` *')) L^kob\^l )'*)
MhmZe 1'/) MhmZe )'0)
 

20
:gZerlbl%Z\mbhglZg]ehZ]ZkkZg`^f^gml

+'2 Design values of actions


+'2'* General case
Ma^]^lb`goZen^h_ZgZ\mbhg%?] %maZmh\\nklbgZehZ]\Zl^bl
?]6g?c ?d
pa^k^
 g? 6iZkmbZe_Z\mhk_hkma^Z\mbhgZ\\hk]bg`mhma^ebfbmlmZm^ng]^k\hglb]^kZmbhg'MZ[e^
+'*/bg]b\Zm^lma^iZkmbZe_Z\mhklmh[^nl^]bgma^ND_hkma^\hf[bgZmbhglh_
k^ik^l^gmZmbo^Z\mbhglbg[nbe]bg`lmkn\mnk^l'
 c ?d fZr[^\hglb]^k^]Zlma^k^ik^l^gmZmbo^Z\mbhg%?k^i%ZiikhikbZm^mhma^ebfbmlmZm^
[^bg`\hglb]^k^]
 pa^k^
 c 6 Z_Z\mhkmaZm\hgo^kmlma^\aZkZ\m^kblmb\oZen^h_ZgZ\mbhgbgmhZk^ik^l^gmZmbo^
oZen^'BmZ]cnlmlma^oZen^h_ma^Z\mbhgmhZ\\hngm_hkma^gZmnk^h_ma^ebfbm
lmZm^ng]^k\hglb]^kZmbhgZg]ma^chbgmikh[Z[bebmrh_ma^Z\mbhglh\\nkkbg`
lbfnemZg^hnler'Bm\ZgZllnf^ma^oZen^h_*')_hkZi^kfZg^gmZ\mbhghkc)
hkc*hkc+_hkZoZkbZ[e^Z\mbhg'MZ[e^+'*0lahplahp\aZkZ\m^kblmb\oZen^lh_
oZkbZ[e^Z\mbhglZk^\hgo^km^]bgmhk^ik^l^gmZmbo^oZen^l'MablmZ[e^bl]^kbo^]
_khf;L>G*22)T*)VZg]bmlGZmbhgZe:gg^qT*)ZV'
 ?d 6 \aZkZ\m^kblmb\oZen^h_ZgZ\mbhgZl]^Ëg^]bgL^\mbhgl+'+Zg]+','

MZ[e^+'*/ EC0:
IZkmbZe_Z\mhkl!g?"_hknl^bgo^kb_b\Zmbhgh_ebfbmlmZm^lbgi^klblm^gmZg]mkZglb^gm]^lb`glbmnZmbhgl Tables A1.2(A), A1.2(B),
A1.2(C), A1.4 & NA

EbfbmlmZm^ I^kfZg^gmZ\mbhgl E^Z]bg`oZkbZ[e^Z\mbhg :\\hfiZgrbg`oZkbZ[e^
!@d" !Jd%*" Z\mbhgl!Jd%b"]
Z">jnbeb[kbnf!>JN"
*'*)!)'2"Z *'.)!)')"Z c)%b*'.)!)')"Z
["Lmk^g`maZmNEL!LMK(@>H"ghmbgoheobg``^hm^\agb\ZeZ\mbhgl
Either
>qi'!/'*)" *',.!*')"Z *'. c)*'.
or the worst case of
 >qi'!/'*)Z" *',.!*')"Z c)*'. c)*'.
 and
 >qi'!/'*)[" *'+.!*')"Z *'. c)*'.
\"Lmk^g`maZmNEL!LMK(@>H"pbma`^hm^\agb\ZeZ\mbhgl
Worst case of
 L^m; *',.!*')"Z *'.!)')"Z
 and
 L^m< *') *',
]"L^kob\^Z[bebmr
<aZkZ\m^kblmb\ *')) *')) c)%b*'))
?k^jn^gm *')) c*%**')) c+%b*'))
JnZlb&i^kfZg^gm *')) c+%**')) c+%b*'))
^":\\b]^gmZe]^lb`glbmnZmbhgl
>qi'!/'**Z" *') :][ c*%b!fZbg"
c+%b!hma^kl"
_"L^blfb\
>qi'!/'*+Z([" *') :>]\ c+%b
D^r Ghm^l
Z OZen^b__ZohnkZ[e^!lahpgbg[kZ\d^ml" * Ma^oZen^lh_cZk^`bo^gbgMZ[e^+'*0'
[ E^Z]bg`Z\\b]^gmZeZ\mbhg%:]%blng_Z\mhk^] + @^hm^\agb\ZeZ\mbhgl`bo^gbgma^mZ[e^
\ L^blfb\Z\mbhg%:>] Zk^[Zl^]hg=^lb`g:iikhZ\a*bg
] K^_^kmh;L>G*22)3:*'+'+G: <eZnl^:*','*!."h_;L>G*22)%pab\abl
k^\hff^g]^]bgbmlGZmbhgZe:gg^q'

21
+'2'+ Design values at ULS
?hkma^NELh_lmk^g`ma!LMK"%ma^]^lb`g^kfZr\ahhl^[^mp^^gnlbg`>qik^llbhg!/'*)"hkma^
EC0: 6.4.3.2(3)
phklm\Zl^h_>qik^llbhg!/'*)Z"hk>qik^llbhg!/'*)["'

Single variable action


:mNEL%ma^]^lb`goZen^h_Z\mbhglbl
^bma^k
 >qi'!/'*)" *',.@d$*'.Jd%*
hkma^phklm\Zl^h_3
 >qi'!/'*)Z" *',.@d$c)%**'.Jd%*
Zg]
 >qi'!/'*)[" *'+.@d$*'.Jd%*
pa^k^
 @d 6 i^kfZg^gmZ\mbhg
 Jd%*6 lbg`e^oZkbZ[e^Z\mbhg
 c)%*6 \hf[bgZmbhg_Z\mhk_hkZlbg`e^oZkbZ[e^ehZ]!l^^MZ[e^+'*0"

MZ[e^+'*0
OZen^lh_c_Z\mhkl
EC0: A1.2.2 :\mbhg c) c* c+
& NA
Bfihl^]ehZ]lbg[nbe]bg`l
Category A: domestic, residential areas )'0 )'. )',
Category B: office areas )'0 )'. )',
Category C: congregation areas )'0 )'0 )'/
Category D: shopping areas )'0 )'0 )'/
Category E: storage areas *') )'2 )'1
Category F: traffic area (vehicle weight © 30 kN) )'0 )'0 )'/
Category G: traffic area (30 kN < vehicle weight © 160 kN) )'0 )'. )',

EC1-1-1: 3.3.2 Category H: roofsZ )'0 )') )')


Snow loads where altitude © 1000 m a.m.s.l.Z )'. )'+ )')
Wind loadsZ )'. )'+ )')
Temperature effects (non-fire)Z )'/ )'. )')
D^r
a Hgkhh_l%bfihl^]ehZ]l%lghpehZ]lZg]pbg]ehZ]llahne]ghm[^Ziieb^]mh`^ma^k'
Ghm^l
1 Ma^gnf^kb\ZeoZen^l`bo^gZ[ho^Zk^bgZ\\hk]Zg\^pbma;L>G*22)Zg]bmlNDGZmbhgZe:gg^q'
2 <Zm^`hkb^lDZg]EZk^Zllnf^]mh[^Zl_hk<Zm^`hkrA

>qik^llbhg!/'*)"e^Z]lmhma^nl^h_g?6g@6*',._hki^kfZg^gmZ\mbhglZg]g?6gJ6*'.)_hk
oZkbZ[e^Z\mbhgl!g@_hki^kfZg^gmZ\mbhglblbgm^g]^]mh[^\hglmZgmZ\khllZeeliZgl"'

>qik^llbhg!/'*)"blZepZrl^jnZemhhkfhk^\hgl^koZmbo^maZgma^e^ll_ZohnkZ[e^h_>qik^llbhgl
!/'*)Z"Zg]!/'*)["'>qik^llbhg!/'*)["pbeeghkfZeerZiierpa^gma^i^kfZg^gmZ\mbhglZk^ghm
`k^Zm^kmaZg-'.mbf^lma^oZkbZ[e^Z\mbhgl!^q\^im_hklmhkZ`^ehZ]l%\Zm^`hkr>bgMZ[e^+'*0%
pa^k^>qik^llbhg!/'*)Z"ZepZrlZiieb^l"'

Ma^k^_hk^%^q\^imbgma^\Zl^h_\hg\k^m^lmkn\mnk^llniihkmbg`lmhkZ`^ehZ]lpa^k^c)6*')%
hk_hkfbq^]nl^%>qik^llbhg!/'*)["pbeenlnZeerZiier'Manl%_hkf^f[^kllniihkmbg`o^kmb\Ze
Z\mbhglZmNEL%*'+.@d$*'.Jdpbee[^ZiikhikbZm^_hkfhlmlbmnZmbhglZg]Ziieb\Z[e^mhfhlm
\hg\k^m^lmkn\mnk^l!l^^?b`nk^+'."'

<hfiZk^]pbmama^nl^h_>qik^llbhg!/'*)"%ma^nl^h_^bma^k>qik^llbhg!/'*)Z"hk!/'*)["e^Z]l
mh Z fhk^ \hglblm^gm k^ebZ[bebmr bg]^q Z\khll eb`amp^b`am Zg] a^Zorp^b`am fZm^kbZel'

22
:gZerlbl%Z\mbhglZg]ehZ]ZkkZg`^f^gml

50

40
Use Exp. (6.10a)
gk kN/m (or kN/m2)

30
Ghm^
:llnfbg`c)6)'0
20 b'^'Ziieb\Z[e^mhZeeZk^Zl
^q\^imlmhkZ`^'
Use Exp. (6.10b)
10

0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
q k kN/m (or kN/m2)

?b`nk^+'.
Pa^gmhnl^>qi'!/'*)Z"hk>qi'!/'*)["

Accompanying variable actions


:`Zbg ma^ ]^lb`g^k fZr \ahhl^ [^mp^^g nlbg` >qik^llbhg !/'*)" hk ma^ e^ll _ZohnkZ[e^ h_
EC0:
>qik^llbhgl!/'*)Z"hk!/'*)["' 6.4.3.2(3)
>bma^k
>qi'!/'*)" *',.@d$*'.Jd%*$S!c)%b*'.Jd%b "
hkma^phklm\Zl^h_3
>qi'!/'*)Z" *',.@d$c)%**'.Jd%*$S!c)%b*'.Jd%b"
Zg]
>qi'!/'*)[" *'+.@d$*'.Jd%*$S!c)%b*'.Jd%b"
pa^k^
 @d 6 i^kfZg^gmZ\mbhg
 Jd%*6 *lmoZkbZ[e^Z\mbhg
 Jd%b 6 bmaoZkbZ[e^Z\mbhg
 c)%*6 \aZkZ\m^kblmb\\hf[bgZmbhg_Z\mhk_hk*lmoZkbZ[e^ehZ]!l^^MZ[e^+'*0"
 c)%b 6 \aZkZ\m^kblmb\\hf[bgZmbhg_Z\mhk_hkbmaoZkbZ[e^ehZ]!l^^MZ[e^+'*0"

Bgma^Z[ho^%Jd%*!Zg]c)%b "k^_^klmhma^e^Z]bg`oZkbZ[e^Z\mbhgZg]Jd%b!Zg]c)%b "k^_^klmh


EC0:
Z\\hfiZgrbg`bg]^i^g]^gmoZkbZ[e^Z\mbhgl'Bg`^g^kZe%ma^]blmbg\mbhg[^mp^^gma^mphmri^lh_ A1.2.2, A1.3.1 & NA
Z\mbhglpbee[^h[obhnl!l^^?b`nk^+'/"4pa^k^bmblghm%^Z\aehZ]lahne]bgmnkg[^mk^Zm^]Zlma^
e^Z]bg`Z\mbhg':elh%ma^gnf^kb\ZeoZen^l_hkiZkmbZe_Z\mhkl`bo^gbgma^NDGZmbhgZe:gg^qT*)ZV
Zk^nl^]bgma^^jnZmbhglZ[ho^'Ma^oZen^h_c)]^i^g]lhgma^nl^h_ma^[nbe]bg`Zg]lahne]
[^h[mZbg^]_khfma^NDGZmbhgZe:gg^q_hk;L>G*22)!l^^MZ[e^+'*0"'

qk2
gk2

qk1
gk1
Ghm^
qk1 @^g^kZeerma^oZkbZ[e^
gk1 Z\mbhglhgZmrib\Zeh__b\^
qk3 = wk [eh\dphne][^\hglb]^k^]
Zl[^bg`mak^^l^mlh_
qk1
gk1 bg]^i^g]^gmoZkbZ[e^
Z\mbhgl3
*' Bfihl^]h__b\^ehZ]l
qk1 hgma^h__b\^_ehhkl'
gk1 +' Khh_bfihl^]ehZ]'
A B C ,' Pbg]ehZ]'

?b`nk^+'/
Bg]^i^g]^gmoZkbZ[e^Z\mbhgl
23
Ma^^qik^llbhglmZd^bgmhZ\\hngmma^ikh[Z[bebmrh_chbgmh\\nkk^g\^h_ehZ]l[rZiierbg`ma^
c)%b_Z\mhkmhma^Z\\hfiZgrbg`oZkbZ[e^Z\mbhg'Ma^ikh[Z[bebmrmaZmma^l^\hf[bg^]Z\mbhglpbee
[^^q\^^]^]bl]^^f^]mh[^lbfbeZkmhma^ikh[Z[bebmrh_Zlbg`e^Z\mbhg[^bg`^q\^^]^]'

B_ma^mphbg]^i^g]^gmoZkbZ[e^Z\mbhglJd%*Zg]Jd%+Zk^Zllh\bZm^]pbma]b__^k^gmliZglZg]ma^
nl^h_>qik^llbhg!/'*)["blZiikhikbZm^%ma^gbghg^l^mh_ZgZerl^lZiier
*'+.@d$*'.Jd%*mhma^Jd%*liZgl
Zg]*'+.@d$c)'b*'.Jd%*mhma^Jd%+liZgl'
BgZllh\bZm^]ZgZerl^lZiier
*'+.@d$c)%b*'.Jd%*mhma^Jd%*liZgl
Zg]*'+.@d$*'+.Jd%+mhma^Jd%+liZgl'
L^^>qZfie^+'**'+!mphoZkbZ[e^Z\mbhgl"'

+'2', Design values at SLS


Ma^k^Zk^mak^^\hf[bgZmbhglh_Z\mbhglZmLEL!hkehZ]\hf[bgZmbhgZmLEL"'Ma^l^Zk^`bo^gbg
EC0: 6.5 & Table A1.4
MZ[e^+'*1'Ma^\hf[bgZmbhgZg]oZen^mh[^nl^]]^i^g]lhgma^gZmnk^h_ma^ebfbmlmZm^[^bg`
\a^\d^]' JnZlb&i^kfZg^gm \hf[bgZmbhgl Zk^ Zllh\bZm^] pbma ]^_hkfZmbhg% \kZ\d pb]mal Zg]
\kZ\d\hgmkhe'?k^jn^gm\hf[bgZmbhglfZr[^nl^]mh]^m^kfbg^pa^ma^kZl^\mbhgbl\kZ\d^]hk
ghm'Ma^gnf^kb\oZen^lh_c)%c*Zg]c+Zk^`bo^gbgMZ[e^+'*0'

<heehjnbZeer
c)aZl[^\hf^dghpgZlma^Â\aZkZ\m^kblmb\ÃoZen^
c*aZl[^\hf^dghpgZlma^Â_k^jn^gmÃoZen^
c+aZl[^\hf^dghpgZlma^ÂjnZlb&i^kfZg^gmÃoZen^

MZ[e^+'*1
EC0: Table A1.4
IZkmbZe_Z\mhklmh[^Ziieb^]bgma^o^kb_b\Zmbhgh_ma^LEL

Combination Permanent actions Gk Variable actions Qk


Unfavourablea Favourablea Leadingb Othersb
Characteristic @d%lni @d%bg_ Jd%* c)%bJd%b
Frequent @d%lni @d%bg_ c*%*Jd%* c+%bJd%b
Quasi-permanent @d%lni @d%bg_ c+%*Jd%* c+%bJd%b
D^r
a @^g^kZeer@d%lniZg]@d%bg_fZr[^mZd^gZl@d'L^^L^\mbhg+'2'.
b c_Z\mhklZk^`bo^gbgMZ[e^+'*0

+'2'- Design values for other limit states


EhZ]\hf[bgZmbhglZk^`bo^gbgMZ[e^+'*/_hk
Z">jnbeb[kbnf!>JN"%
["Lmk^g`maZmNELghmbgoheobg``^hm^\agb\ZeZ\mbhgl%
\"Lmk^g`maZmNELpbma`^hm^\agb\ZeZ\mbhgl%
]"L^kob\^Z[bebmr%
^":\\b]^gmZeZg]
_"L^blfb\]^lb`glbmnZmbhgl'

24
:gZerlbl%Z\mbhglZg]ehZ]ZkkZg`^f^gml

+'2'. Variations in permanent actions


Pa^gma^oZkbZmbhgh_Zi^kfZg^gmZ\mbhgblghmlfZeema^gma^nii^k!@dc%lni"Zg]ma^ehp^k
EC0: 4.1.2, 4.1.2 (3)
!@dc%bg_"\aZkZ\m^kblmb\oZen^l!ma^2.Zg]._kZ\mbe^oZen^lk^li^\mbo^er"lahne][^^lmZ[ebla^]'
Mablikh\^]nk^blg^\^llZkrhgerpa^gma^\h^_Ë\b^gmh_oZkbZmbhg!6*))tlmZg]Zk]]^obZmbhg(
f^Zg"bl`k^Zm^kmaZg*)'Bgm^kflh_i^kfZg^gmZ\mbhgl%oZkbZmbhglbgma^l^e_&p^b`amh_\hg\k^m^ PD 6687[6]: 2.8.4
bg\hg\k^m^_kZf^lZk^\hglb]^k^]lfZee'

:m NEL pa^k^ ma^ oZkbZmbhg bl ghm lfZee% g@d%lni lahne] [^ nl^] pbma @dc%lni Zg] g@d%bg_ pbma
@dc%bg_'LbfbeZker%pa^k^ma^oZkbZmbhgblghmlfZee%ZmLEL@dc%lnilahne][^nl^]pa^k^Z\mbhglZk^
ng_ZohnkZ[e^Zg]@dc%bg_nl^]pa^k^_ZohnkZ[e^'

Pa^k^\a^\dl%ghmZ[er\a^\dlhglmZmb\^jnbeb[kbnf!>JN"%Zk^o^krl^glbmbo^mhoZkbZmbhgh_ma^
fZ`gbmn]^h_Zi^kfZg^gmZ\mbhg_khfhg^ieZ\^mhZghma^k%ma^_ZohnkZ[e^Zg]ng_ZohnkZ[e^
EC0: 6.4.3 (4)
iZkmlh_mablZ\mbhglahne][^\hglb]^k^]Zlbg]bob]nZeZ\mbhgl'Bgln\aÂo^krl^glbmbo^Ão^kbË\Zmbhgl
g@%lniZg]g@%bg_lahne][^nl^]'

+'*) Load arrangements of actions: introduction


Ma^ikh\^llh_]^lb`gbg`\hg\k^m^lmkn\mnk^lbgoheo^lb]^gmb_rbg`k^e^oZgm]^lb`glbmnZmbhglZg]
EC0: 3.2
ebfbmlmZm^l'Ma^l^bg\en]^i^klblm^gm%mkZglb^gmhkZ\\b]^gmZelbmnZmbhgl'Bg^Z\a]^lb`glbmnZmbhg
ma^lmkn\mnk^lahne][^o^kbË^]Zmma^k^e^oZgmebfbmlmZm^l'

Bg ma^ ZgZerlbl h_ ma^ lmkn\mnk^ Zm ma^ ebfbm lmZm^ [^bg` \hglb]^k^]% ma^ fZqbfnf ^__^\m h_
Z\mbhgl lahne] [^ h[mZbg^] nlbg` Z k^Zeblmb\ ZkkZg`^f^gm h_ ehZ]l'@^g^kZeer oZkbZ[e^ Z\mbhgl
lahne][^ZkkZg`^]mhikh]n\^ma^fhlmng_ZohnkZ[e^^__^\m%_hk^qZfie^mhikh]n\^fZqbfnf
ho^kmnkgbg`fhf^gmlbgliZglhkfZqbfnf[^g]bg`fhf^gmlbglniihkml'

?hk [nbe]bg` lmkn\mnk^l% ]^lb`g \hg\^gmkZm^l fZbger hg ma^ NEL% ma^ nembfZm^ ebfbm lmZm^ h_ EC0: 3.3, 3.4, 6.4, 6.5
lmk^g`ma!LMK"%Zg]LEL%ma^l^kob\^Z[bebmrebfbmlmZm^'Ahp^o^k%bmbl^ll^gmbZemaZmZeeebfbmlmZm^l
Zk^\hglb]^k^]'Ma^ebfbmlmZm^lh_^jnbeb[kbnf!>JN"%lmk^g`maZmNELpbma`^hm^\agb\ZeZ\mbhgl
!LMK(@>H"Zg]Z\\b]^gmZelbmnZmbhglfnlm[^mZd^gbgmhZ\\hngmZlZiikhikbZm^'

+'** Load arrangements according to the UK National


Annex to Eurocode
Bg[nbe]bg`lmkn\mnk^l%Zgrh_ma^_heehpbg`l^mlh_lbfiebË^]ehZ]ZkkZg`^f^gmlfZr[^nl^]Zm
Cl. 5.1.3 & NA
NELZg]LEL!L^^?b`nk^+'0"'
N Ma^fhk^\kbmb\Zeh_3
 Z"Zem^kgZm^liZgl\Zkkrbg`g@@d$gJJdpbmahma^kliZglehZ]^]pbmag@@d4Zg]
 ["ZgrmphZ]cZ\^gmliZgl\Zkkrbg`g@@d$gJJdpbmahma^kliZglehZ]^]pbmag@@d'
N Hkma^fhk^\kbmb\Zeh_3
 Z"Zem^kgZm^liZgl\Zkkrbg`g@@d$gJJd4pbmahma^kliZglehZ]^]pbmag@@d4Zg]
 ["ZeeliZgl\Zkkrbg`g@@d$gJJd'
N Hk%_hkleZ[lhger%ZeeliZgl\Zkkrbg`g@@d$g@@d%ikhob]^]ma^_heehpbg`\hg]bmbhglZk^f^m3
L BgZhg^&pZrliZggbg`leZ[ma^Zk^Zh_^Z\a[Zr^q\^^]l,)f+!Z[Zrbl]^_bg^]ZlZ
lmkbiZ\khllma^_neepb]mah_Zlmkn\mnk^[hng]^]hgma^hma^klb]^l[rebg^lh_lniihkm"'
L M
 a^kZmbhh_ma^oZkbZ[e^Z\mbhg%Jd%mhma^i^kfZg^gmZ\mbhg%@d%]h^lghm^q\^^]*'+.'
L Ma^fZ`gbmn]^h_ma^oZkbZ[e^Z\mbhg^q\en]bg`iZkmbmbhgl]h^lghm^q\^^].dG(f+'

Pa^k^ZgZerlblbl\Zkkb^]hnm_hkma^lbg`e^ehZ]\Zl^h_ZeeliZglehZ]^]%ma^k^lnembg`fhf^gml%
^q\^im mahl^ Zm \Zgmbe^o^kl% lahne] [^ k^]n\^] [r +)% pbma Z \hgl^jn^gmbZe bg\k^Zl^ bg ma^
liZgfhf^gml'

25
g JJ d g @@ d

g JJ d g JJ d g @
@ d

g JJ d g @@ d

a) Alternate spans loaded b) Adjacent spans loaded c) All spans loaded

Ghm^
Pabelmma^nl^h_>qi'!/'*)"blbg]b\Zm^]%ma^l^ZkkZg`^f^gmlfZr^jnZeer[^nl^]pbma>qi'!/'*)Z"
hk!/'*)["'

?b`nk^+'0
EhZ]ZkkZg`^f^gml_hk[^ZflZg]leZ[lZ\\hk]bg`mhNDG:mh>nkh\h]^

26
:gZerlbl%Z\mbhglZg]ehZ]ZkkZg`^f^gml

+'*+ Examples of loading


Ikhc^\m]^mZbel <Ze\neZm^][r chg Ch[gh' CCIP – 041
Continuous beam in a domestic <a^\d^][r web La^^mgh' 1
structure <eb^gm TCC =Zm^ Oct 09

2.12.1 Continuous beam in a domestic structure


Determine the appropriate load combination and ultimate load
for a continuous beam of four 6 m spans in a domestic structure
supporting a 175 mm slab at 6 m centres.

qk
gk

A B C D E
6000 mm 6000 mm 6000 mm 6000 mm

Figure 2.8 Continuous beam in a domestic structure

a) Actions kN/m
Permanent action, gk
Self-weight, 175 mm thick slabs : 0.17 x 25 x 6.0 = 26.3
E/o self-weight downstand 800 × 225 : 0.80 x 0.225 x 25 = 4.5
50 mm screed @ 22 kN/m3 : 0.05 x 22 x 6.0 = 6.6
Finishes and services : 0.50 x 6.0 = 3.0
Dividing wall 2.40 × 4.42 (200 mm dense blockwork with = 10.6
plaster both sides)
Total gk = 51.0

Variable action, qk
Imposed, dwelling @ 1.5 kN/m2 : 1.5 x 6.0 = 9.0
Total qk = 9.0

Ultimate load, n
Assuming use of Exp. (6.10), n = 1.35 × 51 + 1.5 × 9.0 = = 82.4
Assuming use of worst case of Exp. (6.10a) or Exp. (6.10b)
Exp. (6.10a): n = 1.35 × 51 + 0.7 × 1.5 × 9.0 = = 78.3
Exp. (6.10b): n = 1.25 × 51 + 1.5 × 9.0 = = 77.3
In this case Exp. (6.10a) would be critical‡
=ultimate load = 78.3

‡ This could also be determined from Figure 2.5 or by determining that gk > 4.5qk

27
Ikhc^\m]^mZbel <Ze\neZm^][r chg Ch[gh' CCIP – 041
Continuous beam in mixed use <a^\d^][r web La^^mgh' 1
structure <eb^gm TCC =Zm^ Oct 09

2.12.2 Continuous beam in mixed use structure


EC1-1-1:
Determine the worst case arrangements of actions for ULS design of a 6.3.1.1 & NA,
continuous beam supporting a 175 mm slab @ 6 m centres. Note that EC0:
the variable actions are from two sources as defined in Figure 2.9.: A.1.2.2. & NA

qk1 = 15 kN/m qk2 = 24 kN/m


gk = 51 kN/m

A B C D E
6000 mm 6000 mm 6000 mm 6000 mm
Office use @ 2.5 kN/m2 Shopping use @ 4.0 kN/m2
c0 = 0.7 c0 = 0.7

Figure 2.9 Continuous beam in mixed-use structure

a) Load combination
Load combination Exp. (6.10a) or Exp. (6.10b) will be used, as either
will produce a smaller total load than Exp. (6.10). It is necessary to
decide which expression governs.
i) Actions kN/m
Permanent action
As before, Example 2.12.1 gk = 51.0

Variable action
Office @ 2.5 kN/m2 qk1 = 15.0
Shopping @ 4.0 kN/m2 qk2 = 24.0

Ultimate load, n
For office use:
Exp. (6.10a): n = 1.35 × 51 + 0.7 × 1.5 × 15.0 = 84.6
Exp. (6.10b): n = 1.25 × 51 + 1.5 × 15.0 = 86.3
For shopping use:
Exp. (6.10a): n = 1.35 × 51 + 1.5 × 0.7 × 24.0 = 94.1
Exp. (6.10b): n = 1.25 × 51 + 1.5 × 24.0 = 99.8
By inspection Exp. (6.10b) governs in both cases‡

b) Arrangement of ultimate loads


As the variable actions arise from different sources, one is a leading
variable action and the other is an accompanying variable action. The
unit loads to be used in the various arrangements are:

‡ This could also be determined from Figure 2.5 or by determining that g > 4.5q
k k

28
:gZerlbl%Z\mbhglZg]ehZ]ZkkZg`^f^gml

i) Actions kN/m
Permanent
1.25 × 51.0 = 63.8
Variable
Office use
as leading action, gQQk = 1.5 × 15 = 22.5
as accompanying action, c0gQQk = 0.7 = 15.75
× 1.5 × 15
Shopping use
as leading action, gQQk = 1.5 × 24 = 36.0
as accompanying action, c0gQQk = 0.7 = 25.2
× 1.5 × 24

ii) For maximum bending moment in span AB


The arrangement and magnitude of actions of loads are shown
in Figure 2.10. The variable load in span AB assumes the value as
leading action and that in span CD takes the value as an
accompanying action.

Leading Accompanying Permanent


variable action variable action action
gQ q k1 = 22.5 kN/m c Q g Q q k2 = 25.2 kN/m gG g k = 63.8 kN/m

A B C D E

Figure 2.10 For maximum bending moment in span


p AB

iii) For maximum bending moment in span CD


The load arrangement is similar to that in Figure 2.10, but now
the variable load in span AB takes its value as an accompanying
action
(i.e. 15.75 kN/m) and that in span CD assumes the value as
leading action (36 kN/m).
Accompanying Leading Permanent
variable action variable action action
c Qg Q q k1 = 15.8 kN/m g Qq k2 = 36.0 kN/m gG,inf g k = 63.8 kN/m

A B C D E

Figure 2.11 For maximum bending moment in span


p CD

29
iv) For maximum bending moment at support B
The arrangement of loads is shown in Figure 2.12. As both spans AB EC1-1-1:
and BC receive load from the same source, no reduction is possible 6.3.1.1 (10)
(
(other g area‡).
than that for large ). & NA

Leading Permanent
variable action action
gQ q k1 = 22.5 kN/m gG g k = 63.8 kN/m

A B C D E

Figure 2.12 For maximum bending moment at support


pp B

v) For maximum bending moment at support D


The relevant arrangement of loads is shown in Figure 2.13. Comments
made in d) also apply here.

Leading Permanent
variable action action
gQ q k2 = 36 kN/m gG g k = 63.8 kN/m

A B C D E

Figure 2.13 For maximum bending moment at support


pp D

vi) For critical curtailment and hogging in span CD


The relevant arrangement of loads is shown in Figure 2.14.

Accompanying
p Leading
variable action variable action
c 0gQ q k1 = 15.8 kN/m g Q q k2 = 36.0 kN/m
Permanent actionn
gG,in f g k = 51 kN/m
m
A B C D E

Figure 2.14 For curtailment and hogging in span


p CD

Eurocode 2 requires that all spans should be loaded with either gG,sup or gG,inff (as Cl. 2.4.3(2)
per Table 2.16). As illustrated in Figure 2.14, using gG,inff = 1.0 might be critical for
curtailment and hogging in spans.
spans

EC1-1-1:
‡ Variable actions may be subjected to reduction factors: a , according to the
A
6.3.1.2 (10)
area supported
pp ((m2), aA = 1.0 – A/1000 ≥ 0.75. & NA

30
:gZerlbl%Z\mbhglZg]ehZ]ZkkZg`^f^gml

Ikhc^\m]^mZbel <Ze\neZm^][r chg Ch[gh' CCIP – 041


Propped cantilever <a^\d^][r web La^^mgh' 1
<eb^gm TCC =Zm^ Oct 09

2.12.3 Propped cantilever EC0:


Determine the Equilibrium, ULS and SLS (deformation) load Table 1.2(B),
Note 3
combinations for the propped cantilever shown in Figure 2.15. The
action P at the end of the cantilever arises from the permanent
action of a wall.
qk P
gk

C
A B

Figure 2.15 Propped


pp cantilever beam and loading
For the purposes of this example, the permanent action P is considered
to be from a separate source than the self-weight of the structure so
both gG,sup and gG,inf need to be considered.
EC0:
Table A1.2 (A)
& NA
a) Equilibrium limit state (EQU) for maximum uplift at A
EC0:
gGk,sup P= 1.1P
0.0qk = 0 1.5qk 6.4.3.1 (4),
gGinf gk= 0.9gk Table A1.2 (A)
C
gGk,sup gk= 1.1gk & NA
A B

b) Ultimate limit state (ULS)


i) For maximum moment at B and anchorage of top reinforcement BA

gGk,sup gk= 1.35gk gQ qk= 1.5qk gGk,sup P= 1.35P EC0: Tables A1.1,
A1.2 (B) & NA
C
A B

Figure 2.17 ULS: maximum moment at B


Notes
gGk,inf gk = 1.0 gk may be critical in terms of curtailment of top bars BA.

31
ii) For maximum sagging moment AB

gQqk= 1.5qk gGk,sup P=


P 1.1P EC0:
gGk,sup gk= 1.35gk Table A1.1,
A1.2 (B) & NA
C
A B

Figure 2.18 ULS: maximum span


p moment AB
Notes
1 Depending on the magnitude of gk, qk length AB and BC, gGk,inf gk (= 1.0 gk) may be more
critical for span moment.
2 The magnitude of the load combination indicated are those for Exp. (6.10) of BS EN
1990. The worst case of Exp. (6.10a) and Exp. (6.10b) may also have been used.
3 Presuming supports A and B were columns then the critical load combination for Column
A would be as Figure 2.18. For column B the critical load combination might be either as
Figure 2.17 or 2.18.

c) Serviceability limit state (SLS) of deformation:


(quasi-permanent loads)
i) For maximum deformation at C

c2qk= 0.3*qk
1.0c
1.0gk 1.0P
EC0:
Tables A1.1,
C A1.2.2, A1.4 &
A B
*Assuming office area
NA

Figure 2.19 SLS: maximum deformation at C

ii) For maximum deformation AB

c2qk= 0.3*qk
1.0c
1.0P
1.0gk
C
A B
* Assuming office area

Figure 2.20 SLS: maximum deformation AB

Notes
Quasi-permanent load combinations may also be used for calculations of crack widths or
controlling cracking, i.e. the same load combinations as shown in Figures 2.19 and 2.20 may
be used to determine SLS moment to determine stress in reinforcement. The characteristic
and/or frequent combinations may be appropriate for other SLS limit states: for example, it
is recommended that the frequent combination is used to determine whether a member has
cracked or not.

32
:gZerlbl%Z\mbhglZg]ehZ]ZkkZg`^f^gml

Ikhc^\m]^mZbel <Ze\neZm^][r chg Ch[gh' CCIP-041


Overall stability <a^\d^][r web La^^mgh' 1
<eb^gm TCC =Zm^ Oct 09

2.12.4 Overall stability (EQU)


For the frame shown in Figure 2.21, identify the various load
arrangements to check overall stability (EQU) against overturning.
Assume that the structure is an office block and that the loads qk2
and qk3 may be treated as arising from one source.
qk1
gk1

qk2
gk2

wk
qk3
gk3

A B

Figure 2.21 Frame configuration

a) EQU – Treating the floorr imposed load as the leading variable


action
Permanent action,
P
favourable
0.9gk1 on = gQkco qk1 = 1.05qk1
Accompanying variable actioon
b = gGk,supgk1 = 1.1gk1
Permanent action, unfavourable
Permanent action,
P
favourable
Accompanying 0.9gk2 Lead variable action = gQk qk2
k2 = 1.5qk2
variable action b = gGk,supgk2 = 1.1gk2
Permanent action, unfavourable
Permanent action,
P
= gQk co wk favourable
0.9gk3 Lead variable action = gQk qk3
= 1.5 x 0.5 x wk k3 = 1.5qk3
b = gGk,supgk3 = 1.1gk3
Permanent action, unfavourable
= 0.75 wk

A B

Figure 2.22 Frame with floor variable action as leading variable action Tables 2.16
& 2.17

See Table 2.17 for values of c0

33
b) EQU – Treating the rooff imposed load as the leading variable
action

0.9gk1 1.5q k1
1.1gk1

0.9gk2 1.5 x 0.7 x q k2 = 1.05 q k2


1.1gk2 Tables 2.16
& 2.17
0.75 wk
0.9gk3 1.5 x 0.7 x q k3 = 1.05 q k3
1.1gk3

A B

Figure 2.23 Frame with roof variable action as leading variable actttion

c) EQU – Treating wind as the leading variable action

0.9gk1 1.5 x 0.7 x q k1 = 1.05 q k1


1.1gk1

0.9gk2 1.5 x 0.7 x q k2 = 1.05 q k2


1.1gk2 Tables 2.16
& 2.17
1.5 wk
0.9gk3 1.5 x 0.7 x q k3 = 1.05 q k3
1.1gk3

A B

Figure 2.24 Frame with wind as lead variable action

34
,3LeZ[l

3 Slabs
3.0 General
Ma^\Ze\neZmbhglbgmabll^\mbhgZk^ik^l^gm^]bgma^_heehpbg`ln[&l^\mbhgl3
,'*:lbfierlniihkm^]hg^&pZrleZ[
,'+ :\hgmbgnhnlhg^&pZrleZ[
,', :\hgmbgnhnlkb[[^]leZ[
,'-:[Zrh_ZÌZmleZ[
,'.:lmZbkÌb`am'

Ma^l^\Ze\neZmbhglZk^bgm^g]^]mhlahppaZmfb`am[^]^^f^]mrib\ZeaZg]\Ze\neZmbhgl'Ma^r
Zk^ beenlmkZmbo^ h_ ma^<h]^ Zg] Zk^ ghm g^\^llZkber [^lm ikZ\mb\^'Ma^ Ëklm mak^^ ln[&l^\mbhgl
bg\en]^ ]^mZbebg` \a^\dl ^'`' \nkmZbef^gm e^g`mal ]^m^kfbg^] lmkb\mer bg Z\\hk]Zg\^ pbma ma^
ikhoblbhglh_;L>G*22+¾*¾*'Ma^ÌZmleZ[\Ze\neZmbhgbllniie^f^gm^][rZ\hff^gmZkr'

:`^g^kZef^mah]h_]^lb`gbg`leZ[lbllahpg[^ehp'
N =^m^kfbg^]^lb`geb_^' EC0 & NA Table NA.2.1
N :ll^llZ\mbhglhgma^leZ[' EC1 & NA
N :ll^ll]nkZ[bebmrk^jnbk^f^gmlZg]]^m^kfbg^ Table 4.1
\hg\k^m^lmk^g`ma' BS 8500-1: Tables A4 & A5
N <a^\d\ho^kk^jnbk^f^gml_hkZiikhikbZm^_bk^ EC2-1-2: Tables 5.8,
k^lblmZg\^i^kbh]' 5.9, 5.10 & 5.11
N <Ze\neZm^fbgbfnf\ho^k_hk]nkZ[bebmr%_bk^Zg] Cl. 4.4.1
[hg]k^jnbk^f^gml'
N =^m^kfbg^pab\a\hf[bgZmbhglh_Z\mbhglZiier' EC0 & NA Tables
NA.A1.1 & NA.A1.2 (B)
N =^m^kfbg^ehZ]bg`ZkkZg`^f^gml' Cl. 5.1.3(1) & NA
N :gZerl^lmkn\mnk^mhh[mZbg\kbmb\Zefhf^gmlZg]la^Zk Cl. 5.4, 5.5, 5.6
_hk\^l'
N =^lb`g_e^qnkZek^bg_hk\^f^gm' Cl. 6.1
N <a^\d]^_e^\mbhg' Cl. 7.4
N <a^\dla^Zk\ZiZ\bmr' Cl. 6.2
N Hma^k]^lb`g\a^\dl3
<a^\dfbgbfnfk^bg_hk\^f^gm Cl. 9.3.1.1(1), 9.2.1.1(1)
<a^\d\kZ\dbg`!lbs^hkliZ\bg`h_[Zkl" Cl. 7.3, Tables 7.2N & 7.3N
<a^\d^__^\mlh_iZkmbZeËqbmr Cl. 9.3.1.2(2)
<a^\dl^\hg]Zkrk^bg_hk\^f^gm' Cl. 9.3.1.1(2), 9.3.1.4(1)
N <a^\d\nkmZbef^gm' Cl. 9.3.1.1(4), 9.2.1.3, Fig. 9.2
N <a^\dZg\ahkZ`^' Cl. 9.3.1.2, 8.4.4, 9.3.1.1(4)
Cl. 9.2.1.5(1), 9.2.1.5(2)
N <a^\deZil' Cl. 8.7.3

35
3.1 Simply supported one-way slab
Mabl\Ze\neZmbhgblbgm^g]^]mhlahpZmrib\Ze[Zlb\aZg]\Ze\neZmbhg'

Ikhc^\m]^mZbel <Ze\neZm^][r chg Ch[gh' CCIP – 041


Simply supported one-way slab <a^\d^][r web La^^mgh' 1
<eb^gm TCC =Zm^ Oct 09

A 175 mm thick slab is required to support screed, finishes, an


office variable action of 2.5 kN/m2 and demountable partitions
(@ 2 kN/m). The slab is supported on load-bearing block walls.
fck = 30 MPa, fyk = 500 MPa. Assume a 50-year design life and a
requirement for 1 hour resistance to fire.
qk = 3.3 kN/m2
gk = 5.9 kN/m2

4800

Figure 3.1 Simply


p supported
pp one-way slab

3.1.1 Actions
kN/m2
Permanent:
Self-weight 0.175 × 25 = 4.4 EC1-1-1: Table A1
50 mm screed = 1.0
Finishes, services = 0.5
Total gk = 5.9
Variable:
Offices, general use B1 = 2.5 EC1-1-1: Tables
Movable partitions @ 2.0 kN/m = 0.8 6.1, 6.2 & NA
Total jk = 3.3 EC1-1-1: 6.3.12(8)
3.1.2 Cover
Nominal cover, cnom: Exp. (4.1)
cnom = cmin + Dcdev
where
cmin = max[cmin,b ; cmin,dur]
where Cl. 4.4.1.2(3)
cmin,b = minimum cover due to bond = diameter of bar
Assume 12 mm main bars.
cmin,dur = minimum cover due to environmental conditions Table 4.1.
Assuming XCI and using C30/37 concrete, BS 8500-1:
cmin,dur = 15 mm Table A4.
Dcdev = allowance in design for deviation. Cl. 4.4.1.2(3)
Assuming no measurement of cover,
Dcdev = 10 mm
= cnom = 15 + 10 = 25 mm

36
,'*3Lbfierlniihkm^]hg^&pZrleZ[

Fire:
Check adequacy of section for 1 hour fire resistance (i.e. REI 60). EC2-1-2:
Thickness, hs,min = 80 mm cf. 175 mm proposed = OK 4.1(1), 5.1(1)
Axis distance, amin = 20 mm cf. 25 + f/2 = 31 i.e. not critical = OK & Table 5.8
= choose cnom = 25 mm

3.1.3 Load combination (and arrangement)


Ultimate load, n:
By inspection, BS EN 1990 Exp. (6.10b) governs Fig. 2.5
= n = 1.25 × 5.9 + 1.5 × 3.3 = 12.3 kN/m2 ECO:
Exp. (6.10b)
3.1.4 Analysis
Design moment:
MEd = 12.3 × 4.82/8 = 35.4 kNm
Shear force:
V = 12.3 × 4.8/2 = 29.5 kN/m

3.1.5 Flexural design


Effective depth:
d = 175 − 25 − 12/2 = 144 mm
Flexure in span:
K = MEd/bd2fck = 35.4 × 106/(1000 × 1442 × 30) = 0.057 Fig. 3.5
z/d = 0.95 Appendix A1
z = 0.95 × 144 = 137 mm Table C5
As = MEd/fydz = 35.4 × 106/(137 × 500/1.15) = 594 mm2/m
(r = 0.41%)
Try H12 @ 175 B1 (645 mm2/m)

3.1.6 Deflection
Check span-to-effective-depth ratio. Appendix B
Basic span-to-effective-depth ratio for r = 0.41% = 20 Table 7.4N & NA
As,prov/As,req = 645/599 = 1.08 Exp. (7.17)
Max. span = 20 × 1.08 × 144 = 3110 mm i.e. < 4800 mm = no good
Consider in more detail:
Allowable l/d = N × K × F1 × F2 × F3
where Cl. 7.4.2,
N = 25.6 (r = 0.41%, fck = 30 MPa) Appendix C7,
K = 1.0 (simply supported) Tables C10-C13
F1 = 1.0 (beff/bw = 1.0)
F2 = 1.0 (span < 7.0 m)
F3 = 310/ ss © 1.5

37
where‡
ss = ssu (As,reqq/As,prov) 1/d Cl. 7.4.2, Exp. (7.17)
where Table 7.4N, & NA
ssu { 242 MPa (From Figure C3 and Table NA.5:
gk/qk = 1.79, c2 = 0.3, gG = 1.25) Note 5
d = redistribution ratio = 1.0 Figure C3
= ss { 242 × 594/645 = 222
= F3 = 310/222 = 1.40 © 1.5 Figure C3

= Allowable l/
l d = 25.6 × 1.40 = 35.8
Actual l/
l d = 4800/144 = 33.3 = OK
Use H12 @ 175 B1 (645 mm2/m)

3.1.7 Shear
By inspection, OK
However, if considered critical:
V = 29.5 kN/m as before Cl. 6.2.1(8)
VEd = 29.5 – 0.14 × 12.3 = 27.8 kN/m
vEd = 27.8 × 103/144 × 103 = 0.19 MPa Cl. 6.2.2(1);
vRd,c = 0.53 MPa Table C6
= No shear reinforcement required
q

3.1.8 Summary of design

H12 @ 175
Figure 3.2 Simply
p supported
pp slab: summary

3.1.9 Detailing checks


It is presumed that the detailer would take the design summarised
above and detail the slab to normal best practice, e.g. to SMDSC[9]
or to How to design concrete structures using Eurocode 2 2,[8] Chapter
10, Detailing. This would usually include dimensioning and detailing
curtailment, laps, U-bars and also undertaking the other checks detailed
below. See also 3.2.10 detailing checks for a continuous one-way slab.

a) Minimum areas
Minimum area of reinforcement:
As,min = 0.26 (ffctm/ffyk) bt] ª 0.0013 btd Cl. 9.3.1.1, 9.2.1.1
where
bt = width of tension zone Table 3.1
fctm = 0.30 × fck0.666

‡ See Appendix B1.5

38
,'*3Lbfierlniihkm^]hg^&pZrleZ[
LeZ[l

As,min = 0.26 × 0.30 × 300.666 × 1000 × 144/500 = 216 mm2/m


r = 0.15%)
(r
= H12 @ 175 B1 OK

Crack control:
OK by inspection. Table 7.2N & NA
Maximum spacing of bars:
< 3h < 400 mm OK Cl. 9.3.1.1.(3)

Secondary reinforcement:
20% As,reqq = 0.2 × 645 = 129 mm2/m
Use H10 @ 350 (224) B2
Cl. 9.3.1.1.(2)
Edges: effects of assuming partial fixity along edge
Top steel required = 0.25 × 594 = 149 mm2/m
Use H10 @ 350 (224) T2 B2 as U-bars Cl. 9.3.1.2.(2)
extending 960 mm into slab§

b) Curtailment
Curtailment main bars:
Curtail main bars 50 mm from or at face of support. SMDSC[9]:
Fig. 6.4;
How to[8]:
Detailing
At supports:
50% of As to be anchored from face of support. Cl. 9.3.1.2.(1)
Use H12 @ 350 B1 T1 U-bars

In accordance with SMDSC[9] detail MS3 lap U-bars 500 mm with


main steel, curtail T1 leg of U-bar 0.1ll (= say 500 mm) from face
of support.

§A free unsupported edge is required to use ‘longitudinal and transverse Cl. 9.3.1.4.(1)
reinforcement’ generally using U-bars with legs at least 2h long. For slabs
150 mm deep or greater, SMDSC[9] standard detail recommends U-bars lapping
500 mm with bottom steel and extending 0.1ll top into span.

