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9b+++îvèäß@9b+++Èua‹ß @ð‡ä++++++Ia@‡++++++à«@‡++++++à«@Oâ
9b++++++îäÏ@9b+++Èua‹ß @GÜ+++++++’@‡îÈ++++++@‡++++++à«@Oâ@
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‫‪14‬‬ ‫‪
 
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: 6  ! 789&
;%& ' ( " ) !& ,+ , - ./0 !1 23" 45
\# . _!`  v"!!M  +‰ Y0 . a! Y0 SG# [! =rM . ?; a @ . a:6 [H
% #6
 /`6] 
0 }@( 8 Xa#
J /\~ Œ\g ~3  &'6"M %u\ &'6" N] Š:. ‹M W
H
%u\  [H *0 -
9\g 5LM ,+2  6i &': Y0 rMC /6Q SG# 
@M 9\ga &'" u\ a]Q N( =3−1; &)
&7T . /6Q 12 u\ . &'" R@( 
@M %+D +†. &  o"! &?] +D  56!( &'" 
Y0 &C GH &'"  _†!# … . M" W†!# u\  /67 5LM =A 3−1; &)  * o"!
9\g 5LM ,_(6!y oG +D &?] &?!( oG &'" =W6a:; ~3 &gE] %Œ\gI u\ a]Q
/67 /C(u 
0 %&E: Y0 12 . (u . v]. Ž +6: u  . +D +,-. & 12 &7!
:
5LM /67 Xa#  &Q. +D 7 56# 
0 ,&'" v6- Y0 9\ 12 S6†!# [! &'" Y0
/67 &7
 9:6     &'"  !"( %=B 3−1; &)  * ‚E
( O6: +D

 C 34 OP o.  / OP  G /67 &@M C &@‘ … =Œ\g^ 0; E~ v"]
%&'"] ’a [

15
µëþa@ñ†yìÛa

 <" =
> 

 <" = ?@ A  (A)


(B)
3−1 
<B C
&'" Xp o6y  . +2  6i† =_#` -C rM .; &'" rMC . €` ‚! 9\g 6!(
&'" rMC a @ 5!7(P W
H %+D  6i† &'" =fH; f" a @ >'0 W
H 5
9\g &'" 5u ‚! &~8 9\g S %&'" 5u .   g l:6] 2 Xp
J
%> @ r =RE  . /C(u; (CP J
v:
!( l\ 6( + 5u 52 s` %l† ‹*0  -6!
%_0Q Y0 9\g Cu &'" =jE#; > 0 Cu *a _. o.

:‫ﺎ‬‫• ﺣﺴﺎﺏ ﺿﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺍﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ ﻋﻦ ﻭﺯ‬


M@ l:6] > 0 o. 
0 &'" 9\ f"`  (
~6] .; v@ B & &'" 5u &'"a [06
 5u6
C6 0 t 6( =4−1; &? %=&'" M; “ "# =@
!. 5 jE# r] B ` `" ] =v@ f6.;
%+] ’a =v@ B 5 e‚`;

0 e‚ 1000 5,( +  v@ B ` 5. O@ 
/` -C; † tl: m6!" 
0; :7 Œ€
5u6 %e‚ 5000 6H C6 @ GH  +*a ” 5u6 %= 4C o +
 ( %r] B1 HQ `" [l\( =f6; C6 @ jQ 
0
4−1 
[! /67 ti!M =9.81x5000; #6 /67 /`6] Xp &(6•
D 1 5 6
% #6 49050 6H +D jQ  R@!(

16
µëþa@ñ†yìÛa

J  ,a( _. o. %49.050Kpa. 49050N/m2 6H f6 jQ 


0 9\g 56(
F7 l\ .

0 &'" jE# }@( %=5−1; e:  N 6H * –g a 0  !:] &':  49.050Kpa
B e‚` &M %&':  N(6!" N] (C6 @ M" m6!"  ‹E . ,&'" Xp  9\g 7
(  g  !:] 9\g G o" 9\ (•  ( %9.81Kpa o"( +  v@
%=5−1; &)  *

1 bar = 14.5 psi


1 bar = 100000 Pa
1bar=100Kpa.
1Pa = 1 N/m2

5−1 
<   !

:‫• ﺗﺄﺛﲑ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﺍﳉﻮﻱ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺍﺋﻞ‬


%† tl: m6!"  Y0. 12 =e80; B80400 jE#] =+6H; ou| OI| Y0 o6!• R
J
`" ] † tl: m6!" 
@M %o6 9\g “ "( R tl: m6!" 
0 l\ 6( +6 GH
o"( o6 9\g 5. o. %e‚10331 5,( o6 OI\ jE#] +6 C6 0 5LM r] B `
%=14.7Pounds/in2; 101.35KPa. . 1.0135X105 Pa
tl: 0 5 GH jE# 7 v"†] R tl:  Ea!z .  o6 9\g 7 —a!˜
*a &7( o6 9\g 5. [
@( GH ou\ OI\ C6 0 \~ *a † tl: 0 
@E# *aM %†
   o6 9\g C ,   0l!: Y0 TZ( GH ,R tl: 0 
@E#
[! =6−1; &)  ]‚! SI3  o6 9\g TU# `I  ( %/ ™. p 
:š! ^` „IT  o6 9\g N] QI@ N#

