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_ Three-Phase oom ss . Here is a stepwise procedure for designing fact, liquid/iquid/vapor ation a separators. you . | | awit ion and simu WRC scan i veans. | over | ctied | vost. | wions | ration | 3223.) Wayne D. Monnary and Wiliam Wein | an ADM. | aaiyss Univers of Calgary now! Tak 316 | Separators == BIBLIOTECA TECNICA ON Lis often necessary to separate 160 immiscible liquids, the light and heavy phases, and a vapor. A typi cal example in petroleum refinin is the separation of water, and a hydro- carbon liquid and vapor, Little has been published on three-phase dig vidiliquid/vapor) separation, with most information available only in corporate design files. This article attempts 10 alleviate this situation by covering the basics of three-phase se arator design, The authors provide Step-by-Step procedure and worked” out examples. Further, the examples offer guidance on making assumptions for the calculations. Selecting three-phase separators ‘AS with two-phase designs, three phase units can be either vertical or hor izomal, although they typically are hori- zontal (see Figures | and 2), The vert cal oriemtation, Figure 1, is only used if there is a large amount oF vapor 10 be separated from a small amount of the Tight and heavy liquid (< 10-20% by weight). Unfortunately. ules for separator selection cs, both configurations should be evaluated to decide which is: more economical. Burther, the He plot space (Footprint) may be a factor The design of three-phase separators is similar to their wo-phase counter parts, except that the liquid section dif- fers, For the vertical ype, a baffle com- monty keeps the liquid separation there are no PURE el] - Successfully Specify PETROX 8.4, IA DE PETROLEO | 19 EWE, 1995 section calm t9 promote the separation, There are different variations of hor ional three-phase vapor-liquid separ tors. The liquid separation seotion is usually a variation of a device o provide interface level contol, which may include a boot or a weit. A boot typical ly is specified when the volume of heavy Fiquid is not substantial (< 15-20% of total Liquid by weight), while a weir is used when the volume is. substantial These horizontal separators are illustra ed in Figure 2. The buckevand-weir ype design is used when interface level control may be difficult, such as with heavy oils oF shen large amounts of an emulsion or a paralfin are present (1), Stokes’ law applies Separating a vapor from a light liquid (uwo-phase separation) h been covered ina previous artiele (2) and sill not be discussed hore. However. all necessary information for performing this pan of the calculation is provided here. The fol: lowin discussion cov the separation of light and heavy liquids, The flow of rising light droplets in the heavy liquid phase of settling hewwy roplets in the light liquid phase is con: sidered laminar and is governed by Stokes” law 14889, Di(p4~ Pd) TB where LA88 converts viscosity of the ‘CHENNCAL ENGINEERING PROGRESS © SEPTEMBER 1986 © 29 mutt ASE FLOW | onto Feed rome Maximum hiquid level ol Heavy Fiquid ndeate WM Figure f. Vertical three-phase. vapor loadings continuous phase trom Ibi f}(s} to cP, Simplifying Eq. 1 and convening the units of the terminal settli velocity 10 in.fmin from fs results in: , _ 2.06151 x 10° DP Pad Ups ae ey where Dy is in mievons (1 micron HUB % 10 Feet) and Ui inJinin Eq. 2 may be rewritten as: u, =k a Po) a where k= 2.06151 x 10°°Dp Values of ke are tems in Table 1 From Eqs, 1-3, it can be seen that the settling velocity of a droplet is inversely proportional w the viscosi- ty af the continuous pl ven for some sys: .e. Henee. it Baffle to provide is more ait te the. droplets fut of the contin | cous pase with Tower, Prat speaking. Uy i typically Timid In ealculations to.10 ia.min For veniesl sep- arators the diame ter required for | cult (requires calming