39
3.2 Continuous one-way solid slab
Mabl\Ze\neZmbhgblbgm^g]^]mhlahpbg]^mZbema^ikhoblbhglh_]^lb`gbg`ZleZ[mh>nkh\h]^+
nlbg`^ll^gmbZeerma^lZf^leZ[Zlnl^]bg>qZfie^,'*'

Ikhc^\m]^mZbel <Ze\neZm^][r chg Ch[gh' CCIP – 041


Continuous one-way solid slab <a^\d^][r web La^^mgh' 1
<eb^gm TCC =Zm^ Oct 09

A 175 mm thick continuous slab is required to support screed, finishes,


an office variable action of 2.5 kN/m2 and demountable partitions
(@ 2 kN/m). The slab is supported on 200 mm wide load-bearing block
walls at 6000 mm centres. fck = 30, fyk = 500 and the design life is
50 years. A fire resistance of 1 hour is required.

qk = 3.3 kN/m2
gk = 5.9 kN/m2

200 5800 200 5800

Figure 3.3 Continuous solid slab

3.2.1 Actions
kN/m2
Permanent:
As Section 3.1.1 gk = 5.9

Variable:
As Section 3.1.1 jk = 3.3 EC1-1-1:
6.3.1.2(8)
3.2.2 Cover
Nominal cover, cnom:
As Section 3.1.2 cnom = 25 mm

3.2.3 Load combination (and arrangement)


Ultimate action (load):
As Section 3.1.3, BS EN 1990 Exp. (6.10b) governs Fig. 2.5
EC0:
= n = 1.25 × 5.9 + 1.5 × 3.3 = 12.3 kN/m2
Exp. (6.10b)
3.2.4 Analysis
Clear span, ln = 5800 mm
a1 = min[h/2; t/2] = min[175/2; 200/2] = 87.5 mm Cl. 5.3.2.2(1)
a2 = min[h/2; t/2] = min[175/2; 200/2] = 87.5 mm
leff = 5975 mm

40
,'+3<hgmbgnhnlhg^&pZrlheb]leZ[
LeZ[l

Bending moment:
End span MEd = 0.086 × 12.3 × 5.9752 = 37.8 kNm/m Cl. 5.1.1(7)
1st internal support MEd = 0.086 × 12.3 × 5.9752 = 37.8 kNm/m Table C2

Internal spans MEd = 0.063 × 12.3 × 5.9752 = 27.7 kNm/m


and supports

Shear:
End support VEd = 0.40 × 12.3 × 5.975 = 29.4 kN/m
1st interior support VEd = 0.60 × 12.3 × 5.975 = 44.1 kN/m

3.2.5 Flexural design: span


a) End span (and 1st internal support)
Effective depth, d:
d = h − cnom − f/2
= 175 − 25 − 12/2 = 144 mm
Relative flexural stress, K:
K = MEd/bd2fck = 37.8 × 106/1000 × 1442 × 30 = 0.061
K' = 0.207 Appendix A1
or restricting x/d to 0.45
K' = 0.168
= by inspection, section is under-reinforced
(i.e. no compression reinforcement required).
Lever arm, z:
z = (d/2) [1 + (1 − 3.53K)0.5] ≤ 0.95d‡ Fig. 3.5
= (144/2) [1 + (1 − 3.53 × 0.061)0.5] = 0.945d = 136 mm Appendix A1
Area of steel, As:
As = MEd/fydz
= 37.8 × 106/(500/1.15 × 136) = 639 mm2/m
(r = 0.44%)
Try H12 @ 175 B1 (645 mm2/m)
b) Internal spans and supports
Lever arm, z:
By inspection, z = 0.95d = 0.95 × 144 = 137 mm Fig. 3.5
Appendix A1
Area of steel, As:
As = MEd/fydz
= 27.7 × 106/(500/1.15 × 137) = 465 mm2/m
(r = 0.32%)
Try H12 @ 225 B1 (502 mm2/m)

‡ Designers may choose to use another form of this equation:


z/d = 0.5 + (0.25 − 0.882K)0.5 ≤ 0.95

41
3.2.6 Deflection: end span
Check end span-to-effective-depth ratio.
Allowable l/d
d = N × K × F1 × F2 × F3 Appendix B
where
N = basic effective depth to span ratio:
r = 0.44%
r0 = fck0.5 × 10−3 = 0.55% = use Exp. (7.16a) Cl. 7.4.2(2)
N = 11 + 1.5fck0.5
r0/rr+ 3.2fck0.5
r−
(r0/r 1)1.5 Exp. (7.16a)
= 11 + 1.5 × 300.5 × 0.55/0.44 + 3.2 × 300.5 (0.55/0.44 – 1)1.5
= 11.0 + 10.3 + 2.2 = 23.5
K = structural system factor Cl. 7.4.2
= 1.3 (end span of continuous slab)
F1 = flanged section factor Cl. 7.4.2
= 1.0 (beff/bw = 1.0)
F2 = factor for long spans associated with brittle partitions Cl. 7.4.2
= 1.0 (span < 7.0 m)
F3 = 310/ ss ≤ 1.5 Cl. 7.4.2, Exp. (7.17)
Table 7.4N & NA,
Table NA.5:
Note 5
where‡
ss = (ffyk/ gS) (As,reqq/As,prov) (SLS loads/ULS loads (1/d) Exp. (7.17)
= fyd × (As,reqq/As,prov) × (gk + c2 qk)/(g
gGgk + gQqk) (1/d) EC0: A1.2.2
Table C14
= (500/1.15) × (639/645) × [(5.9 + 0.3 × 3.3)/12.3] × 1.08§
= 434.8 × 0.99 × 0.56 × 1.08 = 260 MPa
F3 = 310/260 = 1.19
Note: As,prov/As,req ≤ 1.50 Table 7.4N & NA,
Table NA.5:
Note 5
Allowable l/d
d = N × K × F1 × F2 × F3
= 23.5 × 1.3 × 1.0 × 1.19
= 36.4
Max. span = 36.4 × 144 = 5675 mm, i.e. < 5795 mm = No good
Try increasing reinforcement to H12 @ 150 B1 (754 mm2/m)

ss = 434.8 × 639/754 × 0.56 × 1.08 = 223


F3 = 310/223 = 1.39
Allowable l/d
d = 23.5 × 1.3 × 1.0 × 1.39
= 42.5
‡ See Appendix B1.5
§ The use of Table C3 implies certain amounts of redistribution, which are defined in
Table C14.

42
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LeZ[l

Max. span = 42.5 × 144 = 6120 mm, i.e. > 5795 mm OK


2
= H12 @ 150 B1 (754 mm /m) OK
3.2.7 Deflection: internal span
Check internal span-to-effective-depth ratio.
Allowable l/d = N × K × F1 × F2 × F3
where
N = basic effective depth to span ratio:
r = 0.32%
r0 = fck0.5 × 10−3 = 0.55% = use Exp. (7.16a) Cl. 7.4.2(2)
N = 11 + 1.5fck0.5
r0/rr+ 3.2fck0.5 r−
(r0/r 1)1.5 Exp. (7.16a)
= 11 + 1.5 × 300.5× 0.55/0.32 + 3.2 × 300.5 (0.55/0.32 – 1)1.5
= 11.0 + 14.1 + 10.7 = 35.8
K = structural system factor
= 1.5 (interior span of continuous slab) Cl. 7.4.2
F1 = flanged section factor
= 1.0 (beff/bbw = 1.0) Cl. 7.4.2
F2 = factor for long spans associated with brittle partitions
= 1.0 (span < 7.0 m) Cl. 7.4.2
F3 = 310/ ss ≤ 1.5 Cl. 7.4.2, Exp.
(7.17), Table 7.4N
& NA, Table NA.5
Note 5.
where
ss = fyd × (As,reqq/As,prov) × (gk + c2 qk)/(g
gGgk + gQqk) (1/d) Exp. (7.17)
= (500/1.15) × (465/502) × [(5.9 + 0.3 × 3.3)/12.3] × 1.03 EC0: A1.2.2
= 434.8 × 0.93 × 0.56 × 1.03 = 233 MPa Table C14

F3 = 310/233 = 1.33
Allowable l/d
d = N × K × F1 × F2 × F3
= 35.8 × 1.5 × 1.0 × 1.33
= 71.4
Max. span = 71.4 × 144 = 10280 mm i.e. > 5795 mm OK
Use H12 @ 225 B1 (502 mm2/m) in internal spans
p
3.2.8 Shear
Design shear force, VEd:
At d from face of end support,
VEd= 29.4 – (0.144 + 0.0875) × 12.3 = 26.6 kN/m Cl. 6.2.1(8)
At d from face of 1st interior support,
VEd = 44.1 − (0.144 + 0.0875) × 12.3 = 41.3 kN/m

Shear resistance, VRd,c:


VRd,c = (0.18/ gC)k(100 rl fck)0.333 bwd ≥ 0.0035kk1.5fck0.5bwd Cl. 6.2.2(1)

43
where
k = 1 + (200/d)0.5 ≤ 2.0 as d < 200 mm
k = 2.0
rl = Asl/bd
Assuming 50% curtailment (at end support)
= 50% × 754/(144 × 1000) = 0.26%
VRd,c = (0.18/1.5) × 2.0 × (100 × 0.26/100 × 30)0.33 × 1000 × 144
= 0.12 × 2 × 1.97 × 1000 × 144
= 0.47 × 1000 × 144 = 68.1 kN/m
But VRd,cmin = 0.035k1.5fck0.5 bwd
where
k = 1 + (200/d)0.5 ≤ 2.0; as before k = 2.0
VRd,cmin = 0.035 × 21.5 × 300.5 × 1000 × 144
= 0.54 × 1000 × 144 = 77.6 kN/m
= VRd,c = 77.6 kN/m
= OK, no shear reinforcement required at end or 1st internal
supports
= H12 @ 150 B1 & H12 @ 175 T1 OK

By inspection, shear at other internal supports OK.

3.2.9 Summary of design


H12 @ 175
fck = 30 MPa
P
cnom = 25 mm
H12 @ 150 H12 @ 225

Figure 3.4 Continuous solid slab: design summary

Commentary
It is usually presumed that the detailer would take the design
summarised above together with the general arrangement illustrated
in Figure 3.3 and detail the slab to normal best practice. The
detailer’s responsibilities, standards and timescales should be clearly
defined but it would be usual for the detailer to draw and schedule
not only the designed reinforcement but all the reinforcement
required to provide a compliant and buildable solution. The work
would usually include checking the following aspects and providing
appropriate detailing :
t Minimum areas
t Curtailment lengths
t Anchorages

44
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LeZ[l

t Laps
t U-bars
t Rationalisation
t Critical dimensions
t Details and sections

The determination of minimum reinforcement areas, curtailment


lengths, anchorages and laps using the principles in Eurocode 2 is
shown in detail in the following calculations. In practice these would
be determined from published tables of data or by using reference
texts[8, 9]. Nonetheless the designer should check the drawing
for design intent and compliance with standards. It is therefore
necessary for the designer to understand and agree the principles
of the detailing used.

3.2.10 Detailing checks


a) Minimum areas

Minimum area of longitudinal tension (flexural) reinforcement


As,min = 0.26(ffctm/ffyk) btd ≥ 0.0013 btd Cl. 9.3.1.1, 9.2.1.1
where
bt = width of tension zone
fctm = 0.30 × fck0.667 Table 3.1
As,min = 0.26 × 0.30 × 300.6677 × 1000 × 144/500 = 216 mm2/m
r = 0.15%)
(r
= H12 @ 225 B1 OK
Secondary (transverse reinforcement)
Minimum 20% As,req Cl. 9.3.1.1(2)
20% As,reqq = 0.2 × 502 = 100 mm2/m
Consider As,min to apply as before. SMDSC[9]
As,min = 216 mm2/m
Try H10 @ 350 B2 (224 mm2/m)
Check edge.
Assuming partial fixity exists at edges, 25% of As is required Cl. 9.3.1.2(2)
to extend 0.2 × the length of the adjacent span.

As,reqq = 25% × 639 = 160 mm2/m


As,min as before = 216 mm2/m Cl. 9.3.1.1, 9.2.1.1
= Use H10 @ 350 (224 mm2/m) U-bars at edges

45
Curtail 0.2 × 5975 = 1195 mm, say 1200 mm measured from face Cl. 9.3.1.2(2)
of support‡.

Maximum spacing of bars


Maximum spacing of bars < 3h < 400 mm OK Cl. 9.3.1.1.(3)
Crack control
As slab < 200 mm, measures to control cracking are unnecessary. Cl. 7.3.3(1)
However, as a check on end span: Cl. 7.3.3(2),
Loading is the main cause of cracking, 7.3.1.5
= use Table 7.2N or Table 7.3N for wmax = 0.4 mm and ss = 241 MPa
(see deflection check).
Max. bar size = 20 mm Table 7.2N &
or max. spacing = 250 mm interpolation,
= H12 @ 150 B1 OK. Table 7.3N &
interpolation
End supports: effects of partial fixity
Assuming partial fixity exists at end supports, 15% of As is required Cl. 9.3.1.2(2)
to extend 0.2 × the length of the adjacent span.
As,reqq = 15% × 639 = 96 mm2/m
But, As,min as before = 216 mm2/m
(rr = 0.15%) Cl. 9.3.1.1, 9.2.1.1
One option would be to use bob bars, but choose to use U-bars
Try H12 @ 450 (251 mm2/m) U-bars at supports
pp
Curtail 0.2 × 5975 = say, 1200 mm measured from face of support.‡ Cl. 9.3.1.2(2)
b) Curtailment
i) End span, bottom reinforcement
Assuming end support to be simply supported, 50% of As should
Cl. 9.3.1.2(1)
extend into the support.
50% × 639 = 320 mm2/m
Try H12 @ 300 (376 mm2/m) at supports
pp
In theory, 50% curtailment of reinforcement may take place al from Cl. 9.3.1.2(1)
where the moment of resistance of the section with the remaining Note, 9.2.1.3 (2)
50% would be adequate to resist the applied bending moment. In
practice, it is usual to determine the curtailment distance as being
al from where MEd = MEd,max/2.

‡DetailMS2 of SMDSC[9], suggests 50% of T1 legs of U-bars should extend 0.3l


(= say 1800 mm) from face of support by placing U-bars alternately reversed.

46
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A B

a) Load arrangement
r

A B
X

MEd,max

MEdx = RAX – nXX 2/2

b) Bending moment MEdx

A B
lbd
987 MEdx /z

633 lbd TTensile force


in reinforcement, Fs
TTensile resistance of reinforcement

c) Tensile
T force in bottom reinforcement

50%
50%
A
B
987
633 (say 500)
(say 850)

d) Curtailment of bottom reinforcement

Figure 3.5 Curtailment of bottom reinforcement: actions, bending


moments, forces in reinforcement and curtailment

Thus, for a single simply supported span supporting a UDL of n,


MEd,max = 0.086nl 2; RA = 0.4nl
At distance, XX, from end support, moment,
MEd@XX = RAX – nX 2/2
= when M@XX = MEd,max/2:
0.086nl 2/2 = 0.4nlXX – nX 2/2

47
Assuming X = xl
0.043nl2 = 0.4nlxll – nxx2l2/2
0.043 = 0.4xx – x2/2
0 = 0.043 – 0.4xx + x2/2
x = 0.128 or 0.672, say 0.13 and 0.66
= at end support 50% moment occurs at 0.13 x span
0.13 × 5975 = 777 mm
Shift rule: for slabs, al may be taken as d (= 144 mm), Cl. 9.2.1.3(2),
= curtail to 50% of required reinforcement at 777 – 144 6.2.2(5)
= 633 mm from centreline of support.
Say 500 mm from face of support
pp A
= in end span at 1st internal support 50% moment occurs at 0.66
× span
0.66 × 5975 = 3944 mm

Shift rule: for slabs al may be taken as d (= 144 mm), Cl. 9.2.1.3(2),
= curtail to 50% of required reinforcement at 3944 + 144 6.2.2(5)
= 4088 mm from support A
or 5975 – 4088 = 987 mm from centreline of support B.
Say 850 mm from face of support
pp B
ii) 1st interior support, top reinforcement Cl. 9.3.1.2(1)
Presuming 50% curtailment of reinforcement is required this may Note, 9.2.1.3(2)
take place al from where the moment of resistance of the section
with the remaining 50% would be adequate. However, it is usual to
determine the curtailment distance as being al from where MEd =
MEd,max/2.
Thus, for the 1st interior support supporting a UDL of n,
MEd,maxTT = 0.086nl 2; RB = 0.6nl
At distance Y from end support, moment,
MEd@Y Y = MEd,maxTT – RAY + nY 2/2
= when M@Y Y = MEd,maxT /2
0.086nl 2/2 = 0.086nl 2 – 0.6nlY Y + nY 2/2
Assuming Y = yl
0.043nl 2 = 0.086nl 2 – 0.6nlyll + ny 2l 2/2
0 = 0.043 − 0.6yy + y 2/2
y = 0.077 (or 1.122), say 0.08
= at end support 50% moment occurs at 0.08 × span
0.08 × 5975 = 478 mm
Shift rule: for slabs, al may be taken as d 144 mm Cl. 9.2.1.3(2),
= curtail to 50% of required reinforcement at 478 + 144 6.2.2(5)
= 622 mm from centreline of support.
50% of reinforcement may be curtailed at, say,
600 mm from either face of support
pp B

48
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100% curtailment may take place al from where there is no hogging


moment. Thus,
when M@Y = MEd,maxT/2
0 = 0.086nl2 – 0.6nlY + nY2/2

Assuming Y = yl
0 = 0.086 – 0.6y + y2/2
y = 0.166 (or 1.034), say 0.17
= at end support 50% moment occurs at 0.17 × span
0.17 × 5975 = 1016 mm
Shift rule: for slabs, al may be taken as d
= curtail to 100% of required reinforcement at 1016 + 144
= 1160 mm from centreline of support.
100% of reinforcement may be curtailed at, say,
1100 mm from either face of support B.
iii) Support B bottom steel at support
At the support 25% of span steel required Cl. 9.3.1.1(4),
9.2.1.5(1),
9.2.1.4(1)
0.25 × 639 = 160 mm2
As,min as before = 216 mm2/m Cl. 9.3.1.1, 9.2.1.1
For convenience use H12 @ 300 B1 (376 mm2/m)

c) Anchorage at end support


As simply supported, 50% of As should extend into the support. Cl. 9.2.1.2(1) &
This 50% of As should be anchored to resist a force of Note, 9.2.1.4(2)
FE = VEd × al/z Exp. (9.3)
where
VEd = the absolute value of the shear force
al = d, where the slab is not reinforced for shear Cl. 9.2.1.3(2)
z = lever arm of internal forces
FE = 29.4 × d/0.95‡ d = 30.9 kN/m
Anchorage length, lbd: Cl. 8.4.4
lbd = alb,rqd ≥ lb,min Exp. (8.4)
where
a = conservatively 1.0
lb,rqd = basic anchorage length required
= (f/4) (ssd/fbd) Exp. (8.3)
where
f = diameter of the bar = 12 mm
ssd = design stress in the bar at the ultimate limit state
= FE/As,prov
= 30.9 × 1000/376 = 81.5 MPa

‡ Maximum z = 0.947 at mid-span and greater towards support.

49
fbd = ultimate bond stress
= 2.25 n1 n2 fct,d Cl. 8.4.2(2)
where
n1 = 1.0 for ‘good’ bond conditions and 0.7 for all other
conditions = 1.0
n2 = 1.0 for bar diameter ≤ 32 mm
fct,d = design tensile strength Cl. 3.1.6(2) &
= act fct,k/ gC. For fck = 30 MPa NA, Tables 3.1
= 1.0 × 2.0/1.5 = 1.33 MPa & 2.1N
=f[] = 2.25 × 1.33 = 3.0 MPa
lb,rqd = (12/4) (81.5/1.33) = 183 mm
lb,min = max(10d, 100 mm) = 120 mm Exp. (8.6)
lbd = 183 mm measured from face of support Fig. 9.3
By inspection, using U-bars, OK
d) Laps
Lap H12 @ 300 U-bars with H12 @ 150 straights.
Tension lap, l0 = a1 a2 a3 a5 a6 lb,rqd a l0min Exp. (8.10)
where
a1 = 1.0 (straight bars) Table 8.2
a2 = 1 − 0.15 (cd − f)/f
where
cd = min(pitch, side cover or cover) Fig. 8.4
= 25 mm
f = bar diameter
= 12 mm
a2 = 0.84 Table 8.2
a3 = 1.0 (no confinement by reinforcement)
a5 = 1.0 (no confinement by pressure)
a6 = 1.5 Table 8.3
lb,rqd = (f/4) ssd/fbd Exp. (8.3)
where
ssd = the design stress at ULS at the position from
where the anchorage is measured.
Assuming lap starts 500 mm from face of
support (587.5 mm from centreline of support):
MEd = 29.5 × 0.59 − 12.3 × 0.592/2
= 15.2 kNm
ssd = MEd /(Asz)
= 15.2 × 106/(376 × 144/0.95) = 267 MPa
fbd = ultimate bond stress Cl. 8.4.2(2)
= 2.25 n1 n2 fct,d

50
,'+3<hgmbgnhnlhg^&pZrlheb]leZ[

where
n1 = 1.0 for ‘good’ conditions
n2 = 1.0 for f < 32 mm
fct,d = act fct,k/gC

where
act = 1.0 Cl. 3.1.6 (2) & NA
fct,k = 2.0 Table 3.1
gC = 1.5 Table 2.1N & NA
=f[] = 2.25 × 2.0/1.5 = 3.0 MPa
lb,rqd = (f/4) ssd/fbd
= (12/4) × (267/3) = 267 mm
l0min b = max[0.3 a6 lb,rqd; 15f/ 200 mm] Exp. 8.6
= max[0.3 × 1.5 × 229; 15 × 12; 200]
= max[124; 180; 200] = 200 mm
= l0 = a1 a2 a3 a5 a6 lb,rqd ≥ l0min
= 1.0 × 0.84 × 1.0 × 1.0 × 1.5 × 329 ≥ 200 = 414 mm
But good practice suggests minimum lap of max[tension lap; 500]
= lap with bottom reinforcement = 500 mm starting 500 from SMDSC[9]: MS2
face of support.

3.2.11 Summary of reinforcement details


A

200
1200 500 600 600 500
H12 U-bars @ 300 H12 @ 175 T1

H12 @ 150 H12 @ 300 H12 @ 225


200 500 500 500 350 350 500
200
A

Figure 3.6 Continuous solid slab: reinforcement details

1200

500 H10 @ 350 B2

Figure 3.7 Section A–A showing reinforcement details at edge

51
3.3 Continuous ribbed slab
Ikhc^\m]^mZbel <Ze\neZm^][r chg Ch[gh' CCIP – 041
Continuous ribbed slab <a^\d^][r web La^^mgh' 1
<eb^gm TCC =Zm^ Oct 09

This continuous 300 mm deep ribbed slab has spans of 7.5 m,


9.0 m and 7.5 m and is required for an office to support a variable
action of 5 kN/m2. It is supported on wide beams that are the same
depth as the slab designed in Section 4.3. One hour fire resistance
is required: internal environment. The ribs are 150 mm wide @ 900
mm centres. Links are required in span to facilitate prefabrication of
reinforcement. Assume that partitions are liable to be damaged by
excessive deflections. In order to reduce deformations yet maintain a
shallow profile use fck = 35 MPa and fyk = 500 MPa.

gk = 4.17 kN/m2
gk = 4.3 kN/m2
qk = 5.0 kN/m2

A B C D
7500 9000 7500
550 1000 1000 1000 1000 550

Figure 3.8 Continuous ribbed slab example


p

Notes on ribbed slab design


There are various established methods for analysing ribbed slabs and dealing
with the solid areas:
t Using UDLs simplifies the analysis and remains popular. One method is
to ignore the weight of the solid part of the slab in the analysis of the
ribbed slab. (The weight of the solid area is then added to the loads on the
supporting beam). This ignores the minor effect the solid areas have on
bending in the ribbed slab.
t Alternatively the weight of the solid part of the slab is spread as a UDL
over the whole span. This is conservative both in terms of moment and
shears at solid/shear interfaces but underestimates hogging in internal
spans.
t The advent of computer analysis has made analysis using patch loads
more viable and the resulting analysis more accurate.
t The ribbed part of the slab may be designed to span between solid areas.
(The ribs span d/2 into the solid areas, which are assumed to act as
beams in the orthogonal direction.) However, having to accommodate
torsions induced in supporting beams and columns usually makes it simpler
to design from centreline of support to centreline of support.
t Analysis programs can cope with the change of section and therefore
change of stiffness along the length of the slab. Moments would be
attracted to the stiffer, solid parts at supports. However, the difference in
stiffness between the ribbed and the solid parts is generally ignored.

52
,',3<hgmbgnhnlkb[[^]leZ[

In line with good practice analysis, this example is carried out using
centreline of support to centreline of support and patch loads‡.
Constant stiffness along the length of the slab has been assumed.

CL CL

A
100

300

A
200 550 1000 200

Figure 3.9 Long section through slab

150 750 150

Figure 3.10 Section A–A: section through ribbed slab

3.3.1 Actions
Permanent: UDL kN/m2
Self-weight: kN/m2
Rib 0.15 × 0.2 × 25/0.9 = 0.833
Slope 2 × (1/2) × 0.2/10 × 0.2 × 25/0.9 = 0.112
Slab 0.1 × 2.5 = 2.500
Cross rib 0.19 × 0.71 × 0.2 × 25/(0.9 × 7.5) = 0.100
Total self-weight = 3.545 ≈ 3.55
Ceiling = 0.15
Services = 0.30
Raised floor = 0.30
Total permanent actions gk = 4.30

‡ In this case, assuming the patch load analysis is accurate, taking the weight
of solid area to be spread over the whole span would overestimate span and
support moments by 6–8% and shears at the solid/rib interface by 8–9%.
Ignoring the weight of the solid area in the analysis of this ribbed slab would
lead to underestimates of span moments by 1%, support moments by 3% and
no difference in the estimation of shear at the solid shear interface. The latter
may be the preferred option.

53
Permanent: patch load
Extra over solid in beam area as patch load
(0.2 × 25 – 0.833) = 4.167 gk ≈ 4.17
Variable
Imposed = 4.00*
Allowance for partitions = 1.00*
Total variable action gk = 5.00

3.3.2 Cover
Nominal cover, cnom:
cnom = cmin + Dcdev Exp. (4.1)
where
cmin = max(cmin,b ; cmin,dur)
where
cmin,b = minimum cover due to bond Cl. 4.4.1.2(3)
= diameter of bar.
Assume 20 mm main bars and 8 mm links
cmin,dur = minimum cover due to environmental conditions.
Assuming XC1 and C30/37 concrete, cmin,durr = 15 mm Table 4.1.
BS 8500-1:
Table A4
Dcdev = allowance in design for deviation. Assuming no
measurement of cover Dcdev = 10 mm Cl. 4.4.1.2(3)
= cnom = 20 + 10 to main bars or
= 15 + 10 to links = critical
Fire: EC2-1-2: 5.7.5(1)
Check adequacy of section for REI 60.
Minimum slab thickness, hs = 80 mm OK EC2-1-2: Table 5.8
Axis distance required
Minimum rib width bmin = 120 mm with a = 25 mm EC2-1-2: Table 5.6
or bmin = 200 mm with a = 12 mm
= at 150 mm wide (min.) a = 20 mm
By inspection, not critical.
Use 25 mm nominal cover to links

3.3.3 Load combination and arrangement


Ultimate load, n:
By inspection, Exp. (6.10b) is critical Fig. 2.5
nslab = 1.25 × 4.30 + 1.5 × 5.0 = 13.38 kN/m2 EC0: Exp. (6.10b)
nsolid areas = 1.25 × (4.30 + 4.17) + 1.5 × 5.0 = 18.59 kN/m2

*Client requirements. See also BS EN 1991–1–1, Tables 6.1, 6.2, Cl. 6.3.2.1(8) & NA.

54
,',3<hgmbgnhnlkb[[^]leZ[

Arrangement:
Choose to use all-and-alternate-spans-loaded. Cl. 5.1.3(1) & NA
option b
3.3.4 Analysis
Analysis by computer, includes 15% redistribution at support and EC0: A1.2.2
none in the span.§ & NA, 5.3.1 (6)

90.7 kNm/m 90.7 kNm/m


100

80
60
40
20
0
–20 A B C D

–40
–60
–80 – 65.3 kNm/m – 61.1 kNm/m – 65.3 kNm/m
a) Elastic moments

100
77.1 kNm/m 77.1 kNm/m
80
60
40
20
0

–20 A B C D

–40
–60
–80 –61.7 kNm/m –55.9 kNm/m –61.7 kNm/m

b) Redistributed envelope

Figure 3.11 Bending moment diagrams

§ Note 1: A ribbed slab need not be treated as discrete elements provided

rib spacing ≤ 1500 mm, depth of the rib ≤ 4 × its width, the flange is > 0.1 ×
distance between ribs and transverse ribs are provided at a clear spacing not
exceeding 10 × overall depth of the slab.
Note 2: As 7.5 m < 85% of 9.0 m, coefficients presented in Concise Eurocode 2[5]
are not applicable.

55
80
42.5 kN/m 63.2 kN/m 63.5 kN/m

40

0
A B C D
– 40

– 80 – 63.5 kN/m – 63.2 kN/m – 42.5 kN/m

At solid/rib interface:
AB @ 550 mm from A
MEd (sagging) = 20.4 kNm/m z 18.3 kNm/rib
VEd = 32.5 kN/m z 29.3 kN/rib

BA @1000 mm from B
MEd (hogging) = 47.1 kNm/m z 42.4 kNm/rib
VEd = 45.4 kN/m z 40.9 kN/rib
BC @ 1000 mm from B
MEd (hogging) = 43.0 kNm/m z 38.7 kNm/rib
VEd = 45.1 kN/m z 40.6 kN/rib
Symmetrical about centreline of BC.

3.3.5 Flexural design, span A–B


a) Span A–B: Flexure
MEd = 61.7 kNm/m
= 55.5 kNm/rib
K = MEd/bd 2fck
where
b = 900 mm
d = 300 − 25 – 8 – 20/2 = 257
assuming 8 mm link at H20 in span
fck = 35 MPa
=K = 55.5 × 106/(900 × 2572 × 35) = 0.027
K' = 0.207 Appendix A1
or restricting x/d to 0.45
K' = 0.168
K ≤ K' = section under-reinforced and no compression
reinforcement required.

56
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z = (d/2) [1 + (1 − 3.53K)0.5] ≤ 0.95d Appendix A1


= (257/2) (1 + 0.951) ≤ 0.95 × 257
= 251 ≤ 244 = z = 244 mm
But z = d – 0.4x Appendix A1
= x = 2.5(d − z) = 2.5(257 − 244) = 33 mm
= By inspection, neutral axis is in flange
As = MEd/fydz
where
_r] = 500/1.15 = 434.8 MPa
= 55.5 × 106/(434.8 × 244) = 523 mm2/rib
Try 2 no. H20/rib (628 mm2/rib)
b) Span A–B: Deflection
Allowable l/d = N × K × F1 × F2 × F3 Appendix C7
where
N = Basic l/d: check whether r > r0 and whether to use Cl. 7.4.2(2)
Exp. (7.16a) or Exp. (7.16b)
r0 = fck0.5/1000 = 350.5/1000 = 0.59%
r = As/Ac‡ = As,req/[bwd + (beff – bw)hf] PD 6687[6]
where
bw = min. width between tension and compression
chords. At bottom assuming 1/10 slope to rib:
= 150 + 2 × (25 + 8 + 20/2)/10
= 159 mm
r = 523/(159 ( 257 + (900 − 159) × 100)
= 523/114963
= 0.45%
r < r0 = use Exp. (7.16a)

N = 11 + 1.5fck0.5r /r0 + 3.2fck0.5(r /r0 – 1)1.5] Exp. (7.16a)


= 11 + 1.5 × 350.5
× 0.055/0.045 + 3.2 × 350.5
(0.055/0.045 – 1)1.5
= [11 + 10.8 + 2.0] = 22.8
K = (end span) 1.3 Table 7.4N &
NA, Table NA.5:
Note 5
F1 = (beff /bw = 5.66) 0.8
F2 = 7.0/leff = 7.0/7.5 = (span > 7.0 m) 0.93 Cl. 7.4.2(2)
F3 = 310/ ss ≤ 1.5 Cl. 7.4.2, Exp. (7.17)
& NA; Table NA.5

‡ Section 2.18 of PD 6687 [6] suggests that r in T-beams should be based on


the area of concrete above the centroid of the tension steel.

57
where‡
ss = (fyk/gS) (As,req/As,prov) (SLS loads/ULS loads) (1/d)
= 434.8(523/628) [ (4.30 + 0.3 × 5.0)/13.38]
(65.3/61.7§)
= 434.8 × 0.83 × 0.43 × 1.06
= 164 MPa
F3 = 310/ss
= 310/164 = 1.89# but ≤ 1.5, therefore say 1.50
= Permissible l/d = 22.8 × 1.3 × 0.8 × 0.93 × 1.50 = 33.0
Actual l/d = 7500/257 = 29.2 = OK
Use 2 no. H20/rib (628 mm2/rib)

c) Support A (and D): flexure (sagging) at solid/rib interface


Reinforcement at solid/rib interface needs to be designed for both
moment and for additional tensile force due to shear (shift rule) Cl. 9.2.1.3.(2)
MEd,max = 18.3 kNm/rib
VEd,max = 29.3 kNm/rib
At solid/rib interface
As = MEd/fydz + DFtd /fyd Cl. 9.2.1.3.(2),
Fig. 9.2
where
z = (d/2) [1 + (1 − 3.53K)0.5] ≤ 0.95d
where
K = MEd/bd2fck
where
b = 900 mm
d = 300 − 25 – 8 – 25 − 20/2 = 232
assuming 8 mm links and H25B in edge beam
fck = 30
= 18.3 × 106/(900 × 2322 × 35) = 0.011

‡ See Appendix B1.5


§ In analysis, 15% redistribution of support moments led to redistribution of span
moments:
d = 61.7/65.3 = 0.94.
# Both As,prov/As,req and any adjustment to N obtained from Exp. (7.16a) or Exp.
(7.16b) is restricted to 1.5 by Note 5 to Table NA.5 in the UK NA. Therefore, 310/
ss is restricted to 1.5.

58
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25 cover
12 fabric
8 link
16 bar

16 bar
20 bar 25 bar
8 link 8 link
25 cover 25 cover

=z= (232/2) (1 + 0.980) ≤ 0.95 × 232 Appendix A1


= 230 ≤ 220 = z = 220 mm
fyd = 434.8 MPa
DFtd = 0.5VEd (cot y – cot a) Cl. 6.2.3(7),
Exp. (6.18)
where
y = angle between the concrete compression strut and the Cl. 6.2.3(1)
beam axis. Assume cot y = 2.5 (as a maximum) Appendix A2
a = angle between shear reinforcement and the beam axis. Appendix C,
Table C6
For vertical links, cot a = 0
Cl. 6.2.3(1)
DFtd = 1.25VEd = 1.25 × 29.3 = 36.6 kN
As = 18.3 × 106/(434.8 × 220) + 36.6 × 103/434.8
= 191 + 84 mm2 = 275 mm2
=Try 1 no. H20 B in end supports*
d) Support B (and C) (at centreline of support)
MEd = 77.1 kNm/m
= 69.4 kNm/rib
K = MEd/bd2fck
where
d = 300 − 25 cover − 12 fabric − 8 link − 20/2
= 245
K = 69.4 × 106/(900 × 2452 × 35) = 0.037
By inspection, K ≤ K'
z = (245/2) [1 + (1 − 3.53 K)0.5] ≤ 0·95d
= (245/2) (1 + 0.932) < 0.95d
= 237 mm
As = MEd/fydz
= 69.4 × 106/434.8 × 237 = 673 mm2/rib

* An alternative method would have been to calculate the reinforcement required


to resist MEd at the shift distance, al, from the interface.

59
e) Support B (and C): flexure (hogging) at solid/rib interface
Reinforcement at solid/rib interface needs to be designed for both Cl. 9.2.1.3.(2)
moment and for additional tensile force due to shear (shift rule).
MEd,max = 42.4 kNm/rib max.
VEd,max = 40.9 kNm/rib max.
As = MEd/fydz + DFtd/fyd Cl. 9.2.1.3.(2)
where
z = (245/2) [1 + (1 − 3.53 K)0.5] ≤ 0·95d
where
K = MEd/bd2fck
= 42.4 × 106/(150 × 2452 × 35)
= 0.135
Check K ≤ K'
K' = 0.168 for d = 0.85 (i.e. 15% redistribution) Appendix C,
= Section under-reinforced: no compression reinforcement required Table C4
Appendix A
= z = (245/2) (1 + 0.723) ≤ 232 = 211 mm
fyd = 434.8 MPa
DFtd = 0.5VEd (cot y – cot a) Cl. 6.2.3(7),
Exp. (6.18)
where
y = angle between the concrete compression strut and the Cl. 6.2.3(1)
beam axis. Assume cot y = 2.5 (as a maximum) Appendix A2;
a = angle between shear reinforcement and the beam axis. For Table C6
vertical links, cot a = 0 Cl. 6.2.3(1)
DFtd = 1.25VEd = 1.25 × 40.9 = 51.1 kN
As = 42.4 × 106/(434.8 × 211) + 51.1 × 103/434.8
= 462 + 117 mm2 = 579 mm2/rib
To be spread over beff where by inspection, beff = 900. Cl. 9.2.1.2(2)
=Centre of support more critical (679 mm2/rib required). Cl. 5.3.2.1(3)
Top steel may be spread across beff where Cl. 9.2.1.2(2),
beff = bw + beff1 + beff2 ≤ b 5.3.2
= bw + 2 × 0.1 × 0.15 × (l1 + l2)
= 150 + 0.03 × (7500 + 9000) ≤ 900
= 645 mm
= Use 2 no. H16 above rib and 3 no. H12 between (741 mm2/rib)
where 2 no. H16 and 2 no. H12 are within beff

3.3.6 Flexural design, span BC


a) Span B–C: Flexure
MEd = 55.9 kNm/m
= 50.3 kNm/rib

60
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K = MEd/bd2fck
= 50.3 × 106/900 × 2572 × 35
= 0.02 i.e. ≤ K’ (as before K’ = 0.168)
By inspection,
z = 0.95d = 0.95 × 257 = 244 mm
By inspection, neutral axis is in flange.
As = MEd/fydz
= 50.3 × 106/434.8 × 244 = 474 mm2
Try 2 no. H20/rib (628 mm2/rib)
b) Span B–C: Deflection
Allowable l/d = N × K × F1 × F2 × F3 Section C7
where
N = Basic l/d Cl. 7.4.2(2)
r = 474/(159 (× 257 + (900 − 159) × 100)
= 474/114963
= 0.41%
r0 = 0.59% (for fck = 30)
= r < r0 use Exp. (7.16a)
N = 11 + 1.5 fck0.5 r0/r + 3.2fck0.5 (r0/r – 1)1.5 Exp. (7.16a)
= 11 + 1.5 × 350.5 × 0.055/0.041 + 3.2 × 350.5 (0.055/0.041 − 1)1.5
= 11 + 11.9 + 3.8 = 26.7
K = (internal span) 1.5 Table 7.4N, &
F1 = (beff/bw = 6.0) 0.8 NA, Table NA.5:
Note 5
F2 = 7.0/leff = 7.0/9.0 = (span > 7.0 m) 0.77 Cl. 7.4.2(2)
F3 = 310/sS ≤ 1.5 Cl. 7.4.2,
where Exp. (7.17)
ss = (fyk /gS) (As,req/As,prov) (SLS loads/ULS loads) (1/d) & NA: Table NA.5
= 434.8 × (474/628) [(4.30 + 0.3 × 5.0)/13.38](61.1/55.9)
= 434.8 × 0.75 × 0.43 × 1.09
= 153 MPa
F3 = 310/ ss
= 310/153 = 2.03 therefore, say = 1.50‡ NA, Table NA.5:
Note 5
= Permissible l/d = 26.8 × 1.5 × 0.8 × 0.77 × 1.50 = 37.1
Actual l/d = 9000/257 = 35 = OK
=Use 2 H20/rib (628 mm2/rib)

‡ Both A
s,prov/As,req and any adjustment to N obtained from Exp. (7.16a) or
Exp. (7.16b) is restricted to 1.5 by Note 5 to Table NA.5 in the UK NA.

61
3.3.7 Design for shear
CL CL

10
1
b = 150

a) Support A (and D) at solid/rib interface


Shear at solid/rib interface = 29.3 kN/rib
Taking solid area as the support, at d from face of support Cl. 6.2.1(8)
VEd = 29.3 − 0.232 × 0.90 × 13.38 = 26.5 kN/rib Cl. 6.2.2(1) & NA
Resistance
VRd,c = (0.18/gC)k (100 rl fck)0.333 bwd
where
gC = 1.5
k = 1 + (200/d)0.5 ≤ 2
= 1 + (200/257)0.5
= 1.88

rl = Asl/bwd
where
Asl = assume only 1 H20 anchored = 314 mm2
bw = min. width between tension and compression chords.
At bottom assuming 1/10 slope to rib:
= 150 + 2 × (25 + 8 + 20/2)/10
= 159 mm
d = 257 mm as before
rl = 314/(159 × 257) = 0.0077
fck = 35
=VRd,c = (0.18/1.5) 1.88 (100 × 0.0077 × 35)0.333 × 159 × 257
= 0.68 × 159 × 257 = 27.8 kN/rib
= No shear links required. Cl. 6.2.1(5)
But use nominal links to allow prefabrication.
b) Support B (and C) at solid/rib interface
Shear at solid/rib interface = 40.9 kN/rib [max(BA; BC)]
At d from face of support Cl. 6.2.1(8)
VEd = 40.9 − 0.245 × 13.38 × 0.9 = 37.9 kN/rib

62
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Resistance:
VRd,c = (0.18/ gC)k (100 rl fck)0.333 bwd Cl. 6.2.2(1) & NA
where
gC = 1.5
k = 1 + (200/d)0.5 ≤ 2
= 1 + (200/245)0.5
= 1.90
rl = Asl/bwd
where
Asl = 2 H16 = 402 mm2
bw = 159 mm as before
d = 245 mm as before
rl = 0.0103
fck = 35 MPa
= VRd,c = (0.18/1.5) 1.9 (100 × 0.0103 × 35)0.333 × 159 × 245
= 0.75 × 159 × 245 = 29.2 kN/rib
= Shear links required.
Shear links required for a distance:
(37.9 − 29.2)/(13.38 × 0.9) + 245 = 722 + 245 = 967 mm
from interface.
Check shear capacity:
VRd,max = acw bw zvfcd/(cot y + tan y) Exp. (6.9) & NA
where
acw = 1.0
bw = 159 mm as before
z = 0.9d
v = 0.6 (1 − fck/250) = 0.528
fcd = 35/1.5 = 23.3 MPa
y = angle of inclination of strut.
Rearranging formula above:
(cot y + tan y) = acwbwzvfcd/VEd
= (1.0 × 159 × 0.9 × 245 × 0.528 × 23.3)
41.6 × 103
= 10.4
By inspection, cot−1y << 21.8. But cot y restricted to 2.5 and Cl. 6.2.3(2) & NA
= tan y = 0.4.
VRd,max = 1.0 × 159 × 0.9 × 245 × 0.528 × 20/(2.5 + 0.4) = 127.6 kN
= OK

63
Shear links: shear resistance with links
VRd,s = (Asw/s) z fywd cot y ≤ VRd,max Exp. (6.8)
where
Asw/s = area of legs of links/link spacing
z = 0.9d as before
fywd = 500/1.15 = 434.8
cot y = 2.5 as before
= for VEd ≤ VRd,s
Asw/s ≥ VEd/z fywd cot y
≥ 37.9 × 103/(0.9 × 245 × 434.8 × 2.5) ≥ 0.158
Maximum spacing of links = 0.75d = 183 mm Cl. 9.2.2(6)
= Use H8 @ 175 cc in 2 legs (Asw /s = 0.57) for min. 967 mm into rib

3.3.8 Indirect supports


As the ribs of the slab are not supported at the top of the Cl. 9.2.5, Fig. 9.7
supporting beam sections (A, B, C, D), additional vertical
reinforcement should be provided in these supporting beams and
designed to resist the reactions. This additional reinforcement
should consist of links within the supporting beams (see Beams
design, Section 4.3.9).

Support A (and D) at solid/rib interface:


VEd = 26.5 kN/rib Fig. 9.7
As,req = 26.3 × 1000/(500/1.15) = 60 mm2
This area is required in links within h/6 = 300/6 = 50 mm of the
ribbed/solid interface and within h/2 = 300/2 = 150 mm of the
centreline of the rib.

Support B (and C) at solid/rib interface:


VEd = 37.9 kN/rib
As,req = 37.9 × 1000/(500/1.15) = 87 mm2 placed similarly

3.3.9 Other checks


Check shear between web and flange Cl. 6.4.2 (6) & NA
By inspection, VEd ≤ 0.4 fct,d = OK

64
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3.3.10 Summary of design


2H16 + 3H12/rib 2H16 + 3H12/rib

H8 links in 2 legs
@ 175cc
2H20/rib 2H20/rib 2H20/rib
A B C D
550 1050 1000 1000 1050 1050 1000 1000 1050 550
7500 9000 7500

fck = 35 MPa
cnom = 25 mm

Figure 3.15 Summary of design

Commentary
It is usually presumed that the detailer would take the above
design and detail the slab to normal best practice. As stated
in Section 3.2.9, the detailer’s responsibilities, standards and
timescales should be clearly defined but it would be usual for the
detailer to draw and schedule not only the designed reinforcement
but all the reinforcement required to provide a buildable solution.

The work would usually include checking the following aspects and
providing appropriate detailing:
t Minimum areas
t Curtailment lengths
t Anchorages
t Laps
t U-bars
t Rationalisation
t Details and sections

The determination of minimum reinforcement areas, curtailment


lengths and laps using the principles in Eurocode 2 is shown in
detail in the following calculations. In practice these would be
determined from published tables of data or by using reference
texts [12, 21]. Nonetheless the designer should check the drawing
for design intent and compliance with standards. It is therefore
necessary for the designer to understand and agree the principles
of the details used.

3.3.11 Detailing checks


a) Minimum areas
i) Minimum area of reinforcement in flange
As,min = 0.26 (fctm/fyk) btd ≥ 0.0013 btd Cl. 9.3.1.1

65
where Cl. 9.2.1.1,
bt = width of tension zone Exp. (9.1N)
fctm = 0.30 × fck0.666 Table 3.1
As,min = 0.26 × 0.30 × 350.666 × 1000 × 100/500 = 166 mm2/m
(r = 0.17%)
= Use A142 in flange (say OK) BS 8666[19]
ii) Secondary reinforcement
Not applicable.
iii) Maximum spacing of bars
Maximum spacing of bars < 3 h < 400 mm
By inspection. OK Cl. 9.3.1.1.(3)
iv) Crack control
Loading is the main cause of cracking = use Table 7.2N or Table 7.3N for Cl. 7.3.3(2)
wmax = 0.3 mm and max. ss = 200 MPa (see deflection check) Cl. 7.3.1.5
Max. bar size = 25 mm Table 7.2N
or max. spacing = 250 mm Table 7.3N
OK by inspection
v) Effects of partial fixity
Assuming partial fixity exists at end supports, 15% of As is required Cl. 9.3.1.2(2)
to extend 0.2 × the length of the adjacent span.
As,req = 15% × 525 = 79 mm2/rib
For the rib in tension:
As,min = 0.26 × 0.30 × 300.666 × 159 × 257/500 = 55 mm2/rib
b) Curtailment
Wherever possible simplified methods of curtailing reinforcement
would be used. The following is intended to show how a rigorous
assessment of curtailment of reinforcement might be undertaken.
i) End support A: bottom steel at support Cl. 9.3.1.1(4),
Check anchorage. 9.3.1.2(1) &
As simply supported, 25% of As should be anchored in support. Note,
25% × 595 = 148 mm2 Cl. 9.2.1.4(1)
Use 1 no. H20/rib (314 mm2/rib) & NA
ii) Check anchorage length
Envelope of tensile force: Cl. 9.3.1.1(4),
To resist envelope of tensile force, provide reinforcement to al or lbd 9.2.1.3(1),
beyond centreline of support. Cl. 9.2.1.3(2),
For members without shear reinforcement, al = d = 232 9.2.1.3(3), Fig. 9.2
By inspection, ssd = 0, lbd = lbd,min = max(10f, 100 mm) Cl. 9.2.1.3
iii) Indirect support
Cl. 9.3.1.1(4),
As anchorage may be measured from face of indirect support, check 9.2.1.4(2),
force to be resisted at solid/rib interface: 9.2.1.4(3),
Fs = MEd/z + FE Fig. 9.3b

66
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where
MEd = 18.3 kNm/rib
z = 220 as before Exp. (9.3)
FE = VEd × al/z
where Cl. 9.2.1.3,
VEd = 29.3 kN/rib Exp. (9.2)
al = z cot y/2
 = FE = VEd cot y/2
= 29.3 × 1.25 = 36.6 kN/rib
Fs = 18.6 × 106/(220 × 103) + 36.6 = 121.1 kN
iv) Anchorage length:
lbd = alb,rqd ≥ lb,min Cl. 8.4.4,
where Exp. (8.4)
a = conservatively 1.0
lb,rqd = (f/4) (ssd/fbd) Exp. (8.3)
where
f = 20
ssd = design stress in the bar at the ULS
= 121.1 × 1000/314 = 385 MPa
fbd = ultimate bond stress
= 2.25 n1 n1 fct,d Cl. 8.4.2(2)
where
n1 = 1.0 for good bond conditions
n2 = 1.0 for bar diameter ≤ 32 mm
fct,d = act fct,k/gC Cl. 3.1.6(2),
= 1.0 × 2.2/1.5 Tables 3.1,
= 1.47 MPa 2.1 & NA
fbd = 2.25 × 1.47 = 3.31 MPa
= lb,rqd = (20/4) (385/3.31) = 581 mm Fig. 9.3
lb,min = max[10f; 100 mm] = 200 mm
 = lbd = 581 mm measured from solid/rib intersection.
i.e. 31 mm beyond centreline of support‡.
v) End support A: top steel
Assuming partial fixity exists at end supports, 15% of As is required Cl. 9.3.1.2(2)
to extend at least 0.2 × the length of the adjacent span§.
As,req = 15% × 525 = 79 mm2/rib
As,min = 0.26 × 0.30 × 350.666 × 159 × 257/500 = 68 mm2/rib Cl. 9.3.1.1
Cl. 9.2.1.1(1),
Use 2 no. H12 T1/rib in rib and 2 no. H10 T1/rib between ribs Exp. (9.1N)
(383 mm2/rib)
‡ Whilst this would comply with the requirements of Eurocode 2, it is common practice

to take bottom bars 0.5 × a tension lap beyond the centreline of support
(= 250 mm beyond the centreline of support; see model detail MS1 in SMDSC[9]).
§ It is usual to curtail 50% of the required reinforcement at 0.2l and to curtail the

remaining 50% at 0.3l or line of zero moment (see model detail MS2 in SMDSC[9]).

67
vi) Support B (and C): top steel
At the centreline of support (2 no. H16 T + 3 no. H12 T)/rib are
required. The intention is to curtail in two stages, firstly to 2 no.
H16 T/rib then to 2 no. H12 T/rib.

Curtailment of 2 no. H16 T/rib at support


(capacity of 2 no. H12 T/rib + shift rule):
Assume use of 2 no. H12 T throughout in midspan:
Assuming z = 211 mm as before,
MR2H12T = 2 × 113 × 434.8 × 211
= 20.7 kNm/rib (23.0 kNm/m)
(Note: section remains under-reinforced)

From analysis MEd = 23.0 kNm/m occurs at 2250 mm (towards A)


and 2575 mm (towards B).
Shift rule: al = z cot y/2
Assuming z = 211 mm as before
al = 1.25 × 211 = 264 mm
= 2 no. H12 T are adequate from 2250 + 264 = 2513 mm from B
towards A and 2575 + 263 = 2838 mm from B towards C.
= Curtail 2 no. H16 T @ say 2600 from BA and 2850 from BC

Curtailment of 3 no. H12 T/rib at support (capacity of 2 no. H16


T/rib + shift rule):
MR2H16T = 2 × 201 × 434.8 × 211
= 36.9 kNm/rib (41.0 kNm/m)
(Note: section remains under-reinforced)
From analysis MEd = 41.0 kNm/m occurs at 1310 mm (towards A)
and 1180 mm
(towards C).
Shift rule: al = 263 mm as before
= 2 no. H16 T are adequate from 1310 + 263 = 1573 mm from B
towards A and 1180 + 263 = 1443 mm from B towards C.
= Curtail 3 no. H12 at say 1600 from B (or C).
(See Figure 3.16)
vii) Support B (and C): bottom steel at support Cl. 9.3.1.1(4),
At the support 25% of span steel required 9.2.1.5(1),
0.25 × 628 = 157 mm2 9.2.1.4(1)
Try 1 no. H16 B/rib (201)

This reinforcement may be anchored into indirect support or carried Fig. 9.4
through.