17
µëþa@ñ†yìÛa


0 %NMl ›6!E f6. A 8  −.
 rE#( + 5LM ,+ R6`  r 6#
 f6 h3 f6 &3C
›, +   "
] ` m6!"
FGH  %f6 - A*\ &@E]
6−1  J
("
! o6 9\g 56( 8
E F  "   <=G
%_a3C f6 h3
&?] + R6`  `6!E    r 6# 
0 /`  -  ›6!E f6 B 8  −f
f6 h3 o6 9\g 5 ,f6  C6-6 œE  rE#(  + 5LM ,oC6 0
+6 9\  Y0. 12 jE#^  f6 &3C + }‘ 5 JM  =101.35KPa;
%o6 9\g  }. 6H oG f6 &3C A6†
(6a@   `6!E    +  Ž@  /`  -  ›6!E f6. e:  %C 8 −h
12 _a(@# eT &' &?] f6 r 6]; f6 &3C  +6 ž@] Ÿ(E# e# Q 7a\ f6ƒ
 &Q. f6 &3C 9\g ti( %f6 &3C rE#( &'" &@‘ … =oC6 @ r 6
 9\g 5 ,R68 12 &7!
( 5.  ( ^ f6 &3C &'" 5LM XG %o6 9\g
R68 tl: Y0 9|g o6 9\g &@‘ … %f6 h3 o6 9\g  &Q. f6
J
& &(u. p2 `  I ! f6 &3C œE 56( Q %f6 &3C + jE# Y0  My
,& ! o6- 9\ 12 R@!( f6 h3 &'" 5 „y  GH ,f6 &3C 9\g
[! M" %f6 &3C œE 5u6( “!` f6  Y0. 12 jE#^ 12 /67] &'" }‘ s`
f6 &3C 6i† &'"  +6 9\  ‹E Y0  !@# f6 &3C &'"  @E#(
%f6 h3 o6 9\g

18
µëþa@ñ†yìÛa

:‫• ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺎﺣﺔ‬


0u6 G /67 }!@( _(6!y oG &'" SI3  +2  Ea!  tl: Y0 SG 9\g
%}. `" Y0 /67 Xa# Ž0u *a 9\g &7( %9\g —(@#  >: * ,tl" Xp `" Y0
J
;I': *
] 6i† 9:6 5 (A1>A2) Ea!z rP7 `" ]  [!7l
 N( =7−1; &?
`" _ R@!( 9\g GH  Q %=A1; tl" `" Y0 ju6# S  Y0 G /67 5LM
J
/\~ `" Y0 la" 5 t~. / `" Y0 9a" 9\g 5. [
@( GH %=A2;\i tl"
&‡ % tl" Y0 la" /67 Xa#  &Q. Ž†~. \i tl" Y0 la" /67 5. o.
:! C@] TI \! FGH N] QI@
F
P=
A
:52 s`
% #6
 =&P; /`6] /67 :F
%S: (psi) /`6] 9\g :P
7−1 
%r] B =Q; /`6] `" :A
<( H     ! I" <=G9

:5LM A1=0.25m2 5 F1=250N 5 p2 


F 250 N
P1 = = = 1000 Pa
A 0.25 m 2
:5LM A2=0.125m2 5 P=1000Pa 5 p2 
F2 = P2 × A 2 = 0.125 m 2 × 1000 = 125 N

:J K1
a /67 [ H  %r] B 100 H7 `" Y0 9a"( S:]50 F7 9\
?`" Xa# 
:L
F = P×A
% #6 5000=100 × 50= F

19
µëþa@ñ†yìÛa

Z(Pascal’s Law) ÞbØ%bi@æìãbÓ@@3M1M1


9\ 5U] €0 r]" 57  X a Š: 567 ¤!
!" =S:] (I]; ˆ@ —?!
&  &7!
( &'"  6i† 9\g 5. Y0 _6Q ¥
( %H^ &  ("! m67] TZ( &'"
%+D 5- Y0 (C6 0 (,] ("! `" Y0 ("! m67] TZ( H^
&?] (+2  6 [H %_6Q h!
!:^ S:]   !: [! C N( =8−1; &?
Q %—i!
 12 &'"] 5+D I ($ %&E:  f6U] Nai! 3  }. ™`. lQ ¦6l:.
,I3  + fk!( ^ s†] /\i 6l: Y0 r 6( oG =&7; 5u6 5U] S:] ¤!
!:
QI0 Y0 6l: rl7 `" 5. P / 6l: r 5u6!] &'" 9\ Y0 & @( *2
J /\i 6l: & •$ 
@M %5u r (CP
r] B 0.000645 `" Y0 #6 4.5 5,( I7T
&?] H^ &  &7
( 9\g GH 5LM S:] 56Q v"†] %S:] 6976 F7 9\ 6(
§
J 0.0645 {0Q `" [! / 6l: 12 &7!
( S:] 6976 9\g 5LM XG ,"!
B
J
FGH %/ 100 ŽE0g# /67 5. o % #6 450 5,( / 6l: Y0 =/67; &7 56M @]
J
 &7 W• 6 I M %N!6l: I  &7  †!( [! M" C‘D  !"# 100:1 "

 !:  ( %e: 0.0245 M" W†!(  6l:  &7 5LM e: 2.54 /\i 6l:
:M" C‘D ! QI@
F1 F2 (F1 × L1 )
L2 =
F2
:52 s`
L1
%=~6]; B / 6l:  M":L2
L2
%=~6]; B /\i 6l:  M" :L1
%=&P; #6 /\i 6l:  /67 :F1
6.45 cm 2 645 cm 2 %=&P; #6 / 6l:  /67 :F2
8−1 
J R " M  = NOP&
5Q

20
µëþa@ñ†yìÛa

:J K1
Y0 /TZ m67 Ž p2 %S:] ]  * f6] N!ai! N!6l:. & ( =9−1; &?
:e:] N 6H * * @l7 `" N!6l:
F1=100N,A1=1sqm,
A2=5sqm,L1=10cm
?   †!( [! M" [H *M
:L
9−1  F
P = ∴F = P × A
A
J R " M  = NOP&
P=100/1=100Pa. F=100×5=500N
(F × L1 )
L2 = 1
F2
L=(100x10)/500=2cm

Flow@ZHÕχnÛaI@lbî*ãüa@@4M1M1
[ 
  %Ea!z Œ7 
0 9\g OI!3 v"]  &'" ` 6H >M!
[ &'" rM  !"( u - 0 /0 [H   g &@E] ¤!
( /C0 >M!
%f"^ S@ 0k AQ ™ =f"^; >M! A7 5!7(P W
H % !" &?]