zone is | vapor disengage: iiwerface | recommended ment is calculated neavytiguid | __ Section AA as in ove previous mM article (2). In siz~ ingo sear heights of the light WV. and heavy hquids are assumed, and the settling veloc ties and settling cparaiors are wed ete limes are then calculated ‘The residence times of the light and heavy liquids are determined next. For the liquids to separate, the residence time of the light liquid must be ereter than the time required for the heavy droplets to settle out of the High figuid phase; and the residence time of the heavy liguid must be greater than the time requized for the light liquid droplets to rise out of the heavy Tiguis, phase. I these conditions are nt sts fied, then liquid separation is €on- wolling and. the vessel diameter must be increased Holdup time for tigi Phase liquids must_be added to residence Fyéroeaons time The height SSS60F< of the verical yaar three-phase sepa- Methylethyketone rator is calculated s#e-Bun¥ sesh Motyeobaty ketone None icoho! in the same ma nner ay forthe two: phase case: 30 + SEPTEMBER 199¢ * CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PROGRESS Table 1. Typical values of k, for Tete For horizontal separators with given diameter the heights of the ight, fand heavy liquids are assumed so thet the cross-sectional area can. be caleu- Jated, With the vapor disengagement area set by guidelines. the lengths required by holdup requirements and “apoiiliquid separation are calculated. Then, with the assumed heights of the light and heavy liguids and calculated values of settin ling times are calculated. ‘The actual residence times for the fight and heavy liguids are subse quently calculated and compared with the required seitling mes. as in the vertical case. If the residence times are not grester than the required set ting times. then either the diameter should be inereased or, for a given diameter, the length should be increased (liquid separation is con- trolling). Inthe subsequent design procedures, the latter approach 1s used, along with the procedures dis: cussed in our previous paper for vvaporiliquid separation (2) ‘The following design procedures and heuristics are a result of 3 review of iteratuee sources and accepted industrial design guidelines. Horizontal design procedures are pre- sented for the four separator types shown in Figure 2. The horizontal Gesign procedures. incorporste opti mizing the diameter and Iength by minimizing the approximate weight cof the shell and heads. To add a degree ‘of conservatism to the design, the vol tume available in the heads is ignored velocities. the set Honey Phase Waterr caustic 127 osm Water caustic 88 a8 Futur 88 016s Warer cS or Wate B® ed Ware = O18 Wiser 8 a8 | ith the set ter be ais for ned pre pes otal ‘etl by ight ‘ol ced 1 18s 1 terface comtal 3 interface coival with weir Feed Vopor Feed Vapor inet outst ‘nit utet | aie —Puk WF wi Sy + = 7 (I, \menel broad \ J Min eo . i wee | mint \ bf a Cs. (=| iitscupsuge NT {7 [Gotetauie ae tt {Tiana awl \ a sal 7 et Heavy Heavy out tad olde —_ ay “inh Ly | Min. Bin | 2.Imtertace control with boot 4. Bucket and wet | Feed Vapor Fees inet INF 7 tin ony /\7 x] may 1 Mian \ f . 1 | 2 | ones ® < |) Ughrigidhroldunuge | ML | _| i souptiqad” 060] leans, Light eee Ct 7 Interface |. Hesey Wd | T te | Heavy liquid . ar Note: N=12 dye 6 i hy Nosle ca i Figure 2. Basie designs of horizontal three-phase separators. ' : 5, Similarly, calculate the rising Vertical design procedure oy Y#losity of the High liguid ut ofthe Refer to Figure | for dimensions: 1. Calculate the vertical terminal vapor velocity Br Calculate the K value, using one of the methods in Table 2 and set Uy 0.75U, for a conservative design, 2. Calculate the vapor volumetric flow rate Ww, 2e= F605, 3 Catoulate the vessel internal diameter Dg 3 If there is a mist eliminator, add 2-6 in. t0 Dyy to accommodate a support sing