68
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2H16 + 3H12
per rib
a1 = 264 MEd = 77.1 x 0.9 = 60.4 kNm/rib
‘Shift’ moment

MR = As(fyk/gS)z
2H16/rib
lbd MEd

MEd = 36.79 kNm/rib


2H12/rib

MEd = 20.7 kNm/rib

A B C
264 1310 1180 264
2250 2575
264 264
a) Design moments and moment resistance

2H12 3H12 2H12

2H16
1600 1600
2600 2850
b) Curtailment of reinforcement
p p

viii) Support B (and C): bottom steel curtailment BA and BC


To suit prefabrication 2 no. H20/rib will be curtailed at solid/rib
interface, 1000 mm from BA (B towards A) and BC.
From analysis, at solid/rib interface sagging moment = 0.
From analysis, at a1 from solid/rib interface, i.e. at 1000 + 1.25 × 244
= 1303 mm
at 1305 mm from BA sagging moment = say 5 kNm/rib
at 1305 mm from BC sagging moment = 0
Use 1 no. H16 B/rib (201)
c) Laps
At AB, check lap 1 no. H20 B to 2 no. H20 B in rib full tension lap:
l0 = a1 a6 lb,rqd > l0,min Exp. (8.10)
where
a1 = 1.0 (cd = 45 mm, i.e. < 3f) Table 8.2
a6 = 1.5 (as > 50% being lapped)
lb,rqd = (f/4) (ssd/fbd)
where
f = 20
ssd = 434.8
fbd = 3.0 MPa as before

69
l0,min = max. 10f or 100 = 200 Exp. (8.6)
l0 = 1.0 × 1.5 × (20/4) × 434.8/3.0
= 1087 mm, say = 1200 mm SMDSC[9]
At BA and BC, check lap 2 no. H12 T to 2 no. H16 T in rib – full tension lap:
l0 = a1 a6 lb,rqd > l0,min Exp. (8.10)
where
a1 = 0.7 (cd = 45 mm, i.e. > 3f) Table 8.2
a6 = 1.5 (as > 50% being lapped)
lb,rqd = (f/4) (ssd/fbd)
where
f = 20
ssd = 434.8
fbd = 2.1 (3.0 MPa as before but n1 = 0.7 for “not good bond Cl. 8.4.2
conditions”)
l0,min = max. 10f or 100 = 120
l0 = 0.7 × 1.5 × (12/4) × 434.8/2.1
= 651 mm, say = 700 mm SMDSC[9]
But to aid prefabrication take to solid/rib intersection 1000 mm
from centre of support.
At BA and BC, check lap 1 no. H16 B to 2 no. H20 B in rib:
By inspection, nominal say, 500 mm SMDSC[9]
d) RC detail of ribbed slab
Links not shown for clarity. Cover 25 mm to links.

600 600 600


200 200 1500 1000 1000 1000 1250 1250 1000

2H12T in rib 2H16 + 3H12/rib


and 2H1OT 2H16 + 3H12/rib A143
between 2H12T 2H12T/rib fabric

2H12 2H12 + 2H1O 2H16 3H12 2H12 2H12 3H12 2H16 2H16 3H12 2H12

1H20B 2H20B/rib 1H16B/rib 2H20B/rib 1H16B/rib

150 550 1200 500 1000 1000 500 500 1000 1000

7500 9000

Figure 3.17 Curtailment of flexural reinforcement in ribbed slab

70
,',3<hgmbgnhnlkb[[^]leZ[

3.4 Flat slab


Mabl^qZfie^bl_hkma^]^lb`gh_Zk^bg_hk\^]\hg\k^m^_eZmleZ[pbmahnm\henfga^Z]l'Ma^leZ[
bliZkmh_ZeZk`^k_ehhkieZm^Zg]blmZd^g_khf@nb]^mhma^]^lb`gZg]\hglmkn\mbhgh_k^bg_hk\^]
\hg\k^m^_eZmleZ[lT+0V%pa^k^_bgbm^^e^f^gmZgZerlblZg]]^lb`gmh>nkh\h]^+blbeenlmkZm^]':l
pbmama^@nb]^%`kb]ebg^<pbee[^]^lb`g^][nm%_hkma^lZd^h_beenlmkZmbhg%\h^__b\b^gmlpbee[^
nl^]mh^lmZ[ebla]^lb`gfhf^gmlZg]la^Zklbgmabl\kbmb\ZeZk^Zh_ma^leZ['

Ikhc^\m]^mZbel <Ze\neZm^][r chg Ch[gh' CCIP – 041


Flat slab <a^\d^][r web La^^mgh' 1
<eb^gm TCC =Zm^ Oct 09

The slab is for an office where the specified load is 1.0 kN/m2 for
finishes and 4.0 kN/m2 imposed (no partitions). Perimeter load is
assumed to be 10 kN/m. Concrete is C30/37. The slab is 300 mm
thick and columns are 400 mm square. The floor slabs are at 4.50 m
vertical centres. A 2 hour fire rating is required.

A B Bb C
4.0 4.0 4.0 6.0 D
1 E

200 x 200
hole
8.0

2 9.6

300 mm flat slabs


8.0 All columns 400 mm sq.

3 8.6
200 x 200
hole

Figure 3.18 Part p


plan of flat slab

3.4.1 Actions
kN/m2
Permanent: EC1-1-1:
Self-weight 0.30 × 25 = 7.5 Table A1
Finishes = 1.0
Total gk = 8.5
Variable:
Offices jk = 4.0‡

‡ Client requirement. See also BS EN 1991–1–1, Tables 6.1, 6.2, Cl. 6.3.2.1(8) & NA.

71
3.4.2 Cover
cnom:
cnom = cmin + Dcdev Exp. (4.1)
where
cmin = max[cmin,b ; cmin,dur; 10 mm] Cl. 4.4.1.2(3)
where
cmin,b = 20 mm, assuming 20 mm diameter reinforcement
cmin,dur = 15 mm for XC1 and using C30/37 Table 4.1.
BS 8500-1:
Dcdev = 10 mm
Table A4.
Fire:
For 2 hours resistance, amin = 35 mm = not critical EC2-1-2:
= cnom = 20 + 10 = 30 mm Table 5.9

3.4.3 Load combination and arrangement


qk = 4.0 kN/m2
gk = 8.5 kN/m2

1 2 3
9600 8600

Figure 3.19 Panel centred on grid C


Ultimate load, n: Fig. 2.5
By inspection, Exp. (6.10b) is critical. EC0: Exp. (6.10b)
n = 1.25 × 8.50 + 1.5 × 4.0 = 16.6 kN/m2
Arrangement:
Choose to use all-and-alternate-spans-loaded load cases and Cl. 5.1.3(1) & NA:
coefficients‡. Table NA.1
(option b)
3.4.4 Analysis grid line C
Consider grid line C as a bay 6.0 m wide. (This may be conservative
for grid line C but is correct for grid line D etc.)
MEd
Effective spans:
9600 – 2 × 400/2 + 2 × 300/2 = 9500 mm Cl. 5.3.2.2(1)
8600 – 2 × 400/2 + 2 × 300/2 = 8500 mm
Check applicability of moment coefficients:
8500/9500 = 0.89 = as spans differ by less than 15% of larger Tables C2 & C3
span, coefficients are applicable.

‡The all-spans-loaded case with 20% redistribution of support moments would


Cl. 5.3.1 & NA
also have been acceptable but would have involved some analysis. The use of Table
5.9 in BS EN 1992–1–2 (Fire resistance of solid flat slabs) is restricted to where
Table C3
redistribution does not exceed 15%; the coefficients presume 15% redistribution
at supports.

72
,'-3?eZmleZ[

As two span, use table applicable to beams and slabs noting Table C3
increased coefficients for central support moment and shear.
Design moments in bay.
Spans:
MEd = (1.25 × 8.5 × 0.090 + 1.5 × 4.0 × 0.100)× 6.0 × 9.52 = 842.7 kNm
Support:
MEd = 16.6 × 0.106 × 6.0 × 9.52 = 952.8 kNm
C D
6000

1
1500 Column
strip

Middle
strip

1500
2 Column
1500 strip

1500 1500 3000 1500 1500


Column strip Middle strip Column strip

Figure 3.20 Column and middle strips


p
Apportionment of moments between column strips and middle strips:
Apportionment (as %)
Column strip Middle strip
–ve (hogging) Long span = 70%§ Long span = 30% Table I.1;
Short span = 75% Short span = 25% CS Flat slab
+ve (sagging) 50% 50% guide[27]
Table I.1
Parallel to grid C, column strip is ly/2 = 3 m wide. The middle strip is NA.3[1a]; Fig. I.1
also 3 m wide.
Long span moments:
MEd
Column strip, 3 m wide Middle strip, 3 m wide
–ve (hogging) 0.70 × 952.8/3.0 = 222.3 kNm/m 0.30 × 952.8/3.0 = 95.3 kNm/m
+ve (sagging) 0.50 × 842.7/3.0 = 140.5 kNm/m 0. 50 × 842.7/3.0 = 140.5 kNm/m

§The Concrete Society’s TR 64[27] recommends a percentage, k1, based on ly /lz


Assuming ly /lz = 1.5 the distribution of moments in the long span between column
strips and middle strips is given as 70% and 30%.

73
Punching shear force, VEd:
At C2,
VEd = 16.6 × 6.0 × 9.6‡ × 0.63 × 2 = 1204.8 kN Table C3
At C1 (and C3)
VEd = 16.6 × 6.0 × 9.6 × 0.45 + (10 + 0.2 × 0.3 × 25)§ × 1.25 × 6.0 Table C3
= 516.5 kN

3.4.5 Design grid line C


Effective depth, d:
d = 300 − 30 − 20/2 = 260 mm
a) Flexure: column strip and middle strip, sagging
MEd = 140.5 kNm/m
K = MEd/bd2fck = 140.5 × 106/(1000 × 2602 × 30) = 0.069
z d = 0.94
z/ Table C5
z = 0.94 × 260 = 244 mm
As = MEd/ffyd z = 140.5 × 106/(244 × 500/1.15) = 1324 mm2/m
r = 0.51%)
(r
Try H20 @ 200 B1 (1570 mm2/m)
b) Deflection: column strip and middle strip
Check span-to-effective-depth ratio. Appendix B
Allowable l/
l d = N × K × F1 × F2 × F3 Cl. 7.4.2(2)
where Appendix C
N = 20.3 (r = 0.51%, fck = 30) Tables C10–C13
K = 1.2 (flat slab)
F1 = 1.0 (beff/bbw = 1.0)
F2 = 1.0 (no brittle partitions)#
F3 = 310/s ss ≤ 1.5 Cl. 7.4.2, Exp. (7.17)
where* Table 7.4N, &
ss = ssu (As,reqq/As,prov) 1/d NA, Table NA.5
where Note 5
ssu = (500/1.15) × (8.5 + 0.3 × 4.0)/16.6 = 254 MPa
(or ≈ 253 MPa; from Figure C3
Gk/Qk = 2.1, c2 = 0.3 and gG = 1.25) Fig. C3
d = redistribution ratio = 1.03
= ss ≈ 253 × (1324/1570)/1.03 = 207 Fig. C14
= F3 = 310/207 = 1.50†
= Allowable l/
l d = 20.3 × 1.2 × 1.50 = 36.5
‡ As punching shear force (rather than a beam shear force) ‘effective’ span is not
appropriate.
§ Cladding and strip of slab beyond centre of support.
# Otherwise for flat slabs 8.5/9.5 = 0.89 as span > 8.5 m.
* See Appendix B1.5 Cl. 7.4.2(2)
† In line with Note 5 to Table NA.5, 1.50 is considered to be a maximum for 310/s
ss.

74
,'-3?eZmleZ[

Actual l/d = 9500/260 = 36.5 = OK‡


Use H20 @ 200 B1 (1570)§
c) Flexure: column strip, hogging
MEd = 222.3 kNm/m
K = MEd/bd2fck = 222.3 × 106/(1000 × 2602 × 30) = 0.109
z/d = 0.89 Table C5
z = 0.89 × 260 = 231 mm
As = MEd/fydz = 222.3 × 106/(231 × 500/1.15) = 2213 mm2/m
(r = 0.85%)
Try H20 @ 125 T1 (2512 mm2/m)#
d) Flexure: middle strip, hogging
MEd = 95.3 kNm/m
K = MEd/bd2fck = 95.3 × 106/(1000 × 2602 × 30) = 0.069
z/d = 0.95 Table C5
z = 0.95 × 260 = 247 mm
As = MEd/fydz = 95.3 × 106/(247 × 500/1.15) = 887 mm2/m
(r = 0.34%)
Try H16 @ 200 T1 (1005 mm2/m)
e) Requirements
i) In column strip, inside middle 1500 mm Cl. 9.4.1(2)
There is a requirement to place 50% of At within a width equal to
0.125 of the panel width on either side of the column.
Area required = (3 × 2213 + 3 × 887)/2 mm2
= 4650 mm2
Over width = 2 × 0.125 × 6.0 m = 1500 mm
i.e. require 4650/1.5 = 3100 mm2/m for 750 mm either side of the
column centreline.
Use H20 @ 100 T1 (3140 mm2/m)
750 mm either side of centre of support (16 no. bars)
(r = 0.60%)

ii) In column strip, outside middle 1500 mm


Area required = 3.0 × 2213 – 16 × 314 mm2
= 1615 mm2
Over width = 3000 – 2 × 750 mm = 1500 mm
i.e. 1077 mm2/m
Use H20 @ 250 T1 (1256 mm2/m)
in remainder of column strip
‡ Note: Continuity into columns will reduce sagging moments and criticality of
deflection check (see Figures 3.26 and 3.27).
§ Note requirement for at least 2 bars in bottom layer to carry through column.
# The hogging moment could have been considered at face of support to reduce the Cl. 9.4.1(3)
amount of reinforcement required.

75
iii) In middle strip Use H16 @ 200 T1 (1005 mm2/m)

iv) Perpendicular to edge of slab at edge column


Design transfer moment to column Mt = 0.17 bed 2fck Cl. 9.4.2(1),
where I.1.2(5)
be = cz + y = 400 + 400 = 800 mm Fig. 9.9
Mt = 0.17 × 800 × 2602 × 30 × 10−6 = 275.8 kNm
K = MEd/bd2fck = 275.8 × 106/(800 × 2602 × 30) = 0.170
z/d = 0.82
z = 0.82 × 260 = 213 mm
As = MEd/fydz = 275.8 × 106/(213 × 500/1.15) = 2978 mm2/m
This reinforcement to be placed within cx + 2cy = 1100 mm SMDSC[9]
Try 10 no. H20 T1 U-bars in pairs @ 200 (3140 mm2) local to column
(max. 200 mm from column)
Note:
Where a 200 × 200 hole occurs on face of column, be becomes 600 mm
and pro rata, As,req becomes 2233 mm2 i.e. use 4 no. H20 each side
of hole (2512 mm2).
v) Perpendicular to edge of slab generally
Assuming that there is partial fixity along the edge of the slab, top Cl. 9.3.1.2(2),
reinforcement capable of resisting 25% of the moment in the 9.2.1.4(1) & NA
adjacent span should be provided
0.25 × 2213 = 553 mm2/m OK
vi) Check minimum area of reinforcement
As,min = 0.26 (fctm/fyk) btd ≥ 0.0013 btd Cl. 9.3.1.1, 9.2.1.1
where
bt = width of tension zone Table 3.1
fctm = 0.30 × fck0.666
As,min = 0.26 × 0.30 × 300.666 × 1000 × 260/500 = 390 mm2/m
(r = 0.15%)
Use H12 @ 200 (565 mm2/m)

The reinforcement should extend 0.2h from edge = 600 mm Cl. 9.3.1.4(2)

3.4.6 Analysis grid line 1 (grid 3 similar)


Consider grid line 1 as being 9.6/2 + 0.4/2 = 5.0 m wide with
continuous spans of 6.0 m. Column strip is 6.0/4 + 0.4/2 = 1.7 m
wide. Consider perimeter load is carried by column strip only. Cl. 5.1.1(4)

76
,'-3?eZmleZ[

qk slab = 20.0 kN/m


gk cladding = 10.0 kN/m
gk slab = 42.5 kN/m

C 6000 D 6000 E 6000 F

Actions:
Permanent from slab gk = 5 × 8.5 kN/m2 = 42.5 kN/m
Variable from slab qk = 5 × 4.0 kN/m2 = 20.0 kN/m
Permanent perimeter load gk = 10.0 kN/m
Cl. 5.1.3(1) &
Load combination and arrangement: NA: Table NA.1
As before, choose to use all-spans-loaded case and coefficients (option c)
Ultimate load, n:
By inspection, Exp. (6.10b) is critical. Fig. 2.5
n = 1.25 × (42.5 +10) + 1.5 × 20 = 95.6 kN/m EC0: Exp. (6.10b)
Perimeter load, 10 × 1.25 = 12.5 kN/m
Effective span, leff
Effective span = 6000 – 2 × 400/2 + 2 × 300/2 = 5900 Cl. 5.3.2.2(1)

Design moments in bay, MEd:


In spans (worst case, end span assuming pinned support)
MEd = 0.086 × 83.0 × 5.92 = 248.5 kNm Table C2
At supports (worst case 1st support)
MEd = 0.086 × 83.0 × 5.92 = 248.5 kNm Table C2
Additional moment in column strip only due to perimeter load,
spans (and supports, worst case)
MEd = 0.086 × 12.5 × 5.92 = 37.4 kNm

Apportionment to column strips and middle strips: NA.3[1a]: Fig. I.1


Apportionment (as %)
Column strip, 1.7 m wide Middle strip Table I.1
–ve (hogging) Short span = 75% Short span = 25% CS Flat slab
guide[27]
+ve (sagging) 50% 50%

Short span moments:


MEd
Column strip, 1.7 m wide Middle strip, 3.3 m wide
–ve (hogging) (0.75 × 248.5 + 37.4)/1.70 0.25 × 248.5/3.3
= 131.6 kNm/m = 18.8 kNm/m
+ve (sagging) (0.50 × 248.5 + 37.4)/1.70 0.50 × 248.5/3.3
= 95.1 kNm/m = 37.6 kNm/m

77
Punching shear force, VEd
For internal supports, as before = 516.5 kN
For penultimate support, 516.5 × 1.18 = 609.5 kN Table C3

3.4.7 Design grid line 1 (grid 3 similar)


Cover:
cnom = 30 mm as before
d = 300 − 30 − 20 − 20/2 = 240 mm
a) Flexure: column strip, sagging
MEd = 95.1 kNm/m
K = MEd/bd2fck = 95.1 × 106/(1000 × 2402 × 30) = 0.055 Table C5
z/d = 0.95
z = 0.95 × 240 = 228 mm
As = MEd/fyd z = 95.1 × 106/(228 × 500/1.15) = 959 mm2/m
(r = 0.40%)
Try H16 @ 200 B2 (1005 mm2/m)
b) Deflection: column strip
Check span-to-effective-depth ratio. Appendix B
Allowable l/d = N × K × F1 × F2 × F3 Appendix C7
where Tables C10–C13
N = 26.2 (r = 0.40%, fck = 30) Cl. 7.4.2, Exp.
K = 1.2 (flat slab) (7.17), Table 7.4N
& NA,
F1 = 1.0 (beff/bw = 1.0)
Table NA.5:
F2 = 1.0 (no brittle partitions) Note 5
F3 = 310/ ss ≤ 1.5
where
ss = ssu (As,req/As,prov) 1/d
where
ssu ≈ 283 MPa (from Figure C3 and Gk/Qk
= 3.6, c2 = 0.3, gG = 1.25) Fig. C3
d = redistribution ratio = 1.08
= ss ≈ 283 × (959/1005)/1.08 = 250 Table C14
= F3 = 310/250 = 1.24 Fig. C3

=Allowable l/d = 26.2 × 1.2 × 1.24 = 39.0


Actual l/d = 5900/240 = 24.5 = OK
Use H16 @ 200 B2 (1005 mm2/m)
c) Flexure: middle strip, sagging
MEd = 37.6 kNm/m
By inspection, z = 228 mm
As = MEd/fydz = 37.6 × 106/(228 × 500/1.15) = 379 mm2/m
(r = 0.56%)

78
,'-3?eZmleZ[

By inspection, deflection OK.

Check minimum area of reinforcement.


As,min = 0.26 (fctm/fyk) btd ≥ 0.0013 btd Cl. 9.3.1.1, 9.2.1.1
where
bt = width of tension zone
fctm = 0.30 × fck0.666 Table 3.1
As,min = 0.26 × 0.30 × 300.666 × 1000 × 240/500 = 361 mm2/m
(r = 0.15%)
Use H12 @ 300 T2 (376 mm2/m)
d) Flexure: column strip, hogging
MEd = 131.6 kNm/m
K = MEd/bd2fck = 131.6 × 106/(1000 × 2402 × 30) = 0.076 Table C5
z/d= 0.928
z = 0.928 × 240 = 223 mm
As = MEd/fydz = 131.6 × 106/(223 × 500/1.15) = 1357 mm2/m
(r = 0.56%)
Try H20 @ 200 T2 (1570 mm2/m)‡
e) Flexure: middle strip, hogging
MEd = 18.8 kNm/m
By inspection, z = 228 mm Table C5
As = MEd/fydz = 18.8 × 106/(228 × 500/1.15) = 190 mm2/m
(r = 0.08%)
As,min as before = 361 mm2/m Cl. 9.3.1.1, 9.2.1.1
(r = 0.15%)
Try H12 @ 300 T2 (376 mm2/m)

f) Requirements
There is a requirement to place 50% of At within a width equal to 0.125 Cl. 9.4.1(2)
of the panel width on either side of the column. As this column strip is
adjacent to the edge of the slab, consider one side only:
Area required = (1.5 × 1357 + 3.3 × 190)/2 mm2
= 1334 mm2
Within = 0.125 × 6.0 m = 750 mm of the column centreline,
i.e. require 1334/0.75 = 1779 mm2/m for 750 mm from the column
centreline.

‡ The hogging moment could have been considered at face of support to reduce
the amount of reinforcement required. This should be balanced against the
effect of the presence of a 200 × 200 hole at some supports which would
have the effect of increasing K but not unduly increasing the total amount of
reinforcement required in the column strip (a 1.5% increase in total area would
been required).

79
Allowing for similar from centreline of column to edge of slab:
Use 6 no. H20 @ 175 T2(1794 mm2/m)
(r = 0.68%)
between edge and to 750 mm from centre of support

In column strip, outside middle 1500 mm, requirement is for


1.7 × 1357 – 6 × 314 = 422 mm2 in 750 mm, i.e. 563 mm2/m
Use H12 @ 175 T2 (646 mm2/m) in remainder of column strip

In middle strip Use H12 @ 300 T2 (376 mm2/m)

3.4.8 Analysis grid line 2


Consider panel on grid line 2 as being 9.6/2 + 8.6/2 = 9.1 m wide
and continuous spans of 6.0 m. Column strip is 6.0/2 = 3.0 m wide.
(See Figure 3.20).

qk slab = 36.4 kN/m


gk slab = 77.4 kN/m

C 6000 D 6000 E 6000 F

Figure 3.22 Internal p


panel on grid 2

Slab gk = 9.1 × 8.5 kN/m2 = 77.4 kN/m


Slab qk = 9.1 × 4.0 kN/m2 = 36.4 kN/m
Actions, load combination and arrangement: Cl. 5.1.3(1) &
Choose to use all-spans-loaded case. NA: Table NA.1
(option c)
Ultimate load, n:
By inspection, Exp. (6.10b) is critical. Fig. 2.5
n = 1.25 × 77.4 + 1.5 × 36.4 = 151.4 kN/m EC0: Exp. (6.10b)

Effective span, leff:


Effective span = 5900 mm as before. Cl. 5.3.2.2(1)

Design moments in bay, MEd:


Spans (worst case, end span assuming pinned support)
MEd = 0.086 × 151.4 × 5.92 = 453.2 kNm Table C2

Support (worst case 1st support)


MEd = 0.086 × 151.4 × 5.92 = 453.2 kNm Table C2
Additional moment in column strip only due to perimeter load.

80
,'-3?eZmleZ[

Apportionment to column strips and middle strips:


MEd
Column strip, 3.0 m wide Middle strip, 6.1 m wide
–ve (hogging) 0.75 × 453.2/3.0 0.25 × 453.2/6.1
= 113.3 kNm/m = 18.5 kNm/m
+ve (sagging) 0.50 × 453.2/3.0 0.50 × 453.2/6.1
= 75.5 kNm/m = 37.1 kNm/m

Punching shear force, VEd, as before.

3.4.9 Design grid line 2


Effective depth, d
d = 300 − 30 − 20 − 20/2 = 240 mm
a) Flexure: column strip, sagging
MEd = 75.5 kNm/m
By inspection, z = 228 mm Table C5
As = MEd/fydz = 75.5 × 106/(228 × 500/1.15) = 761 mm2/m
(r = 0.32%)
Try H16 @ 250 B2 (804 mm2/m)
Deflection: column strip
By inspection, OK.
b) Flexure: column strip, sagging
MEd = 37.1 kNm/m
By inspection, z = 228 mm
As = MEd/fydz = 37.1 × 106/(228 × 500/1.15) = 374 mm2/m
(r = 0.55%)
By inspection, deflection OK. Try H10 @ 200 B2 (393 mm2/m)
c) Flexure: column strip, hogging
MEd = 113.3 kNm/m
K = MEd/bd2fck = 113.3 × 106/(1000 × 2402 × 30) = 0.065 Table C5
z/d = 0.94
z = 0.928 × 240 = 225 mm

As = MEd/fydz = 113.3 × 106/(225 × 500/1.15) = 1158 mm2/m


(r = 0.48%)
Try H20 @ 250 T2 (1256 mm2/m)‡
d) Flexure: middle strip, hogging
MEd = 18.5 kNm/m
By inspection, z = 228 mm

‡ The hogging moment could have been considered at face of support to reduce

the amount of reinforcement required.

81
As = MEd/fydz = 18.5 × 106/(228 × 500/1.15) = 187 mm2/m
(r = 0.08%) Table C5
As before minimum area of reinforcement governs
As,min = 0.26 × 0.30 × 300.666 × 1000 × 240/500 = 361 mm2/m Cl. 9.3.1.1, 9.2.1.1
(r = 0.15%)
Try H12 @ 300 B2 (376 mm2/m)

e) Requirements
Regarding the requirement to place 50% of At within a width equal
to 0.125 of the panel width on either side of the column:
Area required = (3.0 × 1158 + 6.1 × 187)/2 mm2
= 2307 mm2
Within = 2 × 0.125 × 6.0 m = 1500 mm centred on the column
centreline,
i.e. require 2307/1.5 = 1538 mm2/m for 750 mm either side of the
column centreline.
Use H20 @ 200T2 (1570 mm2/m)
750 mm either side of centre of support
(r = 0.60%)

In column strip, outside middle 1500 mm, requirement is for


3.0 × 1158 – 1.5 × 1570 = 1119 mm2 in 1500 mm, i.e. 764 mm2/m
Use H16 @ 250 T2 (804 mm2/m) in remainder of column strip

In middle strip: Use H12 @ 300 T2 (376 mm2/m)

3.4.10 Punching shear, central column, C2


At C2, applied shear force, VEd = 1204.8 kN‡
a) Check at perimeter of column
vEd = bVEd /uid < vRd,max Cl. 6.4.3(2),
where 6.4.5(3)
b = factor dealing with eccentricity; recommended value 1.15
VEd = applied shear force Fig. 6.21N & NA
ui = control perimeter under consideration.
For punching shear adjacent to interior columns Cl. 6.4.5(3)
u0 = 2(cx + cy) = 1600 mm
d = mean effective depth = (260 + 240)/2 = 250 mm Exp. (6.32)
vEd = 1.15 × 1204.8 × 103/1600 × 250 = 3.46 MPa
vRd,max = 0.5vfcd Cl. 6.4.5(3) Note

‡Column C2 is taken to be an internal column. In the case of a penultimate


column, an additional elastic reaction factor should have been considered.

82
,'-3?eZmleZ[

where
v = 0.6(1 − fck/250) = 0.528
fcd = acclfck /gC = 1.0 × 1.0 × 30/1.5 = 20
= 0.5 × 0.528 × 20 = 5.28 MPa = OK Table C7 §
b) Check shear stress at control perimeter u1 (2d from face of column) Cl. 6.4.2
vEd = bVEd/u1d < vRd,c
where
b, VEd and d as before
u1 = control perimeter under consideration. Fig. 6.13
For punching shear at 2d from interior columns
u1 = 2(cx + cy) + 2Q × 2d = 4741 mm
vEd = 1.15 × 1204.8 × 103/4741 × 250 = 1.17 MPa
vRd,c = 0.18/ gC k (100 rlfck)0.333 Exp. (6.47) & NA
where
gC = 1.5
k = 1 + (200/d)0.5 ≤ 2 k = 1 + (200/250)0.5 = 1.89
rl = (rly rlz)0.5 = (0.0085 × 0.0048)0.5 = 0.0064 Cl. 6.4.4.1(1)
where
rer, rlz = Reinforcement ratio of bonded steel in the y and
z direction in a width of the column plus 3d each
side of column#
fck = 30
vRd,c = 0.18/1.5 × 1.89 × (100 × 0.0064 × 30)0.333 = 0.61 MPa
= Punching shear reinforcement required Table C5*

c) Perimeter at which punching shear links are no longer required Exp. (6.54)
uout = VEd × b/(d vRd,c)
uout = 1204.8 × 1.15 × 103/(250 × 0.61) = 9085 mm
Length of column faces = 4 × 400 = 1600 mm
Radius to uout = (9085 – 1600)/2Q = 1191 mm from face of column
Perimeters of shear reinforcement may stop 1191 – 1.5 × 250 = 816 m
from face of column Cl. 6.4.5(4) & NA
Shear reinforcement (assuming rectangular arrangement of links):
sr,max = 250 × 0.75 = 187, say = 175 mm Cl. 9.4.3(1)

§ At the perimeter of the column, v


Rd,max assumes the strut angle is 45°, i.e. that
cot y = 1.0. Where cot y = < 1.0, vRd,max is available from Table C7.
#The values used here for r ly , r lz ignore the fact that the reinforcement is
concentrated over the support. Considering the concentration would have given a
higher value of VRd,c at the expense of further calculation to determine r ly , r lz at
3d from the side of the column.
* vRd,c for various values of d and rl is available from Table C6.

83
Inside 2d control perimeter, st,max = 250 × 1.5 = 375, say 350 mm Cl. 9.4.3(2)
Outside control perimeter st,max = 250 × 2.0 = 500 mm
Assuming vertical reinforcement:
At the basic control perimeter, u1, 2d from the column‡:
Asw ≥ (vEd – 0.75vRd,c) sr u1/1.5fywd,ef) Exp. (6.52)
where
fywd,ef = effective design strength of reinforcement
= (250 + 0.25d) < fyd = 312 MPa Cl. 6.4.5(1)
For perimeter u1
Asw = (1.17 – 0.75 × 0.61) × 175 × 4741/(1.5 × 312)
= 1263 mm2 per perimeter
Asw,min ≥ 0.08fck0.5(sr st)/(1.5 fyk sin a + cos a) Exp. (9.11)
where
Asw,min = minimum area of a single leg of link
a = angle between main reinforcement and shear
reinforcement; for vertical reinforcement sin a = 1.0
Asw,min ≥ 0.08 × 300.5 (175 × 350)/(1.5 × 500) = 36 mm2
= Try H8 legs of links (50 mm2)
Asw /u1 ≥ 1263/4741 = 0.266 mm2/mm
Using H8 max. spacing = min[50/0.266; 1.5d] Cl. 9.4.3
= min[188; 375] = 188 mm cc
= Use min. H8 legs of links at 175 mm cc around perimeter u1
Perimeters at 0.75d = 0.75 × 250 = 187.5 mm Cl. 9.4.3(1)
say = 175 mm centres
d) Check area of reinforcement > 1263 mm2 in perimeters inside u1§
1st perimeter to be > 0.3d but < 0.5d from face of column. Say Fig. 9.10,
0.4d = 100 mm from face of column. Cl. 9.4.3(4)
By inspection of Figure 3.23 the equivalent of 10 locations are available
at 0.4d from column therefore try 2 × 10 no. H10 = 1570 mm2.
By inspection of Figure 3.23 the equivalent of 18 locations are
available at 1.15d from column therefore try 18 no. H10 = 1413 mm2.
By inspection of Figure 3.23 the equivalent of 20 locations are available
at 1.90d from column therefore try 20 no. H10 = 1570 mm2.
By inspection of Figure 3.23 beyond u1 to uout grid of H10 at 175 x 175 OK.

‡ Clause 6.4.5 provides Exp. (6.52), which by substituting v for v


Ed Rd,c, allows
Cl. 6.4.5
calculation of the area of required shear reinforcement, Asw, for the basic control Exp. 6.5.2
perimeter, u1.
§ The same area of shear reinforcement is required for all perimeters inside or

outside perimeter u1. See Commentary on design, Section 3.4.14. Punching shear
reinforcement is also subject to requirements for minimum reinforcement and
spacing of shear reinforcement (see Cl. 9.4.3). Cl. 9.4.3

84
,'-3?eZmleZ[

e) Summary of punching shear refreshment required at column C2


uout
C
Punching shear reinforcement S = 112 H10 legs of links
no longer required
1.5d = 375
u1 at 2d
175 175 175 175 200 200 200 175 175 175 175

from column
716
100 400 100
2
716

uout 175 175 175 175 200 200 200 175 175 175 175

375 716 100 400 100 716

Figure 3.23 Punching shear links at column C2 (112 no. links)


(column D2 similar)

3.4.11 Punching shear, edge column


Assuming penultimate support,
VEd = 1.18 × 516.5 = 609.5 kN Table C3
a) Check at perimeter of column
vEd = b VEd/uid < vRd,max Cl. 6.4.3(2),
where 6.4.5(3)
b = factor dealing with eccentricity; recommended value 1.4
VEd = applied shear force Fig. 6.21N & NA
ui = control perimeter under consideration. Cl. 6.4.5(3)
For punching shear adjacent to edge columns
u0 = c2 + 3d < c2 + 2c1
= 400 + 750 < 3 × 400 mm
= 1150 mm
d = as before 250 mm Exp. (6.32)
vEd = 1.4 × 609.5 × 103/1150 × 250 = 2.97 MPa
vRd,max, as before = 5.28 MPa = OK Cl. 6.4.5(3) Note

85
b) Check shear stress at basic perimeter u1 (2.0d from face of column) Cl. 6.4.2
vEd = bVEd/u1d < vRd,c
where
b, VEd and d as before
u1 = control perimeter under consideration. Fig. 6.15
For punching shear at 2d from edge column columns
u1 = c2 + 2c1+ Q × 2d = 2771 mm
vEd = 1.4 × 609.5 × 103/2771 × 250 = 1.23 MPa
vRd,c = 0.18/ gC × k × (100 rlfck)0.333 Exp. (6.47) & NA
where
gC = 1.5
k = as before = 1 +(200/250)0.5 = 1.89
rl = (r lyr lz )0.5
where Cl. 6.4.4.1(1)
rer, rlz = Reinforcement ratio of bonded steel in the y and z direction
in a width of the column plus 3d each side of column.
r ly: (perpendicular to edge) 10 no. H20 T2 + 6 no. H12
T2 in 2 × 750 + 400, i.e. 3818 mm2 in 1900 mm
=r ly = 3818/(250 × 1900) = 0.0080
r lz : (parallel to edge) 6 no. H20 T1 + 1 no. T12 T1 in 400 +
750 i.e. 1997 mm2 in 1150 mm.
=r lz = 1997/(250 × 1150) = 0.0069
r l = (0.0080 × 0.0069)0.5 = 0.0074
fck = 30
vRd,c = 0.18/1.5 × 1.89 × (100 × 0.0074 × 30)0.333 = 0.64 MPa Table C6‡
= Punching shear reinforcement required
C

3d = 750 400 3d = 750

H12 @ 200 U-bars 6H20T1 @175 10H20 U-bars in pairs @ 200 cc


400

1
3d = 750

H12 @ 175T1

Figure 3.24 Flexural tensile reinforcement adjacent to columns


C1 (and C3)

‡ vRd,c for various values of d and rl is available from Table C6.

86
,'-3?eZmleZ[

c) Perimeter at which punching shear links no longer required


uout = 609.5 × 1.4 × 103/(250 × 0.64) = 5333 mm Exp. (6.54)
Length attributable to column faces = 3 × 400 = 1200 mm
= radius to uout from face of column
= say (5333 − 1200)/Q = 1315 mm from face of column
Perimeters of shear reinforcement may stop 1370 – 1.5 × 250 Cl. 6.4.5(4)
= 940 mm from face of column. & NA

d) Shear reinforcement
As before, sr,max = 175 mm; st,max = 350 mm and Cl. 9.4.3(1),
fywd,ef = 312 MPa 9.4.3(2)
For perimeter u1
Asw ≥ (vEd – 0.75vRd,c) sr u1/1.5fywd,ef Exp. (6.52)
= (1.23 – 0.75 × 0.64) × 175 × 2771/(1.5 × 312)
= 777 mm2 per perimeter
Asw,min ≥ 0.08 × 300.5 (175 × 350)/(1.5 × 500) = 36 mm2 Exp. (9.11)
Asw/u1 ≥ 777/2771 = 0.28 mm2/mm
Using H8 max. spacing = 50/0.28 = 178 mm cc
=Use min. H8 (50 mm2) legs of links at 175 mm cc around perimeters:
perimeters at 175 mm centres

e) Check area of reinforcement > 777 mm2 in perimeters inside u1§ Fig. 9.10,
1st perimeter to be > 0.3d but < 0.5d from face of column. Say Cl. 9.4.3(4)
0.4d = 100 mm from face of column
By inspection of Figure 3.27 the equivalent of 6 locations are available
at 0.4d from column therefore try 2 × 6 no. H10 = 942 mm2

By inspection of Figure 3.27 the equivalent of 12 locations are


available at 1.15d from column therefore try 12 no. H10 = 942 mm2

By inspection of Figure 3.27 the equivalent of 14 locations are


available at 1.90d from column therefore try 14 no. H10 = 1099 mm2

By inspection of Figure 3.27 beyond u1 to uout grid of


H10 at 175 x 175 OK.

3.4.12 Punching shear, edge column with hole


Check columns D1 and D3 for 200 × 200 mm hole adjacent to column.
As previously described use 4 no. H20 U-bars each side of column for
transfer moment.
Assuming internal support, VEd = 516.5 kN

§ See Commentary on design Section 3.4.14. Punching shear reinforcement is


Cl. 9.4.3
also subject to requirements for minimum reinforcement and spacing of shear
reinforcement (see Cl. 9.4.3).

87
a) Check at perimeter of column
vEd = bVEd/uid < vRd,max Cl. 6.4.3(2),
where 6.4.5(3)
b = factor dealing with eccentricity; recommended value 1.4 Fig. 6.21N & NA
VEd = applied shear force
ui = control perimeter under consideration. For punching shear
adjacent to edge columns u0 = c2 + 3d < c2 + 2c1 Cl. 6.4.5(3)
= 400 + 750 < 3 × 400 mm
= 1150 mm
Allowing for hole, u0 = 1150 – 200 = 950 mm
d = 250 mm as before Exp. (6.32)
vEd = 1.4 × 516.5 × 103/950 × 250 = 3.06 MPa
vRd,max as before = 5.28 MPa = OK Cl. 6.4.5(3) Note

b) Check shear stress at basic perimeter u1 (2.0d from face of column) Cl. 6.4.2
vEd = bVEd/u1d < vRd,c
where
b, VEd and d as before
u1 = control perimeter under consideration. For punching shear Fig. 6.15
at 2d from edge column columns
u1 = c2 + 2c1+ Q × 2d = 2771 mm
Allowing for hole
200/(c1/2): x/(c1/2 + 2d) Fig. 6.14
200/200: x/( 200 + 500)
   = x = 700 mm
u1 = 2771 – 700 = 2071 mm
vEd = 1.4 × 516.5 × 103/2071 × 250 = 1.40 MPa
vRd,c = 0.18/gC × k × (100 rlfck)0.333 Exp. (6.47) & NA
where
gC = 1.5
k = as before = 1 + (200/250)0.5 = 1.89
rl = (r ly r lz )0.5
where
rer, rlz = Reinforcement ratio of bonded steel in the y and
z direction in a width of the column plus 3d each
side of column Cl. 6.4.4.1(1)
rly: (perpendicular to edge) 8 no. H20 T2 + 6 no. H12
T2 in 2 × 720 + 400 − 200, i.e. 3190 mm2 in 1640 mm.
=r ly = 3190/(240 × 1640) = 0.0081
rlz: (parallel to edge) 6 no. H20 T1 (5 no. are
effective) + 1 no. T12 T1 in 400 + 750 – 200, i.e.
1683 mm2 in 950 mm.
=r lz = 1683/(260 × 950) = 0.0068

88
,'-3?eZmleZ[

rl = (0.0081 × 0.0068)0.5 = 0.0074


fck = 30
vRd,c = 0.18/1.5 × 1.89 × (100 × 0.0074 × 30)0.33 = 0.64 MPa Table C6‡
= punching shear reinforcement required

H12 @ 175T1

3d = 750
400
3

H12 @ 200 U-bars 6H20T @ 175 8H20 U-bars in pairs @ 200 cc


3d = 750 400 3d = 750

Figure 3.25 Flexural tensile reinforcement adjacent to columns


D1 and D3

c) Perimeter at which punching shear links no longer required Exp. (6.54)


uout = 516.5 × 1.4 × 103/(250 × 0.64) = 4519 mm
Length attributable to column faces = 3 × 400 = 1200 mm
Angle subtended by hole from centre of column D1 (See Figures 3.25
& 3.27) = 2
tan−1(100/200) = 2 × 26.5° = 0.927 rads.
= radius to uout from face of column
= say (4519 − 1200)/(Q − 0.927) = 1498 mm from face of column
Perimeters of shear reinforcement may stop 1498 – 1.5 × 250 Cl. 6.4.5(4)
= 1123 mm from face of column & NA

d) Shear reinforcement
As before, sr,max = 175 mm; st,max = 350 mm and fywd,ef = 312 MPa Cl. 9.4.3(1)
9.4.3(2)
For perimeter u1
Asw ≥ (vEd – 0.75vRd,c) sr u1/1.5fywd,ef) per perimeter Exp. (6.52)
= (1.40 – 0.75 × 0.64) × 175 × 2071/(1.5 × 312)
= 712 mm2 per perimeter
Asw,min ≥ 0.08 × 300.5 (175 × 350)/(1.5 × 500) = 36 mm2
Asw/u1 ≥ 712/2071 = 0.34 mm2/mm

‡v
Rd,c for various values of d and rl is available from Table C6.

89
Using H8 (50 mm2) max. spacing = min[50/0.3; 1.5d]
= min[147; 375] = 147 mm cc No good
Try using H10, max. spacing = 78.5/0.34 = 231 mm cc, say 175 cc
= Use min. H10 (78.5 mm2) legs of links at 175 mm cc around perimeters:
perimeters at 175 mm centres
Check min. 9 no. H10 legs of links (712 mm2) in perimeter u1, 2d from
column face.

e) Check area of reinforcement > 712 mm2 in perimeters inside u1‡


1st perimeter to be 100 mm from face of column as before. Fig. 9.10,
By inspection of Figure 3.27 the equivalent of 6 locations are available Cl. 9.4.3(4)
at 0.4d from column therefore try 2 × 6 no. H10 = 942 mm2.

By inspection of Figure 3.27 the equivalent of 10 locations are


available at 1.15d from column therefore try 10 H10 = 785 mm2.

By inspection of Figure 3.27 beyond 1.15d to uout grid:


H10 at 175 x 175 OK.

3.4.13 Summary of design


Grid C flexure
End supports:
Column strip: (max. 200 mm
from column) 10 no. H20 U-bars in pairs
(where 200 × 200 hole use 8 no. H20
T1 in U-bars in pairs)
Middle strip: H12 @ 200 T1

Spans 1–2 and 2–3:


Column strip and middle strip: H20 @ 200 B

Central support:
Column strip centre: for 750 mm
either side of support: H20 @ 100 T1
Column strip outer: H20 @ 250 T1
Middle strip: H16 @ 200 T1

Grid 1 (and 3) flexure


Spans:
Column strip: H16 @ 200 B2
Middle strip: H12 @ 300 B2

‡ See Commentary on design Section 3.4.14. Punching shear reinforcement is Cl. 9.4.3
also subject to requirements for minimum reinforcement and spacing of shear
reinforcement.

90
,'-3?eZmleZ[

Interior support:
Column strip centre: 6 no. H20 @ 175 T2
Column strip outer: H12 @ 175 T2
Middle strip: H12 @ 300 T2

Grid 2 flexure
Spans:
Column strip: H16 @ 250 B2
Middle strip: H10 @ 200 B2

Interior support:
Column strip centre: H20 @ 200 T2
Column strip outer: H16 @ 250 T2
Middle strip: H12 @ 300 T2
See Figure 3.26

Punching shear
Internal (e.g. at C2):
Generally, use H10 legs of links in perimeters at max. 175 mm
centres, but double up on 1st perimeter
Max. tangential spacing of legs of links, st,max = 270 mm
Last perimeter, from column face, min. 767 mm
See Figure 3.26

Edge (e.g. at C1, C3 assuming no holes):


Generally, use H10 legs of links in perimeters at max. 175 mm
centres but double up on 1st perimeter
Max. tangential spacing of legs of links, st,max = 175 mm
Last perimeter, from column face, min. 940 mm

Edge (e.g. at D1, D3 assuming 200 × 200 hole on face of column):


Generally, use H10 legs of links in perimeters at max. 175 mm
centres but double up on 1st perimeter
Max. tangential spacing of legs of links, st,max = 175 mm
Last perimeter, from column face, min. 1123 mm
See Figure 3.27

91
C D

10H20 T1 U-bars in pairs @ 200


H12 @ 200 T1 U-bars 6H20 - 175 T2
H12 - 200 T1 U-bars 8H20 T1
U-bars in pairs
@ 200

1
H20 @ 200 B1 H16 @ 175 B2*
5H12 @ 175 T2

H12 @ 300 B2
H10 @ 200 T2

4H16 @ 250 T2

3H20 @
250 T1 H16 @ 175 B2*
2
9H20 @ 175 T2*
16H20 @ 100 T1
3H20 @ 250 T1 3H20 @ 250 T1
H16 @ 200 T1 16H20 @ 100 T1
Note:* Spacing rationalised to suit punching shear links

Figure 3.26 Reinforcement details bay C–D, 1–2

3.4.14 Commentary on design


a) Method of analysis
The use of coefficients in the analysis would not usually be
advocated in the design of such a slab. Nonetheless, coefficients
may be used and, unsurprisingly, their use leads to higher design
moments and shears, as shown below.

Method Moment in Centre support Centre support


9.6 m span per moment per reaction VEd (kN)
6 m bay (kNm) 6 m bay (kNm)
Coefficients 842.7 952.8 1205
Continuous beam 747.0 885.6 1103
Plane frame columns 664.8 834.0 1060
below
Plane frame columns 616.8 798.0 1031
above and below

92
,'-3?eZmleZ[

D
375 1123
6H20 @ 175 T2
8H20 T1 U-bars in pairs 6H16 @ 175 B2
uout H10 @ 200 T1 U-bars H10 @ 200 T1 U-bars

175
1 1
175 500
u1
175
175
175
1.5d
175 uout
175
175
175
175

Ineffective area
S = 152 H10 legs of links CL
@ 175 mm centres
175 175 175 175 175 175 200 200 175 175 175 175 175 175

100 100

Note: For internal column see Figure 3.23


Figure 3.27 Punching shear links at column D1 (and D3)
(penultimate support without hole similar)

These higher moments and shears result in rather more reinforcement


than when using other more refined methods. For instance, the finite
element analysis used in Guide to the design and construction of
reinforced concrete flat slabs[27] for this bay, leads to:
t H16 @ 200 B1 in spans 1–2 (cf. H20 @ 200 B1 using coefficients)
t H20 @ 125 T1 at support 2 (cf. H20 @ 100 T1 using coefficients)
t 3 perimeters of shear links at C2 for VEd = 1065 kN (cf. 5 perimeters
using coefficients)
t 2 perimeters of shear links at C3 (cf. 7 perimeters using coefficients)
b) Effective spans and face of support
In the analysis using coefficients, advantage was taken of using Cl. 5.3.2.2(1)
effective spans to calculate design moments. This had the effect of
reducing span moments.
At supports, one may base the design on the moment at the face of Cl. 5.3.2.2(3)
support. This is borne out by Guide to the design and construction of
reinforced concrete flat slabs[27] that states that hogging moments
greater than those at a distance hc/3 may be ignored (where hc is the
effective diameter of a column or column head). This is in line with BS
8110[7] and could have been used to reduce support moments.