Velocity :‫• ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬

0k A7# %6a@ l7 /u‚! &'" b(,- H


0 W†!# [! l:6! 0k ¨ i7(
e‚` (• &60 eH.  [H 0k %T & B . T & Q & , Y0 M" `6]
% ( ν) ,]  ,(    6 N] &'" &7
# [!  Œ6lx

Flow Rate :(‫• ﻣﻌﺪﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻓﻖ )ﺍﻻﻧﺴﻴﺎﺏ‬

>M! AQ /` ,N@ u  


@ l7 SI3   ( oG &'" e‚` 7 AQ 6H
H
0 [! 0k Cy >M! S@ %7Q  v@ B .   B . (GPM) 7Q  56-
%=/7; 0l!:^ f"` 
0 / ™. p [ M XG =5u; &7T W†!(

21
µëþa@ñ†yìÛa

:‫• ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻓﻖ ﺍﻻﻧﺴﻴﺎﰊ ﻭﺍﳌﻀﻄﺮﺏ‬


0k]  7!" v].  f"
( oG &'"
(u6!  7!" Œ6l3  _#b(,- W†!# gE

f"  j6
 GH ,&'" f" F r
%=laminar flow; a: f" “ "( &'"
 “C. 6H W!`^ v"] /8  QE 56(
Cu p2 =10−1; &?  * 8 FGH  56(
[C f" “ "( 8 GH 0 &'" 0©
56( f"^  j6
 GH %=turbulent flow;

10−1  š!] W!`^ 56#  TZ 6H _M &'"


. C S Q %/8

Energy, Work, and Power@ZñŠ‡ÔÛaë@ÝÌ“Ûaë@òÓbİÛa@@5M1M1


 oUM %    8 &7  "' =\!; &60  T!  UT  <T= P
J
oG W† /Q (†!M %_a\?!] 67  val!( 
 GH 5LM ,N@ &\?] 67 e i( [
 }. W† /Q 56# %/  Ql 
 _] 67( oG &\? Y0  !@( 
 &\?!] 67(
%%30 0 &7( ^ *] 
  /  Ql 
  al!( [! /7

(Energy) :‫• ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ‬

Qla S). TIT W


H % J = 1 N.m J F ( " V' W94  T69 < PXTRC #T$ <T= P
%(8 Ql – 8 Ql – 
 Ql :[H

(potential Energy) :‫ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻣﻨﺔ‬

oC6 @ F@] Y0  !@# 


 QP _ +‰ o. 5LM XG %Y= H  ?X ZO" <[ 'T <T= P [H
&\) o. SG(  + 5 ;
 QP & ( "  u6‚† + S &: Y0 %R tl: ‹6M

22
µëþa@ñ†yìÛa

%=static factor; : &0 [H 


 Ql X ea0  %"  ,‚8 Xp  y “!`
" + 9\ v"] 
 QP W
H 5LM =11−1; &?  * 6i &': Y0 /6Q SG# 
0
%7al (8 Ql v"] ¥Q
!# W†! &'"a 
 Ql %=static pressure of the liquid;
J
I\) J %` QP 12 S6†!# 
0 W†! &'"  ¥Q
!# 
 Ql 5. *
>7y W†! &'" p2
%_0M " 9\ga ‚!


11−1 
<   !

(Kinetic Energy) :‫ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﳊﺮﻛﻴﺔ‬

y 
0 %}. 8 Ql Ž / 0k Ž *aM %\X]8( % <[ ' TF <T= B #T$
v:
# W†! &'"  8 Ql   8 QP &‡ 7M! 0 0k] h˜ _LM "  +
J
%=velocity pressure; 9\g 0© “ "( 8 Ql v"] ¤#
 9\g 0k r] r (CP

(Work Done) :‫ﻐﻞ‬Y‫• ﺍﻟﺸ‬

[H  o.  &\) & @ % [C ^_  5` <a 1 !b !' </OTH  T! T$ :UT
[! M"  &'"  G /67 6H &~8 &\? 5LM XG %>M! &': W
H 56( 5. v‘
%=B% #6; M" /`  /67 [H {` %/67 Xa# _M Ža7!

23
µëþa@ñ†yìÛa

(Power) :(‫• ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ )ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻄﺎﻋﺔ‬


/7 AQ /` ,< !'H <= P J91 Q ;%1c ( d c+'H UT JT91 #T$ :< PXTRC
& &\) =550 ft lb; Q &P 550 SC@# 5i` /Q ` 5LM XG %(hp) 5i8 [H (@
: /7 C‘D ! C@  !"# ,T
P×R
Power = [hp]
1714
:52 s`
%FI0. C@  a3 `6 &(6• Ž]T :1714
%5i8] /7 :Power
%psi 9\g :P
%7Q  56- >M! S@ :R
J
%Œ6 [H š 
  0l!:^ /` 5U] *a0
1 N.m 1J
1w = =
s s

Heat Energy and Friction :‫• ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻗﺔ ﺍﳊﺮﺍﺭﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺣﺘﻜﺎﻙ‬


+
T. _ "I tl:] &'" W!` v"] /8 ¤!
# ,/8 v"] 
 Ql [H
S:] 56Q %=dynamic factors; ` &60 [H (8 Ql 8 Ql }!@# %8
N] "
 8 7 6H W!`^ ,W!`^ &6@ !0 & @( ˆ " 9\g r &@!(
 +,- 57M v"( GH ,/` 6( W!`^ 5LM H /'C  &'" W†!( 
0 ,N "-
%(` QP &) Y0 8 Ql
tl: 6?3 12 M DM %_! ] e†!  ( _LM ,_!u2  ( ^ W!`^ 5.  e|]
 ( [!      W!`^ C6-6 "' f:. TIT W
H 5(‚a a3
:[H ¨ e†!
J a(6l Œ6lx −
%-
%:
 | +
^ I~6! / +
^ −
%/\i Œ6lx  !:  / 0k −