and round up to the next 6-in Jnerement t0 obtain Ds if there is. no sist eliminator, D = D, 4, Calculate the setting velocity of the heavy liquid out of the light liquid using Stokes law tthe maximum is 10 in Jasin = Pu ne PE wheres obtained from Table ors caleuated (sce Eq. 3) hea Iiquid phase using Stokes" law = ks(Pa- Pd a 6, Calculate the Hight and liquid volumetic low rates, Qa, and ine (8) Ou = Hie 0 . Pp. _ Mn On ate oy 7. Assume H, = 1 tt (minimum) and calculate the sewing time for the CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PROGRESS = SEPTEMBER 1054 © 31 MULTIPHASE FLOW For compressor auction scuBbeix | expander inet saparators, reply by BFR Cpe eel y= BAN 22K O27os = 1.855 108 + 5201 x 10 onfoeettne ») oe where O, ete: micron = 3.2088 108K heavy liquid droplets zo setie through this distance (12 isa conversion factor for fut0 in.) la ap 8. Assume Hf = 1 ft (oinimam) and calculate the seitling time for the light fiquid droplets to rise through this distance on rr Un a oe a, Caleutate (P, - Py) bh, Assume H, (use 9 in, a8 a mini- rum) and calculate H, + Hy ¢. Use Figure 3 10 obtain’ G. 4. Calculate A, See Eq. (13) in the box, fe, Assume W = 4 in F. Calculate W,/D. Equation 3 Equation EF Q Equation €2 Equation F3 g. Use Table 3 to dete 1, Caleulate A= (WA) Cateulate A, ine Ay fA |. Select the larger value of Ay, . Calculate the area of the bale plate = settling area for the light liq uid Ap =A ~ A, 10. Calculate the residence time ‘of each phase based on the volumes ‘occupied by the Tight and. heavy phases: HA 6, = AL (4a) Qu Hy Qu the dingteter and repeat te procedure Step 7 liguid separation is con- Note that = 4 The Caleulste the height of the Hiphe liguidatese the outlet theldup «adby 32 + SEPTEMBER ca4 + CHENUCAL ENGINEERING PROGRESS i. (ste) 7 | ___415,000 Ibvb 3,600 sh x 0.6973 Ib Ou= 16,5000 Ib/h + 60 min/h x 53.95 Ib/ft Equation B4 } Om = 13001 #60 minh x 62.11 IW/AC ce | h 0, =0313y/ BGO = 2.74 tus 0.6973 65.32 fels 0.35 ft'/min height) based on the required holdup «sy Check this value with that assumed in Step 9b to ensure that the assumed value is reasonable, IP surge is not specified, calculate the surge height based on surge time 169 The minitnum is 6 in. 12, Calculate the vessel height using the guidelines H, = 6 in. minimum. Hy = sd, + greater of (2 flor df, +05h. H,= OSD or a minimum of 36 in. + Mody (without mist eliminate). oF 2A in. + bal, (ith mis eliminatory «sy med med not sight U8) seight ory mist nator) Dore recrn i ne coat ae ee ee raw = -4.755900'e 105 924001 174875 4 = 6.358805 = 5.668973 Joanna sist het 01708 F2-0.145388 WA, 0 HD vem yn Ady 2 = 0.033756 2787101 20201 we 2asasie Hy = Hye Hy + Hye Hit Hye an Hy If a mist eliminator pad is used. additional height is added as shown in Figure | Example 1 Size a veitical separator witha baf= fle plate and ssire-mesh mist elimi tor 10 separate the mixture given in Table 4. The operating pressure is 165, psia. and st is mecessary to have a hydrocatbon figaid holdup time of 25 min and a surge time of only $ min 1, Calculate the vertical terminal velocity. Using Table 2. calewlate K using the York Demister equations see Eq, El in the box and U;= 0.78 x 2.74 05 fus a0 -— in ain % 10000 win : nin & san z a i, 2 aco} ig zoo |L- High quid evel above inertace | i a aes, PL-Pye Ii Table 4. Data for Example 1 Figure 3. G is found from the downcomer allowable flow the time for the liquid to oe ‘aess Hea Five out of the ews liquid Hyteocsrbon Gas |W, = 45000 p=06n | — a Hydrocarbon bqud |W, = 500 p88 | oOo 190.0) Water Wg = 1300 926211 | i't4=6.9 min 2. Calculate the vapor volumetric Flow rate, see Fg. E2 in the box 3. Caleutate the vessel inner diam eter. see Fy. F3 in Use D= 105 1 4. Calculate the settling velocity of the Kieayy Tiquid owt of the fight Tiguid phase. Using Table 1, k, = 0.163 Then: Uyy = 0.16662, [1 — $3.95 0.630 2.1 inJenin 8, Calculate the settling