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An Introduction to MIMO Technology

Shi Min
Student ID:60420608 B4 Ohtsuki Lab.
Advanced Course in Digital Communications 2007

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CONTENTS

1. The definition of MIMO


2. The features of MIMO technology
3. System model and transmission
4. Applications and Standardization
5. Summary

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1.The definition of MIMO
MIMO means: Multiple-input multiple-output
MIMO transmits two or more data streams in the
same channel at the same time , using multi-
antennas at transmitter and receiver.

Transmitter Receiver

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A short history of MIMO
US Patent
Several papers issued 1994 New
about on Spatial approaches The first
The earliest ideas beamforming Multiplexing to MIMO commercial
about MIMO published technology. system in
appeared 2001

A lot of researches
about MIMO
future
Upcoming 4G
1970 1980 1990 2000 2007 systems will employ

Bell Labs MIMO technology.


The concept
of Spatial demonstrated
Multiplexing spatial
using MIMO multiplexing
in 1998.

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2.The features of MIMO technology
Two main features:
Achieve high throughput without consuming extra
radio frequency.

Achieving higher spectral efficiency is very important


because of the scarcity of available radio frequencies.

Achieve high link reliability of wireless


communication.

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High throughput and link reliability
MIMO system is very flexible

Same streams

Different streams

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Main technical fields of MIMO
Several technical fields make up the backgrounds
of MIMO.
Very
Code theory, Complicated
information theory

Single
processing MIMO

Radio wave
propagation

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3.System model of MIMO

Channel characteristic

1 1
h11 h12 h13 h14
2 h21 h22 h23 h24 2
Data Transmitter H Receiver Devices
3 h31 h32 h33 h34 3
h41 h42 h43 h44
4 4
y
Received single
Hx n
Transmitted Noise vector
vector single vector

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How to achieve the high throughput
Spatial Multiplexing 6bits/s 6
P
Shannon’s theorem
S S 5bits/s
C log 2 (1 ) log 2 ( )
N N P/2
5bits/s 10
P/2
4bits/s
If we double the transmit P/4
4bits/s
Power, only get 1 bit P/4 16
per second increase 4bits/s
In capacity. P/4
4bits/s
P/4

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Get more transmission paths
The multi-path
is a bad thing?
Marconi in 1896

100 years

A multiple reflection another opportunity to


send a new single.
A revolutionary idea of MIMO:
We can utilize the multipath.
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Transmission
Channel character matrix
Eigenmode propagation. 1 0 0
More power to better 0 0
H Er 2
EtH
channel. Independent 0 0

channels 0 0 n

2
Transmitter Receiver

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Separate the singles
Using some MIMO algorithms to get the singles.

+
Data Transmitter ReceiverDevices +
Separate
+ +
singles

Some calculations to
separate the singles.
(MMSE MLD…)

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Combined with OFDM
Spatial multiplexing techniques make the
receivers very complex ,but using OFDM can
simplify the receivers of MIMO system.

Very complex

+
Devices
Transmitter Receiver
Data +
++

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4.Applications and Standardization
MIMO technology has been used in Wireless LAN.
Leading Corporations (Some like Airgo Networks®
have developed chipsets based on MIMO)

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MIMO used in IEEE802.11n
MIMO is a fundamental technique in the IEEE802.11n
standard.
Protocol Release Frequency Throughpu Data Rate Range (Outdoor)
Date t (Typical) (Max)
802.11a 1999 5.15~5.875G 23 Mbit/s 54 Mbit/s 100meters
Hz
802.11b 1999 2.4~2.5 GHz 4 Mbit/s 11Mbit/s 110meters

802.11g 2003 19 Mbit/s 54 Mbit/s 110meters


2.4~2.5 GHz

802.11n 2008 2.4GHz or 74Mbit/s 248Mbit/s 160meters


5GHz 2×2 ante
From: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/802.11#802.11n

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Throughput and Frequency
Increase to
Throughpu 600Mbps
t (bps) 802.11n
500M
based on
MIMO UWB
100M 802.11a
Wi-Fi
Wi-Fi 5G
802. 802.11a
10M 11g

Bluetooth
1M

Microwave
oven
100K

100M 10G Frequency (Hz)


1G
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5.Summary
MIMO can achieve high throughput and
reliability without consuming extra radio
frequency.
MIMO technology is a fundamental technique
of IEEE802.11n and 4G cellular communication
system.
Spatial multiplexing techniques make the
MIMO receivers very complex (but OFDM can
be used together).

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References
[1] Andrea Goldsmith.
Wireless Communications.
Cambridge University Press, 2005.
[2] Ezio Biglieri , Robert Calderbank , Andrea Goldsmith.
MIMO Wireless Communications.
Cambridge University Press, 2007.
[3] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MIMO
[4] http://www.cdmatech.com/products/
[5] http://bb.watch.impress.co.jp/cda/event/6092.html
[6] http://radio3.ee.uec.ac.jp/MIMO-IEICE-TB.pdf

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