24
µëþa@ñ†yìÛa

ZÝöb*Ûa@lì*äßë@ÁÌ›Ûa@óÜÇ@ÚbØnyüa@9qdm@@6M1M1
+2  56!( oG =12−1; &?  * ¨6"
 &'6"  9\g Y0 W!`^ TU# t 6!
 * :. v]. „I] ]6 FG¨ 9## [7M. f6U]  0Q  ai! / 6l:.  56
&'" f" +
T. _LM ,B l7
  h˜ 7M ]6 }0 f"
( O6: &'" ,=12−1; &?
:š!  `I 7M f6 }0
v] r]  &'" f6"
  OI!3 W
H
C6- 0 N( =B; l7
 
0 %W!`^ v"]

0 9\g 5LM =` f" `; f"I 7
 Y0. 6H C l7
 
0 9\g %E~ 6H l7
 FGH
l7
 12 &'" f6"
 jE# v"] m3. l7 o.
12−1  W!`^ 5LM B 12 C  &'" f"
( 
@M ,A
 d e X(C ?b3& 12  (  Y0.  9\g RE  Y0 & @(
&'" f6"
 RE   r]!! @( GH %Ei
%D,E,F TI v]  Œ7
 
0

@ZÁÌ›Ûaë@òÇ‹*Ûa@µi@òÓýÈÛa@@7M1M1
;š6] . ›€( =13−1; &?
" 9\g 5. Y0 ¥
( oG
r "0 QI@] \!( &'" =[#!:^;

13−1  9\g 5LM 0k Cu *a ,0k


f ?" QO1 %&7( "
%A M\  690Pa F7 9\ 6! M QP =A M\; X l7
 
0 /67a =13−1; &? 
&i C   SI3   ( A M\  hx  /67] }‘$ &'" 5LM &E:. 12 X  W• *a
`" SI3  ‡ 5. v‘ &'"   E 5 C  &'"  +
T. (,# 0k %B M\
12 S6†!( A M\  =690Pa.) " 9\g  J+,- 5LM š!] %= ,; ŽQ6 E  /\i

25
µëþa@ñ†yìÛa

SI3  &'"  *a %620Pa &‚"( l7


 FGH  9\g 5, 5LM XG ,C    0© QP
690 Pa " 9\g /+Q ?# * >]" @ 12 &7# 0k 5LM B M\ 12 &i C l7


%r  QP 12 8 Ql  +,- S6†!(

W!`^  &  \! TU# N( =14−1; &?


RE  =12−1; &)  
] * %@ !« 0k

0 Ei 12 C l7
 
0  Q Y0.  9\g
5LM XG 0k CC,# D l7
 
0 %B l7

CC,( E l7
 
0 %&7( 9\g f6"
 m6!"

14−1  8 Ql e@ 5 &'" f6"


 m6!"
<96Xg <h  e X(C  ?X ?b3& 
0 %0k RE  v"] 9\g Ql rg¬
<  <6-  %0k CC,# f6"
 m6!" ¥7
( F l7


26
µëþa@ñ†yìÛa

ñ‡yìÛa@áíìÔm

:< X
iPjH 78 ;1
%XH %a
%9\g %b
%/67 %c
%W!`^ %d
%Ql %e
H7 /67 R@!( oG 6l:  &'" 9\ 56( e e:8 HlQ H 6l:. %2
? #66000
Y0 9\g v"` % #66a1 H7 (C6 0 /67] e5 FlQ  l:6] u| 9\ e# %3
:! `6] u\
Pa %a
Psi %b
Bar %c
%f6 jQ 
0 20psi 9\g R@!( oG + C6 0 jE# v"` %4
%e:6 HlQ 6l:. 0 }@(
­ $ oG _a3 
0 &P 50 H7 /67 R@!( [H  %5
?e:2 HlQ _6l:. 0 }@(
­ $ oG 
 (®  67
 /67 7 

27
µëþa@ñ†yìÛa

 
 H @M %6
/6Q ŽG] %=15−1; &?
Y0 #6100 H7 F -3
F2 &7 7 6H *M %@M (

FGH v"] @M rM: oG


?/67

15−1 

%15psi 9\g] &': rM >Q  56-10 /67] &': –g uI /7 v"` %7

:¯ [ 


a hx  9\g v"` %8

16−1 

:¯ [ 


a hx  M" v"` %9

17−1 

28
‫‪òîãbrÛa@ñ†yìÛa‬‬

‫‪ñ‡yìÛa‬‬

‫‪íéÓéÖæ…‚é]
íÛ¿Þù]
l^ÞçÓÚ‬‬
‫ƒ‬
‫)‪(hydraulic systems components‬‬
‫‪M‬‬
‫‪M‬‬
‫‪M‬‬
‫‪M‬‬
‫‪M‬‬
‫‪M‬‬
‫‪M‬‬
‫‪M‬‬
‫‪M‬‬
‫‪ZÒa‡çþa‬‬ ‫•‬
‫ﻳﺘﻮﻗﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻟﺐ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻻﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺼﺒﺢ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺍﹰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ‪:‬‬
‫‪ (1‬ﻳﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﳍﻴﺪﺭﻭﻟﻴﻜﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪ (2‬ﻳﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻮﺣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ )ﺍﻷﺳﻄﻮﺍﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﳍﻴﺪﺭﻭﻟﻴﻜﻴﺔ(‪.‬‬
‫‪ (3‬ﻳﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﺍﶈﺮﻛﺎﺕ )ﺍﳌﺆﺍﺯﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭﺍﻧﻴﺔ(‪.‬‬
‫‪ (4‬ﻳﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﺼﻤﺎﻣﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫‪ (5‬ﻳﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﺍﳌﻠﺤﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﳍﻴﺪﺭﻭﻟﻴﻜﻲ‪.‬‬