93
c) Punching shear reinforcement
Arrangement of punching shear links
According to the literal definition of :lp in Exp. (6.52), the same Exp. 6.52
area of shear reinforcement is required for all perimeters inside or
outside perimeter n* (rather than (:lp/n*)/sr being considered as the
required density of shear reinforcement on and within perimeter n*).
For perimeters inside n*, it might be argued that Exp. (6.50) Exp. 6.50
(enhancement close to supports) should apply. However, at the time
of writing, this expression is deemed applicable only to foundation
bases. Therefore, large concentrations of shear reinforcement
are required close to the columns – in this example, this included
doubling up shear links at the 1st perimeter.
BS 8110:
Similar to BS 8110[7] figure 3.17, it is apparent that the requirement
Fig. 3.17
for punching shear reinforcement is for a punching shear zone 1.5d
wide. However, in Eurocode 2, the requirement has been ‘simplified’ in
BS 8110:
Exp. (6.52) to make the requirement for a perimeter (up to 0.75d
Cl. 3.7.7.6
wide). It might appear reasonable to apply the same 40%:60% rule
(BS 8110 Cl. 3.7.7.6) to the first two perimeters to make doubling
of punching shear reinforcement at the first perimeter unnecessary:
in terms of Eurocode 2 this would mean 80% Asw on the first
perimeter and 120% Asw on the second. Using this arrangement it
would be possible to replace the designed H10 links in the first two
perimeters with single H12 links.
Outside u1, the numbers of links could have been reduced to Cl. 9.4.3(1)
maintain provision of the designed amount of reinforcement Asw.
A rectangular arrangement of H12 links would have been possible
(within perimeter u1, 350 × 175; outside u1, 500 × 175). However, as
the grid would need to change orientation around each column (to
maintain the 0.75d radial spacing) and as the reinforcement in B2
and T2 is essentially at 175 centres, it is considered better to leave
the arrangement as a regular square grid.
Use of shear reinforcement in a radial arrangement, e.g. using stud
rails, would have simplified the shear reinforcement requirements.

VEd/VRd,c
In late 2008, a proposal was made for the UK National Annex to
include a limit of 2.0 or 2.5 on VEd/VRd,c (or vEd/vRd,c) within punching
shear requirements. It is apparent that this limitation could have
major effects on flat slabs supported on relatively small columns. For
instance in Section 3.4.12, edge column with hole, VEd/VRd,c = 2.18.

Curtailment of reinforcement
In this design, the reinforcement would be curtailed and this would be
done either in line with previous examples or, more practically, in line
with other guidance[20, 21].

94
,'.3LmZbk_eb`am

3.5 Stair flight


Mabl^qZfie^bl_hkZmrib\ZelmZbk_eb`am'

Ikhc^\m]^mZbel <Ze\neZm^][r chg Ch[gh' CCIP – 041


Stair flight <a^\d^][r web La^^mgh' 1
<eb^gm TCC =Zm^ Oct 09

1750

600 9 @250 600

3450

Figure 3.28 Stair flight

3.5.1 Loads
kN/m2
Permanent (worse case flight)
Assume 160 waist 0.160 × 305/250 × 25 = 4.88
Treads 4 × 0.25 × 0.175/2 × 25 = 2.19
50 mm screed 0.5 × 22 = 1.10
Finishing = 0.03
gk = 8.20

Variable action: crowd loading qk = 4.00 EC1-1-1: Table 6.1,


6.2 & NA.3
3.5.2 Moment
MEd = (8.20 × 1.25 + 4.00 × 1.5) × 3.452/8
= 24.2 kNm/m

3.5.3 Design
d = 160 – cnom – f/2 Concise: Table 4.2;
where BS 8500
cnom = 25 mm (for XC1)
f = 12 mm (assumed)
= d = 129 mm

95
K = MEd/bd2fck = 24.2 × 106/(1000 × 1292 × 30)
= 0.048
z/d = 0.95 Table C5
z = 0.95 × 129
= 122 mm
As = MEd/fydz
= 24.2 × 106/[(500/1.15) × 122]
= 456 mm2/m (r = 0.35%)
Try H12 @ 250 (452 mm2/m) = OK)

3.5.4 Check deflection


Allowable l/d = N × K × F1 × F2 × F3 Appendix C7,
where Table C10
N = 32.7
K = 1.0 Table C11
F1 = 1.0
F2 = 1.0
F3 = 1.0 (say)
= Allowable l/d = 32.7
Actual l/d = 3450/129
= 26.7 = OK
=Provide H12 @ 250 B.

96
-'*3<hgmbgnhnl[^Zfhgibglniihkml

- Beams
-') General
Ma^\Ze\neZmbhglbgmablL^\mbhgZk^ik^l^gm^]bgma^_heehpbg`iZkml3
-'* <hgmbgnhnl[^Zfhgibglniihkml¾Zlbfierlniihkm^]\hgmbgnhnl[^Zflahpbg`paZm
fb`am[^]^^f^]mrib\ZeaZg]\Ze\neZmbhgl'
-'+ :a^ZoberehZ]^]E&[^Zf'
-', : \hgmbgnhnl pb]^M&[^Zf'Mabl ^qZfie^ bl ZgZerl^] Zg] ]^lb`g^] lmkb\mer bg Z\\hk]Zg\^
pbmama^ikhoblbhglh_>nkh\h]^+'

Ma^rZk^bgm^g]^]mh[^beenlmkZmbo^h_ma^<h]^Zg]ghmg^\^llZkber[^lmikZ\mb\^'

:`^g^kZef^mah]h_]^lb`gbg`[^Zflbllahpg[^ehp'BgikZ\mb\^%l^o^kZeh_ma^l^lm^ilfZr
[^\hf[bg^]'
N =^m^kfbg^]^lb`geb_^' EC0 & NA
Table NA.2.1
N :ll^llZ\mbhglhgma^[^Zf' EC1 & NAs
N :ll^ll]nkZ[bebmrk^jnbk^f^gmlZg]]^m^kfbg^\hg\k^m^ Table 4.1
lmk^g`ma' BS 8500–1:
Tables A4, A5
N <a^\d\ho^kk^jnbk^f^gml_hkZiikhikbZm^_bk^ EC2–1–2:
k^lblmZg\^i^kbh]' Tables 5.8, 5.9, 5.10, 5.11
N <Ze\neZm^fbgbfnf\ho^k_hk]nkZ[bebmr%_bk^Zg][hg] Cl. 4.4.1
k^jnbk^f^gml'
N =^m^kfbg^pab\a\hf[bgZmbhglh_Z\mbhglZiier' EC0 & NA
Tables NA.A1.1, NA.A1.2 (B)
N =^m^kfbg^ehZ]bg`ZkkZg`^f^gml' Cl. 5.1.3(1) & NA
N :gZerl^lmkn\mnk^mhh[mZbg\kbmb\Zefhf^gmlZg]la^Zk Cl. 5.4, 5.5, 5.6
_hk\^l'
N =^lb`g_e^qnkZek^bg_hk\^f^gm' Cl. 6.1
N <a^\d]^_e^\mbhg' Cl. 7.4
N <a^\dla^Zk\ZiZ\bmr' Cl. 6.2
N Hma^k]^lb`g\a^\dl3
<a^\dfbgbfnfk^bg_hk\^f^gm' Cl. 9.3.1.1(1), 9.2.1.1(1)
<a^\d\kZ\dbg`!lbs^hkliZ\bg`h_[Zkl"' Cl. 7.3, Tables 7.2N, 7.3N
<a^\d^__^\mlh_iZkmbZeËqbmr' Cl. 9.3.1.2(2)
<a^\dl^\hg]Zkrk^bg_hk\^f^gm' Cl. 9.3.1.1(2), 9.3.1.4(1)
N <a^\d\nkmZbef^gm' Cl. 9.3.1.1(4), 9.2.1.3,
Fig. 9.2
N <a^\dZg\ahkZ`^' Cl. 9.3.1.2, 8.4.4, 9.3.1.1(4),
9.2.1.5(1), 9.2.1.5(2)
N <a^\deZil' Cl. 8.7.3

97
-'* Continuous beam on pin supports
Mabl \Ze\neZmbhg bl bgm^g]^] mh lahp Z mrib\Ze aZg] \Ze\neZmbhg _hk Z \hgmbgnhnl lbfier
lniihkm^][^Zfnlbg`\h^_Ë\b^gmlmh]^m^kfbg^fhf^gmlZg]la^Zkl'

Ikhc^\m]^mZbel <Ze\neZm^][r chg Ch[gh' CCIP – 041


Continuous beam on pin <a^\d^][r web La^^mgh' 1
supports <eb^gm TCC =Zm^ Oct 09

A 450 mm deep × 300 mm wide rectangular beam is required


to support office loads of gk = 30.2 kN/m and qk = 11.5 kN/m
over 2 no. 6 m spans. fck = 30 MPa, fyk = 500 MPa. Assume 300
mm wide supports, a 50-year design life and a requirement for a
2-hour resistance to fire in an external but sheltered environment.

qk = 11.5 kN/m
gk = 30.2 kN/m

6000 6000

Figure 4.1 Continuous rectangular beam

450

300 Figure 4.2 Section through beam

4.1.1 Actions
Permanent gk = 30.2 kN/m and variable qk = 11.5 kN/m

4.1.2 Cover
Nominal cover, cnom:
cnom = cmin + Dcdev Exp. (4.1)
where
cmin = max[cmin,b; cmin,dur]
where
cmin,b = minimum cover due to bond Cl. 4.4.1.2(3)
= diameter of bar. Assume 25 mm main bars
cmin,dur = minimum cover due to environmental conditions.
Assuming XC3 (moderate humidity or cyclic wet
and dry) and secondarily XF1 (moderate water

98
-'*3<hgmbgnhnl[^Zfhgibglniihkml

saturation without de-icing salt) using C30/37 Table C3


concrete, BS 8500-1[14]:
cmin,dur = 25 mm Table A4;
How to: Building
structures[8]
Dcdev = allowance in design for deviation. Assuming no
measurement of cover, Dcdev= 10 mm Cl. 4.4.1.2(3)
= cnom = 25 + 10 = 35 mm

Fire:
Check adequacy of section for 2 hours fire resistance (i.e. REI = 120) EC2-1-2:
For bmin = 300 mm, minimum axis distance, a = 35 mm = OK 5.6.3(1),
cnom = 35 mm Table 5.6

4.1.3 Load combination (and arrangement)


Load combination:
By inspection, BS EN 1990 Exp. (6.10b) governs Fig. 2.5
= n = 1.25 × 30.2 + 1.5 × 11.5 = 50.8 kN/m EC0: Exp.(6.10b)
Arrangement: Cl. 5.1.3(1) & NA
Choose to use all-and-alternate-spans-loaded load cases, i.e. use Table NA.1
coefficients. (option b)
Table C3
The coefficients used assume 15% redistribution at supports. As the Table C3
amount of redistribution is less than 20%, there are no restrictions
on reinforcement grade. The use of Table 5.6 in BS EN 1992–1–2 is Cl. 5.5(4) & NA
restricted to where redistribution does not exceed 15%. EC2-1-2:
5.6.3(1),
Table 5.6
4.1.4 Analysis
Design moments:
Spans
MEd = (1.25 × 30.2 × 0.090 + 1.5 × 11.5 × 0.100) × 6.02 Appendix C1,
= 122.3 + 62.1 = 184.4 kNm Table C3
Support
MEd = 50.8 × 0.106 × 6.02 = 193.8 kNm Table C3
Shear force:
VAB = 0.45 × 6.0 × 50.8 = 137.2 kN
VAB = 0.63 × 6.0 × 50.8 = 192.0 kN

4.1.5 Flexural design


Effective depth:
Assuming 10 mm links:
d = 450 − 35 − 10 − 25/2 = 392 mm

99
Flexure in span:
K = MEd/bd2fck = 184.4 × 106/(300 × 3922 × 30) = 0.133 Fig. 3.5
z/d = 0.864 Appendix A1
z = 0.864 × 392 = 338 mm Table C5
As = MEd/fydz = 184.4 × 106/(434.8 × 338) = 1255 mm2
Try 3 no. H25 B (1473 mm2)
(r = 1.25%)
Check spacing:
Spacing of outer bars = 300 – 2 × 35 − 2 × 10 – 25 = 185 mm
Assuming 10 mm diameter link,
= spacing = 98 mm
Steel stress under quasi-permanent loading:
ss = (fyk /gS) (As,req/As,prov) (SLS loads/ULS loads) (1/d)
= fyd × (As,req/As,prov) × (gk + c2 qk)/(gGgk + gQqk) (1/d)
= (500/1.15) × (1255/1473) × [(30.2 + 0.3 × 11.5)/50.8] (1/1.03)
= 434.8 × 0.91 × 0.66 × 0.97 = 237 MPa Cl. 7.3.3(2)
As exposure is XC3, max. crack width wmax = 0.3 mm Cl. 7.3.1(5) & NA
= Maximum bar size = 16 mm or max. spacing = 200 mm = OK Table 7.2N & NA
= Use 3 H25 B (1473 mm2)
Deflection:
Check span-to-effective-depth ratio. Appendix B
Basic span: effective depth ratio for r = 1.25%: Table 7.4N & NA
l/d = 18 + [(1.25 – 0.5)/(1.5/0.5)] × (26 – 18) = 24.0
Max. span = 24.0 × 392 = 9408 mm = OK

Flexure, support:
MEd = 193.8 kNm
K = MEd/bd2fck
where
d = 450 − 35 − 10 − 25/2 = 392 mm

K = 193.8 × 106/(300 × 3922 × 30) = 0.142


By inspection, K ≤ K' (0.142 × 0.168‡)
= no compression reinforcement required.
z = 0.85d Appendix A1
= 0.85 × 392 = 333 mm Table C5
As = MEd/fydz
= 193.8 × 106/434.8 × 333 = 1338 mm2
Try 3 no. H25 T (1473 mm2)
(r = 1.13%)

‡ K' is limited to 0.208. However, if, as is usual practice in the UK, x/d is limited to

0.45, z/d is as a consequence limited to 0.82 and K' to 0.168.

100
-'*3<hgmbgnhnl[^Zfhgibglniihkml

4.1.6 Shear
a) Support B (critical)
Shear at central support = 192.0 kN
At d from face of support§
VEd = 192.0 − (0.300/2 + 0.392) × 50.8 = 164.50 kN Cl. 6.2.1(8)
vEd = VEd /bd
= 164.5 × 103/(392 × 300) = 1.40 MPa
Maximum shear capacity:
Assuming fck = 30 MPa and cot y = 2.5#
vRd,max* = 3.64 MPa Table C7
vRd,max > vEd = OK
Shear reinforcement:
Assuming z = 0.9d Cl. 6.2.3(1)
Asw /s ≥ VEd /(0.9d × fywd × cot y) Cl. 6.2.3(3),
≥ 164.5 × 103/(0.9 × 392 × (500/1.15) × 2.5) = 0.429 Exp. (6.8)

More accurately,
Asw/s ≥ VEd/(z × fywd × cot y) Cl. 6.2.3(3),
≥ 164.5 × 103/(333 × 1087) = 0.454 Exp. (6.8)
Minimum shear links,
Asw,min/s = 0.08bwfck0.5/fyk Cl. 9.2.2(5)
= 0.08 × 300 × 300.5/500 = 0.263. Not critical
Max. spacing = 0.75d = 0.75 × 392 = 294 mm Cl. 9.2.2(6)
Use H8 @ 200 (Asw /s = 0.50)
b) Support A (and C)
Shear at end support = 137.2 kN
At face of support,
VEd = 137.2 − (0.150 + 0.392) × 50.8 = 109.7 kN Cl. 6.2.1(8)
By inspection, shear reinforcement required and cot y = 2.5 Fig. C1a)
Asw /s ≥ VEd/(z × fywd × cot y) Appendix C5.3
≥ 109.7 × 103/[353 × (500/1.15) × 2.5] = 0.285
Use H8 @ 200 (Asw /s = 0.50) throughout‡

§
Cl. 6.2.1(8)
Where applied actions are predominantly uniformly distributed, shear may be
checked at d from the face of support. See also Section 4.2.11.
# The absolute maximum for v
Rd,max (and therefore the maximum value of vEd)
would be 5.28 MPa when cot y would equal 1.0 and the variable strut angle would
be at a maximum of 45°.
* For determination of VRd,max see Section 4.2.10.
‡ As maximum spacing of links is 294 mm, changing spacing of links would appear

to be of limited benefit.

101
4.1.7 Summary of design
H8 @ 200 centres in 2 legs
3H25

3H25B 3H25B
A B C

Figure 4.3 Continuous rectangular beam: Summary of design

Commentary
It is usually presumed that the detailer would take the design
summarised above and detail the beam to normal best practice[8,9].
The design would go no further where standard detailing is all that
is required. Where the element is non-standard (e.g. where there
are point loads), it should be incumbent on the designer to give
the detailer specific information about curtailment, laps, etc. as
illustrated below. The detailer’s responsibilities, standards and
timescales should be clearly defined but it would be usual for the
detailer to draw and schedule not only the designed reinforcement
but all the reinforcement required to provide a compliant and buildable
solution. The work would usually include the checking the following
aspects and providing appropriate detailing:
t Minimum areas
t Curtailment lengths
t Anchorages
t Laps
t U-bars
t Rationalisation
t Critical dimensions
t Details and sections
The determination of minimum reinforcement areas and curtailment
lengths, using the principles in Eurocode 2 is shown below. In practice
these would be determined from published tables of data or by using
reference texts[8,9]. Nonetheless, the designer should check the
drawing for design intent and compliance with the standards. It is
therefore necessary for the designer to understand and agree the
principles of the detailing used.

4.1.8 Detailing checks


a) Minimum areas
As,min = 0.26(fctm/fyk)btd ≥ 0.0013btd Cl. 9.2.1.1
where

102
-'*3<hgmbgnhnl[^Zfhgibglniihkml

bt = width of tension zone Table 3.1


fctm = 0.30 × fck0.666
As,min = 0.26 × 0.30 × 300.666 × 300 × 392/500 = 177 mm2

b) Curtailment of main bars How to: Detailing


Bottom: curtail
75% main bars 0.08l from end support = 480 mm say 450 mm from A
70% main bars 0.30l – al = 0.3 × 6000 − 1.125 × d
= 1800 − 1.125 × 392
= 1359 mm say 1350 from A
Top: curtail
40% main bars 0.15l + al = 900 + 441
= 1341 mm say 1350 from B
65% main bars 0.30l + al = 1800 + 441
= 2241 mm say 2250 from B
At supports: Cl. 9.2.1.2.(1),
25% of As to be anchored at supports 9.2.1.4(1) & NA
25% of 1225 mm2 = 314 mm2 Cl. 9.2.1.5(1)
Use min. 2 no. H16 (402 mm2) at supports A, B and C
In accordance with SMDSC[9] detail MB1 lap U-bars tension lap with
main steel
= 780 mm (in C30/37 concrete, H12, ‘poor’ bond condition) How to: Detailing
= say 800 mm

c) Summary of reinforcement details

2H12T 3H25 2H12T


100 100
800 1350 1350 800 1250

2H12 2H25 2H12 1H25 1H25 2H12 2H25 2H12


2H16 U-bars 2H16 U-bars
3H25 2H16 2H12 2H25 1H25 1H25 2H25 2H12 2H16 2H25

A B C
450 800 3H25B 800 450
800 600 750 750 600 800
2H16B 3H25B

Links omitted for clarity

Figure 4.4 Continuous rectangular beam: reinforcement details

Note Subsequent detailing checks may find issues with spacing rules especially if
the 'cage and splice bar' method of detailing were to be used. 2H32s T&B would be a
suitable alternative to 3H25s T&B.

103
-'+ Heavily loaded L-beam
Ikhc^\m]^mZbel <Ze\neZm^][r chg Ch[gh' CCIP – 041
Heavily loaded L-beam <a^\d^][r web La^^mgh' 1
<eb^gm TCC =Zm^ Oct 09

Gk2 = 88.7
Qk2 = 138.7
gk1 = 46.0
qk1 = 63.3

A B C
2000
9000 8000

Figure 4.5 Heavily loaded L-beam

This edge beam supports heavy loads from storage loads. The
variable point load is independent of the variable uniformly
distributed load. The beam is supported on 350 mm square
columns 4000 mm long. fck = 30 MPa; fyk = 500 MPa. The
underside surface is subject to an external environment and a
2-hour fire resistance requirement. The top surface is internal
and subject to a 2-hour fire resistance requirement. Assume that
any partitions are liable to be damaged by excessive deflections.

beff

750

Figure 4.6 Section through L-beam


350

4.2.1 Actions
Permanent:
UDL from slab and cladding gk = 46.0 kN/m
Point load from storage area above = 88.7 kN
Variable:
From slab qk = 63.3 kN/m
Point load from storage area above = 138.7 kN

104
-'+3A^ZoberehZ]^]E&[^Zf

4.2.2 Cover
a) Nominal cover, cnom, underside and side of beam
cnom = cmin + Dcdev Exp. (4.1)
where
cmin = max[cmin,b ; cmin,dur]
where
cmin,b = minimum cover due to bond Cl. 4.4.1.2(3)
= diameter of bar. Assume 32 mm main bars and
10 mm links
cmin,dur = minimum cover due to environmental conditions.
Assuming primarily XC3/XC4 exposure (moderate Table 4.1
humidity or cyclic wet and dry); secondarily XF1 BS 8500-1:
exposure (moderate water saturation without Table A4
de-icing salt, vertical surfaces exposed to rain and
freezing) and C30/37 concrete,
cmin,dur = 25 mm
Dcdev = allowance in design for deviation. Assuming no Cl. 4.4.1.2(3)
measurement of cover Dcdev = 10 mm

= cnom = 32 + 10 = 42 mm to main bars


or = 25 + 10 = 35 mm to links
Use cnom = 35 mm to links (giving cnom = 45 mm to main bars)

b) Fire
Check adequacy of section for 2 hours fire resistance REI 120. EC2-1-2: 5.6.3
By inspection, web thickness OK. EC2-1-2:
Table 5.6
Axis distance, a, required = 35 mm OK by inspection. EC2-1-2:
Table 5.6
= Try 35 mm nominal cover bottom and sides to 10 mm link.

Nominal cover, cnom, top:


By inspection, Exp. (4.1)
cnom = cmin + Dcdev
where
cmin = max[cmin,b; cmin,dur]
where
cmin,b = minimum cover due to bond Cl. 4.4.1.2(3)
= diameter of bar. Assume 32 mm main bars and
10 mm links
cmin,dur = minimum cover due to environmental conditions. Table 4.1
Assuming primarily XC1 and C30/37 concrete, BS 8500-1:
cmin,dur = 15 mm Table A4

105
-'+3A^ZoberehZ]^]E&[^Zf

Dcdev = allowance in design for deviation. Assuming no Cl. 4.4.1.2(3)


measurement of cover Dcdev = 10 mm
= cnom = 32 + 10 = 42 mm to main bars
or = 15 + 10 = 25 mm to links
Use cnom = 35 mm to links (giving cnom = 45 mm to main bars)

4.2.3 Idealisation, load combination and arrangement


Load combination: Table 2.5;
As loads are from storage, Exp. (6.10a) is critical. ECO: A1.2.2, NA
& Exp. (6.10a)
Idealisation:
This element is treated as a continuous beam framing into Cl. 5.3.1(3)
columns 350 × 350‡ × 4000 mm long columns below.
Arrangement: Cl. 5.1.3(1) &
Choose to use all-and-alternate-spans-loaded. NA: Table NA.1
(option b)
4.2.4 Analysis
Analysis by computer (spreadsheet TCC 41 Continuous Beam (A+D).xls ECO:
in RC spreadsheets V.3[28] assuming frame action with 350 mm square A1.2.2 & NA;
columns 4 m long fixed at base. Beam inertia based on T-section, beff Cl. 5.3.1 (6)
wide) with 15% redistribution at central support, limited redistribution
of span moment and consistent redistribution of shear.
Table 4.2 Elastic and redistributed moments, kNm
Span number 1 2
Elastic M 1168 745
Redistributed M 1148 684
d 0.98 0.92
2000
1394 kNm
1500

1000

500
195 kNm 108 kNm
0
A B C
–500
– 684 kNm
–1000
–1148 kNm
– 1500

Figure 4.7 Redistributed envelope, kNm

‡ Note:
350 × 350 is a minimum for columns requiring a fire resistance of 120 EC2-1-2:
minutes. Table 5.2a

106
1000
646 kN 794 kN
500

0
A B C

– 500
– 499 kN

– 1000
– 1098 kN

– 1500

4.2.5 Flexural design, support A


MEd = 195 kNm in hogging Cl. 9.2.1.2(1),
MEd,min = 1148 × 0.25 in hogging and in sagging 9.2.1.4(1) & NA
= 287 kNm
K = MEd/bd2fck
where Cl. 5.3.2.1,
b = beff = beff1 + bw + beff2 Fig. 5.3
where
beff1 = (0.2b1 + 0.1l0) ≤ 0.2 l0 ≤ b1
where
b1 = distance between webs/2
l0 = nominal: assume 0§
 = beff1 = 0 mm = beff2 Fig. 5.2
 =b = bw = 350 mm
d = 750 − 35 – 10 – 32/2 = 689 mm
assuming 10 mm link and H32 in support.
fck = 30 MPa
K = 287 × 106/(350 × 6892 × 30)
= 0.058
Restricting x/d to 0.45 Appendix A1
K' = 0.168
K ≤ K' = section under-reinforced and no compression reinforcement
required.
z = (d/2) [1 + (1 − 3.53K)0.5] ≤ 0.95d Appendix A1
= (689/2) (1 + 0.89) ≤ 0.95 × 689
= 652 ≤ 654 = z = 652 mm
As = MEd/fydz
Cl. 5.3.2.1(2)
§ The distance l0 is described as the distance between points of zero moment, Fig. 5.2
‘which may be obtained from Figure 5.2’. In this case l0 = 0. (see Figure 4.11). Fig. 4.11
107
where
fyd = 500/1.15 = 434.8 MPa
= 287 × 106/(434.8 × 652) = 1012 mm2
Try 2 no. H32 U-bars (1608 mm2)
Check anchorage of H32 U-bars.
Bars need to be anchored distance ‘A’ into column SMDSC: 6.4.2

U-bar

Figure 4.9 Distance A

Assuming column uses 35 mm cover, 10 mm links and 32 mm bars:


Distance A = 2 [350 − 2 (35 + 10) ] − 32/2 − 32/2 + 750 – [2 (35 SMDSC[9],
+ 10)] − 2 × 32/2 – (4 − π) (3.5 + 0.5) × 32 BS 8666[19]:
= 488 + 628 – 110 = 1006 mm Table 2
Anchorage length, Cl. 8.4.4,
lbd = alb,rqd ≥ lb,min Exp. (8.4)
where
a = conservatively 1.0
lb,rqd = (f/4) (ssd/fbd) Exp. (8.3)
where
f = 32
ssd = design stress in the bar at the ULS
= 434.8 × 1012/1608 = 274 MPa
f[] = ultimate bond stress
= 2.25 n1 n2 fct,d Cl. 8.4.2 (2)

108
-'+3A^ZoberehZ]^]E&[^Zf

where
n1 = 1.0 for good bond conditions
n2 = 1.0 for bar diameter ≤ 32 mm
fct,d = act fctk/ gC Cl. 3.1.6 (2),
= 1.0 × 2.0/1.5 Tables 3.1 & 2.1,
& NA
= 1.33 MPa
fbd = 2.25 × 1.33 = 3.0 MPa
lb,rqd = (32/4) (274/3.0) = 731 mm‡
lb,min = max[10f; 100 mm] = 250 mm
= lbd = 731 mm i.e. < 1006 mm = OK
Use 2 no. H32 U-bars

4.2.6 Flexural design, span AB


a) Span AB – Flexure
MEd = 1148 kNm
K = MEd/bd2fck
where Cl. 5.3.2.1,
b = beff = beff1 + bw + beff2 Fig. 5.3
where
beff1 = (0.2b1 + 0.1l0) ≤ 0.2 l0 ≤ b1
where
b1 = distance between webs/2
Assuming beams at 7000 mm cc
= (7000 – 350)/2 = 3325 mm
l0 = 0.85 × l1 = 0.85 × 9000 = 7650 mm§ Fig. 5.2

beff

beff,1 beff,2
bw

bw
b1 b1 b2 b2

Figure 4.10 Effective flange width beff Fig. 5.3

‡ Anchorage lengths may be obtained from published tables. In this instance, a

figure of 900 mm may be obtained from Table 13 of Section 10 of How to design


concrete structures using Eurocode 2. How to:
§ Thedistance l0 is described as the distance between points of zero shear, which Detailing[8]
may be obtained from Figure 5.2’. From the analysis, l0 could have been taken as Cl. 5.3.2.1(2)
7200 mm. Figure 5.2

109
I0 = 0.85 I1 I0 = 0.15 (I1+I2) I0 = 0.7 I2 I0 = 0.15 (I2+I3)
I1 I2 I3

l0 for calculation of
flange width Fig. 5.2
beff1 = 0.2 × 3325 + 0.1 × 7650 ≤ 0.2 × 7650 ≤ 3325
= 1430 ≤ 1530 ≤ 3325
= 1430 mm
bw = 350 mm
beff2 = (0.2b2 + 0.1l0) ≤ 0.2 l0 ≤ b2
where
b2 = 0 mm
beff2 = 0 mm
b = 1430 + 350 + 0 = 1780 mm
d = effective depth
= 750 − 35 – 10 – 32/2 = 689 mm
assuming 10 mm link and H32 in span
fck = 30 MPa
K = 1148 × 106/(1780 × 6892 × 30)
= 0.045
Restricting x/d to 0.45, Appendix A1
K' = 0.168
K ≤ K' = section under-reinforced and no compression
reinforcement required.
z = lever arm Appendix A1
= (d/2) [1 + (1 − 3.53K)0.5] ≤ 0.95d
= (689/2) (1 + 0.917) ≤ 0.95 × 689
= 661 ≤ 654 = z = 654 mm
But z = d – 0.4x
Appendix A1
= by inspection, neutral axis is in flange and as x < 1.25 hf , design as
rectangular section.
As = MEd/fydz
where
fyd = 500/1.15 = 434.8 MPa
= 1148 × 106/(434.8 × 654) = 4037 mm2
Try 5 no. H32 B (4020 mm2) (say OK)
Check spacing of bars.
Spacing of bars = [350 – 2 × (35 + 10) – 32]/(5 – 1)
= 57
Clear spacing = 57 – 32 mm = 25 mm between bars

110
-'+3A^ZoberehZ]^]E&[^Zf

Minimum clear distance between bars Cl. 8.2(2) & NA


= max[bar diameter; aggregate size + 5 mm]
= max[32; 20 + 5]
= 32 mm i.e. > 25 mm
= 5 no. H32 B no good
For 4 bars in one layer, distance between bars = 44 mm so
Try 4 no. H32 B1 + 2 no. H32 B3

300

35 cover
400
32 bar
32 spacers
32 bar
10 link
35 cover
350

Figure 4.12 Span AB bottom reinforcement

d = 750 − 35 – 10 – 32/2 – 0.333 × 2 × 32 = 668 mm


K = 1148 × 106/(1780 × 6682 × 30) = 0.048
K ≤ K' = section under-reinforced and no compression reinforcement
required. Appendix A1

z = (d/2) [1 + (1 − 3.53K)0.5] ≤ 0.95d Appendix A1


= (668/2) (1 + 0.911) ≤ 0.95 × 668
= 639 ≤ 635 = z = 635 mm

= by inspection, neutral axis in flange so design as rectangular Appendix A1


section.

As = MEd/fydz
= 1148 × 106/(434.8 × 635) = 4158 mm2
= 4 no. H32 B1 + 2 no. H32 B3 (4824 mm2) OK

b) Span AB – Deflection
Check end span-to-effective-depth ratio. Appendix B
Allowable l/d = N × K × F1 × F2 × F3 Appendix C7
where
N = Basic l/d: check whether r > r0 and whether to use Exp. Cl. 7.4.2(2),
(7.16a) or (7.16b) Exp. (7.16a),
Exp. (7.16b)

111
r = As/Ac‡ = As,req/[bwd + (beff – bw)hf] PD 6687[6]
= 4158/[350 × 668 + (1780 – 350) × 300]
= 4158/662800
= 0.63%
r0 = fck0.5/1000 = 300.5/1000 = 0.55%
r > r0 = use Exp. (7.16b)

N = 11 + 1.5fck0.5 r0/(r – r') + fck0.5(r' /r0)0.5/12 Exp. (7.16b)


= 11 + 1.5 (300.5 × 0.055/(0.063 – 0) + 300.5(0/0.55)1.5
= 11 + 7.2 + 0 = 18.2
K = (end span) = 1.3 Table 7.4N & NA
F1 = (beff/bw = 1780/350 = 5.1) = 0.80 Cl. 7.4.2(2),
Appendix C7
F2 = 7.0/leff (span > 7.0 m) Cl. 7.4.2(2)
where
leff = 9000 mm Cl. 5.3.2.2(1)
F2 = 7.0/9.0 = 0.77
F3 = 310/ss ≤ 1.5 Cl. 7.4.2, Exp.
(7.17), Table 7.4N
& NA, Table NA.5
Note 5
where
ss in simple situations = (fyk/gS) (As,req/As,prov) (SLS loads/ Appendix B
ULS loads) (1/d). However in this case separate analysis
at SLS would be required to determine ss. Therefore as a
simplification use the conservative assumption:
310/ss = (500/fyk) (As,req/As,prov) Exp. (7.17)
= (500/500) × (4824/4158) = 1.16
= Permissible l/d = 18.2 × 1.3 × 0.80 × 0.77 × 1.16 = 16.9
Actual l/d = 9000/668 = 13.5
Permissible more than actual
= OK
= 4 no. H32 B1 + 2 no. H32 B3 (4824 mm2) OK

4.2.7 Flexural design, support B


At centreline of support B,
M = 1394 kNm

From analysis, at face of support Cl. 5.3.2.2(3)


MEdBA = 1209 kNm
MEdBC = 1315 kNm
K = MEd/bwd 2fck

‡ 2.18 of PD 6687[6] suggests that r in T sections should be based on the area

of concrete above the centroid of the tension steel.

112
-'+3A^ZoberehZ]^]E&[^Zf

where
bw = 350 mm
d = 750 − 35 – 12 – 32/2 = 687 mm
assuming 10 mm link and H32 in support but allowing for
H12 T in slab
fck = 30 MPa
= K = 1315 × 106/(350 × 6872 × 30) = 0.265
for d = 0.85, K' = 0.168: to restrict x/d to 0.45, K' = 0.167 Appendix A1
= Compression steel required Table C4
z = (d/2) [1 + (1 − 3.53 K')0.5]
= (687/2) [1 + (1 − 3.53 × 0.167)0.5]
= (687/2) (1 + 0.64) < 0.95d
= 563 mm
As2 = (K – K')fckbd2/fsc(d − d2) Fig. 3.5,
where Appendix A1,
d2 = 35 + 10 + 32/2 = 61 mm How to: Beams
fsc = 700(x − d2)/x < fyd
where
x = 2.5 (d – z) = 2.5 (687 – 563) = 310 mm
fsc = 700 × (310 − 61)/310 < 500/1.15
= 562 MPa but limited to ≤ 434.8 MPa
=As2 = (0.265 – 0.167) × 30 × 350 × 687 2/[434.8(687 − 61) ] = 1784 mm2
Try 4 no. H25 B (1964 mm2)
As = M'/fydz + As2 fsc/fyd Appendix A1
= K' fck bd 2 /(f yd z) + As2 fsc/fyd
= 0.167 × 30 × 350 × 6872/(434.8 × 563) + 1570 ×
434.8/434.8
= 3380 + 1784 = 5164 mm2
Try 4 no. H32 T + 4 no. H25 T (5180 mm2)
This reinforcement should be spread over beff. Cl. 9.2.1.2(2),
beff = beff1 + bw + beff2 Fig. 9.1
Cl. 5.3.2.1,
Fig. 5.3
where
beff1 = (0.2b1 + 0.1l0) ≤ 0.2 l0 ≤ b1
where
b1 = distance between webs/2.
Assuming beams at 7000 mm cc
= (7000 – 350)/2 = 3325 mm
l0 = 0.15 × (l1 + l2) Fig. 5.2
= 0.15 × (9000 + 8000) = 2550 mm

113
 =beff1 = 0.2 × 3325 + 0.1 × 2550 ≤ 0.2 × 2550 ≤ 3325
= 920 ≤ 510 ≤ 3325
= 510 mm
bw = 350 mm
beff2 = (0.2b2 + 0.1l0) ≤ 0.2 l0 ≤ b2
where
b2 = 0 mm
beff2 = 0 mm
= beff = 510 + 350 + 0 = 860 mm
Use 4 no. H32 T + 4 no. H25 T (5180 mm2) @ approx 100 mm cc

beff = 860 mm

4H32 4H25

4H25

bw = 350 mm

Figure 4.13 Support


pp B reinforcement

4.2.8 Flexural design, span BC


a) Span BC – Flexure
MEd = 684 kNm
K = MEd/bd2fck
where
b = beff = beff1 + bw + beff2 Cl. 5.3.2.1, Fig. 5.3
where
beff1 = (0.2b1 + 0.1l0) ≤ 0.2 l0 ≤ b1
where
b1 = distance between webs/2.
Assuming beams at 7000 mm cc
= (7000 – 350)/2 = 3325 mm Fig. 5.2
l0 = 0.85 × l1 = 0.85 × 8000 = 6800 mm
beff1 = 0.2 × 3325 + 0.1 × 6800 ≤ 0.2 × 6800 ≤ 3325
= 1345 ≤ 1360 ≤ 3325
= 1360 mm

114
-'+3A^ZoberehZ]^]E&[^Zf

bw = 350 mm
beff2 = (0.2b2 + 0.1l0) ≤ 0.2 l0 ≤ b2
where
b2 = 0 mm
beff2 = 0 mm
 = b = 1360 + 350 + 0 = 1710 mm
d = 750 − 35 – 10 – 32/2 = 689 mm
assuming 10 mm link and H32 in span.
fck = 30 MPa
= K = 684 × 106/ (1710 × 6892 × 30)
= 0.028
By inspection, K ≤ K' = section under-reinforced and no compression Appendix A1
reinforcement required.
z = (d/2) [1 + (1 − 3.53K)0.5] ≤ 0.95d Appendix A1
= (689/2) (1 + 0.95) ≤ 0.95 × 689
= 672 > 655 = z = 655 mm
By inspection, x < 1.25 hf ; design as rectangular section Appendix A1

As = MEd/fydz
= 684 × 106/(434.8 × 655) = 2402 mm2
Try 2 no. H32 B + 2 no. H25 B (2590 mm2)
b) Span BC – Deflection
By inspection, compared with span AB OK

4.2.9 Flexural design, support C


By inspection, use 2 no. H25 U-bars as support A.
Use 2 no. H25 U-bars

4.2.10 Design for beam shear, support A


At d from face of support
VEd = 646 − (350/2 + 0.689) × (1.35 × 46.0 + 1.5 × 63.3) Cl. 6.2.1(8)
ECO: A1.2.2, NA
& Exp. (6.10a)
= 646 – 0.864 × 157.1 = 510.3 kN
Check maximum shear resistance.
VRd, max = acw bw zvfcd/(cot y + tan y) Exp. (6.9) & NA
where
acw = 1.0 Cl. 6.2.3 & NA
bw = 350 mm as before
z = 0.9d Cl. 6.2.3(1)

115
v = 0.6 (1 − fck/250) = 0.6 (1 − 30/250) = 0.528 Cl. 6.2.3(3)
Note 1, Exp.
(6.6N) & NA
fcd = 30/1.5 = 20.0 MPa Cl. 2.4.2.4(1) & NA
y = angle of inclination of strut. Exp. (6.9),
= 0.5 sin−1 {vEd,z /[0.20 fck (1 – fck /250) ] } ≥ cot−12.5 Appendix A2
where
vEd,z = VEd/bz = VEd /(b × 0.9d)
= 510.3 × 103/(350 × 0.9 × 689) = 2.35 MPa
y = 0.5 sin−1 {2.35/[0.20 × 30 (1 – 30/250) ] } ≥ cot−12.5
= 0.5 sin−1 (0.445) ≥ cot−12.5
= 0.5 × 26.4° ≥ 21.8°
= 21.8°
= VRd,max = 1.0 × 350 × 0.90 × 689 × 0.528 × 20.0/(2.5 + 0.4) = 790 kN
= OK
Shear reinforcement:
Shear links: shear resistance with links
VRd,s = (Asw /s) z fywd cot y Exp. (6.8)
= Asw /s ≥ VEd/z fywd cot y
where
Asw/s = area of legs of links/link spacing
z = 0.9d as before Cl. 2.4.2.4(1)
fywd = 500/1.15 = 434.8 & NA
cot y = 2.5 as before
Asw/s ≥ 510.3 × 103/(0.9 × 689 × 434.8 × 2.5) = 0.76
Minimum Asw/s = rw,minbwsin a Cl. 9.2.2(5),
Exp. (9.4)
where
rw,min = 0.08 × fck0.5/fyk = 0.08 × 300.5/500 Exp. (9.5N) & NA
= 0.00088
bw = 350 mm as before
a = angle between shear reinforcement and the longitudinal
axis. For vertical reinforcement sin a = 1.0

= Minimum Asw/s = 0.00088 × 350 × 1 = 0.03


But,
maximum spacing of links longitudinally = 0.75d = 516 mm Cl. 9.2.2(6)
= Try H10 @ 200 cc in 2 legs (Asw /s = 0.78)

4.2.11 Design for high beam shear, support B


As uniformly distributed load predominates consider at d from
face of support. Cl. 6.2.1(8)

116
-'+3A^ZoberehZ]^]E&[^Zf

VEd = 1098 − (350/2 + 0.689) × (1.35 × 46.0 + 1.5 × 63.3)


= 1098 – 0.864 × 157.1 = 962.3 kN
By inspection, shear reinforcement required and cot y < 2.5.

Check VRd, max (to determine y)


Check maximum shear resistance.
As before,
VRd, max = a\p bw zvfcd/(cot y + tan y). Exp. (6.9) & NA
where
acw, bw, z, v and fcd as before
y = 0.5 sin−1 {vEd,z/[0.20 fck (1 – fck/250) ] } ≥ cot−12.5 Exp. (6.9)
where
vEd,z = VEd/bz = VEd/(b0.9d) Cl. 6.2.3(1)
= 962.3 × 103/(350 × 0.9 × 687) = 4.45 MPa
y = 0.5 sin−1 {4.45/[0.20 × 30 (1 – 30/250) ] } ≥ cot−12.5 Exp. (6.9)
= 0.5 sin−1 (0.843) ≥ cot−12.5
= 0.5 × 57.5° ≥ 21.8°
= 28.7°
cot y = 1.824 i.e. > 1.0 =OK Cl. 6.2.3(2) & NA
tan y = 0.548
= VRd,max = 1.0 × 350 × 0.90 × 687 × 0.528 × 20.0/(1.824 + 0.548)
= 963.4 kN OK
(i.e. VRd,max ≈ VEd)
Shear reinforcement:
Shear links: shear resistance with links
VRd,s = (Asw/s)zfywd cot y Exp. (6.8)
= Asw/s ≥ VEd/zfywd cot y
Asw/s ≥ 962.3 × 103/(0.9 × 687 × 434.8 × 1.824) = 1.96
= Use H10 @ 150 cc in 4 legs (Asw /s = 2.09)

4.2.12 Design for beam shear (using design chart),


support BC
At d from face of support, Cl. 6.2.1(8)
VEd = 794 – 0.864 × 157.1 = 658.3 kN
vEd,z = VEd/bz = VEd/(b0.9d)
= 658.3 × 103/ (350 × 0.9 × 687) = 3.04 MPa
From chart Asw /sreqd/m width = 2.75 Fig. C1b)
Asw /sreqd = 2.75 × 0.35 = 0.96
= Use H10 in 2 legs @ 150 mm cc (Asw/s = 1.05)

117
4.2.13 Check shear capacity for general case
In mid span use H10 in 2 legs @ 300 mm cc (Asw/s = 0.52)
z Asw/sreqd/m width = 1.48 and an allowable vEd,z = 1.60 MPa Fig. C1b)
z 1.60 × 350 × 0.90 × 687 = VEd = 346 kN

From analysis, VEd = 346.2 kN occurs at:


(646 − 346)/157.1 = 1900 mm from A,
(1098 – 346 − 1.25 × 88.7 – 1.5 × 138.7)/157.1 = 2755 mm from BA,
(794 − 346)/157.1 = 2850 mm from BC
and
(499 − 346)/157.1 = 970 mm from C

4.2.14 Summary of design


1

H10 links in 2 legs @ 150cc


2H32 U-bars 4H32 + 4H25T 2H25 U-bars
H10 links in 2 legs

@ 150 @ 300 @ 150 @ 150 @ 300 @ 150

4H32 B1 + 2H32 B3 4H25B 2H32 + 2H25B


A B C
1950 2850 2850 1050

Figure 4.14 Summary of L-beam design

4H32 4H25

H10 in 4 legs
@ 150

350 510

Figure 4.15 L-beam section 1–1

118
-',3<hgmbgnhnlpb]^M&[^Zf

-', Continuous wide T-beam


Ikhc^\m]^mZbel <Ze\neZm^][r chg Ch[gh' CCIP – 041
Continuous wide T-beam <a^\d^][r web La^^mgh' 1
<eb^gm TCC =Zm^ Oct 09

qk = 45.8 kN/m
gk = 47.8 kN/m

A B C D E
7500 7500 7500 7500

Figure 4.16 Continuous wide T-beam

This central spine beam supports the ribbed slab in Example 3.3.
The 300 mm deep ribbed slab is required for an office to support
a variable action of 5 kN/m2. The beam is the same depth as the
slab and is supported on 400 mm square columns, see Figure
4.17. fck = 35 MPa; fyk = 500 MPa. A 1-hour fire resistance is
required in an internal environment. Assume that partitions are
liable to be damaged by excessive deflections.
CL

100
200

1000 200 800

Figure 4.17 Section through T-beam

4.3.1 Actions
Permanent, UDL‡:
From analysis of slab, gk = 47.8 kN/m
Variable:
From analysis of slab, qk = 45.8 kN/m

‡ The actions may also have been estimated assuming an elastic reaction factor

of 1.1 for the slab viz:


kN/m
Permanent: UDL
Loads from ribbed slab (7.50 + 9.0)/2 × 4.30 × 1.1 = 39.0
Self-weight/patch load extra over solid 2.0 × 4.17 = 8.3
47.3
Variable:
Imposed (7.50 + 9.0)/2 × 5.00 × 1.1 = 45.4

119
4.3.2 Cover
Nominal cover, cnom:
cnom = cmin + Dcdev Exp. (4.1)
where
cmin = max[cmin,b; cmin,dur]
where
cmin,b = minimum cover due to bond Cl. 4.4.1.2(3)
= diameter of bar. Assume 25 mm main bars and
8 mm links Table 4.1
cmin,dur = minimum cover due to environmental conditions. BS 8500-1;
Assuming XC1 and C30/37 concrete, cmin,dur = 15 mm Table A4
Dcdev = allowance in design for deviation. Assuming no
measurement of cover Dcdev = 10 mm Cl. 4.4.1.2(3)
= cnom = 15 + 10 = 25 mm to links
or = 25 + 10 = 35 mm to main bars
Use 10 mm diameter links to give cnom = 35 mm to main bars
and 25 mm to links (as per ribbed slab design).
Fire: EC2-1-2: 5.6.3
Check adequacy of section for REI 60. EC2-1-2:
Table 5.6
Axis distance required:
Minimum width bmin = 120 mm with a = 25 mm EC2-1-2:
or bmin = 200 mm with a = 12 mm Table 5.6
= at 2000 mm wide (min.) a < 12 mm
By inspection, not critical.
Use 25 mm nominal cover to links

4.3.3 Idealisation, load combination and arrangement


Load combination:
By inspection, Exp. (6.10b) is critical. Fig. 2.5
47.8 × 1.25 + 45.8 × 1.5 = 128.5 kN/m‡ EC0: Exp. (6.10b)
Idealisation:
This element is treated as a beam on pinned supports.
The beam will be provided with links to carry shear and to
accommodate the requirements of Cl. 9.2.5 – indirect support of
the ribbed slab described in Section 3.3.8.

Arrangement: Cl. 5.1.3(1) &


Choose to use all-and-alternate-spans-loaded. NA: Table NA.1
(option b)

‡ cf. 126.7 kN/m from analysis of slab (63.2 kN/m + 63.5 kN/m). See Figure 3.12.

120
-',3<hgmbgnhnlpb]^M&[^Zf

4.3.4 Analysis
Analysis by computer, assuming simple supports and including EC0: A1.2.2 &
15% redistribution at supports (with in this instance consequent NA;
redistribution in span moments). Cl. 5.3.1 (6)
5.3.1(6)
Table 4.3 Elastic and redistributed moments, kNm
Span number 1 2 3 4
Elastic M 641.7 433.0 433.0 641.7
Redistributed M 606.4 393.2 393.2 606.4
d 0.945 0.908 0.908 0.945

800
657.4 kNm 657.4 kNm
600
516.0 kNm
400

200

A B C D E
– 200

– 400
– 393.2 kNm – 393.2 kNm
– 600
– 606.4 kNm – 606.4 kNm
– 800

Figure 4.18 Redistributed envelope, kNm

800

600 569.1 kN
517.9 kN
462.6 kN
394.6 kN
400

200

A B C D E
– 200

– 400
– 395.6 kN
– 462.6 kN
– 517.9 kN
– 600 – 569.1 kN

– 800

Figure 4.19 Redistributed shears, kN

121
4.3.5 Flexural design, span AB
a) Span AB (and DE) – Flexure
MEd = 606.4 kNm
K = MEd/bd2fck
where Cl. 5.3.2.1,
b = beff = beff1 + bw + beff2 Fig. 5.3
where
beff1 = (0.2b1 + 0.1l0) ≤ 0.2l0 ≤ b1
where
b1 = distance between webs/2
Referring to Figures 3.8 and 3.9
= (7500 – 1000 − 550)/2 = 2975 mm
l0 = 0.85 × l1 = 0.85 × 7500 = 6375 mm Fig. 5.2
beff1 = 0.2 × 2975 + 0.1 × 6375 ≤ 0.2 × 6375 ≤ 2975
= 1232 ≤ 1275 ≤ 2975
= 1232 mm
bw = 2000 mm
beff2 = (0.2b2 + 0.1l0) ≤ 0.2 l0 ≤ b2
where
b2 = distance between webs/2.
Referring to Figures 3.8 and 3.9
= (9000 – 1000 − 550)/2 = 3725 mm
l0 = 6375 mm as before
beff2 = 0.2 × 3725 + 0.1 × 6375 ≤ 0.2 × 6375 ≤ 3725
= 1382 ≤ 1275 ≤ 3725
= 1275 mm

b = 1232 + 2000 + 1275 = 4507 mm


d = 300 − 25 – 10 – 25/2 = 252 mm
assuming 10 mm link and H25 in span.

fck = 35 MPa
K = 606.4 × 106/(4507 × 2522 × 35)
= 0.061
K' = 0.207 Appendix A1
or restricting x/d to 0.45
K' = 0.168
K ≤ K' = section under-reinforced and no compression
reinforcement required.
z = (d/2) [1 + (1 − 3.53K)0.5] ≤ 0.95d Appendix A1
= (252/2) (1 + 0.886) ≤ 0.95 × 252
= 238 ≤ 239 = z =238 mm

122
-',3<hgmbgnhnlpb]^M&[^Zf

But z = d – 0.4 x Appendix A1


= x = 2.5(d – z) = 2.5( 252 − 236) = 32 mm
= neutral axis in flange.
Asx < 1.25hf design as rectangular section.