velocity of the light fiquid out oft phase: Up, = OVONELAL ~ $3.95 10.76 infin 6 heaty Fiquid levlate the light andi heavy Jiquiel volumeiric Row rates. see Ey 4 and ES in the box 7. Assume H, = 1 ft and calculate the time for the heavy figu font ofthe light liquid phase: fy = 1210.0) 2.11 = 87 min B.Assume Hy = | ftand calculate Calculate the baffle plate area: p, — Py = 5395 ~ 0.4973 = $2.25 vn + Assume H, in. H, +H, in, Using Figute 3, G = 9,800 ophitt 4p = (748 pal/MM6O minihy (5.30 +035 4f09V9,800 sphe? = 0.25 1 + Assume 1, = in W,/D = 412 x 10, 1 = 0.0317 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PROGRESS © SEPTEMBER 1994 © 33 MULTIPHASE FLOW + Using Table 3. A,/4 = 0.0095: A= (405 fly = 86.59 Te ‘Ay = (0.0095) (86,59 FE) = 0,82 fe + Use Ay = 0.82 1 A, = 86.59 0.82 = 85.77 fF 40, Calculate the residence time of cach phase / ENG 8, = (1.0 #0 685.77 5.10 | 2 Feed t ctor drum af tongs fe/min = 16.8 min "2 With puro through oxchengar Gy. = (1.0 £9 (86.59 FEYO3S ‘Without pump femin = 247.4 min ‘3 Food fred hester AL. Calculate the height ofthe li ©, Reflux or product sccumitoy liquid above the outlet, based on j 1 Rotax oy holdup: 2 Rat ond product Hg = (5.10 lenin) (25 miny85.77 [Based om ax 3 nin plus eppropriate holdup ine of overhead fesist product (as por 8 1-3) Hy = (5.10 + O.35MEmin) S . Colume booms sminy/86 59 #2 = 0.81 fe 4. Food snother column 5 2 Use Hy =05 tt : 2. Feed anher deum of tankage 12, Calculate dy according 2) With pug oF through exchanger 5 2 Table 3 'b) Without pump e 2 1 QMO, + Od = 5.10 + jrapahadeled ae ie - 0.35)(5.1D + 0.35 + 165.32 x 60) = {ased on rebar vapor expressed a quid (8 min} plus appropriate holdup tine for do bot procucwas pec D 1,2) 0.0006 Use Eq. B6 (see box) to calculate Compressor suctonintrstage scrubber Py min betwean ALL high Kaud alarm) an hgh evel shutdown uy = ppt pl — 2) = (54.55) ‘min fom totom tangent ne high quid alan ne eee = conan F.Fual gat krookout rum 204 sug nha incoming Wel gas ine Between NLL and high level shutdown + 15.10 + 0.3560 = 16ST 1%. c Eq, E7 (see box) to calcutate dy 20 ins use dy = 24 in Hp = 0.5 (105) =5.25 flor 24 + 242 = Hin. = 3.0 6, Fare Knockout drum a into HLL ‘Mutply by the falling actos lptonal: Personnel Factor Instrumentation Factor Eipanenced 10 Web intammented 10 5, From Figure 1. Hy fand s =0.5 ft Calculate Mo Taine 12 Standardtnstumenied 12 Hee OOM +2R=3N Inovporianced 15, Poorly insrumented 15 Set Hy = 0.5 ft. Final dimensions: LOS fe Hy = 1.0 ft Hy = 1.0 fh 15 fH, = 05 11, Hyy = 3.0 6 5 Add 1.5 ft for the mist 16.500 1,300 : : 3.95 62 55 4.041 Pe = 1S'Ry 5395 + 7 Bog X OTT = 54.55 Itt On a le Add 2 F020 Hy Ply = 20 ft Hy = a eeatae 10 ty s0 that yD = 152 Hyd |) should pe in the ange of 18 t9 6.0. de at Horizontal design procedure: no boot or wei 1. Caleulate the sapor volumetric Equation £7 i How’ rate, Q,. using Ba, 5 234 + SEPTEMBER 1904 « CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PROGRESS 2 Calewlate the Tight and liquid volumetric flow rates, Q,, and A -Aule a9 1 Oye wsing Eqs. 9and 1 : Cateuhate the vertical terminal Gu i velocity, U,. using Eg, 4. select 2 K TI By < thy, OF By hy er value from Table 2) and set Cy = increase the vessel length liquid sep 0780, 4. Select holdup and surge times 7 from Table 6 and calculate the holdup —_vetocity ] and surge volumes, Vand V. (wales { due tinh \ decrease D (unless itis already at its | Sing is otheraise spetilied. Such awa n= OVA, oa |= ma . : j Steves a An “Tay a Aa} 12. Caleulate the minimum length ' | Vue Tu, (18) required for vaposiliquid separation: I 30) { WET @, U9 b= Cs 251 18, Caleulate L/D. IE UD «1.5. | bwin an 24) from Table and AB EL < Lyge then set L = Lyx minimum), and if L/D >> 60 then initially calculate the diameter here, vapor/liqund. Separation nn increase D: repeat from Step $ , according to trols). This simply results in some 19, Calculate the thickivess of the | extra holdup and residence time, IL shell and heals according to Table 8 _ : Se Eye then increase Hand recal ‘2, Calculate surlace ares of the f4ay,+M] (2) ulate Ay, and repeat, starting from shell and heads according t© Table 8 =| 20) Step 9. WL > Lyse the design is 21, Calculate the approximate ves . | \osaLip)| acceptable Tor vaporfiquid separa scl weight according to Table 8, tion. IL >> Ly liquid holdup con 22, Increase oF decrease the Vessel {cake the total crsssetonal we. Lcanenfs besten fay damer yn intone and area: inoreased if Hy is reduced. H, ma) repeat the catcolatioas until the L/D dnl be reduced i is greater thar the aio ranges from 15-6. minimum specificd in Step 6. (With 28. Lhing the optimum vessel sie (21) reduced H,. recalculate A, and repéat (minimum weight, calculate the nor be the procedure from Step 9.) Note: Foe aval and high liquid levels m ot 6. Set the vapor space height. Hy. this and. other ealeulations, “much F wether ot Baber 2 a gear man O21 and “ch Hi an there is 0 mist eliminalor Using than" (<<) mesa a variance of sreser ft H,ADin Table 3 obtain AVA, and cal- than 20% A=W +A + VfL (39 cate A, 14. Calculate the setling veloitcs t 7. Sel the heights of the heasy and of the heavy hguid out of the ight ig- Obtain Hy, using Table 3 with the Tight liquids. Hyg and H, uid phase and the light liquid out oFthe valve of Ayufby 1 8, Find (Ay + Ay ¥Ay. using (Hy, heavy liquid phase. Uy and U,. using | FH pi in Table 3/and calculate, Eqs. Tand 8 (ind &, fom Table 1). Horizontal design procedure: [tay 15. Caleuhate the setting times of heavy Hi boot vin | 8¢Caleulace the minimum length tothe heaty hephase 1. Caletluve the vapor volumetric nist [accommodate the liquid holdup and the light liquid out of the heavy flowrate. Qy, using Eq. 5 i phase Calculate the light and heavy | vay ligaid volumetric Mow aes, Qj, and jr vee ty = 12(D= Hy = Hy YU, (26) Ores por Ege 9 and 10. | Ar~Av—[Am +Au) Caleulite the vertical terminal : hin= V2 Ayal (27) selocity. (using Bq, 4 tthe K value | 10. Calculate the liquid dropout comes from Table 2) and set Uy = time 16, Caleulate the residence times 0.25 Uy re: of the light and heavy lguids: 4. Select hoklup and surge times o= HM On fiom Table 6 and calewlate the holdup atic Oy. = AnL!Qu (28) and surge volumes, Vand Vy from Af. Calculate the actual vapor Eqs. 18-and 19 (unless surge is other CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PROGRESS © SEPTEMBER 1904 + 35) — MULTIPHASE FLOW Table 8, Wall thickness, surface area, wise specified, such as slug votume). Oblain L/D from Table 7 and iniitly set the diameter aecording to: q+ ¥) p-(4%*¥)) am {0.6L D) | Then calculate the total erowsee tinal ae 21 Set the Capo spe height. Hy to the lager of OD or 21 eat there eo mistlimintor, Using gD in Table 3, obtain Ay and cal cde Sel the Tigh Figo eights inthe vessel and oot grat Hi Arona Vs Wot Calculate the. crosseetional (ago 18) « arenof hehehe gui atone eo (SRY 5A 2A) tom ofthe ¥esel Ay sng Haag/D in Table 3 9. Calculate the minimum length to ngrehe operating presse Buk Notas: The design pressure, Pi typicaly eter the operating pressure with 1819 0 psi added to whichever i ester Forthe aowabia sess, S see accommodate the liquid holdupsurge: Reference 2. The ai oficiancy, ranges rom DB to 1; use O85 for spot-examned joints, and 1 ‘or 100% X-rayed joins. The eetrasion allowance, f typical tenges trom Veto in The ves! tm any iu i oe Ip tod idee ime 8 Lyne then inercase H, and recaleu- late Ay. then repeat from Step 9.1FL> Note: This volume of light liquid Lye the design is acceptable for — ignores the light liquid volume in the vaporfiquid separation. IL >> Ly boot Tiquid holdup controls. £ can only be 17.1 8, < fy, then inesease the reduced and Lyyy increased if Hy is vessel Tength (liquid separation con feduced H, may only be reduced iit tm te Ha he minima spect in Step 6 an) With redhiced 1. revaleuate Ay Ls ln and repeal trom Step (4r— Ay} 14. Calelate she ting velocity ov the heavy quid ot tthe igh Tgp 1% Cagulte 1/0, 1D 60 hen 15, Cafelane the sing Hime of neteane Pepe fom Sep 5. 