‫‪29‬‬
òîãbrÛa@ñ†yìÛa

Hydraulic systems components@ZïØîÛ늇îa@ÝîÌ“nÛa@âbÄã@pbãìØß@ 1-2


)  
         ! "#$
%& '(
3 !*+! ,+! ,-! $. /(! 0! 12!
4 5!*+ "#$
 6 78 90 :;    !*+ "#$; <=> ?@ A. AB
: ! !*+ "#$; 6$; C. !*+ DE= F GH.  
N R! KL M 9 ! F8  NO- -P QD : 

 
  −

D M! T-.! FU!  M!  VEW  %S9 -9 !*+ "#$;
3&X.! 0-
 ]X A
( + %^". "C ,*C !
ZH& [& ' ! : 

 
  −Y
`
"g   R! ,d="-  ]e f,* c- NC ,a
B ! `
bc  D_
FU!  M! FU X ! ,*d0! , -Z c! hD M &e! , Z.
3,E ! Aij. k!
12! )  lb  NC EC- "#$
/(! :
 
 

 
  −k
`
 ! ,!*( ( !
oA*! ,ndL ,FUm "&  [& X $ A


o$E;m EL !i; E- "C. "j  [& GX0    -
3o .m $*! *1p. qK & $*! 0!
:o1−2m t C, h^ ; r*e sC-
 /!*+ bc N#$ A
3A^L −1
3o'u , $E
m = j % −2
3 ]X &"R −3
3 t. −4
,Ze ,vw %^
,l-$
m  =. −5
3o .! $* ,C.! ix.
3/!*+ ,C −6
1−2 
3 g. %! −7
+
 )
 
* 
&'( " #$ %

31
òîãbrÛa@ñ†yìÛa

Reservoir@Zæa©a@ 1-1-2
3& Q_  / C, h^ ; U A^L /!*( N#$ ?
=y 

:‫• ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﳋﺰﺍﻥ‬


:)* ,-.% "/% 01 213
3N# bc ?*!z /!*+ ,C= i!^ ! A^" "j −

3"j & { %*0 iD −Y


3| }d! D=X i.! h.! h+ Xd- N −k
3)W; !*+ ~j!  ]X! g. l %&w c −i

3o2−2m t /!*+ N# "& " / C, $. i& [& A^L ?€!

2−2 


45 01 216 #$ %

32
òîãbrÛa@ñ†yìÛa

Specification of tank :‫• ﻣﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﳋﺰﺍﻥ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻮﺑﺔ‬

:  de. *D&  @W; l A^L "X &

Volume :213 89: −7

:[& A^L H "j!


Power of pump 3 g. %*w !
%*^_ •

3,C= | ‚"C. %*0 *- ED.! bc & { %*0 •


=C. ^H ƒ„! @b & … ,C H  ". †w; ‡d •
3o/!*+ ,C $^W ,$E; 9 m
Using location N A •

time of oil cycle ˆ^ %*!i 1 •

H *W j  " q,wi 5 Q 3 g. i!^. ,C H NC A
"!
ƒg$ A
l /D H0 ŠB U8B 3 C !*+ "#$; 
5‰! Y=E. A^L
j.m =. !*+ "#$; $^W A
]- 3,C )C  Sb j % 15
="j- N [& (id"- %*iw A  aOU ,H0! A1 be 
 5‰! be
o +
3)W
x j N ?*!z 5@ x

frame of tank :213  −;

3h+ XU 
% gj $^L! ,%*0 D % A jd. $^L AB

:=>5 ?@ A$6 −<


& A 2 *w A A
l j8! A; 5‰! A 2 *w njD gj- & %j- A A
l
3,C= )C ndW

:19B CD E$7 −-


%d- 7"C aOU ,5‰ ŠB U82- F  qK & l C qK Xd ‚; r@( N 
3 =&U 9
c- h+ ,h. ,l,c XU ="&  5@! ˆ^= GK
*

33
òîãbrÛa@ñ†yìÛa

:,F @
DG −*
h.! D. l,c FU A
". 5@ ƒ„ U r{- A^L 8*
*  A
l
`
3 *W

ventilation :$/ −

%i&  lDC @+ 3h= A^L Œj$ A


l ,C )C  Sb   $1. q 
  *!Ž ˆC  A! 3 @b W & Dj U hE_   =U F8!
u h&!  <j8!  A /,c_ Tm =. !*+ "#$;  C. =b. $^L
3o‡Z_2
ˆ^ Ze /! w
h.! h+ F GX GZW  = c A @+
3[&
A^L  A sbg  3i . ˆw Dw /!*+

:‫ﺨﺬ‬‫ﺘ‬‫ﺔ ﺑﺎﳋﺰﺍﻥ ﺍﳍﻴﺪﺭﻭﻟﻴﻜﻲ ﳚﺐ ﺃﻥ ﺗ‬‫• ﺍﺣﺘﻴﺎﻃﺎﺕ ﺧﺎﺻ‬


3v*‘ A
l jX. de. A^L
’ d Dw (
%i&
` Td @( 
’ A
"‘ 3rD$- A^L ’ ‘ A
l (
’ ŠB =W !*+ VEL Td
3"j & A^L `
’ ‡Z_B! A ; &"R F U
&! ,A^L
’ ŠB Vbg. ˆ^ > j- sU 
’ A
" /!*+ N#= $X G]&
(
3oN]e
’ E-m N# & A^L
’ XU A 2
3Td  d- ^H.
’ S_ A^L u “d
’  (
3o(TRB) sbg $^L
’  ^. ’ "U ed (
’ m #$ :="j! DE- q=j
3•w A^W
’ sbg 8j
’ !*+ $^L
’ F” (

34
òîãbrÛa@ñ†yìÛa

Oil Filter@ZH#ÜÐÛaI@|’‹¾a 2-1-2


"& KB! "j Z A]g 5‰! !*+ "#$;  %SD –
o3−2m t 7t"=
: A! N# ~j L
3—Zb −1
3NB = −2
37t „& −3
F  Q. ˜QdX. !
7t. ˆ^ −4
37t. GZW
N& G  #"= ˆ^ ™d N]e −5
3bc