As = MEd/fydz
where
fyd = 500/1.15 = 434.8 MPa
= 606.4 × 106/(434.8 × 239) = 5835 mm2
Try 12 no. H25 B (5892 mm2)
b) Span AB – Deflection
Check span-to-effective-depth ratio. Appendix B
Allowable l/d = N × K × F1 × F2 × F3 Appendix C7
where Cl. 7.4.2(2),
N = Basic l/d: check whether r > r0 and whether to use Exp. Exp. (7.16a),
(7.16a) or (7.16b) Exp. (7.16b)
r = As/Ac‡ = As,req/[bw d + (beff – bw)hf] PD 6687[6]
= 5835/[2000 × 252 + (4507 – 2000) × 100]
= 5835/754700
= 0.77%
r0 = fck0.5/1000 = 300.5/1000 = 0.59%
r > r0 = use Exp. (7.16b)
N = 11 + 1.5fck0.5 r0/(r – r') + fck0.5(r'/r0)0.5/12 Exp. (7.16b)
= 11 + 1.5 (350.5 × 0.059/(0.077 – 0) + 350.5(0/0.59)1.5
= 11 + 6.8 + 0 = 17.8
K = (end span) = 1.3 Table 7.4N & NA
F1 = (beff/bw = 4057/2000 = 2.03) = 0.90 Cl. 7.4.2(2),
Appendix C7
F2 = 7.0/leff (span > 7.0 m) Cl. 7.4.2(2),
where 5.3.2.2(1)
leff = 7100 + 2 × 300/2 = 7400 mm
F2 = 7.0/7.4 = 0.95
F3 = 310/ss ≤1.5 Cl. 7.4.2, Exp.
(7.17), Table 7.4N
where§ & NA, Table NA.5
ss = (fyk/gS) (As,req/As,prov) (SLS loads/ULS loads) (1/d) Note 5
= 434.8 × (5835/5892) [(47.8 + 0.3 × 45.8)/(1.25 ×
47.8 + 1.5 × 45.8)] × (1/0.945)
= 434.8 × 0.99 × 0.48 × 1.06
= 219 MPa

‡ 2.18 of PD 6687[6] suggests that r in T sections should be based on the area

of concrete above the centroid of the tension steel.


§ See Appendix B1.5

123
F3 = 310/ss
= 310/219 = 1.41
= Permissible l/d = 17.8 × 1.3 × 0.90 × 0.95 × 1.41 = 27.9
Actual l/d = 7500/252 = 29.8 = no good
Try 13 no. H25 B (6383 mm2)
F3 = 310/ss
= 310/219 × 13/12 = 1.53‡ = say 1.50
= Permissible l/d = 17.8 × 1.3 × 0.90 × 0.95 × 1.50 = 29.7
Actual leff /d = 7400/252 = 29.4 Say OK
Use 13 no. H25 B (6383 mm2)

4.3.6 Flexural design, support B (and D)


At centreline of support:
M = 657.4 kNm
At face of support: Cl. 5.3.2.2(3)
MEd = 657.4 – 0.2 × 517.9 + 0.202 × 128.5/2
= 657.4 – 101.0
= 556.4 kNm
K = MEd/bwd2fck
where
bw = 2000 mm
d = 300 − 25 cover − 12 fabric − 8 link – 16 bar − 25/2 bar
= 226 mm

25 cover
12 fabric
8 link
16 bar

16 bar
20 bar 25 bar
8 link 8 link
25 cover 25 cover

Figure 4.20 Section at rib-beam interface

K = 556.4 × 106/(2000 × 2262 × 35) = 0.156


By inspection, K < K'
K' = 0.167 maximum (or for d = 0.85, K' = 0.168) Appendix A1
= No compression steel required. Table C.4

‡ Both As,prov/As,req and any adjustment to N obtained from Exp. (7.16a) or Exp. NA, Table NA.5
(7.16b) is restricted to 1.5 by Note 5 to Table NA.5 in the UK NA.

124
-',3<hgmbgnhnlpb]^M&[^Zf

z = (226/2)[1 + (1 − 3.53 K')0.5]


= (226/2)[1 + (1 − 3.53 × 0.156)0.5]
= (226/2) (1 + 0.67) < 0.95d
= 189 mm
As = MEd/fydz
= 556.4 × 106/(434.8 × 189) = 6770 mm2
Try 14 no. H25 T (6874 mm2)
To be spread over beff Cl. 9.2.1.2(2),
Fig. 9.1
beff = beff1 + bw + beff2 Cl. 5.3.2.1,
Fig. 5.3
where
beff1 = (0.2b1 + 0.1l0) ≤ 0.2l0 ≤ b1
where
b1 referring to Figure 3.9
= (7500 – 1000 – 550)/2 = 2975 mm
l0 = 0.15 × (l1 + l2) = 0.15 × (7500 + 7500) = 2250 mm
beff1 = 0.2 × 2975 + 0.1 × 2250 ≤ 0.2 × 2250 ≤ 2975
= 820 ≤ 450 ≤ 2975 Fig. 5.2
= 450 mm
bw = 2000 mm
beff2 = 450 mm as before
= beff = 450 + 2000 + 450 = 2900 mm
Check cracking: Cl. 7.3.3
Spacing = 2900 – 2 × (25 – 10 – 25/2)/(14 − 1) = 216 mm
ss = (fyk/gS) (As,req/As,prov) (SLS loads/ULS loads) (1/d)
= 434.8 × (6770/6874) [ (47.8 + 0.3 × 45.8)/
(1.25 × 47.8 + 1.5 × 45.8) × (1/0.85)
= 434.8 × 0.98 × 0.48 × 1.18 = 241 MPa
As loading is the cause of cracking satisfy either Table 7.2N or Table 7.3N Cl. 7.3.3(2) &
Note
For wk = 0.4 and ss = 240 MPa max. spacing = 250 mm = OK Table 7.3N

4.3.7 Flexural design, span BC (and CD similar)


a) Flexure
MEd = 393.2 kNm
K = MEd/bd2fck
where Cl. 5.3.2.1,
b = beff = beff1 + bw + beff2 Fig. 5.3
where
beff1 = (0.2b1 + 0.1l0) ≤ 0.2l0 ≤ b1

125
where
b1 referring to Figure 3.9
= (7500 – 1000 – 550)/2 = 2975 mm
l0 = 0.70 × l2 = 0.7 × 7500 = 5250 mm
beff1 = 0.2 × 2975 + 0.1 × 5250 ≤ 0.2 × 5250 ≤ 2975 Fig. 5.2
= 1120 ≤ 1050 ≤ 2975
= 1050 mm
bw = 2000 mm
beff2 = (0.2b2 + 0.1l0) ≤ 0.2l0 ≤ b2

where
b2 = distance between webs/2
Referring to Figures 3.8 and 3.9
= (9000 – 1000 – 550)/2 = 3725 mm
l0 = 5250 mm as before

beff2 = 0.2 × 3725 + 0.1 × 5250 ≤ 0.2 × 5250 ≤ 3725


= 1270 ≤ 1050 ≤ 3725
= 1270 mm

b = 1050 + 2000 + 1270 = 4320 mm


d = 252 mm as before
assuming 10 mm link and H25 in span
fck = 30
K = 393.2 × 106/(4320 × 2522 × 35)
= 0.041
By inspection, K ≤ K' = section under-reinforced and no compression Appendix A1
reinforcement required.
z = (d/2) [1 + (1 – 3.53K)0.5] ≤ 0.95d Appendix A1
= (252/2) (1 + 0.924) ≤ 0.95 × 252
= 242 > 239 = z = 239 mm
By inspection, x < 1.25 hf = design as rectangular section Appendix A1
As = MEd/fydz
= 393.2 × 106/(434.8 × 239) = 3783 mm2
Try 8 no. H25 B (3928 mm2)
b) Deflection
By inspection, compared to span AB OK
But for the purposes of illustration:
Check span-to-effective-depth ratio. Appendix B
Allowable l/d = N × K × F1 × F2 × F3 Appendix C7
where
N = Basic l/d: check whether to use Exp. (7.16a) or (7.16b) Cl. 7.4.2(2)

126
-',3<hgmbgnhnlpb]^M&[^Zf

r0 = 0.59% (for fck = 35)


r = As/Ac‡ = As,req /[bwd + (beff – bw)hf]
where
bw = 2000 mm
r = 3783/(2000 × 252 + (4320 – 2000) × 100)
= 3783/736000
= 0.51%
r < r0 = use Exp. (7.16a)
N = 11 + 1.5fck0.5 r0 /r + 3.2fck0.5(r0 /r – 1)1.5 Exp. (7.16a)
= 11 + 1.5 × 350.5 × 0.059/0.051 + 3.2 × 350.5(0.059/0.051 – 1)1.5
= 11 + 10.2 + 23.5 = 17.8
= 44.7
K = (internal span) = 1.5 Table 7.4N & NA
F1 = (beff/bw = 4320/2000 = 2.16) = 0.88 Cl. 7.4.2(2),
Appendix C7
F2 = 7.0/leff = 7.0/7.4 = (span > 7.0 m) = 0.95 Cl. 7.4.2(2)
F3 = 310/ss ≤1.5 Cl. 7.4.2,
Exp. (7.17)
Table 7.4N, &
NA, Table NA.5
Note 5
where§
ss = (fyk/gS) (As,req/As,prov) (SLS loads/ULS loads) (1/d)
= 434.8 × (3783/3828) [(47.8 + 0.3 × 45.8)/(1.25 ×
47.8 + 1.5 × 45.8)] × (1/0.908)
= 434.8 × 0.99 × 0.48 × 1.10
= 227 MPa
F3 = 310/ ss
= 310/227 = 1.37
= Permissible l/d = 44.7 × 1.37 × 0.88 × 0.95 × 1.37 = 70.1
Actual l/d = 7500/252 = 29.8 = OK
Use 8 no. H25 B (3928 mm2)#

c) Hogging
Assuming curtailment of top reinforcement at 0.30l + al, How to: Detailing
From analysis MEd
at 0.3l from BC (& DC) = 216.9 kNm
at 0.3l from CB (& CD) = 185.6 kNm
K = 216.9 × 106/(2000 × 2262 × 35) = 0.061
By inspection, K < K'
‡ 2.18 of PD 6687[6] suggests that r in T sections should be based on the area

of concrete above the centroid of the tension steel.


§See Appendix B1.5
# 12 no. H20 B (3768 mm2) used to suit final arrangement of links.

127
z = (226/2)[1 + (1 − 3.53 K')0.5]
= (226/2)[1 + (1 − 3.53 × 0.061)0.5]
= (226/2) (1 + 0.89) < 0.95d
= 214 mm < 215 mm
As = MEd/fydz
= 216.9 × 106/(434.8 × 214) = 2948 mm2
Use 12 no. H20 T (3748 mm2)
(to suit links and bottom steel)
Top steel at supports may be curtailed down to 12 no. H20 T at Cl. 9.2.1.3(2)
0.3l + al = 0.3 × 7500 + 1.25 × 214 = 2518 say 2600 mm from
centreline of support.

4.3.8 Flexural design, support C


At centreline of support,
M = 516.0 kNm
At face of support, Cl. 5.3.2.2(3)
MEd = 516.0 – 0.2 × 462.6 + 0.202 × 128.5/2
= 516.0 – 90.0
= 426.0 kNm
K = MEd/bwd2fck
where
bw = 2000 mm
d = 226 mm as before

K = 426.0 × 106/(2000 × 2262 × 35) = 0.119


By inspection, K < K'

z = (226/2) [1 + (1 − 3.53K)0.5]
= (226/2) [1 + (1 − 3.53 × 0.119)0.5]
= (226/2) (1 + 0.76) < 0.95d
= 199 mm

As = MEd/fydz
= 426.0 × 106/(434.8 × 199) = 4923 mm2
Try 10 no. H25 T (4910 mm2)‡

4.3.9 Design for beam shear


a) Support A (and E)
At d from face of support,
VEd = 394.6 − (0.400/2 + 0·252) × 128.5 = 336.5 kN Cl. 6.2.1(8)
Maximum shear resistance:
By inspection, VRd,max OK and cot y = 2.5

‡ 12 no. H25 used to suit final arrangement of links.

128
-',3<hgmbgnhnlpb]^M&[^Zf

However, for the purpose of illustration: check shear capacity,


VRd,max = acw bw zvfcd/ (cot y + tan y)

where Exp. (6.9) & NA


acw = 1.0
bw = 2000 mm as before
z = 0.9d
v = 0.6 [1 − fck/250] = 0.516 Cl. 6.2.3(1)
fcd = 35/1.5 = 23.3 MPa
y = angle of inclination of strut.
By inspection, cot−1 y << 21.8. But cot y restricted to Cl. 6.2.3(2)
2.5 and = tan y = 0.4. & NA
VRd,max = 1.0 × 2000 × 0.90 × 252 × 0.516 × 23.3/(2.5 + 0·4)
= 2089.5 kN
= OK
Shear links: shear resistance with links
ORd,s = (Asw/s) z fywd cot y ≥ VEd Exp. (6.8)
= for VEd ≤ VRd,s
Asw /s ≥ VEd/z fywd cot y
where
Asw /s = area of legs of links/link spacing
z = 0.9d as before
fywd = 500/1.15 = 434.8
cot y = 2.5 as before
Asw /s ≥ 336.5 × 103/(0.9 × 252 × 434.8 × 2.5) = 1.36 Cl. 9.2.2(5),
Minimum Asw /s = rw,minbwsin a Exp. (9.4)
where
rw,min = 0.08 × fck0.5/fyk = 0.08 × 350.5/500 = 0.00095 Exp. (9.5N) & NA
bw = 2000 mm as before
a = angle between shear reinforcement and the longitudinal axis.
For vertical reinforcement sin a = 1.0
Minimum Asw /s = 0.00095 × 2000 × 1 = 1.90
But,
maximum spacing of links longitudinally = 0.75d = 183 mm Cl. 9.2.2(6)
Maximum spacing of links laterally = 0.75d ≤ 600 mm = 183 mm Cl. 9.2.2(8)
H10s required to maintain 35 mm cover to H25
= Use H10 @ 175 cc both ways
i.e. H10 in 12§ legs @ 175 mm cc (Asw /s = 5.38)

§ (2000 mm – 2 × 25 mm cover − 10 mm diameter)/175 = 11 spaces, = 12 legs.

129
b) Support B (and C and D)
By inspection, the requirement for minimum reinforcement and, in
this instance, for H10 legs of links will outweigh design requirements.
Nonetheless check capacity of Asw/s = 5.38
VRd,s = (Asw/s) z fywd cot y Exp. (6.8)
= 5.38 × 0.9 × 252 × 434.8 × 2.5 = 1326.3 kN
Maximum shear at support = 517.9 kN
i.e. capacity of minimum links not exceeded.
By inspection, the requirement for indirect support of the ribs of the Cl. 9.2.5,
slab using 87 mm2/rib within 150 mm of centreline of ribs (at 900 mm Section 3.4.8
centres) and within 50 mm of rib/solid interface is adequately catered
for and will not unduly effect the shear capacity of the beam.
Use 150 mm centres to tie in with 900 mm centres of ribs
= Use H10 in 12 legs @ 150 mm cc (Asw/s = 6.28) throughout beam

4.3.10 Check for punching shear, column B


As the beam is wide and shallow it should be checked for punching shear.
At B, applied shear force, VEd = 569.1 + 517.9 = 1087.0 kN.
Check at perimeter of 400 × 400 mm column: Cl. 6.4.3(2),
vEd = bVEd/uid < vRd,max 6.4.5(3)
where
b = factor dealing with eccentricity; recommended value 1.15
VEd = applied shear force Fig. 6.21N & NA
ui = control perimeter under consideration. For punching shear Cl. 6.4.5(3)
adjacent to interior columns u0 = 2(cx + cy) = 1600 mm
d = mean d = (245 + 226)/2 = 235 mm Exp. (6.32)
vEd = 1.15 × 1087.0 × 103/1600 × 235 = 3.32 MPa
vRd,max = 0.5vfcd Cl. 6.4.5(3) Note
where
v = 0.6(1 − fck/250) = 0.516 Exp. (6.6) & NA
fcd = acclfck/gC = 1.0 × 1.0 × 35/1.5 = 23.3
vRd,max = 0.5 × 0.516 × 23.3 = 6.02 MPa = OK Table C7‡
Check shear stress at basic perimeter u1 (2.0d from face of column): Cl. 6.4.2
vEd = bVEd /u1d < vRd,c
where
b, VEd and d as before Fig. 6.13

‡ In this case, at the perimeter of the column, it is assumed that the strut angle
is 45°, i.e. that cot y = 1.0. In other cases, where cot y < 1.0, vRd,max is available
from Table C7.

130
-',3<hgmbgnhnlpb]^M&[^Zf

u1 = control perimeter under consideration. For punching shear


at 2d from interior columns
= 2(cx + cy) + 2π × 2d
= 1600 + 2π × 2 × 235 = 4553 mm
vEd = 1.15 × 1087.0 × 103/4553 × 235 = 1.17 MPa
vRd,c = 0.18/ gC × k × (100 rlfck)0.333 Exp. (6.47) & NA
where
gC = 1.5
k = 1 + (200/d)0.5 ≤ 2
= 1 +(200/235)0.5 = 1.92
rl = (rly, rlz)0.5 Cl. 6.4.4.1(1)
where
rly, rlz = Reinforcement ratio of bonded steel in the y and
z direction in a width of the column plus 3d each
side of column.
= 6874/(2000 × 226) = 0.0152
rlz = 741/(900 × 245) = 0.0036
rl = (0.0152 × 0.0036)0.5 = 0.0074
fck = 35
vRd,c = 0.18/1.5 × 1.92 × (100 × 0.0074 × 35)0.333 = 0.68 MPa§ Table C6#
= punching shear reinforcement required
Shear reinforcement (assuming rectangular arrangement of links):
At the basic control perimeter, u1, 2d from the column:
Asw ≥ (vEd – 0.75vRd,c) sr u1 /1.5fywd,ef) Exp. (6.52)
where
sr = 175 mm Cl. 9.4.3(1)
fywd,ef = effective design strength of reinforcement
= (250 + 0.25d) < fyd = 309 MPa Cl. 6.4.5(1)
For perimeter u1
Asw = (1.17 – 0.75 × 0.68) × 175 × 4553/(1.5 × 309) = 1135 mm2 per
perimeter
Try 15 no. H10 (1177 mm2)

§ See Section 3.4.14 with respect to possible limit of 2.0 or 2.5 on V /V


Ed Rd,c
within punching shear requirements.
# vRd,c for various values of d and rl is available from Table C6.

131
Check availability of reinforcement‡:
1st perimeter to be > 0.3d but < 0.5d, i.e between 70 mm and 117 Fig. 9.10,
mm from face of column. Say 0.4d = 100 mm from face of column. 9.4.3(4)

By inspection of Figure 4.21. the equivalent of 14 locations are


available between 70 mm and 117 mm from face of column therefore
say OK.
CL
900
470 200 200 470
150 150 150 150 150 150
H10 legs
of links
175 175 175 175 175 175

s = 150 mm

600 u1
70
CL

24 H10 legs
in u1 perimeter

58

Figure 4.21 Shear links and punching shear perimeter u1

Perimeter at which no punching shear links are required:


uout = VEd × b/(d × vRd,c)
uout = 1087 × 1.15 × 103/(235 × 0.68) = 7826 mm
Length of column faces = 4 × 400 = 1600 mm
Radius to uout = (7823 – 1600)/2π = 990 mm
from face of column i.e. in ribs, therefore beam shear governs

‡ The same area of shear reinforcement is required for all perimeters inside or

outside perimeter u1. See Section 3.4.13.


Punching shear reinforcement is also subject to requirements for minimum
reinforcement and spacing of shear reinforcement (see Cl. 9.4.3). The centre of
links from the centreline of the column shown in Figure 4.21 have been adjusted to
accommodate a perimeter of links at between 0.3d and 0.5d from the column face.

132
-',3<hgmbgnhnlpb]^M&[^Zf

4.3.11 Summary of design


X

H10 links in 12H20T 12H20T


12 legs @ 150 cc 14H25T 12H25T 14H25T

A B C D E
13H25B 12H20B 12H20B 13H25B

Figure 4.23 Section X–X

133
. Columns
.') General
Ma^\Ze\neZmbhglbgmabll^\mbhgbeenlmkZm^3
.'*=^lb`gh_Zghg&le^g]^k^]`^\henfgnlbg`aZg]\Ze\neZmbhg'
.'+=^lb`gh_Zi^kbf^m^k\henfgnlbg`bm^kZmbhgh_^jnZmbhglmh]^m^kfbg^k^bg_hk\^f^gm
k^jnbk^f^gml'
.',=^lb`gh_Zgbgm^kgZe\henfgpbmaab`aZqbZeehZ]'
.'-=^lb`gh_Zle^g]^k\henfgk^jnbkbg`Zmph&ahnkËk^k^lblmZg\^'

Bg`^g^kZe%ZqbZeehZ]lZg]Ëklmhk]^kfhf^gmlZk^Zllnf^]mh[^ZoZbeZ[e^'Ma^]^lb`gl\hglb]^k
le^g]^kg^llbghk]^kmh]^m^kfbg^]^lb`gfhf^gml%F>]'Ma^\henfglZk^]^lb`g^]Zg]\a^\d^]
_hk[bZqbZe[^g]bg`'Ma^^__^\mlh_Zeehpbg`_hkbfi^k_^\mbhglZk^beenlmkZm^]'

:`^g^kZef^mah]h_]^lb`gbg`\henfglblZl_heehpl'BgikZ\mb\^%l^o^kZeh_ma^l^lm^ilfZr[^
\hf[bg^]'
N =^m^kfbg^]^lb`geb_^' EC0 & NA Table NA 2.1
N :ll^llZ\mbhglhgma^\henfg' EC1 (10 parts) & UK NAs
N =^m^kfbg^pab\a\hf[bgZmbhglh_Z\mbhglZiier' EC0 & NA Tables NA A1.1
& NA A1.2(B)
N :ll^ll]nkZ[bebmrk^jnbk^f^gmlZg]]^m^kfbg^\hg\k^m^ BS 8500–1
lmk^g`ma'
N <a^\d\ho^kk^jnbk^f^gml_hkZiikhikbZm^_bk^ Approved Document B,
k^lblmZg\^i^kbh]' EC2–1–2
N =^m^kfbg^\ho^k_hk_bk^%]nkZ[bebmrZg][hg]' Cl. 4.4.1
N :gZerl^lmkn\mnk^_hk\kbmb\Ze\hf[bgZmbhgfhf^gml Section 5
Zg]ZqbZe_hk\^l'
N <a^\dle^g]^kg^llZg]]^m^kfbg^]^lb`gfhf^gml' Section 5.8
N =^m^kfbg^Zk^Zh_k^bg_hk\^f^gmk^jnbk^]' Section 6.1
N <a^\dliZ\bg`h_[ZklZg]ebgdl' Sections 8 & 9

134
<henfgl

.'* Edge column


Ma^bgm^gmbhgh_mabl\Ze\neZmbhgblmhlahpZmrib\ZeaZg]\Ze\neZmbhgmaZmfZd^lk^_^k^g\^
mh]^lb`g\aZkml'

Ikhc^\m]^mZbel <Ze\neZm^][r chg Ch[gh' CCIP – 041


Edge column <a^\d^][r web La^^mgh' 1
<eb^gm TCC =Zm^ Oct 09

A 300 mm square column on the edge of a flat slab structure


supports an axial load of 1620 kN and first order moments of
38.5 kNm top and −38.5 kNm bottom in one direction only‡. The
concrete is grade C30/37, fck = 30 MPa and cover, cnom, = 25 mm.
The 250 mm thick flat slabs are at 4000 mm vertical centres.

38.5 kNm

NEd = 1620 kN

– 38.5 kNm

Figure 5.1 Forces in edge column

5.1.1 Check slenderness, l


Effective length§, l0 = factor × l Cl. 5.8.3.2
where
factor = from Table C16, condition 2 each end Table C16,
= 0.85 PD 6687: 2.10
l = clear height = 3750 mm
= l0 = 0.85 × 3750 = 3187 mm
Slenderness l = l0/i Exp. (5.14)

‡For examples of load take-downs and 1st order moment analysis see Section
5.3.2
§ Effective lengths are covered in Eurocode 2 Cl. 5.8.3.2 and Exp. (5.15). The Fig. 5.7
effective length of most columns will be l /2< l0 < l (see Eurocode 2 Figure 5.7f). PD 6687[6]:
PD 6687[6] Cl. 2.10 suggests that using the procedure outlined in Eurocode 2
Cl. 2.10
(5.8.3.2(3) and 5.8.3.2(5)) leads to similar effective lengths to those tabulated
in BS 8110[7] and reproduced in Table 5.1 of Concise Eurocode 2[5] and in this Cl. 5.8.3.2(3)
publication as Table C16. For simplicity, tabular values are used in this example. 5.8.3.2(5)
However, experience suggests that these tabulated values are conservative. Table C16

135
where
i = radius of gyration
= h/120.5 for rectangular sections
l = 3187 × 3.46/300 = 36.8

5.1.2 Limiting slenderness, llim


llim = 20 ABC/n0.5 Exp. (5.13N)
where
A = 0.7 (default) Cl. 5.8.3.1(1)
B = 1.1 (default)
C = 1.7 − rm = 1.7 − M01/M02
= 1.7 − 38.5/(−38.5) = 2.7
n = NEd/Acfcd = 1620 × 103/(3002 × 0.85 × 30/1.5)
= 1.06
llim = 20 ABC/n0.5
= 20 × 0.7 × 1.1 × 2.7/1.060.5
In this example llim = 40.4 i.e. > 36.8 = Column not slender

5.1.3 Design moments


MEd = max[M02; M0Ed + M2; M01 + 0.5M2] Cl. 5.8.8.2(1)
where
M02 = M + eiNEd ≥ e0NEd Cl. 5.8.8.2, 6.1.4
where
M = 38.5 kNm
ei = l0/400 Cl. 5.2.7, 5.2.9
e0 = max[h/30; 20] = max[300/30; 20] = 20 mm Cl. 6.1.4
M02 = 38.5 + 1620 × 3.187/400 ≥ 0.02 × 1620
= 38.5 + 12.9 ≥ 32.4 kNm
= 51.4 kNm
M0Ed = 0.6M02 + 0.4M01 ≥ 0.4M02
= 0.6 × 51.4 + 0.4 × (−38.5 + 12.9) ≥ 0.4 × 51.4
= 20.6 ≥ 20.6
= 20.6
M2 = 0 (column is not slender)
M01 = M02
= max[M02 ; M0Ed + M2 ; M01 + 0.5M2] = 51.4 kNm = MEd = 51.4 kNm

5.1.4 Design using charts (see Appendix C)


d2 = cnom + link + f/2 = 25 + 8 + 16 = 49
d2/h = 49/300 = 0.163
= interpolating between d2/h = 0.15 and 0.20 Figs. C5c), C5d)
for
NEd/bhfck = 1620 × 103/(3002 × 30) = 0.60

136
.'*3>]`^\henfg

MEd/bh2fck = 51.4 × 106/(3003 × 30) = 0.063


Asfyk/bhfck = 0.24
As = 0.24 × 3002 × 30/500 = 1296 mm2
Try 4 no. H25 (1964 mm2)

5.1.5 Check for biaxial bending


ly /lz ≈ 1.0 Cl. 5.8.9
i.e. ly /lz ≤ 2.0 = OK but check Exp. (5.38b) Exp. (5.38a)
As a worst case MEdy may coexist with e0NEd about the orthogonal axis: Cl. 6.1(4)
ey/heq (MEdz/NEd)/h MEdz
= =
ez/beq (MEdy/NEd)/b MEdy Exp. (5.38b)
Imperfections need to be taken into account in one direction only. Cl. 5.8.9(2)
= As a worst case for biaxial bending
MEdz = M + 0 = 38.5 kNm
MEdy = e0NEd = 32.4 kNm
MEdz 38.5
= = 1.19 i.e. > 0.2 and < 5.0 Exp. (5.38b)
MEdy 32.4
= Biaxial check required Cl. 5.8.9(4)
Check whether
(MEdz/MRdz)a + (MEdy/MRdy)a ≤ 1.0 Exp. (5.39)
where
MEdz = 38.5 kNm
MEdy = 32.4 kNm
MRdz = MRdy Figs. C5c), C5d)
To determine MRdz, find MEd/bh2fck (and therefore
moment capacity) by interpolating between d2/h = 0.15
(Figure C5c) and 0.20 (Figure C5d) for the proposed
arrangement and co-existent axial load.

Assuming 4 no. H25,


Asfyk/bhfck = 1964 × 500/(3002× 30) = 0.36

Interpolating for NEd/bhfck = 0.6,


MEd/bh2fck = 0.094
= MRdz = MRdy = 0.094 × 3003 × 30 = 76.1 kNm
a is dependent on NEd/NRd Cl. 5.8.9(4),
where Notes to Exp.
NEd = 1620 kN as before (5.39)

137
NRd = Acfcd + Asfyd
= 3002 × 0.85 × 30/1.5 + 1964 × 500/1.15
= 1530.0 + 853.9
= 2383.9 kN
NEd/NRd = 1620/2383.9 = 0.68
=a = 1.48 by interpolating between values given for NEd/NRd =
0.1, (1.0) and NEd/NRd = 0.7, (1.5)

(MEdz/MRdz)a + (MEdy/MRdy)a = (38.5/76.1)1.48 + (32.4/76.1)1.48 Exp. (5.39)


= 0.36 + 0.28
= 0.64 = OK.
= 4 no. H25 OK

5.1.6 Links
Diameter min. f/4 = 25/4 = 8 mm Cl. 9.5.3 & NA
Max. spacing = 0.6 × 300 = 180 mm Cl. 9.5.3(3),
Cl. 9.5.3(4)
Links at say 175 mm cc

5.1.7 Design summary

4 H25
H8 links @ 175 cc
25 mm cover
fck = 30 MPa

Figure 5.2 Design summary: edge column

138
.'+3I^kbf^m^k\henfg

.'+ Perimeter column (internal environment)


Mabl^qZfie^blbgm^g]^]mhlahpZaZg]\Ze\neZmbhg_hkZghg&le^g]^ki^kbf^m^k\henfg
nlbg`bm^kZmbhg!h_q"mh]^m^kfbg^ma^k^bg_hk\^f^gmk^jnbk^]'

Ikhc^\m]^mZbel <Ze\neZm^][r chg Ch[gh' CCIP – 041


Perimeter column <a^\d^][r web La^^mgh' 1
(internal environment) <eb^gm TCC =Zm^ Oct 09

This 300 × 300 mm perimeter column is in an internal environment


and supports three suspended floors and the roof of an office block.
It is to be designed at ground floor level where the storey height
is 3.45 m and the clear height in the N–S direction (z direction) is
3.0 m and 3.325 m in the E–W direction (y direction). One-hour fire
resistance is required and fck = 30 MPa.

250
325
M02yy
300 × 300
3575 Column under
consideration

Figure 5.3 Perimeter column


(internal environment)

From first order analysis, load case 1:


NEd = 1129.6 kN; M02yy = 89.6 kNm; M02zz = 0
Load case 2:
NEd = 1072.1 kN; M02yy = 68.7 kNm; M02zz = 6.0 kNm

5.2.1 Cover
cnom = cmin + Dcdev Exp. (4.1)
where
cmin = max[cmin,b; cmin,dur]
where
cmin,b = diameter of bar. Assume 32 mm bars and 8 mm links Cl. 4.4.1.2(3)
= 32 mm to main bars, 32 − 8 = 24 mm to links
= say 25 mm
cmin,dur = minimum cover due to environmental conditions.
Assume XC1.
cmin,dur = 15 mm
cmin = 25 mm
Dcdev = 10 mm Cl. 4.4.1.3(3)
Therefore cnom = 25 + 10 = 35 mm to links cnom = 35 mm to links.

139
5.2.2 Fire resistance
Check validity of using Method A and Table 5.2a of BS EN 1992–1–2: EC2-1-2: 5.3.2,
Table 5.2a
l0,fi ≈ 0.7 × 3.325 i.e. < 3.0 m = OK. EC2-1-2:
5.3.3(3)
e = M02yy /NEd = 89.6 × 106/1129.6 × 103 = 79 mm EC2-1-2:
5.3.2 & NA
emax = 0.15h = 0.15 × 300 = 45 mm = no good.
Check validity of using Method B and Table 5.2b: EC2-1-2:
emax = 0.25b = 75 mm = no good. 5.3.3

Use BS EN 1992–1–2 Annex C Tables C1–C9. EC2-1-2:


Annex C
Assume min. 4 no. H25 = 1964 mm2 (z 2.2%)‡ EC2-1-2: 5.3.3(2)
w = Asfyd/Acfcd = 0.022 × (500/1.15)/(0.85 × 30/1.5)
= 0.56
e ≈ 0.25b and ≤ 100 mm
l = l0 /i
where EC2-1-2:
l0 = 0.7 × 3.325 = 2327 mm 5.3.3(2),
i = radius of gyration = (I/A)0.5 = h/120.5 5.3.3(3)
where
I = inertia = bh3/12
A = area = bh
h = height of section
b = breadth of section
= 300/120.5 = 87 mm
l = 2327/87 = 276
n = N0Ed,fi/0.7(Acfcd + Asfyd) EC2-1-2: 5.3.3(2)
= 0.7 × 1129.6/0.7(3002× 0.85 × 30/1.5 + 1964 × 500/1.15)
= 1129.6/2383.9
= 0.47
= interpolate for l = 30 and n = 0.47 between EC2-1-2:
from Table C.5 of BS EN 1992–1–2 (w = 0.5, e = 0.25b): Table C.5
minimum dimension, bmin = 235, and axis distance, a = 35 mm
and EC2-1-2:
from Table C.8 of BS EN 1992–1–2 (w = 1.0, e = 0.25b): Table C.8

‡ Using 4 no. H20 gives w = 0.34, n = 0.54 and bmin = 310 mm = no good.

140
.'+3I^kbf^m^k\henfg

bmin = 185, and


a = 30 mm
 = for w = 0.56,
bmin = 228, and
a = 35 mm
OK to use Method B but use min. 4 no. H25

5.2.3 Structural design: check slenderness


Effective length, l0:
l0 = 0.5l [1 + k1 /(0.45 + k1) ]0.5 [1 + k2/(0.45 + k2) ]0.5 Exp. (5.15)
where
k1, k2 = relative stiffnesses top and bottom
But conservatively, choose to use tabular method§. For critical Table C16
direction, the column is in condition 2 at top and condition 3 at
bottom (pinned support).
l0 = 0.95 × 3325 = 3158 mm
Slenderness ratio, l: Cl. 5.8.3.2(1)
l = l0/i
where
i = radius of gyration = (I/A)0.5 = h/120.5
l = 3158 × 120.5/300 = 36.5 l = 36.5

Limiting slenderness ratio, llim Cl. 5.8.3.1(1)


llim = 20 ABC/n0.5 & NA
where
A = 1/(1 + 0.2 fef). Assume 0.7 Cl. 5.8.4
B = (1 + 2 Asfyd/Acfcd)0.5 Cl. 5.8.3.1(1)
= (1 + 2w)0.5
Assuming min. 4 no. H25 (for fire)
w = 0.56 as before
B = (1 + 2 × 0.56)0.5 = 1.46
C = 1.7 – rm Cl. 5.8.3.1(1)
where
rm = M01/M2
Assuming conservatively that M01 = 0
rm = 0
C = 1.7
n = NEd/Acfcd
= 1129.6 × 103/(3002 × 0.85 × 30/1.5)
= 0.74

§ See footnote to Section 5.1.1.

141
llim = 20 × 0.7 × 1.46 × 1.7/0.740.5
= 40.4 llim = 40.4
= as l < llim column is not slender and 2nd order moments are not
required.
Column is not slender

5.2.4 Design moments, MEd


MEd = MOEd + M2 ≥ e0NEd Cl. 5.8.8.2(1),
5.8.8.2(3)
But as column is not slender, M2 = 0, = Cl. 6.1.4
MEd = MOed = M + eiNEd ≥ e0NEd
where
M = moment from 1st order analysis
eiNEd = effect of imperfections‡
where
ei = l0 /400 Cl. 5.2(7), 5.2.9,
5.8.8.2(1)
e0 = h/30 > 20 mm Cl. 6.1.4
Load case 1:
MEdy = 89.6 + (3158/400) × 1129.6 × 10−3 > 0.02 × 1129.6
= 89.6 + 8.9 > 22.6 = 98.5 kNm
Load case 2:
MEdy = 68.7 kNm
MEdz = 6.0 + (l0/400) × 1072.1 × 10−3 > 0.02 × 1072.1
where Table C16
l0 = 0.9 × 3000
= 13.2 > 21.4 = 21.4 kNm

5.2.5 Design using iteration of x


For axial load: Concise:
AsN/2 = (NEd – accnfckbdc /gC)/(ssc – sst) Section 6.2.2,
Appendix A3
For moment:
[MEd – accnfckbdc (h/2 – dc/2)/ gC] Appendices A3,
AsM/2 =
(h/2 – d2) (ssc – sst) C9.2,
where
MEd = 98.5 × 106
NEd = 1129.6 × 103
acc = 0.85 Cl. 3.1.6(1) & NA
n = 1.0 for fck ≤ 50 MPa Exp. (3.21)

‡The effects of imperfections need only be taken into account in the most

unfavourable direction. Cl. 5.8.9(2)

142
.'+3I^kbf^m^k\henfg

fck = 30
b = 300
h = 300
dc = depth of compression zone
= lx Exp. (3.19)
= 0.8x < h
where
x = depth to neutral axis
d2 = 35 + 8 + 25/2 = 55 mm assuming H25
gC = 1.5
ssc, (sst) = stress in reinforcement in compression (tension) Table 2.1N
fcd = accnfck/gC d2
o o
ecu2
ssc
esc As2

dc
x
h

n. axis

ey As1
sst d2
o o

a) Strain diagram b) Stress diagram

Figure 5.4 Section in axial compression and bending Fig. 6.1

Try x = 200 mm
ecu = ecu2 = 0.0035
0.0035 × (x – d2) 0.0035 × (200 – 55)
esc = =
x 200
= 0.0025
ssc = 0.0025 × 200000 ≤ fyk/gS
= 500 ≤ 500/1.15
= 434.8 MPa
est = 0.0035(h – x – d2)/x = 0.0035(300 – 200 – 55)/200
= 0.0008
sst = 0.0008 × 200000 ≤ 500/1.15
= 160 MPa
1129.6 × 103 – 0.85 × 1.0 × 30 × 300 × 200 × 0.8/(1.5 × 103)
AsN/2 =
434.8 – 160
= (1129.6 – 816.0) × 103
= 1141 mm2
274.8

143
98.5 × 106 – 0.85 × 1.0 × 30 × 300 × 200 × 0.8 (300/2 – 200 × 0.8/2)/(1.5 × 103)
AsM/2 =
(300/2 – 55) (434.8 + 160)
(98.5 – 57.1) × 10 6
= = 733 mm2
95 × 594.8

Similarly for x = 210 mm


ecu = 0.0035
esc = 0.0026 = ssc = 434.8
est = 0.0006 = sst = 120 MPa

(1129.6 – 856.8) × 103


AsN/2 = = 866 mm2
434.8 – 120
(98.5 – 56.5) × 106
AsM/2 = = 796 mm2
95 × 554.8

Similarly for x = 212 mm


ssc = 434.8
est = 0.00054 =est = 109 MPa
(1129.6 – 865.0) × 103
AsN/2 = = 812 mm2
434.8 – 109
(98.5 – 56.3) × 106
AsM/2 = = 816 mm2
95 × 543.8
= as AsN/2 ≈ AsM/2, x = 212 mm is approximately correct and
AsN ≈ AsM, ≈ 1628 mm2
= Try 4 no. H25 (1964 mm2)

5.2.6 Check for biaxial bending


By inspection, not critical. Cl. 5.8.9(3)
[Proof:
Section is symmetrical and MRdz > 98.5 kNm.
Assuming ey/ez > 0.2 and biaxial bending is critical, and assuming
exponent a = 1 as a worst case for load case 2: Exp. (5.39)
(MEdz/MRdz)a + (MEdy/MRdy)a = (21.4/98.5)1 + (68.7/98.5)1
= 0.91 i.e. < 1.0 = OK.]

5.2.7 Links
Minimum size links = 25/4 = 6.25, say 8 mm
Spacing: minimum of
a) 0.6 × 20 × 25 = 300 mm, Cl. 9.5.3(3),
b) 0.6 × 300 = 180 mm or 9.5.3(4)
c) 0.6 × 400 = 240 mm
Use H8 @ 175 mm cc

144
.'+3I^kbf^m^k\henfg

5.2.8 Design summary

4 H25
H8 links @ 175 cc
cnom = 35 mm to links

Figure 5.5 Design summary: perimeter column

145
.', Internal column
Ma^ÌZmleZ[lahpgbg>qZfie^,'-!k^ikh]n\^]Zl?b`nk^.'/"bliZkmh_Zg1&lmhk^rlmkn\mnk^
Z[ho^`khng]pbmaZ[Zl^f^gm[^ehp`khng]'Ma^ikh[e^fblmh]^lb`g\henfg<+[^mp^^g
`khng]ÌhhkZg]*lmÌhhk'

Ikhc^\m]^mZbel <Ze\neZm^][r chg Ch[gh' CCIP – 041


Internal column <a^\d^][r web La^^mgh' 1
<eb^gm TCC =Zm^ Oct 09

The design forces need to be determined. This will include the


judgement of whether to use Exp. (6.10) or the worse case of
Exp. (6.10a) and (6.10b) for the design of this column.

The suspended slabs (including the ground floor slab) are 300
mm thick flat slabs at 4500 mm vertical centres. Between ground
and 5th floors the columns at C2 are 500 mm square; above 5th
floor they are 465 mm circular. Assume an internal environment,
1-hour fire resistance and fck = 50 MPa.

A B Bb C
4.0 4.0 4.0 6.0 D
1 E

200 x 200
hole
8.0

2 9.6

300 mm flat slabs


8.0 All columns 400 mm sq.

3 8.6
200 x 200
hole

Figure 5.6 Part plan of flat slab

5.3.1 Design forces


In order to determine design forces for this column it is first
necessary to determine vertical loads and 1st order moments.

5.3.2 Load take-down


Actions:
Roof: EC1-1-1:
gk = 8.5, qk = 0.6 6.3.4, NA &
Table NA.7

146
.',3Bgm^kgZe\henfg

Floors:
gk = 8.5, qk = 4.0 Section 3.4
In keeping with Section 3.4 use coefficients to determine loads in Section 3.4
take-down.
Consider spans adjacent to column C2: Table C3
Along grid C, consider spans to be 9.6 m and 8.6 m and C2 to be
the internal of 2 - span element.
Therefore elastic reaction factor = 0.63 + 0.63 = 1.26
Along grid 2 consider spans to be 6.0 m and 6.2 m and internal of
multiple span.
Elastic reaction factor = 0.5 + 0.5 = 1.00

Load take-down for column C2.


Item Calculation Gk Qk
From Cumulative From Cumulative
item total item total
Roof = [erfy × (lz1 + lz2)/2 ] × [erfz × (l y1 + ly2)/2 ] ×
(gk + qk)
= [1.0 × (6.0 + 6.2)/2 ] × [1.26 × (9.6
+ 8.6)/2 ] × (8.5 + 0.6)
= 69.9 × (8.5 + 0.6) = 594.5 42.0
Col 8 – R = π (0.465/2)2 × (4.5 − 0.3) × 25 = 17.9 612.4 42.0
8th = 1.0 × (6.0 + 6.2)/2 × 1.26 × (9.6 + 594.5 279.7
8.6)/2 × (8.5 + 4.0) =
Col 7 – 8 as before 17.9 1224.8 321.7
7th a.b. 594.5 279.7
Col 6 – 7 a.b. 17.9 1837.2 601.4
6th a.b. 594.5 279.7
Col 5 – 6 a.b. 17.9 2449.6 881.1
5th a.b. 594.5 279.7
Col 4 – 5 = 0.5 × 0.5 × (4.5 − 0.3) × 25 = 26.3 3070.4 1160.8
4th as before 594.5 279.7
Col 3 – 4 a.b. 26.3 3691.2 1440.5
3rd a.b. 594.5 279.7
Col 2 – 3 a.b. 26.3 4312.0 1720.2
2nd a.b. 594.5 279.7
Col 1 – 2 a.b. 26.3 4932.8 1999.7
1st a.b. 594.5 279.8
Col G – 1 a.b. 26.3 5553.6 2279.5
At above ground floor ¿ 5553.6 ¿ 2279.5

147
5.3.3 Design axial load, ground– 1st floor, NEd
a) Axial load to Exp. (6.10)
NEd = gGGk + gQQk1 + c0gQQki EC0:
Exp. (6.10) & NA
where EC0:
gG = 1.35 A1.2.2 & NA
gQ = 1.50
c0,1 = 0.7 (offices)
Qk1 = leading variable action (subject to reduction factor aA or an)
Qki = accompanying action (subject to aA or an) EC1-1-1:
6.3.1.2 (10),
6.3.1.2 (11), & NA
where
aA = 1 – A/1000 ≥ 0.75
= 1 – 9 × 69.9/1000 = 0.37 ≥ 0.75
= 0.75
an = 1.1 – n/10 for 1 ≤ n ≤ 5
= 0.6 for 5 ≤ n ≤ 10 and
= 0.5 for n > 10
where
n = number of storeys supported
an= 0.6 for 8‡ storeys supported
 = as an < aA, use an = 0.6

Assuming the variable action of the roof is an independent variable


action:
NEd = 1.35 × 5553.6 + 1.5 × (2279.5 − 42.0) × 0.6 + 0.7 × 1.5 × 42.0
= 1.35 × 5553.6 + 1.5 × 2237.5 + 0.7 × 1.5 × 42.0
= 7497.4 + 2013.8 + 44.1
= 9555.3 kN
To Exp. (6.10), NEd = 9555.3 kN

b) Axial load to Exp. (6.10a)


NEd = gGGk + c0,1gQQk1 + c0,1gQQki EC0:
= 1.35 × 5553.6 + 0.7 × 1.5 × 0.6 ( 279.8 + 1999.7) Exp. (6.10a)
= 7497.4 + 1436.1 & NA
= 8933.4 kN
To Exp. (6.10a), NEd = 8933.4 kN

c) Axial load to Exp. (6.10b)


NEd = jgGGk + gQQk1 + c0,1gQQki EC0:
Exp. (6.10)
& NA
‡According to BS EN 1991–1–1 6.3.1.2[11] the imposed load on the roof is category
H and therefore does not qualify for reduction factor an.

148
.',3Bgm^kgZe\henfg

assuming the variable action of the roof is an independent variable


action:
= 0.925 × 1.35 × 5553.6 + 1.5 × (2279.5 − 42.0) × 0.6 + 0.7 × 1.5 × 42.0
= 1.25 × 5553.6 + 1.5 × 2237.5 × 0.6 + 0.7 × 1.5 × 42.0
= 6942.1 + 2013.8+ 44.1
= 9000.0 kN
To Exp. (6.10b), NEd = 9000.0 kN

5.3.4 First order design moments, M


a) Grid C
Consider grid C to determine Myy in column (about grid 2)

gk = 6.1 x 8.5 = 51.9 kN/m qk = 6.1 x 4.0 = 24.4 kN/m


4500

3 2 1
4500
300 thick ave 6100 wide 500 sq

8600 9600

Actions:
gk = (6.0 + 6.2)/2 × 8.5 = 51.9 kN/m
qk = (6.0 + 6.2)/2 × 4.0 = 24.4 kN/m
Relative stiffness of lower column:
Assuming remote ends of slabs are pinned, relative stiffness
blcdlc3/Llc
=
blcdlc3/Llc + bucduc3/Luc + 0.75b23d233/L23 + 0.75b21d213/L21

where
b = breadth
d = depth
L = length
lc = lower column, uc = upper column
23 = beam 23, similarly 21 = beam 21
0.54/4.5
=
2 × 0.5 /4.5 + 0.75 × 6.1 × 0.33/8.6 + 0.75 × 6.1 × 0.33/9.6
4

= 0.0139/(0.0278 + 0.0144 + 0.0129) = 0.252

149
1st order moment using Exp. (6.10)
FEM 23‡ = 1.35 × 51.9 × 8.62/12 = 431.8 kNm
FEM 21 = (1.35 × 51.9 + 1.5 × 24.4) × 9.62/12
= 106.7 × 9.62/12 = 819.5 kNm
Mlower,yy = 0.252 × [819.5 – 431.8] = 97.7 kNm

1st order moment using Exp. (6.10a)


FEM 23 = 1.25 × 51.9 × 8.62/12 = 399.8 kNm
FEM 21 = (1.25 × 51.9 + 1.5 × 24.4) × 9.62/12
= 101.5 × 9.62/12 = 779.5 kNm
Mlower,yy = 0.252 × (779.5 – 399.8) = 95.7 kNm

1st order moment using Exp. (6.10b)


FEM 23 = 1.35 × 51.9 × 8.62/12 = 431.8 kNm
FEM 21 = (1.35 × 51.9 + 0.7 × 1.5 × 24.4 ) × 9.62/12
= 95.7 × 9.62/12 = 735.0 kNm
Mlower,yy = 0.252 × (735.0 – 431.8) = 76.4 kNm
= Exp. (6.10a) critical

b) Grid 2
Consider grid 2 to determine Mzz in column (about grid C)

qk = 45.9 kN/m gk = 97.5 kN/m


4500

B C D 4500

300 thick ave 11470 wide 500 sq

6200 6000

Figure 5.8 Subframe on column C2 along grid 2

Actions:
gk = 0.63 × (8.6 + 9.6) × 8.5
= 11.47 × 8.5 = 97.5 kN/m
qk = 11.47 × 4.0 = 45.9 kN/m

Relative stiffness of lower column: Cl. 5.8.3.2(4)


Assuming remote ends of slabs are fixed, relative stiffness PD 6687

‡ FEM 23 = Fixed end moment in span 23 at grid 2.