36 + SePTENSER 1994 © CHERNCAL ENGINEERING PROGRESS thickness, ¢ isthe lager a nd tp othe nears 19, Caleutate the thickness of the shell and heads according to Table 8. 20, Calculate the surface area of the shell and heads according to Table 8 21, Caloulate the approximate weight of the shell und heads accord ing to Table 8 Increase or decrease the vessel diameter by 6-in, increments and repeat the calculations until L/D ranges trom 15-600. 23, With the optimum vessel size miniraun weight), calculate the nor smal and high liquid levels: Bs G94 Table 3 from 34. Design the heavy liquid boot e height of the heavy liguish Hyg: calculate the sisi the fight iguid out of the Eq. 8 tind ky from velocity of ayy ligule phase, Uyy ust | { Table Lis set Up = 0.75 Uy calcutate the heary liquid boot diameter { 4x20 0) | DN) a, i | ‘Then calculate the settling time of the 1 Tiguid out of the heavy liquid the ight liquid compartment using j phase By. 4 or eed i from Table 9 tye = yl ay) tars Ayan ah 0sD+7 144) 14. Calculate mininwum E, to facile itate tiguid-iquid separation asthe Caleulate the residence time ofthe where Disin Feet and Mya ininch- lager of heavy iq es round upto nearest inj. D S40 9 in Using Hye /D in be ae. t By = RD ota, 42) Bene ‘ir height: 7 “A “| ay ' Mn. = FO ye 2 i} i Hy =D-Hy (45) Round to the nearest ¥ ft. i Hf Bye < fap: then increase the boot 15, Find L: t diamet fi. increase D. and repeat the calculations from Step 6 el Horizontal design procedure Jate the minimum length weir liquid compartment (0 16, Calculate the liquid dropout I. Calculate the vapor volumettic aecommodate holduplsurge, Ly in tte. . using Ea, 23 flow rate. Q,- using Eq 5. 7. Calctlate the actual vapor 3. Calculate the light and heavy velocity. using Eq. 24 fiquia volumetric flow rates, Q, and (46) 18, Caeate the mannan Teng a por Eqs 9 and 10, requited for vapor “Calculate the vertical terminal = Dag sing Ey, 25, vapor velocity. Up using Eq 4 (find K Round (0 the nearest 44 fl The “YO. IL < Lag, then 81 L = Ley from Table 2) and set Uy =0.75U, enim for Ly= dy + 12in (vaperfiquid. separation contol). 4 Solect holdup and surge times JO. Set the interface at the height This simply results in some exta Fro Table 6 and eaeulate the holdup Gbtining the heights of the holdup and residence time. If L << and surge volumes. Vy and Vy ftom —beovy and light igus, Hyg and HY, Eyns then increase H,. calle Ay Eis. 18and 19 (unless surge is other. 11. For the Tiquid selling com- and repeat the calculations From Step whe specified sucha asiug volume). partment calculate the cross-section- IT L> Cay the design is acceptable 5. Ohiain L/D from Table 7 and al area of the heavy liguid. using for vaportiquid separation. I > inigally calculate the diameter Hl,/D in Table 3 and calculate the Ly. dud separation and holdup | secording to: crow-sectional area ofthe ight liquid eoira. ean only be reduced and | from: Li lncrewsed iH, is reduce. Hh . (ely + \\ may only be reduced if it is greater | + Veh than the minimum specified in Step 9. i ca. a With reduced My. eeaiculste Ay aed \ O.6nlE pl 12. Calculate the sewing velocity repeat fram Step 9, ofthe bey figuid out ofthe ight lige 20, Calculate 12D. W L/D << 1. Then calculate the otal erossection- uid pus, Uy. and the light gid out then decrease D (unless it is alceady at | alarea, Ay ising Eq, 2 OF the heavy liquid phase, Up using a minimum) and repeat om Slep 6 i 6. Set the vapor space height, Hy, Eqs and 8 ind ty from Table 1). If L/D >> 60. then increase D and {tothe lnger of 12D or 2 TR(L Mit 13, Calculate te selling times of repeat from Step 5. {there is no. mist eliminator). Using the heayy liquid ot ofthe light liquid 21, Calle the thickness of the