3−2 
01 H 5% #$ %

Function :‫• ﺍﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﺔ‬


ndš /( 7t. " A
?
!*+ #.  %i . l,c XU [&  t. "j
3o4−2m t ,› %i1 d=. ~j ]0 GD  ŠB P=. r@(

4−2 
H 5 D
I

35
òîãbrÛa@ñ†yìÛa

Reasons of oils dirty :‫• ﻣﺴﺒﺒﺎﺕ ﺗﻠﻮﺙ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺖ‬

:qK & /!*+ ,C = €


*c ,N = Ew ,*Db ,  ,Aj. - qK & *DW = GZW /,- = (
3j$. i ,œ!; ,A( , w
Dj ,A^L ! j$. qK & W ž bc hP
› & { œ!;- = (
3KL GD ,~j ƒ„ ,/!*+ ,C Sb !

`
i!i Ÿ d$ / =  p ŠB k $!  t.  `
de NC$ A
?*!z  5@
37t.
3o jX. ¡ Dw iXw  t"- %i& "#$; i!^m
!*+ ~j  %i . l,c= <C ) [& SD c- ^ 7t. ˆD9! *W
:[& ƒw 7t. *W! C.
nomination degree :H
J > - −7

:¢- ‡d lC 7t *i ŠB *c ,o ! m µm œ!; ^ vw 
: H 5 K- −
37t. x& *!. [& *iw h?^ x
ŠB Sc

:
LM H 5 K- −
3 %& *!. & /" l9 vw ‰ ^£ ^H€

:)LM ? 89: −


3¤! sE¥ lC —j. s 7t. l9 H0 /E v

:
 β 
 −;
’ W & F8! iu
^£ i& ŠB 7t. ’ Ew x
Ew + / ^£ DC$ ŠB Sc
’ ƒ=W D.
37t.

36
òîãbrÛa@ñ†yìÛa

3 -=E. 7t  *i! /!*+ N# 6$ 78 o1−2m G!£!


1−2 N >
DP  O H
J #> -
H
J > -
X µm $ )
 
 " R$
βx = 100 Q
:

1−2 ¦& )C ŸW;-! w P=. TC  & "#$; ]0
3 x. —!# !
$SE  •
c- NC wP
2−5 `
 S9 ¦j sbg GR  "#$§ GjU! vC #! sD8
3bc M ,- ,$SE  NC
5−10 "& sE¥! ,%SD bc wP! , d=. &X !*+ "#$;
3 id ~j 
L
10−20 3s sb8! H ,  .! j !*+ "#$;
15−25 3i!u W "& + / 5= !
=9 &X! "#$;
20−40 3ƒ9 "j F nd. sbg "#$

Kind of filters :‫• ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﳌﺮﺷﺤﺎﺕ‬


3l A lC  t. 6$
!*+ "#$; [& l
:=>5 H 5% −7
3%ij sW [& D  ž ˆ^ A^W [& % D F  ˆ^- eL  t. l
H > A
" / %SD F  sbg w N! ž - ˆ"X A A
l —ZbU
N]e qK & A^L ŠB % D ˆ^ sW > %i&B & !
 ]X  %SD  d.  d=
^ F  qU  © ‰B! 7t. x& " A
l  - F  qU! 3 & &¨ !‰ /&U
’ 3o/&d * m /,^£ qU * 7t N " <$OU ,Nj sL 
F   t AB
3F * 7t. %^".  ¢D o2−2m G!£! ¦j sbg  t "- ŸW*
A

37
òîãbrÛa@ñ†yìÛa

2−2 N >
=>5 H 5 ,1
 8

% ,1
 8

bc sb8 420 L/min Q
%*^b ol-$; m 3900 L/min Q oA^L   t.m 1300 L/min Q
7t *i 10-25 µm

∆p sbg Sb 37t „& "X [& "j! 70 bar Q

6 @(  3Zd= $X h 2! dw lH !i^. F   t NC w!
$OU
’ ª9 =d [& "j= N#$ GD$  &! W F –
?1 [& A=U l "X
3"j & N# ƒw 0 A!i =.
’ G!; =d GD FEC$

5−2 
S . K H
5( ,:

Flowing filter :?@ H 5% − ;

,C l C- g. N 5@ H$! , g"= l C sW &  t. r@( F8! 
` A^L /!*+
3N# ŠB 7t. ˆ^ sU X ž 7t.- *
:/( l C 7t. %^". + !
60 − 100 µm 7t *i
3U /!*+ ,C U#$ A]8 "  / "#$;  f,* c-  t. r@( NC!

38
òîãbrÛa@ñ†yìÛa

30,06 30,1 MM ^£ 9 7t gd  *i ?D! g"= « iR 
VD+ H$ g. "& YE8 ŠB ?ip /U 5‰ ŠB U82- 7t. x& *!. [& %*iw QD
, wi ~j-  t. r@( i!^ 
l 5@ H$ 37t. = *i %i1 !
sbg  SD
c ! N& q $ A
=& 5@ 3› ŠB i 4 g. E- ii^ d A;
3 &U  ]X- l C  t i!^ ž W. &

6−2 
)F5T +6 =% ?@L H 5%

Pressure filter :+&U #@ 5% −<


l,c= TC  ž ^H Dw /!*+ N#= sbg sW [&  t. r@( l
Œj  t. r@( A
]-! 3r{-    ]e !
 ]X Dw , g"= sbg @d 9
?   &U  ]e ?>  /(! ¢ "X ‰ A A
l /"#&; bc sbg
3= ƒt [&
3?1== !
A …C$ 3ªj …C$ 9 kC. ¬] w* DK  t. r@( ƒ­
3N# bc *DW 
! ƒ# ="& 
D A /! %U.  t. r@(

:
  #@ 5% −-
!
Vbg …C$   t. r@( FX
!
,k 1 , $ ,1= DE ij
7,de [& ?> ]-* !
, $j —

%SD j +  t. r@(3 =W

7−2  37t. 7E Td$ x& l,c vD



L V H 5%

39
òîãbrÛa@ñ†yìÛa

7E [& X $ A
" 0 r@( ! 37t. %i  /"H$ c- K %i&  t"= A
` Sbe H !‰ 7t"= SD
7t *i! ,7t. %i qK & & dX > ! 
3N $ B!