150
.',3Bgm^kgZe\henfg

0.54/4.5
=
2× 0.54/4.5 + 11.47 × 0.33/6.2 +11.47 × 0.33/6.0
= 0.0139/(0.0278 + 0.0500 + 0.0516) = 0.107
1st order moment using Exp. (6.10)
FEM CB = (1.35 × 97.5 + 1.5 × 45.9) × 6.22/12
= 200.5 × 6.22/12 = 642.3 kNm
FEM CD = 1.35 × 97.5 × 6.02/12 = 394.9 kNm
Mlower,zz = 0.107 × (642.3 – 394.9) = 26.5 kNm
1st order moment using Exp. (6.10a)
FEM CB = 1.25 × 97.5 × 6.02/12 = 365.6 kNm
FEM CD = (1.25 × 97.5 + 1.5 × 45.9) × 6.22/12
= 190.7 × 6.22/12 = 611.0 kNm
Mlower,zz = 0.107 × (611.0 – 365.6) = 26.3 kNm
1st order moment using Exp. (6.10b)
FEM CB = (1.35 × 97.5 + 0.7 × 1.5 × 45.9) × 6.22/12
= 190.7 × 6.22/12 = 576.0 kNm
FEM CD = 1.35 × 97.5 × 6.02/12 = 394.9 kNm
Mlower,zz = 0.107 × (576.0 – 394.9) = 19.4 kNm
= Exp. (6.10a) critical again

5.3.5 Summary of design forces in column C2 ground–1st


Design forces
Method NEd Myy Mzz
about grid 2 about grid C
Using Exp. (6.10) 9555.3 kN 97.7 kNm 26.5 kNm
Using Exp. (6.10a) 8933.4 kN 95.7 kNm 26.3 kNm
Using Exp. (6.10b) 9000.0 kN 76.4 kNm 19.4 kNm
Notes:
1) To determine maximum 1st order moments in the column, maximum out-of-
balance moments have been determined using variable actions to one side of
the column only. The effect on axial load has, conservatively, been ignored.
2) It may be argued that using coefficients for the design of the slab and
reactions to the columns does not warrant the sophistication of using Exps
(6.10a) and (6.10b). Nevertheless, there would appear to be some economy
in designing the column to Exp. (6.10a) or Exp. (6.10b) rather than Exp.
(6.10). The use of Exp. (6.10a) or Exp. (6.10b) is perfectly valid and will be
followed here.

To avoid duplicate designs for both Exps (6.10a) and (6.10b), a worse
case of their design forces will be used, thus:
NEd = 9000 kN, Myy = 95.7 kNm, Mzz = 26.3 kNm

151
5.3.6 Design: cover
cnom = cmin + Dcdev Exp. (4.1)
where
cmin = max[cmin,b; cmin,dur]
where
cmin,b = diameter of bar. Assume 32 mm bars and 8 mm links. Cl. 4.4.1.2(3)
= 32 – 8 = 24 mm to link
cmin,dur = minimum cover due to environmental conditions.
Assume XC1.
cmin,dur = 15 mm BS 8500-1:
Table A4
cmin = 24 mm, say 25 mm to link
Dcdev = 10 mm
= cnom = 25 + 10 = 35 mm Cl. 4.4.1.3 & NA

5.3.7 Design: fire resistance


Check validity of using Method A and Table 5.2a EC2-1-2:
5.3.2, Table 5.2a
a) Check l0,fi ≤ 3.0 m
where
l0 = effective length of column in fire
= 0.5 × clear height
= 0.5 × (4500 – 300)
= 2100 mm OK
b) Check e ≤ emax = 0.15h = 0.15 × 500 = 75 mm
e = M0Ed,fi/N0Ed,fi
= M0/NEd EC2-1-2: 5.3.2(2)
= 99.5 × 106/8933 × 103 = 11 mm OK

c) Check amount of reinforcement ≤ 4% OK


Assuming mfi = 0.7
bmin = 350 with EC2-1-2:
amin = 40 mm OK Table 5.2a
For fire using Method A and Table 5.2a is valid

5.3.8 Structural design: check slenderness


Effective length, l0:
l0 = 0.5l [1 + k1/(0.45 + k1)]0.5 [1 + k2/(0.45 + k2)]0.5 Exp. (5.15)
where
k1 and k2 are relative flexibilities at top and bottom of the
column.
ki = (EIcol/lcol)/S(2EIbeam/lbeam) ≥ 0.1 PD 6687[6]‡
‡ PD 6687 states that to allow for cracking, the contribution of each beam

should be taken as 2EI/lbeam

152
.',3Bgm^kgZe\henfg

Critical direction is where k1 and k2 are greatest i.e. where slab spans How to[8]:
are greater Columns
blcdlc3/Llc
k1 = k2 =
2b23d233/L23 + 2b21d213/L21
= (0.54/4.5)/(2 × 6.1 × 0.33/8.6 + 2 × 6.1 × 0.33/9.6)
= (0.0625)/(0.0383 + 0.0343)
= 0.86
l0 = 0.5 (4500 – 300) [1 + 0.86/(0.45 + 0.86)]0.5 [1 + 0.86/(0.45
+ 0.86)]0.5
l0 = 0.5 × 4200 × 1.66
= 0.828 × 4200 = 3478 mm

Slenderness ratio, l: Cl. 5.8.3.2(1)


l = l0/i
where
i = radius of gyration = (I/A)0.5 = h/120.5
= l = 3478 × 120.5/500 = 24.1

Limiting slenderness ratio, llim: Cl. 5.8.3.1(1) & NA


llim = 20 ABC/n0.5 Exp. (5.13N)
where
A = 1/(1 + 0.2 fef). Assume 0.7 as per default
B = (1 + 200)0.5. Assume 1.1 as per default
C = 1.7 – kf
where
 kf = M01/M2 = –84.9/109.3 = –0.78
C = 1.7 + 0.78 = 2.48
n = NEd /Acfcd
= 8933 × 103/(5002 × 0.85 × 50/1.5)
= 1.26
= llim = 20 × 0.7 × 1.1 × 2.48/1.260.5 = 34.0
= as l < llim column is not slender
and 2nd order moments are not required

5.3.9 Design moments, MEd


MEd = M + eiNEd ≥ e0NEd Cl. 5.8.8.2(1),
6.1(4)
where
M = moment from 1st order analysis
eiNEd = effect of imperfections Cl. 5.8.8.2(1)

153
where
ei = l0/400 Cl. 5.2.7
e0NEd = minimum eccentricity Cl. 6.1(4)
where
e0 = h/30 ≥ 20 mm
MEdyy = 95.7 + (3570/400) × 8933 × 10−3 ≥ 0.02 × 8933
= 95.7 + 79.7 ≥ 178.7
= 175.4 < 178.7 kNm
MEdzz = 18.8 + 79.7 ≥ 178.7
= 178.7 kNm = Both critical.

However, imperfections need only be taken in one direction – where


they have the most unfavourable effect
= Use MEdzz = 178.7 with MEdyy = 95.7 kNm Cl. 5.8.9(2)

5.3.10 Design using charts


MEdyy /bh2fck = 178.9 × 106/(5003 × 50) = 0.03 Figs C5a) to C5e)
NEd/bhfck = 9000 × 103/(5002 × 50) = 0.72
Choice of chart based on d2/h
where
d2 = depth to centroid of reinforcement in half section assuming
12 bar arrangement with H32s
d2 = 35 + 8 + (32/2) + (2/6) [500 + 2 × (35 + 8 + 32/2 )/3]
= 59 + (1/3) × 127
= 101
= d2/h = 101/500 = 0.2 Use Figure C5d)

d2

CL

d2, to centroid of reinforcement in half section

From Figure C5d) Fig. C5d)


Asfyk/bhfck = 0.30
As = 0.29 × 500 × 500 × 50/500
= 7500 mm2
Try 12 no. H32 (9648 mm2)‡

‡ Using design actions to Exp. (6.10) would have resulted in a requirement for

8500 mm2.

154
.',3Bgm^kgZe\henfg

5.3.11 Check biaxial bending Cl. 5.8.9


Slenderness: ly ≈ lz = OK. Cl. 5.8.9(3)
Eccentricities: as h = b check ey/ez
MEdz critical. (Imperfections act in z direction.)
95.7 × 106/9000 × 103
ey/ez =
178.7 × 106/9000 × 103
= 0.54 i.e. > 0.2 and < 5 Cl. 5.9.3(3),
= Design for biaxial bending. Exp. (5.38b)

C
z

ey Centre of
reaction

MEdy

b
* ez
y 2

MEdz

Figure 5.10 Eccentricities

5.3.12 Design for biaxial bending


Check (MEdz/MRdz)a + (MEdy/MRdy)a ≤ 1.0 Cl. 5.9.3(4),
Exp. (5.39)
For load case 2
where
MEdz = 178.7 kNm
MEdy = 95.7 kNm
MRdz = MRdy = moment resistance. Using charts:
From Figure C4d), for d2/h = 0.20 and
Asfyk/bhfck = 9648 × 500/500 × 500 × 50
= 0.39
NEd/bhfck = 9000 x 103/(5002 x 50)
= 0.72
2
MRd/bh fck = 0.057 Fig. C5d)

= MRd ≈ 0.057 × 5003 × 50


= 356.3 kNm

155
a = exponent dependent upon NEd/NRd Cl. 5.8.3(4)
where
NRd = Acfcd + Asfyd
= 500 × 500 × 0.85 × 50/1.5 + 9648 × 500/1.15
= 7083 + 3216
= 10299 kN
NEd/NRd = 9000/10299 = 0.87.
Interpolating between values given for NEd/NRd = 0.7 Notes to
(1.5) and for NEd/NRd = 1.0 (2.0) Exp. (5.39)
= a = 1.67

Check (MEdz/MRdz)a + (MEdy/MRdy)a ≤ 1.0


(178.7/356.3)1.67 + (95.7/356.3)1.67 = 0.32 + 0.11
= 0.43 i.e. < 1.0 = OK
Use 12 no. H32

5.3.13 Links
Minimum diameter of links: = f/4 = 32/4 Cl. 9.5.3 & NA
= 8 mm
Spacing, either:
a) 0.6 × 20 × f = 12 × 32 = 384 mm, Cl. 9.5.3(3),
b) 0.6 × h = 0.6 × 500 = 300 mm or 9.5.3(4)
c) 0.6 × 400 = 240 mm.
= Use H8 links at 225 mm cc
Number of legs:
Bars at 127 mm cc i.e. < 150 mm = no need to restrain bars in face Cl. 9.5.3(6)
but good practice suggests alternate bars should be restrained. SMDSC: 6.4.2
= Use single leg on face bars both ways @ 225 mm cc

5.3.14 Design summary

12 H32
H8 links @ 225 cc
35 mm to link
500 mm sq
fck = 50 MPa

Figure 5.11 Design summary: internal column

156
.'-3LfZeei^kbf^m^k\henfg

.'- Small perimeter column subject to two-hour fire


resistance
Mabl \Ze\neZmbhg bl bgm^g]^] mh lahp Z lfZee le^g]^k \henfg ln[c^\m mh Z k^jnbk^f^gm _hk
+&ahnkËk^k^lblmZg\^'Bmbl[Zl^]hgma^^qZfie^lahpgbgL^\mbhg-'+'

Ikhc^\m]^mZbel <Ze\neZm^][r chg Ch[gh' CCIP – 041


Small perimeter column <a^\d^][r web La^^mgh' 1
subject to two-hour fire resistance <eb^gm TCC =Zm^ Oct 09

The middle column, B, in Figure 4.5, supports two levels of storage


loads and is subject to an ultimate axial load of 1824.1 kN‡. From
analysis it has moments of 114.5 kNm in the plane of the beam and
146.1 kNm perpendicular to the beam (i.e. about the z axis).

The column is 350 mm square, 4000 mm long, measured from top


of foundation to centre of slab. It is supporting storage loads, in
an external environment (but not subject to de-icing salts) and is
subject to a 2-hour fire resistance requirement on three exposed
sides. Assume the base is pinned.
Slab

300
450

350 x 350
column
4000

Paving

Foundation

Figure 5.12 Perimeter column

5.4.1 Cover
Nominal cover, cnom
cnom = cmin + Dcdev Exp. (4.1)
where
cmin = max[cmin,b; cmin,dur]

‡ Gk = 562.1; Qk = 789.1; as column supports loads from 2 levels an = 0.9; as


imposed loads are from storage c0 = 1.0 =gQ = 1.50 and gQ= 1.35. =Ultimate
axial load, NEd = 1.35 × 562.1 + 1.5 × 0.9 × 789.1 = 1824.1 kN.

157
where
cmin,b = diameter of bar. Assume 32 mm main bars and
10 mm links
cmin,dur = minimum cover due to environmental conditions.
Assuming primarily XC3/XC4, secondarily XF1,
cmin,dur = 25 mm Cl. 4.4.1.2(3)
Dcdev = allowance in design for deviation BS 8500-1[14] :
= 10 mm Table A4
= Try cnom = 32 + 10 = 42 mm to main bars
or = 25 + 10 = 35 mm to 8 mm links
Try cnom = 35 mm to 8 mm links.

5.4.2 Fire resistance


a) Check adequacy of section for R120 to Method A
Axis distance available = 43 mm + f/2
Required axis distance to main bars, a for 350 mm square column EC1-1-2: 5.3.1(1) &
For mfi = 0.5, a = 45 mm; and NA 5.3.2,
for mfi = 0.7, a = 57 mm, providing: Table 5.2a
t 8 bars used – OK but check later
t l0,fi ≤ 3 m – OK but check
t e ≤ emax = 0.15h = 0.15 × 350 = 52 mm
but e = M0Ed,fi/N0Ed,fi
= 0.7 × 146.1 × 106/0.7 × 1824.1 × 103
= 80 mm = no good
Try Method B

b) Check adequacy of section for R120 to Method B EC2-1-2: 5.3.3,


Determine parameters n, w, and e, and check lfi. Table 5.2b
Assume 4 no. H32 + 4 no. H25 = (5180 mm2: 4.2%)
(say 4.2% OK – integrity OK) Cl. 9.5.2(3)
n = N0Ed,fi/0.7(Acfcd + Asfyd) EC2-1-2: Exp.
(5.8a)
= 0.7 × 1824.1 × 103/0.7 (350 × 350 × acc × fck/ gC + 5180 × 500/gS)
= 1276.9 × 103/0.7 (350 × 350 × 0.85 × 30/1.5 + 5180 × 500/1.15)
= 1276.9 × 103/0.7 (2082.5 + 2252.0)
= 0.42 OK
w = mechanical ratio EC2-1-2: 5.3.3(2)
= Asfyd/Acfcd ≤ 1.0
= 2252/2082
= 1.08 ≥ 1
But say within acceptable engineering tolerance =use w = 1.0 OK
e = first order eccentricity EC2-1-2: Exp.
= M0Ed,fi/N0Ed,fi (5.8b)

158
.'-3LfZeei^kbf^m^k\henfg

= 0.7 × 146.1 × 106/0.7 × 1824.1 × 103 EC2-1-2: 2.4.2(3)


= 80 mm as before z 0.23h. OK
lfi = slenderness in fire
= l0,fi/i
where EC2-1-2: 5.3.2(2)
l0,fi = effective length of column in fire
= 0.7l = 0.7 × 4000 = 2800 mm Note 2
i = radius of gyration
= h/3.46 for a rectangular section
= lfi = 2800/(350/3.46)
= 27.7 < 30 = OK
Table 5.2b valid for use in this case.
Interpolating from BS EN 1992–1–2 Table 5.2b for n = 0.42 and
w = 1.0, column width = 350 mm and axis distance = say, 48 mm
= Axis distance = 43 mm + f/2 is OK

c) As additional check, check adequacy of section to Annex B3 and EC2-1-2:


Annex C 5.3.3(1), Annex C
Using BS EN 1992–1–2 Table C.8 & NA
For w = 1.0, e = 0.25b, R120, l = 30 EC2-1-2:
and interpolating between n = 0.3 and n = 0.5, Annex C(2)
bmin = 350 mm, amin = 48 mm.
= Axis distance = 43 mm + f/2 is OK
= 4 no. H32 + 4 no. H25 with 35 mm cover to 8 mm links
(a = 55 mm min.) OK

5.4.3 Structural design: check slenderness about z axis


Effective length, l0, about z axis:
l0z = 0.5l [1 + k1/(0.45 + k1) ]0.5 [1 + k2/(0.45 + k2) ]0.5 Exp. (5.15)
where PD 6687: 2.10
l = clear height between restraints
= 4000 – 300/2 = 3850 mm
k1, k2 = relative flexibilities of rotational restraints at ends 1
and 2 respectively
k1 = [EIcol/lcol]/[2EIbeam1/lbeam1 + 2EIbeam2/lbeam2] ≥ 0.1 Cl. 5.8.3.2(3)
where PD 6687
Treating beams as rectangular and cancelling E throughout:
Icol/lcol = 3504/(12 × 3850) = 3.25 × 105
Ibeam1/lbeam1 = 8500 × 3003/12 × 6000
= 31.8 × 105
Ibeam2/lbeam2 = 0
k1 = 3.25/(2 × 31.8) = 0.051 ≥ 0.1
k1 = 0.1
k2 = by inspection (pinned end assumed) = ∞

159
= l0z = 0.5 × 3850 × [1 + 0.1/(0.45 + 0.1) ]0.5 [1 + ∞/(0.45 + ∞)]0.5
= 0.5 × 3850 × 1.087 × 1.41
= 0.77 × 3850 = 2965 mm

Slenderness ratio, lz: Cl. 5.8.3.2(1)


lz = l0z/i
where
i = radius of gyration = h/3.46
lz = 3.46l0z/h = 3.46 × 2965/350 = 29.3

Limiting slenderness ratio, llim: Cl. 5.8.3.1(1)


llim,z = 20 ABC/n0.5 Exp. (5.13N)
where
A = 0.7
B = 1.1‡
C = 1.7 – rm
where
rm = M01/M02
say M01 = 0 (pinned end) =rm = 0
C = 1.7 – 0 = 1.7
n = relative normal force = NEd/Acfcd
= 1824.1 × 103/(3502 × 0.85 × 30/1.5)
= 0.88
= llim,z = 20 × 0.7 × 1.1 × 1.7/0.880.5
= 27.9
= As lz > llim,z column is slender about z axis.

5.4.4 Check slenderness on y axis


Effective length, l0, about z axis:
l0y = 0.5ly [1 + k1/(0.45 + k1) ]0.5 [1 + k2/(0.45 + k2) ]0.5 Exp. (5.15)
where
ly = clear height between restraints
= 4000 + 300/2 – 750 = 3400 mm
k1 = relative column flexibility at end 1
= (Icol/Icol)/[S2(Ibeam/Ibeam)]
where
Icol /Icol = 3504/12 × 3400 = 3.68 × 105

‡ On first pass the default value for B is used. It should be noted that in the

final design w = Asfyd/Acfcd = 6432 × (500/1.15) / (3502 × 30 × 0.85/1.5) = Cl. 5.8.3.1(1),


2796/2082 = 1.34. So B = (1 + 2 w)0.5 = (1 + 1.34)0.5 = 1.92 and the column
& NA,
would not have been deemed ‘slender’. B = 1.1 relates approximately to a column
with fck = 30 MPa and r = 0.4%. EC2-1-2: 5.3.3(2)
* PD 6687 states that to allow for cracking, the contribution of each beam
should be taken as 2EI/lbeam PD 6687*

160
.'-3LfZeei^kbf^m^k\henfg

Treating beams as rectangular


IbeamAB/lbeamAB = 350 × 7503/[12 × (9000 – 350)]
= 14.2 × 105
IbeamBC/lbeamBC = 350 × 7503/[12 × (8000 – 350)]
= 16.1 × 105
k1 = 3.68/(2 × (16.1 + 14.2) = 0.060 ≥ 0.1
k1 = 0.1
k2 = ∞ (pinned end assumed)
=l0y = 0.5 × 3400 [1 + 0.1/(0.45 + 0.1) ]0.5 [1 +Ƹ/(0.45 + ∞) ]0.5 Exp. (5.15)
= 0.5 × 3400 × 1.087 × 1.41
= 0.77 × 3400 = 2620 mm

Slenderness ratio, ly:


ly = 3.46l0y/h = 3.46 × 2620/350 = 25.9

Limiting slenderness ratio, llim:


llim,y = llim,z = 27.9
As ly < llim,y, column not slender in y axis.

5.4.5 Design moments: MEdz about z axis


MEdz = max[M02; M0Ed + M2; M01 + 0.5M2] Cl. 5.8.8.2
where
M02 = Mz + eiNEd ≥ e0NEd Cl. 5.8.8.2(1),
6.1.4
where
Mz = 146.1 kNm from analysis
eiNEd = effect of imperfections
where
ei = l0/400 Cl. 5.2.7
e0 = 20 mm
 = M02 = 146.1 + (2965/400) × 1824.1 ≥ 0.02 × 1824.1
= 146.1 + 13.4 > 36.5
= 159.5 kNm
M0Ed = equivalent 1st order moment at about z axis at about
mid-height may be taken as M0ez where
M0ez = (0.6M02 + 0.4M01) ≥ 0.4M02 Cl. 5.8.8.2(2)
= 0.6 × 159.5 + 0.4 × 0 ≥ 0.4 × 159.5 = 95.7 kNm
M2 = nominal 2nd order moment = N>]e2 Cl. 5.8.8.2(3)
where
e2 = (1/r) l02/10 Cl. 5.8.8. 3
where
1/r = curvature = KvKh[fyd/(Es × 0.45d)] Exp. (5.34)
where
Kv = a correction factor for axial load
= (nu – n)/(nu – nbal)

161
where
nu = 1 + w
where
w = mechanical ratio
= Asfyd/Acfd
= 1.08 as before
nu = 2.08
n = NEd/Acfcd
= 1824.1/2082 = 0.88
nbal = the value of n at maximum moment
resistance
= 0.40 (default)
Kv = (2.08 – 0.88)/(2.08 – 0.40)
= 1.20/1.68 = 0.71
Kh = a correction factor for creep
= 1 + bhef
where
b = 0.35 + (fck/200) – (l/150)
= 0.35 + 30/200 – 29.3/150
= 0.35 + 0.15 – 0.195
= 0.305
hef = effective creep coefficient‡ Cl. 5.8.4(2)
= h(∞,t0) M0,Eqp/M0Ed
where
h(∞,t0) = final creep coefficient Cl. 3.1.4(2)
= from Figure 3.1 for inside conditions Fig. 3.1a
h = 350 mm, C30/37, t0 = 15
  ƺ 2.4
M0,Eqp = 1st order moment due to quasi-
permanent loads
  Gk + h2 Qk
≈ × Mz + eiNEd
jgGGk + h0gQQk

63.3 + 0.8 × 46.0


= × Mz + eiNEd
1.35 × 63.3 + 1.5 × 46.0
100.1
= × 146.1 + 13.4
154.5
= 108.1 kNm
M0Ed = M02 = 159.5 kNm

‡With reference to Exp. (5.13N), hef may be taken as equal to 2.0. However, for the
purpose of illustration the full derivation is shown here. Exp. (5.1.3N)

162
.'-3LfZeei^kbf^m^k\henfg

Kh = 1 + 0.305 × 2.4 × 108.1/159.5


= 1.50
fyd = 500/1.15 = 434.8 MPa
Es = 200000 MPa Cl. 3.2.7(3)
d = effective depth
= 350 – 35 – 8 – 16 = 291 mm
1/r = 0.71 × 1.50 × 434.8/(200000 × 0.45 × 291)
= 0.0000177
l0 = 2965 mm as before
e2 = (1/r) l02/10
= 0.0000177 × 29652/10 = 15.6 mm
 =M2 = NEde2 = 1824.1 × 103 × 15.6 = 28.4 kNm
M01 =0
= MEdz = max[M02z; M0Edz + M2; M01 + 0.5M2]
= max[159.5; 95.7 + 28.4; 0 + 28.4/2] = 159.5 kNm

Mz = 146.1 kNm eiNEd = 13.4 kNm MEdz = 159.5 kNm

M2 = 28.4 kNm
MOEdz = 95.8 kNm
+ =
Mz = 0 M2/2 = 14.2 kNm Mz = 0

a) 1st order moments b) Including 2nd order moments: c) Design moments: MEdz
from analysis MEdz = max [M02, MOEd + M2, M01 = 0.5M2] about z axis

Figure 5.13 Design moments MEdz

5.4.6 Design moments: MEdy about y axis


MEdy = max[ M02y ; M0Edy + M2 ; M01 + 0.5M2]
where
M02y = My + eiNEd ≥ e0NEd
= 114.5 + 13.4§ ≥ 36.7 kNm
= 127.9 kNm
M0Edy = (0.6M02y + 0.4 M01y) ≥ 0.4M02y
= 0.6 × 114.5 + 0.4 × 0

§ Imperfections need to be taken into account in one direction only. Cl. 5.8.9(2)

163
= 68.7 kNm
M2 = 0 (as column is not slender not slender about y axis).
= MEdy = 127.9 kNm

5.4.7 Design in each direction using charts


= 1824.1 × 103/(3502 × 30)
In z direction: NEd/bhfck
= 0.50
MEd/bh2fck = 159.5 × 106/(3503 × 30)
= 0.124
Assuming 8 bar arrangement, centroid of bars in half section:
d2 ≥ 35 + 8 + 16 + (350/2 – 35 –8 – 16) × 1/4 Fig. C4e)
  ƽ 59 + 29 = 88 mm
d2/h = 0.25
From Figure C4e) Fig. C4e)
Asfyk/bhfck = 0.50
As = 0.50 × 3502 × 30/500 = 3675 mm2
= 4 no. H32 + 4 no. T25 (5180 mm2) OK.
In y direction: MEd/bh2fck = 127.9 × 106/(3503 × 30)
= 0.10
NEd/bhfck = 0.50

From Figure C4e)


Asfyk/bhfck = 0.34
As = 0.34 × 3502 × 30/500 = 2499 mm2
= 4 no. H32 + 4 no. T25 (5180 mm2) OK.

5.4.8 Check biaxial bending


ly ≈ lz = OK. Exp. (5.38a)
ez = MEdy/NEd
ey = MEdz/NEd
ey/heq MEdz 159.5 Exp. (5.38b)
= = = 1.25
ez/beq MEdy 127.9
= need to check biaxial bending
(MEdz/MRdz)a + (MEdy/MRdy)a ≤ 1.0 Exp. (5.39)
where
MRdz = MRdy = moment resistance=
Using Figure C4e) Fig. C4e)
Asfyk/bhfck = 5180 × 500/(3502 × 30)
= 0.70
for NEd/bhfck = 0.50
MEd/bh2fck = 0.160
 = MRd = 0.160 × 3503 × 30

164
.'-3LfZeei^kbf^m^k\henfg

= 205.8 kNm
a depends on NEd/NRd
where
NRd = Acfcd + Asfyd
= 3502 × 0.85 × 30/1.5 + 5180 × 500/1.15
= 2082.5 + 2252.2
= 4332.7 kN
NEd/NRd = 1824.1/4332.7 = 0.42
 = a = 1.27
(159.5/205.8)1.27 + (114.5/205.8)1.27 = 0.72 + 0.47 Cl. 5.8.9(4)
= 1.19
= No good
= Try 8 no. T32 (6432 mm2)
For Asfyk/bhfck = 6432 × 500/(3502 × 30)
= 0.88
for NEd/bhfck = 0.50
MEd/bh2fck = 0.187 Fig. C4e)
= MRd = 240.5 kNm
Check biaxial bending
(159.5/245.7)1.27 + (114.5/245.7)1.27 = 0.59 + 0.39 = 0.98 OK

5.4.9 Check maximum area of reinforcement


As/bd = 6432/3502 = 5.2% > 4% Cl. 9.5.2(3) & NA
However, if laps can be avoided in this single lift column then the
integrity of the concrete is unlikely to be affected and 5.2% is
considered OK. OK PD 6687: 2.19

5.4.10 Design of links


Diameter min. = 32/4 = 8 mm Cl. 9.5.3 & NA
Spacing max. = 0.6 × 350 = 210 mm Cl. 9.5.3(3),
9.5.3(4)
= Use H8 @ 200 mm cc
5.4.11 Design summary

8 H32
H8 links @ 200 cc
35 mm cover to link
No laps in column section

Note
The beam should be checked for torsion.

Figure 5.14 Design summary: small perimeter column

165
/ Walls
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lmk^g`ma'
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N :gZerl^lmkn\mnk^_hk\kbmb\Ze\hf[bgZmbhgfhf^gml Section 5
Zg]ZqbZe_hk\^l'
N <a^\dle^g]^kg^llZg]]^m^kfbg^]^lb`gfhf^gml' Section 5.8
N =^m^kfbg^Zk^Zh_k^bg_hk\^f^gmk^jnbk^]' Section 6.1
N <a^\dliZ\bg`h_[Zkl' Sections 8 & 9

166
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Ikhc^\m]^mZbel <Ze\neZm^][r chg Ch[gh' CCIP – 041


Shear wall <a^\d^][r web La^^mgh' 1
<eb^gm TCC =Zm^ Oct 09

Wall A is 200 mm thick and, in addition to providing vertical support


to 200 mm flat slabs at roof level and floors 1 to 3, it helps to
provide lateral stability to the four-storey office block. Assuming the
stair itself provides no lateral stability, the wall is to be designed for
the critical section at ground and first floor level using BS EN 1990
Exp. (6.10). The concrete is C30/37. The wall is supported on pad
foundations and the ground floor is ground bearing.
X
300
1300
4800 4400
Wall A
1500
4800

7200
4800
300

300 3600 6000 6000 6000 6000 2500 300

30700 N
X
Figure 6
6.11 Typical floor plan

900 Roof

3rd
4@3300
2nd

1st

Gnd
600 Figure 6.2 Section X–X
900

167
6.1.1 Actions
Permanent Variable
actions actions
gk qk
kN/m2 Section 2.8
Roof Paving 40 mm 1.00
Waterproofing 0.50
Insulation 0.10
Suspended ceiling 0.15
Services 0.30
Self-weight 200 mm slab 5.00
Section 2.4.2
7.05
Imposed load 0.60

Floor Carpet 0.03 Section 2.8


slabs Raised floor 0.30
Suspended ceiling 0.15
Services 0.30
Self-weight 200 mm slab 5.00
5.78
Imposed load 2.50 Section 2.4.2

Ground Carpet 0.03


floor Raised floor 0.30
slab Services 0.15
(ground Self-weight 200 mm slab 5.00
bearing) 5.48
Imposed load 3.00 Section 2.4.2

Stairs 150 waist @ 30 4.40 Section 2.8


Treads 0.15 × 0.25 × 25 × 4/2 = 1.88
Screed 0.05 × 22 = 1.10
Plaster 0.21
Tiles and bedding 1.00
8.59
Imposed load 2.50 Section 2.4.2

Cavity 102 mm brickwork 2.37 Section 2.8


wall 50 mm insulation 0.02
100 mm blockwork 1.40
Plaster 0.21
4.00
RC wall 200 mm wall 5.00
Section 2.8
Plaster both sides 0.42
5.42
Wind wk = 1.10 EC1-1-4 & NA

168
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6.1.2 Load take-down


Consider whole wall. Gk Qk
Item Calculation From item Cum. total From item Cum. total
Roof (6.0/2 + 2.5/2) × (4.4 + 1.5/2) × (7.05
+ 0.6) = 154.3 13.1
Roof (6.0/2) × (1.3/2) × (7.05 + 0.6) = 13.7 1.2
Wall 3.3 × 4.4 × 5.42 = 78.7
246.7 14.3
At above 3rd floor 246.7 14.3
3rd floor (6.0/2) × (1.3/2 + 4.4 + 1.5/2) ×
(5.78 + 2.5) = 100.6 43.5
Landing (2.5/2 × 1.5/2) × (5.78 + 2.5) 11.6 5.0
Wall a. b. 78.7
Stair say 1.1 × 4.4 (8.59 + 2.5) 41.6 12.1
232.5 60.6
At above 2nd floor 479.2 74.9
2nd floor, landing, wall and stair a. b. 232.5 60.6
At above 1st floor 711.7 135.5
1st floor, landing, wall and stair a. b. 232.5 60.6
At above ground floor 944.2 196.1
Ground floor assume 1 m all round =
2 × (1.3/2 + 4.40 + 1.5/2) × (5.48 + 3.0) = 63.6 34.8
250 mm wall to foundation 4.4 × 0.2 × 0.6 × 25 = 13.2
76.8
At above foundation 1021.0 230.9

6.1.3 Design actions due to vertical load at ground–1st


Gk = 944.2 Gk/m = 944.2/4.4 = 214.6 kN/m
Qk = an × 196.1
where
an = 1.1 – n/10
where
n = no. of storeys qualifying for reduction‡ EC1-1-1:
=3 6.3.1.2(11) & NA
= 1.1 – 3/10 = 0.8
= Qk = 0.8 × 196.1 = 156.9 kN Qk/m = 156.9/4.4 = 35.7 kN/m

‡ Includes storeys supporting Categories A (residential and domestic), B (office),


C (areas of congregation) and D (shopping), but excludes E (storage and
industrial), F (traffic), G (traffic) and H (roofs).

169
6.1.4 Vertical loads from wind action: moments in plane
Consider wind loads, N–S
300 3600 6000 6000 6000 6000 2500 300

30700

2400 o/a
Wall A 4400

2400

Lift shaft
200 thick
walls
N
wk = 1.10 kN/m2

Figure 6.3 Lateral stability against wind loads N–S

Check relative stiffness of lift shaft and wall A to determine share


of load on wall A.
Lift shaft: ILS = 2.44/12 – 2.04/12 – 0.2 × 1.63/12
= 1.36 m4
Wall A: IWallA = 0.2 × 4.43/12
= 1.41 m4
where I = inertia
= Wall A takes 1.41/(1.41 + 1.36) = 51% of wind load.
Check shear centre to resolve the effects of torsion.
Determine centre of gravity, CoGL of the lift shaft.

Area, A Lever arm, x Ax


2.4 × 2.4 = 5.76 1.2 6.912
–2.0 × 2.0 = –4.00 1.2 –4.800
–1.6 × 0.2 = –0.32 2.3 –0.732
1.44 1.38
2400
1600 200 200

CoGL
2400

x Figure 6.4 Lift shaft

170
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x = Ax/A = 1.38/1.44 = 0.956 m


i.e. from face of lift shaft to CoG of shaft
= 2.40 – 0.956 = 1.444 m
Shear centre, Cw of walls, from centreline of wall A
ILS × (1.44 + 24.00 + 0.05‡) 1.36 × 25.49
= = = 12.56 m from wall A
ILS + IWallA 1.36 + 1.41
or = 12.56 + 2.80 – 0.05 = 15.31 from east end of building.

CL Wall A‡
1.45 24.00 2.80
15.31

Wall A

* Cw
* CoGL

Wk
15.35
Figure 6.5 Shear centre, Cw and centre of action, Wk

Centre of action (30.7/2 = 15.35 m from end of building) and shear


centre (almost) coincide. = there is no torsion to resolve in the
stability system for wind in a N–S direction.#

900 Roof

3300
3rd
14100

3300
2nd
wk = 17.2 kN/m
3300
1st

3300
Gnd
600 Figure 6.6 Wall A
900
– wind loads N–S
300 4400 300

= Wall A takes 51% of wind load, so characteristic wind load on wall A,


wk, wall A = 51% × wk × Lx = 51% × 1.1 × 30.7 = 17.2 kN/m
‡ Assuming centreline of wall A is 50 mm to right hand side of grid.
#Had there been significant torsion this would have been resolved into +/– forces
in a couple based on the shear walls.

171
= at just above ground floor, characteristic in-plane moment
in wall A, Mk, due in this case to wind
= 17.2 × 14.12/2 = 1709.8 kNm
Resolving into couple using 1 m either end of wall‡, characteristic wind
load in each end, Wk
= 1709.8/3.4 = ±502.9 kN

6.1.5 Effects of global imperfections in plane of wall A


Roof HIR
yI

3rd HI3

2nd HI2

1st
HI1

Gnd
HIG

Figure 6.7 Global imperfections

Global imperfections can be represented by forces Hi at floor level


where
Hi = yi(Nb – Na) Exp. (5.4)
where
yi = (1/200) aham Cl. 5.2(1), 5.2(5),
where 5.2(8) & NA
ah = 0.67 ≤ 2/l 0.5 ≤ 1.0
= 0.67 ≤ 2/14.70.5 ≤ 1.0
= 0.67 ≤ 0.52 ≤ 1.0
= 0.67
am = [0.5(1 + 1/m)]0.5
where
m = no. of members contributing to the total effect
= 25 vertical elements on 4 floors
= 100

‡ For medium-rise shear walls there are a number of methods of design. Cl. 9.6.1

suggests strut-and-tie (see Volume 2 of these worked examples[30]). Another


method[26] is to determine elastic tensile and compression stresses from NEd/bL
+/– 6MEd/bL2 and determine reinforcement requirements based on those maxima.
The method used here assumes a couple, consisting of 1.0 m of wall either end of Vol. 2
the wall. The reinforcement in tension is assumed to act at the centre of one end
and the concrete in compression (with a rectangular stress distribution) acts at
the centre of the other end. The forces generated by the couple add or subtract
from the axial load in the 1 m ends of the walls. The method is useful for typical
straight shear walls of say 2.5 to 5.0 m in length.

172
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= am = 0.71
 = yi = 0.67 × 0.71/200
= 0.0024
Nb, Na = axial forces in members below and above
(Nb – Na) = axial load from each level
At roof level
Area = 30.4 × 14.5 – 1.3 × 2.5 – 3.6 × 4.8 = 420.3 m3
Perimeter = 2 × (30.4 + 14.5) = 89.8 m
(Na – Nb) = axial load from roof level
= 420.3 × (7.05 + 0.6) + 89.8 × 0.9 × 4.0 = 3286.4 + 252.2 kN
At 3rd floor
(Na – Nb) = 420.3 × (5.78 + 2.5) + 89.8 × 3.3 × 4.0 = 3615.7 + 1050.8 kN
At 2nd floor
(Na – Nb) = 3615.7 + 1050.8 kN
At 1st floor
(Na – Nb) = 3615.7 + 1050.8 kN
HiR = 0.0024 × (3286.4 + 252.2) = 7.9 + 0.6 = 8.5 kN
Hi3 = Hi2 = Hi1 = 0.0024 × (3615.7 + 1050.8) = 8.7 + 2.5 = 11.2 kN
Characteristic design moment at ground floor,
Mk = 8.5 × 13.2 + 11.2 × (9.90 + 6.60 + 3.30)
= 112.2 + 221.8 = 334.0 kNm
As before, wall A resists 51% of this moment. Resolving into couple
using 1 m either end of wall,
= GkH§ = 0.51 × 334.0/3.4 = ± 50.1 kN
i.e. GkH = ±50.1 kN/m

6.1.6 Check for global second order effects


To check whether the building might act as a sway frame check Cl. 5.8.3.3(1)
ns SEcd Ic Exp. (5.18)
FV,Ed ≤ kl =
ns + 1.6 L2
where
FV,Ed = Total vertical load (on braced and bracing members)
where
Floor area = (30.7 – 2 × 0.15) × 14.4 – (2 × 0.15) – 3.6
× 4.8 – 1.3 × 2.5
= 428.6 – 20.5 = 408.1

§ As H derives mainly from permanent actions its resulting effects are


i
considered as being a permanent action too.

173
Loads Gk Qk
from roof: 408 (7.05 + 0.6) = 2876 245
3–1 floors: 3 × 408 (5.78 + 2.5) = 7075 3060
Allow cavity wall at 1st floor and above
(3 × 3.30 + 0.9) × 2 × (30.4 + 14.1) × 4.0 = 3845
13705 3305
Imposed load reduction 20% (see 6.2.3) 661
13705 2644
=FV,Ed ≈ 13705 × 1.35 + 1.5 × 2644
= 22468 kN
kl = 0.31 Cl. 5.8.2(6) & NA
ns = number of storeys
= 4 (including roof) Table 3.1,
Ecd = Ecm/gCE = 33/1.2 = 27.5 GPa 5.8.6(3) & NA
Ic = Inertia of bracing members
in N–S direction
Ic = 1.36 + 1.41 = 2.77 m4 (See Section 6.1.4)
in E–W direction
ILS, with reference to Figure 6.4

h×d Area, A × Ax Ax 2 I
2.4 × 2.4 = 5.76 1.2 6.912 8.294 2.765
–2.0 × 2.0 = –4.00 1.2 –4.800 –5.760 –1.333
–1.6 × 0.2 = –0.32 2.3 –0.732 –1.683 –0.001
1.44 1.38 0.851 1.431
as before (6.1.4), x = 1.38/1.44
= 0.956 m
ILS = INU = Ax 2 + I – Ax 2
= 0.851 + 1.431 – 1.44 × 0.956
= 0.965 m4
L = total height of building above level of moment restraint
= 14.7 (see Figure 6.6)
Check
ns SEcdIc
kl × on weak E–W axis:
ns + 1.6 L2
= 0.31 × [4/(4 + 1.6)] × 27500 × 103 × (0.965/14.72)
= 27200 kN
i.e. > FV,Ed = no need to design for 2nd order effects.

174
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6.1.7 Design moments – perpendicular to plane of wall


CL

150
CL
650

B B

1350
200 1st
4400

A A
Gnd
750

up
CL

Figure 6.8 Plan of wall A and location Figure 6.9 Section A–A
of sections A–A and B–B

Section A–A @ 1st floor


The slab frames into the wall. For the purposes of assessing fixed
end moments, the width of slab contributing to the moments in the
wall is assumed to be the length of the wall plus distances half way
to adjacent supports either end. Therefore, consider the fixed end
moment for 1.50/2 + 4.40 + 1.30/2 = 5.8 m width of adjoining slab
framing into the 4.4 m long shear wall (see Figure 6.8).

kw
n

ks
kw

Figure 6.10 Subframe section A–A @ 1st floor

FEM‡: assuming imposed load is a leading variable action: EC0: Exp. (6.10)
= nl2/8 & NA
= 5.8 (1.35 × 5.78 + 1.5 × 2.5) × 6.02/8
= 5.8 × 11.6 × 62/8 = 302.8 kNm
‡ FEM: fixed end moment

175
kw = EI/l = E × 4400 × 2003/(12 × 3300)
= E × 8.88 × 105
ks = EI/2l = E × 5800 × 2003/(2 × 12 × 6000)
= E × 3.22 × 105
M = 302.8 × 8.88/(2 × 8.8 + 3.22)
= 302.8 × 0.42 = 121.2 kNm
i.e. 121.2/4.40 = 27.5 kNm/m @ ULS

Similarly, assuming imposed load is an accompanying action:


FEM = 5.8 (1.35 × 5.78 + 0.7 × 1.5 × 2.5) × 62/8
= 5.8 × 10.4 × 62/8 = 271.4 kNm
=M = 271.4 × 0.42/4.40 = 25.9 kNm/m @ ULS

Section A–A @ ground floor


By inspection not critical – nominal moment.

Section B–B @ 1st


Consider the landing influences half of wall (2.2 m long) and that
this section of wall is subject to supporting half the slab considered
before at 1st floor level at Section A–A.

1st
1650

Landing

Gnd

Figure 6.11 Section B–B

FEM = 302.8/2 = 151.4 kNm


kw = I/l
= 2200 × 2003/(12 × 1650) = 8.88 × 105
ks = 3.22 × 105/2 = 1.61 × 105
M = 151.4 × 8.88/(2 × 8.88 + 1.61)
= 151.4 × 0.46
= 69.6 kNm
i.e. 63.8/2.2 = 31.6 kNm/m @ ULS

176
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Similarly, assuming imposed load is an accompanying action:


FEM = 5.8 (1.35 × 5.78 + 0.7 × 1.5 × 2.5) × 62/8
= 5.8 × 10.4 × 62/8 = 271.4 kNm
=M = 271.4 × 0.46/(2 × 2.2) = 28.4 kNm/m @ ULS
Section B–B @ landing level and ground floor
By inspection not critical

6.1.8 Consider slenderness of wall at ground floor


To derive maximum slenderness (at south end of wall), ignore effect
of landing.
Effective length, l0 = 0.75 × (3300 – 200) = 2325 Table C16
l = 3.46 × l0/h = 3.46 × 2325/200 = 40.2 Cl. 5.8.3.2(1)
Cl. 5.8.3.1(1),
Limiting slenderness, llim = 20 ABC/n0.5
where Exp. (5.13N)
A = 0.7
B = 1.1
C = 1.7 – rm
where
rm = M01/M02
= say = –0.25
C = 1.95
n = NEd/Acfd
where
NEd = 214.6 × 1.25 + 31.2 × 1.5 × 0.7 + 502.9 × 1.5 +
98.2 × 1.5 × 0.7‡
= 268.3 + 32.8 + 754.4 + 103.1
= 1158.6 kN
Acfd = 200 × 1000 × 0.85 × 30/1.5 = 3400 kN
 = n = 0.34
= llim = 20 × 0.7 × 1.1 × 1.95/0.340.5 = 51.5
= As l < llim wall is not slender and = no secondary moments

6.1.9 Summary: design forces on wall, ground–1st floor


At ground to 1st consider maxima.
Vertical loads Gk = 214.6 kN/m
Qk = 35.7 kN/m

Vertical load due to in-plane bending and wind Wk = ±502.9 kN/m


Vertical load due to in-plane bending and imperfections
GkH = ±50.1 kN/m

Maximum moment out of plane, floor imposed load as leading action


M = 31.6 kN/m @ ULS
Maximum moment out of plane, floor imposed load as accompanying action
M = 28.4 kN/m @ ULS
‡ Assuming wind load is lead variable action.

177
6.1.10 Combinations of actions at ground–1st floor
a) At ULS, for maximum axial load, Wk is leading variable action
NEd = 1.35Gk + 1.5Qk1 + 1.5c0Qki
= 1.35 (214.6 + 50.1) + 1.5 × 502.9 + 1.5 × 0.7 × 35.7
= 357.3 + 754.4 + 37.5
= 1149.2 kN/m
Cl. 5.8.8.2(1),
MEd = M + eiNEd ≥ e0NEd 6.1.4
where
M = moment from 1st order analysis
= 28.4 kNm/m
ei = l0 /400 = 2325/400 = 5.8 mm Cl. 5.2(7), 5.2(9)
e0 = h/30 ≥ 20 mm = 20 mm Cl. 6.1.4
MEd = 28.4 + 0.0058 × 1149.2.1 ≥ 0.020 × 1149.2
= 28.4 + 6.7 ≥ 23.0 = 35.1 kNm/m
b) At ULS, for minimum axial load, Wk is leading variable action
NEd = 1.0 × 214.6 – 1.35 × 50.1 – 1.5 × 502.9 + 0 × 35.7
= –607.4 kN/m (tension)
MEd = 28.4‡ + 0.0058 × 607.4 ≥ 0.020 × 602.4
= 28.4 + 3.5 ≥ 23.0
= 31.9 kNm/m

c) At ULS, for maximum out of plane bending assuming Qk is leading


variable action
NEd = 1.35 (214.6 + 50.1) + 1.5 × 35.7 + 1.5 × 0.5 × 502.9
= 357.3 + 53.6 + 377.2
= 788.1 kN/m
MEd = 31.6 + 0.0058 × 788.1 ≥ 0.020 × 788.1
= 31.6 + 4.6 ≥ 15.8
= 36.2 kNm/m
or
NEd = 1.0 × 214.6 – 1.35 × 50.1 – 0 × 31.2 – 1.5 × 0.5 × 502.9
= 214.6 – 67.6 – 0 – 377.2
= –230.2 kN/m (tension)
MEd = 31.6 + 0.0058 × 230.2
= 33.0 kNm/m
d) Design load cases
Consolidate c) into a) and b) to consider two load cases:
NEd = 1149.4 kN/m,
MEd = 36.2 kN/m (out of plane)
and NEd = –607.4 kN/m,
MEd = 36.2 kN/m (out of plane)

‡ Strictly incompatible with Qk = 0. However, allow Qk = 0.