gD im Table 3 obtain AVA, and cal phase andthe light liquid out of the shell and teads according lo Table & culate 4 heavy Higud phase 22, Caleulaethe surface are of the 7.Caleulate the low liquid level in yg = 12 48) shell and heads according to Tale (CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PROGRESS * SEPTEMBER 1994 * 37 | 23, Calculate the approximate ves- sel weight according to Table 8, 24, Increase or decrease the diam= ler By Gein, increments and repeat the ccaleulations until L/D ranges. from 15-60, 2, With the optimum vessel size ‘minimum weight), calculate nor and high Tiguid levels Hyg = D-H, 15) + Nyt oy Obtain Hy., using Table 3 with Horizontal design procedure: bucket and weir 1. Calculate the vapor volumetsic flow rate. Q,. using Eq. 5 2. Calculate the light and hy liquid volumetric flow rates, Q,, and Qh. pet Eys. 9 and 10. 1-15 min {60 min for refinery service. or 10-15 AgulAy min for chemical-plant service. For amine regenerator feed drums. Oy = $. Obtain L/D from Table 7 and initially set the diameter aecordin [412.8% +QnBin) ssp there is no mist eliminator). Using HAD in Table 3. obtain A/Ay and ca culate Ay. 7. Calculate ly (Qc. + Qun9) 8. Calculate the liquid dropout time. 6, using Eg. 23 9. Calculate the actual vapor veloe- ty, Cy. using Eg. 24 10. Calculate the minimum le required. for vapor/iquid. separation, Lys using Eg. 25 TLAEL, < Logy then set Ly = Lay (sapor/liquid separation contrat) This simply results in some ex to: holdup and residence time, If Ly << Lygs. then inerease HH. recalculate Ay a and repeat the calculations from Step TW Ly > Lune the design is accept able for vaparfliquid separation '. Calculate the vertical terminal { 0.70Rf2-p) 12, Culculate the light liquid layer vapor velocity. Up. usi thickness hased on the heasy Higuid fro Table 2) and set Then calculate the total eross-section- setting ou 4, Select residence times for light al area, A, usit and heavy’ liquids. 0,, and 6,_. For stripper feed drums. 8, Sour wa to the far | 0, = 235.000 Iivh * 3,600 vh x 0.190 Ibvft BW Equation ES | °. 45,000 Ib/h © 60 minh x 40.5 Ibe 1m Equorion F 7,500 Ibvh On Se inh x 62.0 Tb | m Fuation E10 = 343.57 fils 8.52 ft/min 2.02 ft'/min An Equation E14 fi Qu _ 2.0 min x 18, A i Equation EIS Une BE quotion 110 3B + serreMsen 104 * CHEMICAL ENGMIEERING PROGRESS = 2.0 minx a 15.02 ft 7 ft el) 6, Set the spor space he FoF O27 ar 2100 fear Int Hy U,=0.175y Equation EN } {_4x277.80_)"_ : P=logmx tava] = EIS Muse Ott M Equation E12 L 277.80 4.54 ft 95.03 —71.08— 4.85 BE quorion E13 2tt ‘/mi Z = 045 ft AT ft US = 4.83 tus 71.08 fe | i Nomenclature ke Thy downcomer ro snsional re, $end terial sos rau, pt pun = wen fig gi abve veel be Ay Esp py dees been Ban iin mn ene iis [Ay a crocs eee fF gen pros allman, Cy stling ne for tevy Tigi ples £5 > petit 0 species) ‘oat at light gota, man By Sm vee aster Reelin. ED, Stow dan FD, dpi dia, nor cron [yp = vapor disengagement dla. 8” Li = olde jin efictency,dineason- ie | Ee etgere ‘ 5g alone Bortzontal veloc fe 2 2 ‘5 greta! constant 32.17 st ‘Us. setting vebocity of benvy iguid | 14, = 200128 ASIPE 2 bei dp? * plot igh gin nin we “bight Ug 8 slog velochy of Wet Raul droplets | 2 “oat of henry Tiga: in ait 13, Calculate the difference in height between the light and heavy Tiquid weirs on AH =H, 14, Design the light liquid bucket Set the top of light liguid weir = D = Hj assume the botiom is at 0.1250: assume a holdupésurge (ypially ‘below the weir beight and LLP is 6 in, above the bottom of the tucket Using Table 3 with Hygy/D and HyyiD. calevlate Agge abd Ay, Caloutate L: (ut T}Qu (58) HLL high liquid levet (a) = terainal telecty constants BL, = Tight igo 2 = ess longi, LL aw ip ee: 1S. Assume Listhe larger of D2 £4... eeeuidepsins win 22 Oa Sac aa or Lit 5 length Mik onal tigi eve Ho, Design te eas id com 4 «wn np Va pee pariment Sette wp of te Reavy lige jz : " id welr= DHy- aH acumen ean Renee holdup/surge <1ypivally. 