Reagent of dirty oil :01 O W$ X Y −*

7t. = ) vw  ž ,=  p qK & 7t. jU ) Ÿ d$ A
. 
[& sbg @( Pp! ,7t. Dw sbg Fd = ii^  & 5@3sbg VD( *"-
3n-- " . TD.
`
A
 B d=. *®2 ‡K i&   ž 3n- 8 TD. FU sbg ii^  &!
3 ,- Ze! qK & /,- !
?„-  p ŠB 0 r@( G> !
, TD.  A

8−2 
W$ Z[% W$( X Y

40
òîãbrÛa@ñ†yìÛa

Operation unit cylinders ZHòîØîÛ늇îa@pbãaìİ,þaI@òÜßbÈÛa@ñ‡yìÛa 2-2


 /(! 3 $ wK ŠB !*+ wE G> ž ,%i ~&  $E; j
3  = - TD. 7E [& sbg GZW EL 0

Type of cylinders@ZÊaìãþa 1-2-2


3$.! "j K  ƒ=š! ,9! i; AC,* A&$ $E§

Single type :‫ﺃ( ﺍﻷﺳﻄﻮﺍﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﳍﻴﺪﺭﻭﻟﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﲑ‬

qDE " 6 @( !


sU ! r{  ,C sb8
r{  0  H!
%ij Vt € 3sU !

\S  R ] ^ −5 \-LM ?$ −1 !


 *W %w qK & TD"=
\S  R ] .% −6 \_T ?$ −2 h^ ; A! 6 * n-$
\% −7 \S  R ] −3
3o9−2m c  ]
\$LM 
* −4
9−2 
`ab -:7 

 
 #$L #$ %

r@( %i& ! ,TD. 7E   [& /!*+ ,C sbg ž ,! @d $E; r@+!
3n-$ qK & !
 *W %w qK &  B $E;

3  *W %w E- %i& ,SP­ i


$E

3 g-$ %i& F SP­ i


$E

3SP­ i
-C= $E

10−2 
`ab -:7 #$L7

41
òîãbrÛa@ñ†yìÛa

11−2  dual effect cylinder :‫ﺏ( ﺍﻷﺳﻄﻮﺍﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﳍﻴﺪﺭﻭﻟﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﺛﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﲑ‬

\S % −1
S  R ] −2
\S  R ] ^ −3
\)D3 S  HL −4
\S  HL −5

11−2 
`ab 
4a 

 
 #$L #$ %

^ * GZW ™Z$ A
"! 3/!*+ ,C- TD. /D$ 
!^ @d $E; r@+!
3/=0 TD. 7E C x
TD. 7E C A
id. 6*@ ‰ SP­ ,P $E;
¢UE [& !C C. A
¢D ¢UE @U 6*@ ‰ $E; ^ * AOU ,Tj [&!
3o  ^ $E
m
ŠB —g ž ,SP­ ,P $E; ¢-! - ‡d =8d $E; ^ *  ^"$ A
"!
32:1 C. DC$ A!3TD. 6*‰ a  AEW =8d $E;
3njD gj- Wi &8 T-"- SP­ ,P -C= $E§ ^ !
3EC"- $E;  " TD ŠB ^  Vc a  "š F SP­ ,P $E;  !

3id. 6*@ ‰ SP­ ,P $E


3o =8d $E
m ¢UE @U 6*@ ‰ SP­ ,P $E

3SP­ ,P -C= $E


3Vc a  id "š F SP­ ,P $E


3Vc a  k!i^ "š F SP­ ,P $E


3oSj= =-wm Vc a  k!i^ "š F SP­ ,P $E


12−2 
`ab 
4a #$L7

42
òîãbrÛa@ñ†yìÛa

Principle of operation method of cylinder@ZòîØîÛ늇îa@òãaìİ,þa@ÝàÇ@òÔí‹  2-2-2

3="& K ,9 !


i; $E; ^:‘

Single type:‫ﺃ( ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﲑ‬

:c 7 dT 13−2  -: #$L .(


¯
[& sbg Fd o« !
A1!m =-. % lDC-! ,TD. 7E r{- /!*+ ,C qU
° U 
 $ '° - TD.
D o"0 !
A1 %wm =-. % [& l=b ° / # = ! 3TD.
3 $E§   ; 
° N]e
> ¯ ŠB V- YD$
qK & ˆ^ A^- =X
¯ TD. C A %ij Vt hP
!
Vt  A
"!
‘ 3N]X `
¯ @( E- =b ¯
o g. F Ge.m sbg sW A ]- r{-
¯ o"0 )wm ) r@(! ,"0 A1! E- !
n-$ E- ±Wi « qK & %ij
[& l=b
²  $ /!*+ ,C FU!  ]X!
3%ij sW ¯ VEL! $E;  ' )w

13−2 
)
 
* S % – `ab -:7 

 
* $L7

43
òîãbrÛa@ñ†yìÛa

:efY `ab -:7 



 
 #$L ?Y5(
h i 27 g i
%ij Vt @d "  & :j-$F ?
Y5( •
3o X.
¯ FU !K 9 m  *W )w SP­-
3o14−2m t
i
!*+ $E§ :)T7 ?
Y5( •

14−2  3 g- %ij ‰ SP­



C% =T  Y 

 
* $L7 %ij Vt  "g !*+ T-. 
3l  $E
N-
%ij Vt € 3sU ! r{  0  H-! sU ! r{  ,C sb8 qDE "
36 * n-$ !
 *W %w qK & TD"=

o15−2m t :Dual type ‫ﺏ( ﺍﻷﺳﻄﻮﺍﻧﺔ ﺍﳍﻴﺪﺭﻭﻟﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﺛﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﲑ‬