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6.1.11 Design: cover above ground


cnom = cmin + Dcdev
where
cmin = max[cmin,b ; cmin,dur] Exp. (4.1)
where
cmin,b = diameter of bar = 20 mm vertical or 10 mm lacers
cmin,dur = for XC1 = 15 mm
Dcdev = 10 mm
=cnom = 15 + 10 = 25 mm to lacers
(35 mm to vertical bars)

6.1.12 Fire resistance


Assuming 1-hour fire resistance required for, as a worst case, μfi = 0.7
and fire on both sides.
Min. thickness = 140 mm, min. axis distance = 10 mm i.e. not critical EC2-1-2: Table 5.4

6.1.13 Design using charts


For compressive load:
d 2/h = (25 + 10 + 16/2)/200 = 0.215
= interpolate between charts C5d) and C5e) for Figs C5d), C5e)
NEd/bhfck = 1149.4 × 103/(200 × 1000 × 30) = 0.192
MEd/bh2fck = 36.2 × 106/(2002 × 1000 × 30) = 0.030
Gives:
Asfyk/bhfck = 0 = minimum area of reinforcement required
= 0.002 Ac Cl. 9.6.2 & NA
= 0.002 × 200 × 1000
= 400 mm2/m
= 200 mm2/m each face
max. 400 mm cc, min. 12 mm diameter Cl. 9.6.2(3);
Try T12 @ 400 SMDSC

e + e = e › s

As /2 sst2

+ = ›

sst1
As /2

0 0 0 0

Moment Tension Combined Combined

Figure 6.12 Stresses and strains in wall subject to tension and


out of p
plane moment

179
For tensile load and moment:
Working from first principles, referring to Figure 6.12 and ignoring
contribution from concrete in tension,
NEd = (sst1 + sst2) × As/2
and MEd = (sst1 – sst2) × As/2 × (d – d2)

so sst1 + sst2 = 2NEd/As


and sst1 – sst2 = 2MEd/[(d – d2)As]

= 2sst1 = 2NEd/As + 2MEd/[(d – d2)As]


= As = (NEd/sst1) + MEd/(d – d2)sst1
sst1 = fyk/gS = 500/1.15 = 434.8
= As = 607.4 × 103/434.8 + 36.2 × 106/[(157 – 43) × 434.8]
= 1397 + 730
= 2127 mm2
sst2 = 2NEd/As – sst1 = 571.7 – 434.8 = 136 MPa
By inspection all concrete is in tension zone and may be ignored.
Use 6 no. H16 @ 200 cc both sides for at least
1 m each end of wall (2412 mm2).

6.1.14 Horizontal reinforcement


As, hmin = 0.001As or 25% As vert Cl. 9.6.3(1) & NA
= 200 mm2 or 0.25 × 2036 = 509 mm2/m
 = requires 254 mm2/m each side
Spacing ≤ 400 mm Cl. 9.6.3(2)
Links not required. Cl. 9.6.4(1)
Use H10 @ 300 (262 mm2/m) both sides.

6.1.15 Check for tension at top of foundation


Permanent and variable: Section 6.1.2
Gk = 1021.0/4.4 = 232.0 kN/m
Qk = 230.9/4.4 = 52.5 kN/m
Wind: Section 6.1.4
Mk = 17.2 × 14.1 × [14.1/2 + 0.6] = 1855.3 kN/m
Resolved into couple 1 m either end of wall
Wkw = 1855.3/3.4 = ±545.7 kN/m
Global imperfections: Section 6.1.5
Mk = 8.5 × 13.8 + 11.2 × (10.5 + 7.2 + 3.9 + 0.6)
= 365.9 kNm
GkH = 365.9 × 0.51/3.4 = 54.9 kN/m

180
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At ULS for maximum axial tension Wk is lead imposed load:


NEd = 1.0 × 232.0 – 1.35 × 54.9 – 1.5 × 545.7 + 0 × 52.5
= –660.7 kN/m
MEd = nominal = e2NEd = 0.02 × 660.7 Cl. 6.1.4
= 13.2 kNm/m
As before
NEd MEd
As = +
fyk/gM (d – d2)fyk/gM
= 660.7 × 103/434.8 + 13.2 × 106/[(157 – 43) × 434.8]
= 1520 + 266
= 1786 mm2 i.e. not critical
= Use 6 no. H16 @ 200 cc b.s. for at least 1 m either end of wall
(2412 mm2).

6.1.16 Check for axial compression at top of foundation


At ULS for maximum axial compression Wk is lead imposed load:
NEd = 1.35 × 232.0 + 1.35 × 54.9 + 1.5 × 545.7 + 0.7 × 1.5 × 52.5
= 1261.0 kN/m
MEd = nominal = e2NEd = 0.02 × 1261.0 Cl. 6.1.4
= 25.2 kNm/m
By inspection not critical (minimum reinforcement required). Section 6.1.13
= tension critical as above.

6.1.17 Design: cover below ground


cnom = cmin + Dcdev
where
cmin = max[cmin,b ; cmin,dur] Exp. (4.1)
where
cmin,b = diameter of bar = 16 mm vertical or 10 mm lacers
cmin,dur = for assumed Aggressive Chemical Environment for BS 8500-1
Concrete (ACEC) class AC1 ground conditions Annex A[14],
= 25 mm How to: Building
structures[8]
Dcdev = 10 mm
cnom = 25 + 10 = 35 mm to lacers
(45 mm to vertical bars)
In order to align vertical bars from foundation into Gnd–1st floor lift
as starter bars, locally increase thickness of wall to say
250 mm thick with cnom = 50 mm

181
6.1.18 Check stability
Assume base extends 0.3 m beyond either end of wall A, i.e. is 5.0 m long
and is 1.2 m wide by 0.9 m deep.
EC0: Table
Overturning moments A1.2(A) & NA
Wind (see Figure 6.6) Fig. 6.6
Mk = 17.2 × 14.1 × [14.1/2 + 1.5]
= 2073.5 kNm
Global imperfections (see Section 6.1.5) Fig. 6.7
Mk = 0.51 x [8.5 × 14.7 + 11.2 × (11.4 + 8.1 + 4.8 + 1.5)]
= 0.51 x [125.0 + 11.2 × 25.8]
= 0.51 x 414.0
= 211 kNm
Restoring moment
Mk = (1021.0 + 5.0 x 1.2 x 0.9 x 25 + 0 x 230.9 ) x (0.3 + 2.2)
= 2890 kNm
At ULS of EQU,
Overturning moment
= fn(gQ,1Qk1 + gG,supGk) EC0: Table
= 1.5 x 2073.5 + 1.1 x 211.0 = 3342.4 kNm A1.2(A) & NA
Restoring moment
= fn(gG,infGk) EC0:
= 0.9 x 2890 = 2601 kNm i.e. > 1818.4 kNm Table A1.2(A)
= no good & NA
Try 1.05 m outstand
Restoring moment
Mk = 2890 (1.05 + 2.2) / (0.3 + 2.2)
= 3757.0 kNm
At ULS, restoring moment = 0.9 x 357.0
= 3381.3 kNm
=OK. Use 1.05 m outstand to wall.
6.1.19 Design summary

1st
Lacers H10 @
300 m outside
25 mm cover to 200 mm
wall above ground floor
12 12 24H16 @ 200
H12 @ 400 b.s
Gnd (12NF, 12FF)
50 mm cover
to 250 wall
below ground floor

1050 1050

182
03K^_^k^g\^lZg]_nkma^kk^Z]bg`

7 References and further reading


References
1 ;
 KBMBLALM:G=:K=LBGLMBMNMBHG';L>G*22+¾*¾*%>nkh\h]^+¾IZkm*¾*3=^lb`gh_
\hg\k^m^lmkn\mnk^l¾@^g^kZekne^lZg]kne^l_hk[nbe]bg`l';LB%+))-'
  1a GZmbhgZe:gg^qmh>nkh\h]^+¾IZkm*¾*';LB%+)).'
 2 ;
 KBMBLALM:G=:K=LBGLMBMNMBHG';L>G*22+¾*¾+%>nkh\h]^+¾IZkm*¾+3=^lb`gh_
\hg\k^m^lmkn\mnk^l¾@^g^kZekne^l¾Lmkn\mnkZe_bk^]^lb`g';LB%+))-'
  2a GZmbhgZe:gg^qmh>nkh\h]^+¾IZkm*¾+';LB%+)).'
 3 ;
 KBMBLALM:G=:K=LBGLMBMNMBHG';L>G*22+¾+%>nkh\h]^+¾IZkm+3=^lb`gh_
\hg\k^m^lmkn\mnk^l¾;kb]`^l';LB%+)).'
3a GZmbhgZe:gg^qmh>nkh\h]^+¾IZkm+';LB%+))0'
 4 ;
 KBMBLALM:G=:K=LBGLMBMNMBHG';L>G*22+¾,%>nkh\h]^+¾IZkm,3=^lb`gh_
\hg\k^m^lmkn\mnk^l¾Ebjnb]&k^mZbgbg`Zg]\hgmZbgf^gmlmkn\mnk^l';LB%+))/' 
4a GZmbhgZe:gg^qmh>nkh\h]^+¾IZkm,';LB%+))0'
 5 K
 LG:K:R:G:G<A@HH=<ABE='Ma^<hg\k^m^<^gmk^'<hg\bl^>nkh\h]^+'
<<BI&)).'M<<%+))/'
 6 ;
 KBMBLALM:G=:K=LBGLMBMNMBHG'I=//10;Z\d`khng]iZi^kmhma^NDGZmbhgZe
:gg^q^l;L>G*22+¾*';LB%+))/'
 7 ;
 KBMBLALM:G=:K=LBGLMBMNMBHG';L1**)Lmkn\mnkZenl^h_\hg\k^m^¾IZkm*3<h]^h_
ikZ\mb\^_hk]^lb`gZg]\hglmkn\mbhg';LB%*220'
 8 ;
 KHHD>K%H^mZe'Ahpmh]^lb`g\hg\k^m^lmkn\mnk^lnlbg`>nkh\h]^+'<<BI&))/'
Ma^<hg\k^m^<^gmk^%+))/'Ni]Zm^]_hk]hpgehZ]hger+))2'
 9 M A>BGLMBMNMBHGH?LMKN<MNK:E>G@BG>>KL(MA><HG<K>M>LH<B>MR(=MB'LmZg]Zk]
f^mah]h_]^mZbebg`lmkn\mnkZe\hg\k^m^%Mabk]>]bmbhg'BLmkn\m>%+))/'
 10 ;
 KBMBLALM:G=:K=LBGLMBMNMBHG';L>G*22)%>nkh\h]^3;Zlblh_lmkn\mnkZe]^lb`g'
;LB%+))+'
  10a GZmbhgZe:gg^qmh>nkh\h]^';LB%+))-'
 11 ;
 KBMBLALM:G=:K=LBGLMBMNMBHG';L>G*22*%>nkh\h]^*3:\mbhglhglmkn\mnk^l
!*)iZkml"';LB%+))+¾+))/'
  11a GZmbhgZe:gg^q^lmh>nkh\h]^*';LB%+)).¾+))1Zg]bgik^iZkZmbhg'
 12 ;
 KBMBLALM:G=:K=LBGLMBMNMBHG';L>G*220¾*%>nkh\h]^0'@^hm^\agb\Ze]^lb`g'
@^g^kZekne^l';LB%+))-'
  12a GZmbhgZe:gg^qmh>nkh\h]^0;L>G*220¾*';LB%+))0'
 13 ;
 KBMBLALM:G=:K=LBGLMBMNMBHG';L>G*221¾*%>nkh\h]^1'=^lb`gh_lmkn\mnk^l_hk
^ZkmajnZd^k^lblmZg\^'@^g^kZekne^l'L^blfb\Z\mbhgl_hk[nbe]bg`l';LB%+))-'
  13a GZmbhgZe:gg^qmh>nkh\h]^1;L>G*221¾*';LB%+))1'
 14 ;
 KBMBLALM:G=:K=LBGLMBMNMBHG';L1.))¾*3<hg\k^m^¾<hfie^f^gmZkr;kbmbla
LmZg]Zk]mh;L>G+)/¾*3F^mah]h_li^\b_rbg`Zg]`nb]Zg\^mhma^li^\b_b^k';LB%+))+'
 15 ;
 KBMBLALM:G=:K=LBGLMBMNMBHG';L---23Lm^^e_hkma^k^bg_hk\^f^gmh_\hg\k^m^¾
P^e]Z[e^k^bg_hk\bg`lm^^e¾;Zk%\hbeZg]]^\hbe^]ikh]n\m¾Li^\b_b\Zmbhg';LB%+)).'
 16 <
 HGLMKN<M'GZmbhgZelmkn\mnkZe\hg\k^m^li^\b_b\Zmbhg_hk[nbe]bg`\hglmkn\mbhg%Mabk]
>]bmbhg%<L*.+'Ma^<hg\k^m^Lh\b^mrhg[^aZe_h_<hglmkn\m%+))-'
 17 ;
 KBMBLALM:G=:K=LBGLMBMNMBHG';L>G*,/0)3>q^\nmbhgh_\hg\k^m^lmkn\mnk^l¾IZkm*3
<hffhg';LB%bgik^iZkZmbhg%]n^+)*)'
 18 <
 HGLMKN<M'GZmbhgZelmkn\mnkZe\hg\k^m^li^\b_b\Zmbhg_hk[nbe]bg`\hglmkn\mbhg%?hnkma
^]bmbhg%bgik^iZkZmbhg'

183
 19 ;
 KBMBLALM:G=:K=LBGLMBMNMBHG';L1///3+)).%L\a^]nebg`%]bf^glbhgbg`%[^g]bg`
Zg]\nmmbg`h_lm^^e_hkk^bg_hk\^f^gm3Li^\b_b\Zmbhg';LB%+)).'
20 M A>JN>>G LIKBGM>KH?:<MLH?I:KEB:F>GM%Ma^;nbe]bg`K^`neZmbhgl+)))'Ma^
LmZmbhg^krH__b\^Ebfbm^]%+)))'
 21 M A>LM:MBHG>KRH??B<>EBFBM>=!MLH"%;nbe]bg`!:f^g]f^gm"!Gh+"K^`neZmbhgl+))+
Zg]ma^;nbe]bg`!:iikho^]Bgli^\mhkl^m\'"!:f^g]f^gm"K^`neZmbhgl+))+'MLH%+))+'
 22 ;
 KBMBLALM:G=:K=LBGLMBMNMBHG'==>GO*,/0)¾*3+)))3>q^\nmbhgh_\hg\k^m^
lmkn\mnk^l3<hffhg';LB%+)))'
 23 <
 HHD%G'=^lb`g^kl`nb]^mh>G*22*¾-:\mbhglhglmkn\mnk^l'Pbg]Z\mbhgl'MahfZl
M^e_hk]%Ehg]hg%+))0'
 24 =
 <E@'@nb]^mhma^nl^h_>G*22*¾*¾-¾Pbg]Z\mbhgl'=<E@In[eb\Zmbhgl%+))/'
ppp'\hffngbmb^l'`ho'nd(ieZggbg`Zg][nbe]bg`(ieZggbg`[nbe]bg`(
[nbe]bg`k^`neZmbhglk^l^Zk\a([nbe]bg`]boblbhgk^l^Zk\a(
 25 ;
 KBMBLALM:G=:K=LBGLMBMNMBHG';L>G*22*¾*¾-3>nkh\h]^*':\mbhglhglmkn\mnk^l'
@^g^kZeZ\mbhgl'Pbg]Z\mbhgl';LB%+)).'
  25a GZmbhgZe:gg^qmh>nkh\h]^*¾IZkm*¾-';LB%+))1'
 26 ;
 KHHD>K%H'<hg\k^m^[nbe]bg`ll\a^f^]^lb`gfZgnZe%!><+^]bmbhg"'<<BI&).*'Ma^
<hg\k^m^<^gmk^%+))2'
 27 M A><HG<K>M>LH<B>MR'M^\agb\ZeK^ihkm/-%@nb]^mhma^]^lb`gZg]\hglmkn\mbhgh_K<
_eZmleZ[l%<<BI&)++'Ma^<hg\k^m^Lh\b^mr%+))0'
 28 @
 HH=<ABE=%<AP>;LM>K%KF'K<lik^Z]la^^mlo,%<<BI&))1<='Nl^k`nb]^mhK<
lik^Z]la^^mlO,%<<BI&))1'Ma^<hg\k^m^<^gmk^%+))/'
 29 BKPBG%:P'=^lb`gh_la^ZkpZee[nbe]bg`l%K^ihkmK*)+'<BKB:%*21-'
 30 M A><HG<K>M><>GMK>'Phkd^]^qZfie^lmh>nkh\h]^+%Ohenf^+'<<BI&)-+'Bg
ik^iZkZmbhg'
 31 F
 HL>E>R%;%;NG@>R%CANEL>%K'K^bg_hk\^]\hg\k^m^]^lb`gmh>nkh\h]^+%Lbqma
>]bmbhg'IZe`kZo^F\FbeeZg%+))0'
 32 M A><HG<K>M>LH<B>MR'=^_e^\mbhglbg\hg\k^m^leZ[lZg][^Zfl'MK.1'Ma^<hg\k^m^
Lh\b^mr%+)).'
 33 ;
 >>;R%:'Fh]b_b^]ikhihlZel_hk\hgmkheebg`]^_e^\mbhgl[rf^Zglh_kZmbhlh_liZgmh^__^\mbo^
]^ima%M^\agb\ZeK^ihkm-./%<^f^gmZg]<hg\k^m^:llh\bZmbhg%P^qaZfLikbg`l%*20*'
 34 :EE>G%:A'K^bg_hk\^]\hg\k^m^]^lb`gmh;L1**)lbfier^qieZbg^]'Lihg%Ehg]hg%*211'
 35 BGLMBMNMBHGH?LMKN<MNK:E>G@BG>>KL'FZgnZe_hkma^]^lb`gh_\hg\k^m^[nbe]bg`
lmkn\mnk^lmh>nkh\h]^+'BLmkn\m>%+))/'

Further reading
 N  >>;R:PG:K:R:G:GKL'=^lb`g^kl`nb]^mhma^>nkh\h]^l¾>G*22+¾*¾*
;
Zg]>G*22+¾*¾+>nkh\h]^+3=^lb`gh_\hg\k^m^lmkn\mnk^l'@^g^kZekne^lZg]kne^l_hk
[nbe]bg`lZg]lmkn\mnkZe_bk^]^lb`g'MahfZlM^e_hk]%+)).'
 N  KBMBLALM:G=:K=LBGLMBMNMBHG'II*22)3+))0'Lmkn\mnkZe>nkh\h]^l%>qmkZ\ml_khf
;
ma^lmkn\mnkZe>nkh\h]^l_hklmn]^gmlh_lmkn\mnkZe]^lb`g%l^\hg]^]bmbhg';LB%Ehg]hg%
+))0'
 N  >G=R<KLFBMA=:'%=^lb`g^kl`nb]^mhma^>nkh\h]^l¾>G*22+¾+>nkh\h]^+3
A
=^lb`gh_\hg\k^m^lmkn\mnk^l'IZkm+3<hg\k^m^[kb]`^l%MahfZlM^e_hk]%+))0'
 N M A><HG<K>M>LH<B>MR'M^\agb\ZeK^ihkm/-%@nb]^mhma^]^lb`gZg]\hglmkn\mbhgh_K<
_eZmleZ[l%<<BI&)++'Ma^<hg\k^m^Lh\b^mr%+))0'

184
:ii^g]bq:3=^kbo^]_hkfneZ^

Appendix A: Derived formulae


A1 Flexure: beams and slabs
A1.1 Singly reinforced sections
Ma^k^\mZg`neZklmk^ll[eh\dlahpg[^ehpbg?b`nk^:*fZr[^nl^]'

d2 ec nfcd
esc Fc
As2 lx Fsc
x
neutral axis
h d z
As Fst Fig. 3.5
es
a) Section b) Strain c) Forces

Figure A1
Strains and forces in a section

?hk`kZ]^lh_\hg\k^m^nimh<.)(/)%e\n6)')),.%n6*Zg]l6)'1
3.1.6(1), 2.4.2.4(1)
_\]6a\\ _\d (g<6)'1._\d (*'. & NA

_r]6_rd (gL6_rd (*'*.6)'10_rd


2.4.2.4(1) & NA

?hklbg`erk^bg_hk\^]l^\mbhgl%ma^]^lb`g^jnZmbhgl\Zg[^]^kbo^]Zl_heehpl3
Lever arm, z

Fc
0.8x

z = d – 0.4x

Fst
Figure A2
Beam lever arm

?\6!)'1._\d (*'."[!)'1q"6)'-.,_\d[q
?lm6)'10:l _rd

<hglb]^kfhf^gm‡%F%Z[hnmma^\^gmk^h_ma^m^glbhg_hk\^3
F6)'-.,_\d[qs
Ghp s6 ]¾)'-q
= q6 +'.!]¾s"
F  6 )'-.,_\d[+'.!]¾s"s
  6 *'*,,,!_\d[s]¾_\d[s+"
E^mD  6 F([] +_\d
  6 *'*,,,!_\d[s]¾_\d[s+"([]+_\d
  6 *'*,,,!s]¾s+"(] +
=)  6 *'*,,,T!s(]"+¾!s(]"V$D
  6 !s(]"+¾!s(]"$)'11+,.D
‡BgikZ\mb\^ma^]^lb`gfhf^gm%F
>]phne][^nl^]' 185
Lheobg`ma^jnZ]kZmb\^jnZmbhg3
s(]6T*$!*¾,'.+2D")'.V(+
s6]T*$T*¾,'.+2D")'.V(+

Bmbl\hglb]^k^]`hh]ikZ\mb\^bgma^NDmhebfbms(]mhZfZqbfnfh_)'2.]'!Mabl`nZk]lZ`Zbglm
Table C5 k^erbg` hg o^kr mabg l^\mbhgl h_ \hg\k^m^ pab\a Zm ma^ ^qmk^f^ mhi h_ Z l^\mbhg fZr [^ h_
jn^lmbhgZ[e^lmk^g`ma'"MZ[e^l`bobg`oZen^lh_s(]Zg]q(]_hkoZen^lh_DfZr[^nl^]'

Area of reinforcement, As
MZdbg`fhf^gmlZ[hnmma^\^gmk^h_ma^\hfik^llbhg_hk\^3
F6)'10:l _rds
:l6F(!)'10_rd s"

Limiting value of relative flexural compressive stress, K'


:llnfbg` gh k^]blmkb[nmbhg mZd^l ieZ\^% Z ebfbmbg` oZen^ !hg ma^ lmk^g`ma h_ \hg\k^m^ bg
\hfik^llbhg"_hkD\Zg[^\Ze\neZm^]!]^ghm^]D "Zl_heehpl'
e\n, 6 \hg\k^m^lmkZbg6)')),.
Table 3.1 el 6 k^bg_hk\^f^gmlmkZbg
 6 .))(!*'*.+))*),"6)'))++
?khflmkZbg]bZ`kZf%?b`nk^:*
q 6 )')),.](!)')),.$)'))++"
 6 )'/]
?khf^jnZmbhglZ[ho^3
F 6 )'-.,_\d[qs
F  6 )'-.,_\d[)'/]!]¾)'-)'/]"
 6 )'+)0_\d[]+
=D 6)'+)0

Bm bl h_m^g \hglb]^k^] `hh] ikZ\mb\^ mh ebfbm ma^ ]^ima h_ ma^ g^nmkZe Zqbl mh Zohb] Âho^k&
k^bg_hk\^f^gmÃ!b'^'mh^glnk^maZmma^k^bg_hk\^f^gmblrb^e]bg`Zm_Zbenk^%manlZohb]bg`[kbmme^
_Zbenk^h_ma^\hg\k^m^"'H_m^gq(]blebfbm^]mh)'-.'Mablblk^_^kk^]mhZlma^[ZeZg\^]l^\mbhg
[^\Znl^Zmma^nembfZm^ebfbmlmZm^ma^\hg\k^m^Zg]lm^^ek^Z\ama^bknembfZm^lmkZbglZmma^
lZf^mbf^T,*V'MablblghmZ>nkh\h]^+k^jnbk^f^gmZg]blghmZ\\^im^][rZee^g`bg^^kl'
Ghg^ma^e^ll_hkq6)'-.]
?khf^jnZmbhglZ[ho^3
F 6 )'-.,_\d[qs
F  6 )'-.,_\d[)'-.]!]¾)'-)'-.]"
 6 )'*/0_\d[]+
=D  6 )'*/0
q(]blZelhk^lmkb\m^][rma^Zfhngmh_k^]blmkb[nmbhg\Zkkb^]hnm'?hk_\d©.)FIZ
Cl. 5.5(4)
dª)'-$!)'/$)'))*-e\n"qn(]
pa^k^
 ] 6 k^]blmkb[nm^]fhf^gm(^eZlmb\[^g]bg`fhf^gm[^_hk^k^]blmkb[nmbhg
 qn 6 ]^imah_ma^g^nmkZeZqblZmNELZ_m^kk^]blmkb[nmbhg
e\n 6 \hfik^llbo^lmkZbgbgma^\hg\k^m^ZmNEL

Mabl`bo^lma^oZen^lbgMZ[e^:*'


186
:ii^g]bq:3=^kbo^]_hkfneZ^

Table A1
Limits on D with respect to redistribution ratio, d

d 1 0.95 0.9 0.85 0.8 0.75 0.7


% redistribution ) . *) *. +) +. ,)
K' )'+)1 )'*2. )'*1+ )'*/1 )'*., )'*,0 )'*+)

B_D7D ma^l^\mbhglahne][^k^lbs^]hk\hfik^llbhgk^bg_hk\^f^gmblk^jnbk^]'Bgebg^pbma
\hglb]^kZmbhg h_ `hh] ikZ\mb\^ hnmebg^] Z[ho^% this publication adopts a maximum value
of K'= 0.167'

A1.2 Compression reinforcement, As2


Ma^fZchkbmrh_[^Zflnl^]bgikZ\mb\^Zk^lbg`erk^bg_hk\^]%Zg]ma^l^[^Zfl\Zg[^]^lb`g^]nlbg`
ma^_hkfneZ]^kbo^]Z[ho^'Bglhf^\Zl^l%\hfik^llbhgk^bg_hk\^f^gmblZ]]^]bghk]^kmh3
N Bg\k^Zl^l^\mbhglmk^g`mapa^k^l^\mbhg]bf^glbhglZk^k^lmkb\m^]%b'^'pa^k^D7D
N Mhk^]n\^ehg`m^kf]^_e^\mbhg
N Mh]^\k^Zl^\nkoZmnk^(]^_hkfZmbhgZmnembfZm^ebfbmlmZm^

As2

As

Figure A3
Beam with compression reinforcement

Pbmak^_^k^g\^mh?b`nk^:*%ma^k^blghpZg^qmkZ_hk\^
?l\6)'10:l+ _rd

Ma^Zk^Zh_m^glbhgk^bg_hk\^f^gm\Zgghp[^\hglb]^k^]bgmphiZkml%ma^_bklmiZkmmh[ZeZg\^
ma^\hfik^llbo^_hk\^bgma^\hg\k^m^%ma^l^\hg]iZkmmh[ZeZg\^ma^_hk\^bgma^\hfik^llbhg
lm^^e'Ma^Zk^Zh_m^glbhgk^bg_hk\^f^gmk^jnbk^]blma^k^_hk^3
:l6D _\n[] +(!)'10_rds"$:l+
pa^k^
 sbl\Ze\neZm^]nlbg`D'bglm^Z]h_D
 :l+\Zg[^\Ze\neZm^][rmZdbg`fhf^gmlZ[hnmma^\^gmk^h_ma^m^glbhg_hk\^3
 F6F $)'10_rd:l+!]¾]+"
 F6D _\n[] +$)'10_rd:l+!]¾]+"

K^ZkkZg`bg`3
:l+6!D¾D "_\d[] +(T)'10_rd!]¾]+"V

A2 Shear
A2.1 Shear resistance (without shear reinforcement), VRd,c
OK]%\6T<K]%\d!*))r*_\d "*(,$d*s\iV[p]ª!ofbg$d*s\i "[p] Exp. (6.2)

pa^k^
NA
 <K]%\ 6 )'*1(g<6)'*1(*'.6)'*+

 d 6 *$!+))(]")'.©+') 187
r* 6 :l (![p]"©)')+
 d* 6 )'*.
s\i 6 )_hkghg&ik^lmk^ll^]\hg\k^m^
 ofbg 6 )'),.d*'._\d)'.
=OK]%\6)'*+d!*))r*_\d"*(,[p]ª)'),.d*'._\d)'.[p]

A2.2 Shear capacity


Ma^\ZiZ\bmrh_Z\hg\k^m^l^\mbhgpbmao^kmb\Zela^Zkk^bg_hk\^f^gmmhZ\m
ZlZlmknm%OK]%fZq3
Exp. (6.9) OK]%fZq6a\p[pSv* _\] (!\hmy$mZgy"
pa^k^
a\p 6 *')
Cl. 6.2.3(3) Note 1, v*  6 v6)'/T*¾_\d (+.)V
Exp. (6.6N) & NA
 _\] 6 a\\ _\d (g<6*'))_\d (*'.
=OK]%fZq6)'-)[ps_\dT*¾_\d (+.)V(!\hmy$mZgy"

K^ZkkZg`bg`mabl^jnZmbhg`bo^l3
y6)'.lbg¾*To>]s (!)'+)_\dT*¾_\d (+.)V"Vª\hm¾*+'.
pa^k^
 o>]s6O>] ([s6O>] (![)'2]"
Bgfhlm\Zl^l%pa^k^\hmy6+'.%y6+*'1™
oK]%fZq%\hmy6+'.6)'*,1[ps_\dT*¾_\d (+.)V
hk
oK]%fZq%\hmy6+'.6)'*,1_\dT*¾_\d (+.)V
pa^k^
 oK]%fZq%\hmy6+'. 6OK]%fZq%\hmy6+'.(![s"
  6OK]%fZq%\hmy6+'.(!)'2[]"
Pa^k^\hmy7+'.%ma^Zg`e^h_ma^lmknmZg]oK]%fZqlahne][^\Ze\neZm^]%hkoK]%fZqfZr[^
ehhd^]nibgmZ[e^lhk\aZkml!^'`'MZ[e^<0hk?b`nk^<*"'

A2.3 Shear reinforcement


Exp. (6.13) OK]%l6!:lp(l"s_rp]!\hmy$\hma"lbgaªO>]
pa^k^
 :lp 6 \khll&l^\mbhgZeZk^Zh_ma^la^Zkk^bg_hk\^f^gm
 l 6 liZ\bg`
 s 6 e^o^kZkf!ZiikhqbfZm^oZen^h_)'2]fZrghkfZeer[^nl^]"
 _rp] 6 _rpd (gL6]^lb`grb^e]lmk^g`mah_ma^la^Zkk^bg_hk\^f^gm
a 6 Zg`e^h_ma^ebgdlmhma^ehg`bmn]bgZeZqbl'?hko^kmb\Zeebgdl%
   \hma6)Zg]lbga6*')
K^ZkkZg`bg`_hko^kmb\Zeebgdl3
:lp(lªO>] (s_rp]\hmy
hk
:lp(lªo>]%s[p(_rp]\hmy

FbgbfnfZk^Zh_la^Zkk^bg_hk\^f^gm
Exp. (9.5N) & NA :lp%fbg (!l[plbga"ª)')1_\d)'.(_rd
pa^k^
 l 6 ehg`bmn]bgZeliZ\bg`h_ma^la^Zkk^bg_hk\^f^gm
 [p 6 [k^Z]mah_ma^p^[

188
:ii^g]bq:3=^kbo^]_hkfneZ^

a 6 Zg`e^h_ma^la^Zkk^bg_hk\^f^gmmhma^ehg`bmn]bgZeZqblh_ma^f^f[^k'?hko^kmb\Ze
ebgdllbga6*')'
K^ZkkZg`bg`_hko^kmb\Zeebgdl3
Alp%fbg (lª)')1[plbga_\d)'.(_rd

A3 Columns

_\]6a\\n_\d(g<
e\n+ sl\ ]
el\ :l+
+
]\
q
a
g'Zqbl Fig. 6.1

er :l*
slm ]+
e\ Figure A4
Section in axial
a) Strain diagram b) Stress diagram compression and
bending

?hkZqbZeehZ]
G>]6_\] []\$:l+sl\¾:l*slm

;nmZl:l+6:l*6:lG(+
G>]6_\] []\$:lG!sl\¾slm"(+
G>]¾_\] []\6:lG!sl\¾slm"(+
!G>]¾_\] []\"(!sl\¾slm"6:lG(+
:lG(+6!G>]¾_\] []\"(!sl\¾slm"

=:lG(+6!G>]¾a\\n_\d[]\ (g<"(!sl\¾slm"

?hkfhf^gmZ[hnm\^gmk^h_\henfg
F>]6_\] []\!a(+¾]\ (+"$:l+sl\!a(+¾]+"$:l*slm!a(+¾]+"
;nmZl:l+6:l*6:lF(+
F>]6_\] []\!a(+¾]\ (+"$:lF!sl\$slm"!a(+¾]+"(+
F>]¾_\] []\!a(+¾]\ (+"6:lF!sl\$slm"!a(+¾]+"(+
TF>]¾_\] []\!a(+¾]\ (+"V(!sl\$slm"!a(+¾]+"6:lF(+

=:lF(+6TF>]¾a\\n_\d []\!a(+¾]\ (+"(g<V(T!sl\$slm"!a(+¾]+"V


Lhenmbhg
Bm^kZm^qln\amaZm:lG6:lF

Note
Cl. 6.1(6), Fig. 6.1,
?hkl^\mbhglpaheerbg\hfik^llbhg%ma^lmkZbgblebfbm^]ln\amaZmZo^kZ`^lmkZbg
Table 3.1
≤e\l6)'))*0.!Zllnfbg`[bebg^Zklmk^ll¾lmkZbgk^eZmbhglabi"'

189
Appendix B: Serviceability limit state
B1 Deflection
BgfZgr\Zl^l%iZkmb\neZkerpbmaleZ[l%]^_e^\mbhgbl\kbmb\Zemh]^lb`g'
>nkh\h]^+%<e'0'-Zeehpl_hk]^_e^\mbhgmh[^\hgmkhee^][rnlbg`liZg3]^imakZmbh!E(]"\a^\dl
bgZ\\hk]Zg\^pbma<e'0'-'+hk[r\Ze\neZmbhgbgZ\\hk]Zg\^pbma<e'0'-','BmblbfihkmZgmmh
]b__^k^gmbZm^[^mp^^gma^oZkbhnlf^mah]lnl^]bg\a^\dbg`]^_hkfZmbhgZlma^rpbee^Z\a`bo^
]b__^k^gmZglp^kl'Mak^^ihineZkf^mah]lZk^]bl\nll^][^ehp'HgermaZm]^l\kb[^]bgL^\mbhg
;*'*[^ehpbllnbmZ[e^_hkaZg]\Ze\neZmbhg'

B1.1 TCC method[5,19]


Ma^bg&l^kob\^lmk^llh_k^bg_hk\^f^gm%sl%blnl^]mh]^m^kfbg^Z_Z\mhk%,*)(sl %pab\ablnl^]
mhfh]b_rma^[Zlb\liZg 3 ^__^\mbo^]^imakZmbhZlZeehp^]bg<e'0'-'+!+"h_>nkh\h]^+T+VZg]
fh]^kZm^][rma^GZmbhgZe:gg^qT+ZV'Mablf^mah]%ab`aeb`am^]Zl_Z\mhk?,bg<hg\bl^>nkh\h]^
+T.V% bl bgm^g]^] mh [^ nl^] bg aZg] \Ze\neZmbhgl mh ]^kbo^ !\hgl^koZmbo^" oZen^l h_ sl _khf
ZoZbeZ[e^NELfhf^gml'BgZ\\hk]Zg\^pbmaGhm^.h_MZ[e^G:'.h_ma^NDG:T+ZV%ma^kZmbh_hk
:l%ikho (:l%k^jblk^lmkb\m^]mh*'.3bg^__^\mmablebfbmlma^_Z\mhk,*)(slmh*'.'
pa^k^‡
sl6!_rd (gL"!pji (pnem"!:l%k^j (:l%ikho"(d©,*)(*'.
 pa^k^
 _rd 6 \aZkZ\m^kblmb\lmk^g`mah_k^bg_hk\^f^gm6.))FIZ
gL 6 iZkmbZe_Z\mhk_hkk^bg_hk\^f^gm6*'*.
 pji 6 jnZlb&i^kfZg^gmehZ]!N=EZllnf^]"
 pi^kf6 nembfZm^ehZ]!N=EZllnf^]"
 :l%k^j 6 Zk^Zh_k^bg_hk\^f^gmk^jnbk^]
 :l%ikho6 Zk^Zh_k^bg_hk\^f^gmikhob]^]
d 6 k^]blmkb[nmbhgkZmbh

B1.2 RC Spreadsheets method[28]


Ma^K<lik^Z]la^^mlM<<qq'qelT+1Vnl^ma^liZg3]^imaf^mah]h_\a^\dbg`]^_hkfZmbhg[nmnl^
ZgZ\\nkZm^f^mah]_hk]^m^kfbgbg`sl!l^^;,'+[^ehp"%pab\aZ`Zbgblnl^]mh]^m^kfbg^ma^
fh]^kZmbg`_Z\mhk6,*)(sl':`Zbg%bgZ\\hk]Zg\^pbmaGhm^.h_MZ[e^G:'.h_ma^NDG:T+ZV%
ma^kZmbh_hk:l%ikho(:l%k^jblk^lmkb\m^]mh*'.3bg^__^\mmablebfbmlma^_Z\mhk,*)(slmh*'.'

L^iZkZm^ZgZerl^lnlbg`jnZlb&i^kfZg^gmehZ]lg^^]mh[^\Zkkb^]hnm'?hk^Z\aliZg%ZgLEL
g^nmkZe Zqbl ]^ima bl ]^m^kfbg^]% ma^g s\ Zg] sl Zk^ ]^kbo^] _hk ma^ jnZlb&i^kfZg^gm ehZ]
\hg]bmbhgl'Ma^ _Z\mhk sl bl nl^] bg Z\\hk]Zg\^ pbma >nkh\h]^ +T+V Zg] ma^ \nkk^gm GZmbhgZe
:gg^qT+ZV%mhfh]b_rma^[Zlb\liZg 3 ^__^\mbo^]^imakZmbh'

Pabelm mabl f^mah] `bo^l Z fhk^ Z\\nkZm^ Zg] e^ll \hgl^koZmbo^ Zll^llf^gm h_ sl% bm bl hger
lnbmZ[e^_hk\hfinm^klik^Z]la^^mZiieb\Zmbhgl'L^^Zelh:ii^g]bq;.'

Bgma^ZgZerlblh_leZ[lZg][^Zfl%lniihkmlZk^nlnZeerZllnf^]mh[^ibgg^]'Bgk^Zebmrlniihkml
aZo^ lhf^ \hgmbgnbmr% ^li^\bZeer Zm ^g] lniihkml' NlnZeer% ghfbgZe mhi lm^^e bl Zllnf^] Zg]
ikhob]^]bgma^mhih_liZglZg]blnl^]bgma^]^m^kfbgZmbhgh_l^\mbhgikhi^kmb^l'

B1.3 Rigorous analysis


Kb`hkhnlZgZerlbl%ln\aZlmaZmnl^]bgma^l^kb^lh_K<Lik^Z]la^^mlM<<qqK'qelfZr[^nl^]mh
Zll^ll]^_hkfZmbhgbgZ\\hk]Zg\^pbma>nkh\h]^+%<e'0'-','
‡L^^:ii^g]bq;*'.

190
:ii^g]bq;3L^kob\^Z[bebmrebfbmlmZm^

Bg ma^ lik^Z]la^^ml% l^\mbhgl Zm *(+)ma ihbgml Zehg` ma^ e^g`ma h_ Z liZg Zk^ \a^\d^] mh
]^m^kfbg^pa^ma^kma^_e^qnkZem^glbe^lmk^llbgma^l^\mbhgblebd^ermh^q\^^]ma^m^glbe^lmk^g`ma
h_ma^\hg\k^m^]nkbg`^bma^k\hglmkn\mbhghkl^kob\^eb_^3l^iZkZm^ZgZerl^lZk^ng]^kmZd^gnlbg`
_k^jn^gmehZ]l%jnZlb&i^kfZg^gmZg]m^fihkZkrehZ]l'B_ma^_e^qnkZem^glbe^lmk^g`mabl^q\^^]^]
ng]^k_k^jn^gmehZ]l%ma^gma^l^\mbhgblZllnf^]mh[^\kZ\d^]Zg]k^fZbg\kZ\d^]3\kZ\d^]
l^\mbhg ikhi^kmb^l Zk^ nl^] mh ]^m^kfbg^ ma^ kZ]bnl h_ \nkoZmnk^ _hk maZm *(+)ma h_ liZg' B_
_e^qnkZem^glbe^lmk^g`mablghm^q\^^]^]%ng&\kZ\d^]l^\mbhgikhi^kmb^lZk^nl^]'

KZ]bbh_\nkoZmnk^Zk^\Ze\neZm^]_hk^Z\a*(+)maliZgbg\k^f^gmh_ma^^e^f^gmnlbg`ma^k^e^oZgm
ikhi^kmb^lZg]fhf^gml]^kbo^]_khfZgZerlblh_jnZlb&i^kfZg^gmZ\mbhgl'=^_hkfZmbhgbl\Ze\neZm^]
_khfma^bg\k^f^gmlÃ\nkoZmnk^lobZgnf^kb\Zebgm^`kZmbhgho^kma^e^g`mah_^Z\aliZg'

Ma^f^mah]blbgZ\\hk]Zg\^pbmaMa^<hg\k^m^Lh\b^mrÃlin[eb\ZmbhgMK.1T,+V':`Zbgma^f^mah]
bllnbmZ[e^hger_hk\hfinm^kZiieb\ZmbhglZg]ghm_hkaZg]\Ze\neZmbhg'

B1.4 Differing results


=nkbg`+))1%bm[^\Zf^bg\k^Zlbg`erZiiZk^gmmaZmma^k^Zk^bg\hglblm^g\b^l[^mp^^gma^k^lneml
`bo^g [r ma^ kb`hkhnl \Ze\neZmbhg f^mah] Zg] liZg3]^ima f^mah]l ]^l\kb[^] bg >nkh\h]^ +'
Nlbg` ma^ kb`hkhnl f^mah] `bo^l ]^_e^\mbhgl maZm Zk^ `k^Zm^k maZg phne] [^ ^qi^\m^] _khf
ma^ZllnfimbhgllmZm^]_hkE(]f^mah]lb'^']^_e^\mbhgebfbmlh_E(+.)ho^kZee!l^^<e'0'-'*!-""
hkE(.))Z_m^k\hglmkn\mbhg!l^^<e'0'-'*!.""'Bmbllnli^\m^]maZmmabl]bliZkbmrblma^lZf^Zl
maZm ^qi^kb^g\^] [^mp^^g liZg3]^ima Zg] \Ze\neZmbhg f^mah]l bg ;L 1**)3 Z ]bliZkbmr maZm
pZlk^\h`gbl^]Zlehg`Z`hZl*20*T,,V'Ma^kb`hkhnlf^mah]]^l\kb[^]Z[ho^k^eb^lhgfZgr
Zllnfimbhgl Zg] bl eZk`^er ng\Zeb[kZm^] Z`Zbglm k^Ze lmkn\mnk^l':l ghm^] bgMK.1% ma^k^ bl Zg
nk`^gmg^^]_hk]ZmZ_khfZ\mnZelmkn\mnk^llhmaZmf^mah]lfZr[^\Zeb[kZm^]'Bmlahne][^
ghm^]maZmma^kb`hkhnlZgZerlblf^mah]h[l^koZmbhglp^k^fZ]^nlbg`_k^jn^gmehZ]lpa^k^%bg
Z\\hk]Zg\^pbma>nkh\h]^+%jnZlb&i^kfZg^gmehZ]lZk^\Zee^]_hk'

>g]liZglZk^nlnZeer\kbmb\Ze'Pbmak^li^\mmhma^kb`hkhnlZgZerlblf^mah]%bmaZl[^^gln``^lm^]maZm
_hk^g]&liZgl%ma^M<<Zg]K<&lik^Z]la^^mf^mah]lk^lnembg]^_e^\mbhgl\ehl^mhma^ebfbmllmZm^]
bg>nkh\h]^+%ikhob]^]maZmZghfbgZe^g]&lniihkmk^lmkZbgbg`fhf^gmblik^l^gmpa^k^ghg^bl
Zllnf^]bgZgZerlbl'<Znmbhgblma^k^_hk^g^\^llZkrbgmkn^ibgg^]^g]&lniihkmlbmnZmbhgl[nmpa^k^
lhf^ \hgmbgnbmr ^qblml% mabl ]bliZkbmr fZr [^ Z]]k^ll^] [r ^glnkbg` maZm ZiikhikbZm^ Zfhngml h_
k^bg_hk\^f^gm%bgZ\\hk]Zg\^pbmama^<h]^Zg]GZmbhgZe:gg^q%Zk^ikhob]^]Zm^g]lniihkml'

Ma^G=I_hk<e'2'+'*'+!*"bgma^NDG:T+ZVmh;L>G*22+¾*¾+lmbineZm^lmaZm+.h_^g]liZg
fhf^gmlahne][^nl^]mh]^m^kfbg^^g]lniihkmk^bg_hk\^f^gm'MablblnlnZeerZ\\hffh]Zm^]
[rikhob]bg`+.h_^g]liZg[hmmhflm^^eZlmhilm^^eZm^g]lniihkml'Bmblhgmabl[ZlblmaZm
ma^\Ze\neZmbhglbgmablin[eb\ZmbhgZk^\hglb]^k^]Zl[^bg`_nkma^kln[lmZgmbZm^]'

B1.5 Note regarding factor 310/ss (factor F3)


:mma^mbf^h_in[eb\Zmbhg!=^\^f[^k+))2"ma^Znmahklp^k^ZpZk^h_Zikh[Z[e^\aZg`^mh
NDG:T+ZVMZ[e^G:'.pab\a%bg^__^\m%phne]f^ZgmaZmma^_Z\mhk,*)(sl!?,"6:l%ikho(:l%k^j
≤ *'.% manl ]blZeehpbg` ma^ Z\\nkZm^ f^mah] hnmebg^] bg L^\mbhgl ,'*% ,'+% ,',% ,'-% -', Zg]
:ii^g]b\^l;*'*%;*'+Zg]<0'

B2 Neutral axis at SLS


Mh_bg]q%g^nmkZeZqbl%Zg]l^kob\^llmk^ll^ls\Zg]sl_hkZ\hg\k^m^l^\mbhg%ZmLEL%\hglb]^kma^
\kZ\d^]l^\mbhgbg?b`nk^;*

191
Relative modulus
E/Ec
ae – 1 d2
As2
x
1
d

As
ae

Where ae = modular ratio Es/Ec Figure B1


Cracked concrete section at SLS

?khf_bklmikbg\bie^l%_hkZ_neer\kZ\d^]mkZgl_hkf^]l^\mbhg%
MhmZeZk^Zh_l^\mbhg%:6[q$:la^$:l+!a^*"

*lmfhf^gmh_Zk^Z%:r6[q+(+$:l]a^$:l+]+!a^*"

?hkZleZ[%[6*)))%ma^k^_hk^
: 6*)))q$:la^$:l+!a^*"
:r6.))q+$:l]a^$:l+]+!a^*"

G^nmkZeZqbl]^ima%q
q 6 :r (:
 6 T.))q+$:l]a^$:l+]+!a^*"V(T*)))q$:la^$:l+!a^*"V

Ma^k^_hk^
qT*)))q$:la^$:l+!a^*"V6T.))q+$:l]a^$:l+]+!a^*"V
) 6T.))q+$:l]a^$:l+]+!a^*"VqT*)))q$:la^$:l+!a^*"V
 6.))q+qT*)))qV$:l]a^$:l+]+!a^*"VqT:la^$:l+!a^*"V
 6.))q+qT:la^$:l+!a^*"V$T:l]a^$:l+]+!a^*"V

Lheobg`ma^jnZ]kZmb\
q6[¨[+-a\")'.V(+Z
T:la^$:l+!a^*"¨tT:la^$:l+!a^*"V+$-.))T:l]a^$:l+]+!a^*"Vv)'.V
q 6
 !+q.))"

hkmkZglihlbg`%
T¾!a^*":l+a^:l$tT!a^*":l+$a^:lV+$+)))T!a^*":l+]+$a^:l]Vv)'.V
q6
 *)))
hk
T!a^*":l+a^:l$tT!a^*":l+$a^:lV+$+[T!a^*":l+]+$a^:l]Vv)'.V
q6
 [

Mabl^qik^llbhgblnl^]bgma^K<lik^Z]la^^mlT+1V'

192
:ii^g]bq;3L^kob\^Z[bebmrebfbmlmZm^

B3 SLS stresses in concrete, sc, and reinforcement, ss


B3.1 Singly reinforced section
<hglb]^kma^lbg`erk^bg_hk\^]l^\mbhgbg?b`nk^;+'

b
Fc x/3

x
Mqp
z

As Fs
Figure B2
a) Section b) Dimensions and forces SLS stresses: singly
reinforced section

<hglb]^kfhf^gmlZ[hnm?\3
Fji 6?l s6?l!]q(,"
?l 6Fji (!]q(,"
sl 6Fji (T:l!]q(,"V
sl :l6Fji (!]q(,"6q[s\ (+
s\ 6+sl :l (q[

B3.2 Doubly reinforced section


<hglb]^kma^lbg`erk^bg_hk\^]l^\mbhgbg?b`nk^;,'

E/Ec = ae – 1 E/Ec = ae
s = sc(ae – 1)(x – d2)/x s = sc
b d2

As2
x
d
Mqp

As

E/Ec = ae
s = ss
a) Section b) Dimensions, modular
ratios and stresses Figure B3
SLS stresses

<hglb]^kfhf^gm%Fji%Z[hnm[hmmhfk^bg_hk\^f^gm%:lT,-V'
Fji6 :l+!]]+"!a^*"t!q¾]+"(qvs\$s\[!q(+"!]q(,"
Ma^k^_hk^
s\ 6 Fji(T:l+!]]+"!a^*""t!q]+"(qv$[!q(+"!]q(,"V
:g]_khflmk^ll]bZ`kZf
sl 6 s\a^!]q"(q

193
Appendix C: Design aids
Ma^ _heehpbg` mZ[e^l% m^qm Zg] _b`nk^l aZo^ [^^g ]^kbo^] _khf >nkh\h]^ + Zg] Zk^ ikhob]^]
Zl]^lb`gZb]l_hk]^lb`g^klbgma^ND'Ma^l^]^lb`gZb]laZo^[^^gk^_^k^g\^]bgma^m^qmZg]
`^g^kZeeraZo^[^^gmZd^g_khfL^\mbhg*.h_<hg\bl^>nkh\h]^+T.V'