5-15 min): cites oe | assume HEL is ahout 6 in, below the then decrease D and repeat feom Step f weir height and LLL is about 6 i. (59) 5: If L/D >> 6.0. then increase D and | above the bottom of the vessel. Using a) repeat from Step 5. |Table 3 with HD and 0/D, cal 19. Calculate the thickness of the culate Aggy and Ay, 17.Coleulate L= Ly 4 io Ly# Ly shell and heads according 10 Table & Caleutate Ly 18, Calculate UD.'1f LD << 13, 20, Caleulate the surface area of CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PROGRESS + sePTEMBER 1084 + 39 MULTIPHASE FLOW Hydrocarbon vepor y= 235.00 Hydevearbon iid, = 85000 Water Wg = 7.590 shell and heads accordi vo Table 8. se or decrease the diam eter by 6-in, increments and repeat the calculations until 7D ranges from 15-60. Example 2 ° hase horizental separator with & weir to separate thi risture in Table 10, The operating pressure and temperature are 25 psi and 100, respectively, and itis neces- ea liquid holdup and surge time of 15 min, 1. Sce Eq, E8. box, p. 38 2. See Eqs. E9 and ELD. box. p. 38 3. K = 0.175 (the Gas Processors Suppliers’ Association value in Table 2 was divided by 2 since there is no mist eliminator). See Eq. Ell. box. p. 38 U, = 01.95 x 255 = 1.91 us 4. Holdup + surge as speciti [5 min) 08.52 RYminy 10 min holdup, $ min Assume L/D = 17. See Eq. E12, box. p. 38 It C11. fy? = 95.08 fe the mass rate of vapor is a3 x 17.500 Equation E. ty 2x 17,500 x0. W Equation EIS Week Vinatt Equation E19 x 132 0 0.885 x 55 x 132 490.1b ,, 0.500 in.(g73,97 10 +2 101.88 1] ‘Deis land P 100 psig Devs and ?> 100 psi9 D> 5 fy regards of pressure Hemispheres! “pica Heads Used ‘ished with knuche radius = 06 B 21 Bligucal whore: P= casign pressure and 0 =u ca 26 of the loading. set Hy to be much greater than the minimum Assume Hy = 0.700 = (0.70 11.0 4) 7.70 ft. Using Table 3. AVA, 0.748, A, = 71.08 Te Hess = (OSHI1O) #7 = 12.5 in, use 13 in Hay /D = 1110 x 12) = 0.098 fing Table 3. A, 4/4, = 0.081 A, = (0.051 V198.08 FE) = 4.85 Beiiy =110-7.70=330ft 9. See Eq. E13, box. p. 38 Use L = 15.0 ft 10. Ay = Hy = 3.3022 = 165 fe LL Hjy/D = 1.651110 = 0,150 From Table 3, Ajg/A, = 0.094 Ay, = (0.094\95.03 [) = 8.93 RE fy, = 95.03 -71.08-8.93 = 15.02 1 13, From Table #4, = 0.333 Usp, = 0.333062.0"- 40.50.24 = 29.83 mm/min Use 10 in Uy = (0.333} 62.0 —40.5310.682 10.50'insinin Use 10 invfin (maximum) BB. ty, = (12 inyC1.63. MO inJmin = 1.98 min, use 2.0 mins yy = by = 2.0 min HA See Egs. E14 and E15, box, pode Use £, = 3.0 ft 15. =30+ 150=180f 16.6 = 7.70 FU1.91 tus = 4038 17, See Eg. E16. bos. 9. 38 Tagegs Hh = 0.307 in =O.1x55 7" 17,920 Ib. AO © SEPTEMBER 124 © CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PROGRESS FR Lagy = 482 USHAOS 8) = lost 19, Since L< Lyyy. set = 19.5 ft fel Ly = 16.0 E235 fy) 20, LD = 195/110 = 1.78 21, Assume dished heads per Table 11 Assume E= 0.85 Use SA-516 70 carbon steel gn. temperature = 6SUr 17.300 psi: from Ref. (32 Corrosion allowance = Yin in P= 254 30=55 psig See Eq. E17. box on this p Use f= Sin Sce Eq. EIS, box om this page Use ty 4 = RL fy (19.3 fo = 673.87 He Ay = (0.8421 (11.0 S09? = 101.88 fe See Eq. E19, box on this page. 24, In this example, calculations were performed for only one diame ter. However. nearly the minimurs L/D corresponded 10 a diameter of 110 te therefore. the next diameter should be smaller, resulting ina larger L/D. Also. calculations should be pertormed using a diameter of 1S des For the light liquid compartment Ain 24.854 185.20/16.0= 16.43 12 tyui/y= 16,43995.03 = 0.173 USing Table 3, Hj ,/D = 0.229 Hy, = 0.2911.) = 2 Hyg, = Vi Comment: Due to the small amount of heavy liquid and large amount of vapor, a better design would have used & boot, A vertical vessel should be compared, well fer] To receive a tree copy ofthis article send in the Reader Inquiry card in this issue with the number 153 circled