C1 Design values of actions


?hkma^NELh_lmk^g`ma!LMK"pa^k^ma^k^blZlbg`e^oZkbZ[e^Z\mbhgnl^^bma^k3

N *',.@d$*'.Jd >qi'!/'*)"_khf;L>G*22)T*)V
 hkma^phkl^\Zl^h_
N *',.@d$c)*'.Jd >qi'!/'*)Z"
 Zg]
N *'+.@d$*'.Jd >qi'!/'*)["
pa^k^c)6*')_hklmhkZ`^%)'._hklghp[nmhma^kpbl^)'0%l^^MZ[e^+'+'

Bg fhlm \Zl^l >qi' !/'*)[" pbee [^ ZiikhikbZm^% ^q\^im _hk lmhkZ`^ pa^k^ ma^ nl^ h_ >qi' !/'*)Z"
blebd^ermh[^fhk^hg^khnl'

?hkma^LELh_]^_hkfZmbhg%jnZlb&i^kfZg^gmehZ]llahne][^Ziieb^]'Ma^l^Zk^*')@d$c+Jd
pa^k^c+bl]^i^g]^gmhgnl^%^'`')',_hkh__b\^lZg]k^lb]^gmbZeZg])'0_hklmhkZ`^'

C2 Values of actions
Ma^oZen^lh_Z\mbhgl!b'^'ehZ]l"Zk^]^_bg^]bg>nkh\h]^*T**V'Ma^iZkmlh_>nkh\h]^*Zk^`bo^g
bgMZ[e^<*'Ma^l^oZen^lZk^mZd^gZl\aZkZ\m^kblmb\oZen^l':mma^mbf^h_in[eb\Zmbhg%ma^ND
GZmbhgZe:gg^q^lmhma^l^iZkmlZk^bgoZkbhnllmZm^lh_k^Z]bg^ll'

:lI=//10T/VfZd^l\e^Zk%ngmbema^ZiikhikbZm^>nkhi^ZglmZg]Zk]l[^\hf^ZoZbeZ[e^%]^lb`g^kl
fZr\hglb]^knlbg`\nkk^gmikZ\mb\^hk\nkk^gm;kbmblaLmZg]Zk]lbg\hgcng\mbhgpbma>nkh\h]^+%
ikhob]^]ma^rZk^\hfiZmb[e^pbma>nkh\h]^+Zg]maZmma^k^lnembg`k^ebZ[bebmrblZ\\^imZ[e^'

;L>G*22*¾*¾*lmZm^lmaZmma^]^glbmrh_\hg\k^m^bl+-dG(f,%k^bg_hk\^]\hg\k^m^%+.dG(f,
Zg]p^mk^bg_hk\^]\hg\k^m^%+/dG(f,'

Table C1
The parts of Eurocode 1[11]

Reference Title
BS EN 1991-1-1 =^glbmb^l%l^e_&p^b`amZg]bfihl^]ehZ]l
BS EN 1991-1-2 :\mbhglhglmkn\mnk^l^qihl^]mh_bk^
BS EN 1991-1-3 LghpehZ]l
BS EN 1991-1-4 Pbg]Z\mbhgl
BS EN 1991-1-5 Ma^kfZeZ\mbhgl
BS EN 1991-1-6 :\mbhgl]nkbg`^q^\nmbhg
BS EN 1991-1-7 :\\b]^gmZeZ\mbhgl]n^mhbfiZ\mZg]^qiehlbhgl
BS EN 1991-2 MkZ__b\ehZ]lhg[kb]`^l
BS EN 1991-3 :\mbhglbg]n\^][r\kZg^lZg]fZ\abg^kr
BS EN 1991-4 :\mbhglbglbehlZg]mZgdl

194
:ii^g]bq<3=^lb`gZb]l

C3 Analysis
:gZerlbl bl ]^Zem pbma bg L^\mbhg . h_ <hg\bl^>nkh\h]^+'Pa^k^ ZiikhikbZm^ ma^ \h^__b\b^gml
`bo^gbgMZ[e^l<+Zg]<,\Zg[^nl^]mh]^m^kfbg^]^lb`gfhf^gmlZg]la^Zk_hkleZ[lZg]
[^ZflZmNEL'

Table C2
Coefficients for use with one-way spanning slabs to Eurocode 2

Coefficient Location
End support/slab connection Internal supports and spans
Pinned end support Continuous
Outer Near Outer Near At 1st At At
support middle of support middle of interior middle of interior
end span end span support interior supports
spans
Moment )') )')1/ ¾)')- )')0. ¾)')1/ )')/, ¾)')/,
Shear )'-) ¿ )'-/ ¿ )'/)3)'/) ¿ )'.)3)'.)
Notes
1:iieb\Z[e^mhhg^&pZrliZggbg`leZ[lpa^k^ma^Zk^Zh_^Z\a[Zr^q\^^]l,)f+%Jd©*'+.@dZg]jd©.
dG(f+%ln[lmZgmbZeerngb_hkfehZ]bg`!Zme^Zlm,liZgl%fbgbfnfliZgª)'1.fZqbfnf!]^lb`g"liZg'
2=^lb`gfhf^gm6\h^__qgqliZg+Zg]]^lb`gla^Zk6\h^__qgqliZgpa^k^gblZN=EpbmaZlbg`e^oZkbZ[e^
Z\mbhg6g@ `d$cgJjdpa^k^`dZg]jdZk^\aZkZ\m^kblmb\i^kfZg^gmZg]oZkbZ[e^Z\mbhglbgdG(f'
3;Zlbl3Rb^e]ebg^]^lb`g!Zllnf^]+)k^]blmkb[nmbhgT0V"

Table C3
Coefficients for use with beams (and one-way spanning slabs) to Eurocode 2

Coefficient Location
Outer support Near middle At 1st interior At middle of At interior
of end span support interior spans supports
Moment `k +.liZga ¿ )')2- ¿ )')0.
and jk
Moment `k ¿ )')2) ¿ )')// ¿
Moment jk ¿ )'*)) ¿ )')1/ ¿
Shear )'-. ¿ )'/,3)'.. ¿ )'.)3)'.)b
Notes
1?hk[^ZflZg]leZ[l%,hkfhk^liZgl'!Ma^rfZrZelh[^nl^]_hk+&liZg[^Zfl[nmlniihkm
fhf^gm\h^__b\b^gm6)'*)/Zg]bgm^kgZela^Zk\h^__b\b^gm6)'/,[hmalb]^l"'
2@^g^kZeerJd©@d%Zg]ma^ehZ]bg`lahne][^ln[lmZgmbZeerngb_hkfer]blmkb[nm^]'Hma^kpbl^li^\bZe
\nkmZbef^gmh_k^bg_hk\^f^gmblk^jnbk^]'
3FbgbfnfliZgª)'1.qfZqbfnf!Zg]]^lb`g"liZg'
4=^lb`gfhf^gmZmlniihkml 6 \h^__qgqliZg+
 hkbgliZgl 6 !\h^__`dqg@`d$\h^__jdqcgJjd"qliZg+'
5=^lb`gla^ZkZm\^gmk^ebg^h_lniihkml6\h^__qgqliZgpa^k^gblZN=EpbmaZlbg`e^oZkbZ[e^Z\mbhg
 6g@`d$cgJjdpa^k^`dZg]jdZk^\aZkZ\m^kblmb\i^kfZg^gmZg]oZkbZ[e^Z\mbhglbgdG(f'
g@Zg]cgJZk^]^i^g]^gmhgnl^h_;L>G*22)%>qik^llbhgl!/'*)"%!/'*)Z"hk!/'*)["'L^^L^\mbhg<*'
6;Zlbl3:ee&Zg]Zem^kgZm^&liZgl&ehZ]^]\Zl^lZlNDGZmbhgZe:gg^qZg]*.k^]blmkb[nmbhgZm
lniihkml'
Key
a:mhnm^klniihkmÂ+.liZgÃk^eZm^lmhma^NDGZmbhgZeer=^m^kfbg^]IZkZf^m^k_hk>nkh\h]^+% Cl. 9.2.1.2
<e'2'+'*'+!*"_hkfbgbfnfi^k\^gmZ`^h_liZg[^g]bg`fhf^gmmh[^Zllnf^]Zmlniihkmlbg[^Zfl
bgfhghebmab\\hglmkn\mbhg'*.fZr[^ZiikhikbZm^_hkleZ[l!l^^>nkh\h]^+%<e'2','*'+"'
Cl. 9.3.1.2
b?hk[^Zflh__bo^liZgl%)'..Ziieb^lmh\^gmk^liZg'

195
C4 Design for bending
N =^m^kfbg^pa^ma^kD©D hkghm!b'^'pa^ma^kng]^k&k^bg_hk\^]hkghm"'
 pa^k^
 D 6 F>] (![]+_\d"
 pa^k^
 ] 6 ^__^\mbo^]^ima6a¾\ho^k¾f(+
 [ 6 pb]mah_l^\mbhgbg\hfik^llbhg
 D fZr[^]^m^kfbg^]_khfMZ[e^<-Zg]bl]^i^g]^gmhgma^k^]blmkb[nmbhgkZmbhnl^]'
Table C4
Values for D

Redistribution ratio, d s/] for D a D a 1–d

1.00 )'0/!)'1+" )'+)1!)'*/1" )


0.95 )'01!)'1+" )'*2.!)'*/1" .
0.90 )'1)!)'1+" )'*1+!)'*/1" *)
0.85 )'1+ )'*/1 *.
0.80 )'1- )'*., +)
0.75 )'1/ )'*,0 +.
0.70 )'11 )'*+) ,)
Note
<eZll:k^bg_hk\^f^gmblk^lmkb\m^]mhZk^]blmkb[nmbhgkZmbh%d©)'1
Key
aBmblk^\hff^g]^]maZmq(]blebfbm^]mh)'-.T,.V':lZ\hgl^jn^g\^s(]blebfbm^]mhZfbgbfnfh_
)'1+)Zg]D mhZfbgbfnfh_)'*/1'

N B_D©D %l^\mbhgblunder-reinforced'
 ?hkk^\mZg`neZkl^\mbhgl3
 :l* 6 F>] (_r]s
 pa^k^
 :l* 6 Zk^Zh_m^glbe^k^bg_hk\^f^gm
 F>]6 ]^lb`gfhf^gm
 _r] 6 _rd (gL6.))(*'*.6-,-'1FIZ
 s 6 ]T)'.$)'.!*¾,'.,D")'.V©)'2.]
OZen^lh_s(]!Zg]q(]"fZr[^mZd^g_khfMZ[e^<.

 ?hk_eZg`^][^Zflpa^k^q5*'+.a_%
 :l* 6 F>] (_r] s
 pa^k^ q 6 ]^imamhg^nmkZeZqbl'OZen^lh_q(]fZr[^mZd^g_khfMZ[e^<.
  a_ 6 mab\dg^llh__eZg`^

 ?hk_eZg`^][^Zflpa^k^qª*'+.a_%k^_^kmhAhpmh]^lb`g\hg\k^m^lmkn\mnk^lnlbg`>nkh\h]^+T1V'
How to: Beams[8]

N B_D7D %l^\mbhgblover-reinforcedZg]k^jnbk^l\hfik^llbhgk^bg_hk\^f^gm'
 :l+6!F>]¾F "(_l\!]¾]+"
 pa^k^
 :l+6 \hfik^llbhgk^bg_hk\^f^gm
B_]+(q7)',0.ma^gma^m^kf:l+lahne][^k^ieZ\^][rma^m^kf
*'/!*¾]+(q":l+
 F  6 D []+_\d
 _l\ 6 0))!qn¾]+"(qn©_r]
 pa^k^
 ]+ 6 ^__^\mbo^]^imamh\hfik^llbhgk^bg_hk\^f^gm

196
:ii^g]bq<3=^lb`gZb]l

 qn 6 !d¾)'-"]
 pa^k^
 d 6k^]blmkb[nmbhgkZmbh
 MhmZeZk^Zh_lm^^e:l*6F (!_r]s"$:l+_l\ (_r]

Table C5
Values of s/] and q/] for singly reinforced rectangular sections

D s/] q/] (1 – d)maxa


0.04 )'2.)b )'*+. ,)
0.05 )'2.)b )'*+. ,)
0.06 )'2-- )'*-) ,)
0.07 )'2,- )'*/. ,)
0.08 )'2+- )'*2* ,)
0.09 )'2*, )'+*0 ,)
0.10 )'2)+ )'+-. ,)
0.11 )'12* )'+0+ ,)
0.12 )'11) )',)* ,)
0.13 )'1/1 )',,* +0
0.14 )'1./ )',/* +-
0.15 )'1-, )',2, +*
0.16 )'1,) )'-+. *1
0.17 )'1*/c )'-/)c *-
0.18 )'1)+c )'-2.c **
0.19 )'010c )'.,,c 0
0.20 )'00*c )'.0+c ,
0.208 )'0.1c )'/)/c )
Note
_\d©.)FIZ

Key
aFZqbfnfZeehpZ[e^k^]blmkb[nmbhg
bIkZ\mb\Zeebfbm
cBmblk^\hff^g]^]maZmq(]blebfbm^]mh)'-.)T,.V':lZ\hgl^jn^g\^s(]blebfbm^]mhZfbgbfnfh_
)'1+)Zg]D mh)'*/1'

C5 Design for beam shear


C5.1 Requirement for shear reinforcement
B_o>]7oK]%\ma^gla^Zkk^bg_hk\^f^gmblk^jnbk^]
pa^k^
 o>] 6 O>] ([p]%_hkl^\mbhglpbmahnmla^Zkk^bg_hk\^f^gm!b'^'leZ[l"
 oK]%\ 6 la^Zkk^lblmZg\^pbmahnmla^Zkk^bg_hk\^f^gm%_khfMZ[e^</'

197
Table C6
Shear resistance without shear reinforcement, oRd,c (MPa)

rl = :sl/ Effective depth ] (mm)


[w]
G 200 225 250 275 300 350 400 450 500 600 750
©0.25% )'.- )'.+ )'.) )'-1 )'-0 )'-. )'-, )'-* )'-) )',1 )',/
0.50% )'.2 )'.0 )'./ )'.. )'.- )'.+ )'.* )'-2 )'-1 )'-0 )'-.
0.75% )'/1 )'// )'/- )'/, )'/+ )'.2 )'.1 )'./ )'.. )'., )'.*
1.00% )'0. )'0+ )'0* )'/2 )'/1 )'/. )'/- )'/+ )'/* )'.2 )'.0
1.25% )'1) )'01 )'0/ )'0- )'0, )'0* )'/2 )'/0 )'// )'/, )'/*
1.50% )'1. )'1, )'1* )'02 )'01 )'0. )'0, )'0* )'0) )'/0 )'/.
1.75% )'2) )'10 )'1. )'1, )'1+ )'02 )'00 )'0. )'0, )'0* )'/1
ª 2.00% )'2- )'2* )'12 )'10 )'1. )'1+ )'1) )'01 )'00 )'0- )'0*
Notes
1MZ[e^]^kbo^]_khf>nkh\h]^+Zg]NDGZmbhgZe:gg^q'
2MZ[e^\k^Zm^]_hk_\d6,)FIZZllnfbg`o^kmb\Zeebgdl'
3?hkr eª)'-Zg]
 _\d6+.FIZ%Ziier_Z\mhkh_)'2- _\d6-)FIZ%Ziier_Z\mhkh_*'*) _\d6.)FIZ%Ziier_Z\mhkh_*'*2
 _\d6,.FIZ%Ziier_Z\mhkh_*'). _\d6-.FIZ%Ziier_Z\mhkh_*'*- GhmZiieb\Z[e^_hk_\d7.)FIZ

C5.2 Section capacity check


B_o>]%s7oK]%fZqma^gl^\mbhglbs^blbgZ]^jnZm^
pa^k^
 o>]%s 6 O>] ([ps6O>] ([p)'2]%_hkl^\mbhglpbmala^Zkk^bg_hk\^f^gm
 oK]%fZq6 \ZiZ\bmrh_\hg\k^m^lmknml^qik^ll^]ZlZlmk^llbgma^o^kmb\ZeieZg^
  6 OK]%fZq ([ps
  6 OK]%fZq ([p)'2]
oK]%fZq\Zg[^]^m^kfbg^]_khfMZ[e^<0%bgbmbZeer\a^\dbg`Zm\hmy6+'.'Lahne]bm[^k^jnbk^]%
Z`k^Zm^kk^lblmZg\^fZr[^Zllnf^][rnlbg`ZeZk`^klmknmZg`e^%y'

Table C7
Capacity of concrete struts expressed as a stress, oRd,max

_ck oRd,max (MPa) Strength


reduction
cot y 2.50 2.14 1.73 1.43 1.19 1.00 factor, v
y 2.18° 25° 30° 35° 40° 45°
20 +'.- +'1+ ,'*2 ,'-/ ,'/+ ,'/1 )'..+
25 ,'*) ,'-. ,'2) -'+, -'-, -'.) )'.-)
30 ,'/- -')- -'.0 -'2/ .'+) .'+1 )'.+1
35 -'*. -'/* .'+* .'// .'2, /')+ )'.*/
40 -'/, .'*. .'1+ /',* /'/+ /'0+ )'.)-
45 .')2 .'/. /',2 /'2, 0'+0 0',1 )'-2+
50 .'.+ /'*, /'2, 0'.+ 0'11 1')) )'-1)
Notes
1MZ[e^]^kbo^]_khf>nkh\h]^+Zg]NDGZmbhgZe:gg^qZllnfbg`o^kmb\Zeebgdl%b'^'\hma6)
2v6)'/T*¾!_\d (+.)"V
3oK]%fZq6v_\]!\hmy$\hma"(!*$\hm+y"

198
:ii^g]bq<3=^lb`gZb]l

C5.3 Shear reinforcement design


:lp(lªo>]%s[p(_rp]\hmy
pa^k^
 :lp 6 Zk^Zh_la^Zkk^bg_hk\^f^gm!o^kmb\ZeebgdlZllnf^]"
 l 6 liZ\bg`h_la^Zkk^bg_hk\^f^gm
 o>]%s6 O>] ([ps%Zl[^_hk^
 [p 6 [k^Z]mah_ma^p^[
 _rp] 6 _rpd (gL6]^lb`grb^e]lmk^g`mah_la^Zkk^bg_hk\^f^gm
@^g^kZeer:lp(lªo>]%s[p(*)10
pa^k^_rpd6.))FIZ%gL6*'*.Zg]\hmy6+'.

:em^kgZmbo^er% :lp(l i^k f^mk^ pb]ma h_ [p fZr [^ ]^m^kfbg^] _khf ?b`nk^ <*Z" hk <*[" Zl
bg]b\Zm^] [r ma^ [en^ Zkkhpl bg ?b`nk^<*Z"'Ma^l^ _b`nk^l fZr Zelh [^ nl^] mh ^lmbfZm^ ma^
oZen^h_\hmy'

;^ZflZk^ln[c^\mmhZfbgbfnfla^Zkebgdikhoblbhg':llnfbg`o^kmb\Zeebgdl%
:lp%fbg (l[pª)')1_\d)'.(_rd!l^^MZ[e^<1"'

Table C8
Values of :sw,min/l[w for beams for vertical links and _yk = 500 MPa and compatible resistance, oRd

Concrete class C20/25 C25/30 C30/37 C35/45 C40/50 C45/55 C50/60


Asw,min/sbw for beams (x 103) )'0+ )'1) )'11 )'2. *')* *')0 *'*,
vRd for Asw,min /sbw (MPa) )'01 )'10 )'2. *'), *'*) *'*0 *'+,

vRd,max for cot y = 2.5 2.14 1.73 1.43


8.0
1.19
C50/60
C45/55
7.0
fywk = 500 MPa C40/50
1.00
C35/45
6.0
C30/37
5.0
C25/30
vEd,z (MPa)

4.0
C20/25
See Fig. C1b)

3.0

2.0

1.0

0.0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
Asw/s required per metre width of bw

Figure C1a)
Diagram to determine :sw/l required (for beams with high shear stress)

199
4.0
C30/37

0
fywk = 500 MPa C25/3

3.0 C20/25
vEd,z (MPa)

2.0
Range of vRd,c for range
d = 200 mm, r = 2.0%
to d = 750 mm, r = 0.5% C20/25
C25/30
1.0 C30/37
C35/45
Asw,min/s
C40/50
for beams
C45/55
C50/60

0.0
0 1 2 3 4
Asw/s required per metre width of bw

Figure C1b)
Diagram to determine :sw/l required (for slabs and beams with low shear stress)

C6 Design for punching shear


=^m^kfbg^ b_ ing\abg` la^Zk k^bg_hk\^f^gm bl k^jnbk^]% bgbmbZeer Zm n*% ma^g b_ g^\^llZkr Zm
ln[l^jn^gmi^kbf^m^kl%nb'B_o>]7oK]%\ma^ging\abg`la^Zkk^bg_hk\^f^gmblk^jnbk^]
pa^k^
 o>] 6 bO>] (nb]
 pa^k^
b 6 _Z\mhk]^Zebg`pbma^\\^gmkb\bmr
 O>] 6 Ziieb^]la^Zk_hk\^
 nb 6 e^g`mah_ma^i^kbf^m^kng]^k\hglb]^kZmbhg
 ] 6 f^Zg^__^\mbo^]^ima
 oK]%\ 6 la^Zkk^lblmZg\^pbmahnmla^Zkk^bg_hk\^f^gm!l^^MZ[e^</"

?hko^kmb\Zela^Zkk^bg_hk\^f^gm
!:lp(lk"6 n*!o>]¾)'0.oK]%\"(!*'._rp]%^_"
pa^k^
 :lp 6 Zk^Zh_la^Zkk^bg_hk\^f^gmbghg^i^kbf^m^kZkhng]ma^\henfg'
?hk:lp%fbgl^^<hg\bl^>nkh\h]^+%L^\mbhg*)'-'+Zg]_hkeZrhnml^^L^\mbhg*+'-',
 lk 6 kZ]bZeliZ\bg`h_i^kbf^m^klh_la^Zkk^bg_hk\^f^gm
  n* 6 [Zlb\\hgmkhei^kbf^m^k+]_khf\henfg_Z\^
Concise: 10.4.2,
12.4.3  _rp]%^_ 6 ^__^\mbo^]^lb`glmk^g`mah_k^bg_hk\^f^gm6!+.)$)'+.]"©_rp]'?hk@kZ]^
.))la^Zkk^bg_hk\^f^gml^^MZ[e^<2
Table C9
Values of _ywd,ef for grade 500 reinforcement

] 150 200 250 300 350 400 450


fywd,ef +10'. ,)) ,*+'. ,+. ,,0'. ,.) ,/+'.

:mma^\henfgi^kbf^m^k%\a^\do>]≤OK]fZq_hk\hmy6*')`bo^gbgMZ[e^<0'

200
:ii^g]bq<3=^lb`gZb]l

C7 Check deflection
Bg `^g^kZe% ma^ LEL lmZm^ h_ ]^_e^\mbhg fZr [^ \a^\d^] [r nlbg` ma^ liZg&mh&^__^\mbo^&]^ima
ZiikhZ\a'Fhk^\kbmb\ZeZiikZblZeh_]^_hkfZmbhgblhnmlb]^ma^l\hi^h_mablin[eb\Zmbhg'Mhnl^
ma^liZg&mh&^__^\mbo^&]^imaZiikhZ\a%o^kb_rmaZm3

:eehpZ[e^e(]6GqDq?*q?+q?,ªZ\mnZee(]
pa^k^
 G 6 [Zlb\liZg&mh&^__^\mbo^&]^imakZmbh]^kbo^]_hkD6*')Zg]r 6)_khfL^\mbhg*)'.'+
Concise: 10.5.2
h_<hg\bl^>nkh\h]^+hkMZ[e^<*)hk?b`nk^<+
 D 6 _Z\mhkmhZ\\hngm_hklmkn\mnkZelrlm^f'L^^MZ[e^<**
 ?*6 _Z\mhkmhZ\\hngm_hk_eZg`^]l^\mbhgl'Pa^g[^__ ([p6*')%_Z\mhk?*6*')'
Pa^g[^__([pbl`k^Zm^kmaZg,')%_Z\mhk?*6)'1)'
?hkoZen^lh_[^__ ([p[^mp^^g*')Zg],')%bgm^kiheZmbhgfZr[^nl^]!l^^MZ[e^<*+"
 pa^k^
 [^__bl]^_bg^]bgL^\mbhg.'+'+h_<hg\bl^>nkh\h]^+
 [p 6 pb]mah_p^[
Concise: 5.2.2
   BgB[^Zfl[p6fbgbfnfpb]mah_p^[bgm^glbe^Zk^Z'
   BgmZi^k^]p^[l[p6pb]mah_p^[Zm\^gmkhb]h_k^bg_hk\^f^gmbgp^['
 ?+6 _Z\mhkmhZ\\hngm_hk[kbmme^iZkmbmbhglbgZllh\bZmbhgpbmaehg`liZgl'@^g^kZeer?+
6*')[nmb_[kbmme^iZkmbmbhglZk^ebZ[e^mh[^]ZfZ`^][r^q\^llbo^]^_e^\mbhg%?+
lahne][^]^m^kfbg^]Zl_heehpl3
   Z"bg_eZmleZ[lbgpab\ama^ehg`^kliZgbl`k^Zm^kmaZg1'.f%?+61'.(e^__
   ["bg[^ZflZg]hma^kleZ[lpbmaliZglbg^q\^llh_0')f%?+60')(e^__
   OZen^lh_?+fZr[^mZd^g_khfMZ[e^<*,
 ?,6 _Z\mhkmhZ\\hngm_hkl^kob\^lmk^llbgm^glbe^k^bg_hk\^f^gm6,*)(sl©*'.
<hgl^koZmbo^er%b_Zl^kob\^lmk^ll%sl%h_,*)FIZblZllnf^]_hkma^]^lb`g^]Zk^Z
h_k^bg_hk\^f^gm%:l%k^jma^g?,6:l%ikho (:l%k^j©*'.'
 Fhk^Z\\nkZm^er%‡ma^l^kob\^Z[bebmrlmk^ll%sl%fZr[^^lmbfZm^]Zl_heehpl3
sl6_rd (gLT!@d$c+ Jd"(!*'+.@d$*'.Jd"VT:l%k^j (:l%ikhoV!*(d"
 hk
sl6slnT:l%k^j (:l%ikhoV!*(d"
 pa^k^
sln 6 ma^ ngfh]b_b^] LEL lm^^e lmk^ll% mZdbg` Z\\hngm h_ gF _hk
k^bg_hk\^f^gmZg]h_`hbg`_khfnembfZm^Z\mbhglmhl^kob\^Z[bebmr
Z\mbhgl
  6 .))(gL!@d$c+ Jd"(!*'+.@d$*'.Jd"
slnfZr[^^lmbfZm^]_khf?b`nk^<,Zlbg]b\Zm^][rma^[en^
Zkkhp
 :l%k^j (:l%ikho 6 Zk^Zh_lm^^ek^jnbk^]]bob]^][rZk^Zh_lm^^eikhob]^]'
 !*(d" 6 _Z\mhkmhÂng&k^]blmkb[nm^ÃNELfhf^gmllhma^rfZr[^nl^]bg
mablLELo^kb_b\Zmbhg!l^^MZ[e^<*-"
 :\mnZee(]6Z\mnZeliZg]bob]^][r^__^\mbo^]^ima%]'

‡L^^:ii^g]bq;*'.

201
Table C10
Table 7.4N Basic ratios of span-to-effective-depth, G, for members without axial compression
Required _ck
reinforcement, r
20 25 30 35 40 45 50
0.30% +.'2 ,+'+ ,2'+ -/'/ .-'/ /,') 0*'1
0.40% *2'* ++'- +/'+ ,)'- ,.') ,2'1 -.')
0.50% *0') *1'. +)'. +,') +.'1 +1'1 ,+')
0.60% */') *0', *1'. *2'1 +*', +,'* +.'+
0.70% *.', */'- *0'- *1'. *2'/ +)'/ +*'0
0.80% *-'1 *.'0 */'/ *0'/ *1'. *2'- +)'-
0.90% *-', *.'+ */') */'1 *0'0 *1'. *2',
1.00% *-') *-'1 *.'. */', *0') *0'1 *1'.
1.20% *,'. *-'* *-'1 *.'- */') */'/ *0',
1.40% *,'* *,'0 *-'+ *-'1 *.', *.'1 */'-
1.60% *+'2 *,', *,'1 *-', *-'1 *.'+ *.'0
1.80% *+'0 *,'* *,'. *,'2 *-', *-'1 *.'+
2.00% *+'. *+'2 *,', *,'/ *-') *-'- *-'1
2.50% *+'+ *+'. *+'1 *,'* *,'- *,'0 *-')
3.00% *+') *+', *+'. *+'1 *,') *,', *,'.
3.50% **'2 *+'* *+', *+'. *+'0 *+'2 *,'*
4.00% **'1 **'2 *+'* *+', *+'. *+'0 *+'2
4.50% **'0 **'1 *+') *+'+ *+', *+'. *+'0
5.00% **'/ **'1 **'2 *+'* *+'+ *+'- *+'.
Reference )'-. )'.) )'.. )'.2 )'/, )'/0 )'0*
reinforcement ratio,r0
Notes
1Pa^k^r6:l ([]'
2?hkM&l^\mbhglrblma^Zk^Zh_k^bg_hk\^f^gm]bob]^][rma^Zk^Zh_\hg\k^m^Z[ho^ma^\^gmkhb]h_
ma^m^glbhgk^bg_hk\^f^gm'
3Ma^oZen^l_hkliZg&mh&^__^\mbo^&]^imaaZo^[^^g[Zl^]hgMZ[e^0'-Gbg>nkh\h]^+%nlbg`D6*
!lbfierlniihkm^]"Zg]r 6)!gh\hfik^llbhgk^bg_hk\^f^gmk^jnbk^]"'
4Ma^liZg&mh&^__^\mbo^&]^imakZmbhlahne][^[Zl^]hgma^lahkm^kliZgbgmph&pZrliZggbg`leZ[lZg]
ma^ehg`^kliZgbg_eZmleZ[l'

32
Basic span-to-effective-depth ratio N (l/d)

30 fck = 50
fck = 45
28
fck = 40
26 fck = 35
24
fck = 30
22

20

18

16
fck = 25
14
fck = 20
12
0.40% 0.60% 0.80% 1.00% 1.20% 1.40% 1.60% 1.80% 2.00%
Design tension reinforcement (100As,req /bd)
Figure C2
Basic span-to-effective depth ratios, G, for D = 1, r' = 0
202 
:ii^g]bq<3=^lb`gZb]l

Table C11
D factors to be applied to basic ratios of span-to-effective-depth

Structural system D
Beams Slabs
Lbfierlniihkm^][^Zfl Hg^&hkmph&pZrliZggbg`lbfierlniihkm^]leZ[l *')
>g]liZgh_\hgmbgnhnl[^Zfl >g]liZgh_hg^&pZrliZggbg`\hgmbgnhnlleZ[l%hk *',
mph&pZrliZggbg`leZ[l\hgmbgnhnlho^khg^ehg`^]`^
Bgm^kbhkliZglh_\hgmbgnhnl[^Zfl Bgm^kbhkliZglh_\hgmbgnhnlleZ[l *'.
¿ ?eZmleZ[l![Zl^]hgehg`^kliZg" *'+
<Zgmbe^o^kl <Zgmbe^o^k )'-

Table C12
Factor F1, modifier for flanged beams

[eff/[w 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 ª3.0


Factor *')) )'2. )'2) )'1. )'1)


Table C13
Factor F2, modifier for long spans supporting brittle partitions

Span, m eeff © 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0 16.0
Flat slabs 8.5/eeff *')) *')) *')) *')) )'2- )'1. )'00 )'0* )'/. )'/* )'.0 )'.,
Beams and other slabs 7.0/eeff *')) )'2, )'11 )'1+ )'01 )'0) )'/- )'.1 )'.- )'.) )'-0 )'--

320

35
300 y2 = 0.8, gG = 1.
1.35
y 2 = 0.6, g G =
Unmodified steel stress ssu

280 1.25
gG=
0.6, = 1.35
y2= y2 = 0
.3, g G
260 .25
=1 .35
, g .25 , gG = 1
y 2 = 0.2
G
.3 =1
=0 g
y2 .2 , G
240 =0
y2

220

200

180
1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00
Ratio Gk/Qk

Figure C3
Determination of unmodified SLS, stress in reinforcement, ssu

203
Table C14
(1/d) factor to be applied to unmodified ssu to allow for redistribution used

Average redistribution used 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% –5% –10% –15% –20% –25% –30%

Redistribution ratio used, d 1.20 1.15 1.10 1.05 1.00 0.95 0.90 0.85 0.80 0.75 0.70

(1/d) 1, 10 2* 2. *)) *). *** **1 *+. *,, *-,
Notes
1 Pa^k^\h^__b\b^gml_khfMZ[e^<+aZo^[^^gnl^]bg]^lb`gZg]pa^k^Jd&*'+.@d%ma^\h^__b\b^gmlbgMZ[e^<+fZr[^\hglb]^k^]mh
k^ik^l^gmfhf^gm]blmkb[nmbhgh_3
¾1g^Zkfb]]e^h_^g]liZgpbmaibgg^]^g]lniihkm
¾++Zm_bklmbgm^kbhklniihkm%ZlZphklm\Zl^
$,g^Zkfb]]e^h_bgm^kgZeliZgl%ZlZphklm\Zl^
¾+1Zmbgm^kbhklniihkml%ZlZphklm\Zl^'
2 Pa^k^\h^__b\b^gml_khfMZ[e^<,aZo^[^^gnl^]bg]^lb`gZg]pa^k^Jd&@d%ma^\h^__b\b^gmlbgMZ[e^<,fZr[^\hglb]^k^]mhk^ik^l^gm
fhf^gmk^]blmkb[nmbhgh_3
$,g^Zkfb]]e^h_^g]liZgpbmaibgg^]^g]lniihkm%ZlZphklm\Zl^
$2g^Zkfb]]e^h_bgm^kgZeliZgl%ZlZphklm\Zl^
¾*.ZmZeebgm^kbhklniihkml'

C8 Control of cracking
<kZ\dbg` fZr [^ \hgmkhee^] [r k^lmkb\mbg` ^bma^k fZqbfnf [Zk ]bZf^m^k hk fZqbfnf [Zk
liZ\bg`mhma^k^e^oZgm]bZf^m^klZg]liZ\bg`l`bo^gbgMZ[e^<*.'Ma^ZiikhikbZm^LELlmk^llbg
k^bg_hk\^f^gm%sl%fZr[^]^m^kfbg^]Zlhnmebg^]_hk?,bgL^\mbhg<0'

FbgbfnfZk^ZlZg]Zli^\mlh_]^mZbebg`lahne][^\a^\d^]'

Table C15
Maximum bar diameters f or maximum bar spacing for crack control

Steel stress (MPa) ss Maximum bar size (mm) Maximum bar spacing (mm)
pk = 0.3 mm pk = 0.4 mm pk = 0.3 mm pk = 0.4 mm
160 ,+ -) ,)) ,))
200 +. ,+ +.) ,))
OR
240 */ +) +)) +.)
280 *+ */ *.) +))
320 *) *+ *)) *.)
360 1 *) .) *))
Notes
1Ma^ÂghkfZeÃebfbmh_)',fffZr[^k^eZq^]mh)'-ff_hkQHZg]Q<*^qihlnk^\eZll^lb_ma^k^bl
ghli^\b_b\k^jnbk^f^gm_hkZii^ZkZg\^'
2MZ[e^Zllnfimbhglbg\en]^\ghf6+.ffZg]_\m%^__!6_\mf"6+'2FIZ'


204
:ii^g]bq<3=^lb`gZb]l

C9 Design for axial load and bending


C9.1 General
Bg\henfgl%]^lb`gfhf^gmlF>]Zg]]^lb`gZiieb^]ZqbZe_hk\^G>]lahne][^]^kbo^]_khfZgZerlbl%
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!l^^>nkh\h]^+%<e'.'1','+Zg]>qik^llbhg!.'*.""'Ma^^__^\mbo^e^g`mah_fhlm\henfglpbee[^
e(+5e)5e!l^^>nkh\h]^+?b`nk^.'0_"'I=//10T/V<e'+'*)ln``^lmlmaZmnlbg`ma^ikh\^]nk^
hnmebg^] bg >nkh\h]^ + !.'1','+!," Zg] .'1','+!."" e^Z]l mh lbfbeZk ^__^\mbo^ e^g`mal mh mahl^
mZ[neZm^] bg ;L 1**)T0V Zl k^ikh]n\^] [^ehp ZlMZ[e^ <*/' >qi^kb^g\^ ln``^lml maZm ma^l^
mZ[neZm^]oZen^lZk^\hgl^koZmbo^'

Table C16
Effective length e0: conservative factors for braced columns

End condition End condition at bottom


at top 1 2 3
1 )'0. )'1) )'2)
2 )'1) )'1. )'2.
3 )'2) )'2. *'))
Key
<hg]bmbhg* <
 henfg\hgg^\m^]fhghebmab\Zeermh[^Zflhg^Z\alb]^maZmZk^Zme^ZlmZl]^^iZlma^
ho^kZee]^imah_ma^\henfgbgma^ieZg^\hglb]^k^]
 Pa^k^ma^\henfgbl\hgg^\m^]mhZ_hng]Zmbhgmabllahne][^]^lb`g^]mh\Zkkrfhf^gm
bghk]^kmhlZmbl_rmabl\hg]bmbhg
<hg]bmbhg+ <
 henfg\hgg^\m^]fhghebmab\Zeermh[^Zflhg^Z\alb]^maZmZk^laZeehp^kmaZgma^
ho^kZee]^imah_ma^\henfgbgma^ieZg^\hglb]^k^][r`^g^kZeerghme^llmaZgaZe_ma^
\henfg]^ima
<hg]bmbhg, <
 henfg\hgg^\m^]mhf^f[^klmaZm]hghmikhob]^fhk^maZgghfbgZek^lmkZbgmmh
khmZmbhg
Note
MZ[e^mZd^g_khfFZgnZe_hkma^]^lb`gh_\hg\k^m^[nbe]bg`lmkn\mnk^lmh>nkh\h]^+T,.V'Ma^oZen^lZk^
mahl^nl^]bg;L1**)3IZkm*3*220T0V_hk[kZ\^]\henfgl'Ma^l^oZen^lZk^\ehl^mhmahl^oZen^lmaZm
phne][^]^kbo^]b_ma^\hgmkb[nmbhg_khfZ]cZ\^gm\henfglp^k^b`ghk^]'

C9.2 Design by calculation


:llnfbg`mpheZr^klh_k^bg_hk\^f^gm%:l*Zg]:l+%ma^mhmZeZk^Zh_lm^^ek^jnbk^]bgZ\henfg%
:l%fZr[^\Ze\neZm^]Zllahpg[^ehp'

N ?hkZqbZeehZ]
:lG(+6!G>]¾a\\n_\d[]\ (g<"(!sl\¾slm"
pa^k^
 :lG6mhmZeZk^Zh_k^bg_hk\^f^gmk^jnbk^]mhk^lblmZqbZeehZ]nlbg`mablf^mah]'
:lG6:l*$:l+Zg]:l*6:l+
 pa^k^
 :l*!:l+"6 Zk^Zh_k^bg_hk\^f^gmbgeZr^k*!eZr^k+"
 G>] 6 ]^lb`gZiieb^]ZqbZe_hk\^ Concise:
a\\ 6 )'1. Fig. 6.3
n 6 *_hk©<.)(/)
 [ 6 [k^Z]mah_l^\mbhg
 ]\ 6 ^__^\mbo^]^imah_\hg\k^m^bg\hfik^llbhg6lq©a Concise:
Fig. 6.4

205
 pa^k^
l 6 )'1_hk©<.)(/)
 q 6 ]^imamhg^nmkZeZqbl
 a 6 a^b`amh_l^\mbhg
sl\%!slm" 6 lmk^llbg\hfik^llbhg!Zg]m^glbhg"k^bg_hk\^f^gm

N ?hkfhf^gm
:lF(+6TF>]¾a\\n_\d[]\!a(+¾]\ (+"(g<V(T!a(+¾]+"!sl\$slm"V
pa^k^
 :lF 6 m hmZeZk^Zh_k^bg_hk\^f^gmk^jnbk^]mhk^lblmfhf^gmnlbg`mablf^mah]
:lF6:l*$:l+Zg]:l*6:l+

Pa^k^k^bg_hk\^f^gmblghm\hg\^gmkZm^]bgma^\hkg^kl%Z\hgl^koZmbo^ZiikhZ\ablmh\Ze\neZm^
Zg^__^\mbo^oZen^h_]+ZlbeenlmkZm^]bg?b`nk^l<-Z"mh^"'

N Lhenmbhg3bm^kZm^qln\amaZm:lG6:lF

C9.3 Rectangular column charts


:em^kgZmbo^er:lfZr[^^lmbfZm^]_khf\henfg\aZkml'

?b`nk^l<-Z"mh<-^"`bo^ghg&]bf^glbhgZe]^lb`g\aZkml_hklrff^mkb\Zeerk^bg_hk\^]k^\mZg`neZk
\henfglpa^k^k^bg_hk\^f^gmblZllnf^]mh[^\hg\^gmkZm^]bgma^\hkg^kl'

Bgma^l^\aZkml3
a\\ 6 )'1.
_\d © .)FIZ
_rd © .))FIZ
Lbfieb_b^]lmk^ll[eh\dZllnf^]'

:l 6 mhmZeZk^Zh_k^bg_hk\^f^gmk^jnbk^]
 6 !:l _rd ([a_\d"[a_\d (_rd
pa^k^
 !:l _rd ([a_\d"bl]^kbo^]_khfma^ZiikhikbZm^]^lb`g\aZkmbgm^kiheZmbg`Zlg^\^llZkr
[^mp^^g\aZkml_hkma^oZen^h_]+(a_hkma^l^\mbhg'
[6[k^Z]mah_l^\mbhg
a6a^b`amh_l^\mbhg

Pa^k^k^bg_hk\^f^gmblghm\hg\^gmkZm^]bgma^\hkg^kl%Z\hgl^koZmbo^ZiikhZ\ablmh\Ze\neZm^
Zg^__^\mbo^oZen^h_]+ZlbeenlmkZm^]bg?b`nk^l<-Z"mh^"'
]+ 6 ^__^\mbo^]^imamhlm^^ebgeZr^k+

206
:ii^g]bq<3=^lb`gZb]l

1.3
Kr = 0.2
d 2 /h = 0.05
1.2

c k
hf
0.3

k /b
1.1 h/2

fy
h

s
A
1.0 0.4
1.0
0.9 d2
0.9 0.8
0.5 Centroid of bars in
0.7 half section
0.8 0.6
0.5 0.6
NEd/bhfck

0.7 0.4
0.3 0.7
0.6 0.2
0.5 0.1
0 0.8
0.4
0.9
0.3
1.0
0.2

0.1

0
0 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45
MEd/bh2fck

Figure C4a)
Rectangular columns ]2/a = 0.05

1.3
Kr = 0.2
d 2 /h = 0.10
1.2
ck

0.3
hf
k /b

h/2
1.1
fy
s
A

h
1.0 0.4
1.0
0.9 d2
0.9 0.8
0.7 0.5 Centroid of bars in
half section
0.8 0.6
0.5
NEd/bhfck

0.6
0.7 0.4
0.3 0.7
0.6 0.2
0.1
0.5
0 0.8
0.4
0.9
0.3
Kr = 1
0.2

0.1

0
0 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45
MEd/bh2fck

Figure C4b)
Rectangular columns ]2/a = 0.10

207
1.3
Kt = 0.2
d 2 /h = 0.15
1.2

k
0.3

c
hf
h/2

k /b
1.1

fy
h

s
A
1.0 1.0
0.4 d2
0.9
0.9 0.8 Centroid of bars in
0.5
0.7 half section
0.8 0.6
0.5 0.6
NEd/bhfck

0.7
0.4
0.3
0.6 0.7
0.2
0.1
0.5
0 0.8
0.4
0.9
0.3
Kr = 1
0.2

0.1

0
0 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40
MEd/bh2fck

Figure C4c)
Rectangular columns ]2/a = 0.15

1.3
Kr = 0.2
d 2 /h = 0.20
1.2
ck
hf

0.3 h/2
k /b

1.1
fy

h
s
A

1.0 1.0
0.4 d2
0.9
0.9 Centroid of bars in
0.8
0.7 0.5 half section
0.8
0.6
NEd/bhfck

0.5 0.6
0.7
0.4
0.6 0.3
0.2 0.7
0.5 0.1
0 0.8
0.4

0.3 0.9

0.2
Kr = 1
0.1

0
0 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35
MEd/bh2fck

Figure C4d)
Rectangular columns ]2/a = 0.20

208
:ii^g]bq<3=^lb`gZb]l

1.3
Kr = 0.2 d 2 /h = 0.25
1.2

c k
hf
0.3 h/2

k /b
1.1

fy
h

s
A
1.0 1.0 d2
0.9 0.4
0.9 Centroid of bars in
0.8
half section
0.7
0.8
0.6 0.5
NEd/bhfck

0.7 0.5
0.4
0.6
0.6 0.3
0.2
0.5 0.1
0.7
0
0.4
0.8
0.3
0.9
0.2

0.1
Kr = 1
0
0 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30
MEd/bh2fck

Figure C4e)
Rectangular columns ]2/a = 0.25

C9.4 Biaxial bending in rectangular columns


:lZ_bklmlm^i%l^iZkZm^]^lb`gbg^Z\aikbg\biZe]bk^\mbhg%]blk^`Zk]bg`[bZqbZe[^g]bg`%fZr[^
Concise: 5.6.3
ng]^kmZd^g'Gh_nkma^k\a^\dblg^\^llZkrb_)'.©l r (l s©+')Zg]%_hkk^\mZg`neZkl^\mbhgl%)'+
ª!^r(a^j"(!^s ([^j"hk!^r(a^j"(!^s ([^j"ª.')'Hma^kpbl^l^^L^\mbhg.'/',h_<hg\bl^>nkh\h]^+'

?hkljnZk^\henfgl!^r (a^j "(!^s ([^j"6F>]r(F>]s'

C9.5 Circular column charts


BgZlbfbeZkfZgg^kmh<2',%ma^Zk^Zh_k^bg_hk\^f^gm_hk\bk\neZk\henfgl:lfZr[^^lmbfZm^]
_khfma^\aZkmlbg?b`nk^l<.Z"mh<.]"'
Bgma^l^\aZkml3
a\\6 )'1.
_\d © .)FIZ
_rd 6 .))FIZ
:l 6 mhmZeZk^Zh_k^bg_hk\^f^gmk^jnbk^]
 6 !: l _ rd (a +_ \d"a +_ \d (_ rd
 pa^k^!:l _rd (a+_\d"bl]^kbo^]_khfma^ZiikhikbZm^]^lb`g\aZkmbgm^kiheZmbg`Zlg^\^llZkr'
](a6 ^__^\mbo^]^ima(ho^kZee]bZf^m^k'

C9.6 Links
Ebgdl bg \henfgl lahne] [^ Zm e^Zlm 1 ff hk fZqbfnf ]bZf^m^k h_ ehg`bmn]bgZe [Zkl(- bg
]bZf^m^kZg]Z]cZ\^gmmh[^ZflZg]leZ[lliZ\^]Zmma^e^Zlmh_3
N *+mbf^lma^fbgbfnf]bZf^m^kh_ma^ehg`bmn]bgZe[Zk%
N /)h_ma^e^ll^k]bf^glbhgh_ma^\henfg%hk
N +-)ff'
209
1.2

k
fc
k /h 2
Ratio d/h = 0.6
0.2
1.1

fy
s
A
1.0 d
0.3 h
1.0 0.9
0.8 0.4
0.9
0.7
0.8 0.5
0.6
0.7 0.5
0.6
NEd /h2fck

0.4
0.6 0.3 0.7
0.2
0.5
0.1 0.8
0.4 0

0.3 0.9

0.2 Kr =1

0.1

0
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07
MEd /h3fck

Figure C5a)
Circular columns ]/a = 0.6

1.2
k
fc

Ratio d/h = 0.7


k /h 2

0.2
1.1
fy s
A

d
1.0 h
1.0
0.3
0.9
0.9 0.8
0.4
0.7
0.8
0.6
0.7 0.5
NEd /h2fck

0.5
0.4
0.6
0.3
0.6
0.5 0.2
0.1
0.7
0.4 0

0.3
0.8
0.2
Kr =1
0.1

0
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.12
MEd /h3fck

Figure C5b)
Circular columns ]/a = 0.7
210
:ii^g]bq<3=^lb`gZb]l

1.2

k
c
k h f
Ratio d/h = 0.8

s y / 2
0.2
1.1

Af
d
1.0 0.3 h
1.0
0.9
0.9 0.8
0.4
0.7
0.8
0.6
0.5
0.7 0.5
0.4
NEd /h2fck

0.6 0.3 0.6

0.5 0.2
0.1 0.7
0.4 0
0.8
0.3

0.2 0.9

0.1
Kr =1
0
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.20
MEd /h3fck

Figure C5c)
Circular columns ]/a = 0.8

1.2
ck
f
s y /h 2

0.2 Ratio d/h = 0.9


1.1
k
Af

1.0 0.3 d h
1.0
0.9
0.9 0.8 0.4
0.7
0.8
0.6
0.5
0.7 0.5
0.4
NEd /h2fck

0.6 0.6
0.3
0.5 0.2
0.1 0.7
0.4 0
0.8
0.3

0.2 0.9

0.1 Kr =1

0
0 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30
MEd /h3fck

Figure C5d)
Circular columns ]/a = 0.9

211
Eurocode 2 resources
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Concise Eurocode 2
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How to design concrete structures using Eurocode 2


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Economic concrete frame elements to Eurocode 2


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Precast Eurocode 2: Design manual


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Precast Eurocode 2: Worked examples


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Concrete buildings scheme design manual


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Properties of concrete for use in Eurocode 2


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Manual for the design of concrete building structures to Eurocode 2


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BS EN 1992-1-1, Eurocode 2 – Part 1-1: Design of concrete structures –


General rules and rules for buildings
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National Annex to Eurocode 2 – Part 1-1
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Software
RC spreadsheets: V3. User guide and CD
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Websites
Eurocode 2 – www.eurocode2.info
Eurocodes Expert – www.eurocodes.co.uk
The Concrete Centre – www.concretecentre.com
Institution of Structural Engineers – www.istructe.org
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