,sbg= 8j A
" TD. / E A
v
[& SP­ ,P !*+ $E; "j
3¢({ Z  "j $ q> ". ¦-!
:c 7 ?: #$L k_* .(
¯
 !. i ! lDC-! ,TD. 7E [& sbg! TD. 7E r{- /!*+ ,C qU
! p sbg ­c F %w ¯ F = P × A :¦ A$ Ÿ
` AOU ° ]! 3sbg Fd  *L! =W
° 
wE > lDC- 4 @(! 3TD. 6*‰ '¯ !  !. [& l=b ° ¦-! 3A TD. 7E
3 M Dw *]9Z =-w $ wK ŠB !*+

15−2 
`ab 
4a $L7

44
òîãbrÛa@ñ†yìÛa

¯ TD. i"  & <$


¯ ( @
ŠB l-$; GZW ‚^‘ A
l 6*@ %H  ˆ^ AOU ° /bD
’
TD. F U ,o =0 %H0m 6*@ %H ŠB g. ¯  F  Vt hP
! 3A^L
,C qU ¯
³ ‚^!
3TD. E- TD. %H ˆ^ " ‘
d=¥ &¨! d=¥ (F = P × A) )w … 6*@ %! o16−2m t SP­ ,P $E; 
´ qU
?, 7ECm ‚EC —ZW lDC- 5‰! ,<Cd$ ° & F  Vt! N
° Vt ¢-
° A

<Cd$ ( qU ¯ F N ¯ 3oTD"= /=0 7EC! TD"=


° &¨ x
oF m %ij &¨ AB
%!C qDE!
¯ ‘ 3N
° Vt  Gjd
¯ 7EC be
o%ij Vtm Vc @(  Gjd
¯ 7EC!
:  *"
Q
V=
A

16−2 
`ab 
4a $L7 F 5V

45
òîãbrÛa@ñ†yìÛa

Design@Záîà—nÛa@ 3-2-2
3""X  $E; 0 !
Œb lC -

:‫ﺃ( ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺍﻷﺳﻄﻮﺍﻧﺔ ﺍﳍﻴﺪﺭﻭﻟﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﺃﺣﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﲑ‬


µ
3! r{- -=E. !*+ % A ž - SP­ i
!*+ $E; "X
3FU X !
¯ X. FU j ! !*+ FU! ! ndL! FU M  FU= :%7
3−2 N >
`ab -:7 

 
* $L7
#DG$ 8
C

/!*( TD 6*‰! TD

GK
Vt
-= $E

46
òîãbrÛa@ñ†yìÛa

:‫ﺏ(ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺍﻷﺳﻄﻮﺍﻧﺔ ﺛﻨﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺛﲑ‬


¯
de 78 o4−2m G!£! SP­ ,P $E§ d=¥  X '( D=E. ƒ=¥ D=
3(1 *! $E§ d=¥  X
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*l$% #$Lm Dn 8
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1%5 #DG$ 8
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2:1 C. DC$
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ij Vt
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?!C N &¨


3F  &¨
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F ! "g  ¤X  %i!


3%i0  X  e

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-=

3sbg FU* sb8 ƒ9

%SD )w l=E‘  &


UC. q8 F j- $E

3 $E§ | ‚"C.

47
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Ring oil@Z5jؾa@Âì’@òíbèã@‡îà¦@ñ†b,ë 4-2-2


NX &¨ 7D o17−2m t TD. Vt a "š %i! F $E; NC‘
3 X a  SP­ /"> aB’ , j

17−2 
S  A$ p 
q =% `ab 
4a $L7

¢ ­  v ≥ 6-20 m/min &¨ &! ,v < 6 m/min &¨ & -=E S_ " %i!

² ‘ N l v > 20 m/min &¨ & ! ,7D  ]e


!
"¥ ¯ !
q$W Q"C
¯ ‘ ]- "
3 eW 7D h B
F  %H ˆ^= %ij *C FEw  F  Vt  $E; a ŠB TD. X  &
WM  Nj Q qU
¯ ndU %iu
¯ E$ x& ˆ^ *C „ ! " TD N-
3o17−2m t q$W x& ˆ^  (& ,Vc
 & 3 j &¶ … E°  %*EW '( T! TD. &¨ nd 0 r@( 
‡W E$ j{‘ ,6  N& N]e x& ! A!- ˆ^ qU
¯ oN
° Vtm $E; i"
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3Vc a "š q  oqU ² m Td N]e N l! 3 Dw
N `
° /Kc k!i^ "š g
'( ,TD. Vt a " sCD k‰" @( ŠB U82-
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Function and using of cylinders@ZòîØîÛ늇îa@pbãaìİ,ÿÛ@pbßa‡ƒn,üaë@ÑöbÃìÛa 5-2-2

:¦  !*+ $E;- eL N R! ƒ,® Ÿ= "!


:‫ﺃ( ﺍﻹﺯﺍﺣﺎﺕ‬
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o !0 jU*m -Z c  ˆ-9 h^£ ‰ =,. FU! 
3c  D$£ FU!! 

:‫ﻛﺔ‬‫ﺝ( ﺍﻟﺘﺠﻬﻴﺰﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺮ‬


¯
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3%* Zw$ 
3*£ 
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:‫ﺩ( ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺋﺮﺍﺕ‬
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Seat oils@ZH‡àÜÛaI@l‹BnÛa@pbÈãbß 6-2-2


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H > sbg 68 A
¯ AB¯
¯ Y¶=
3/!*+ N# oi!i m %SD –
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3 $E; %H0 O t [& = 
3$^L ¯
¯ E_; EC 

:‫ﺔ‬‫ﺏ( ﺍﳌﺎﻧﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﺮﻛﻴ‬


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¯ ¯
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gd &¨ l=E‘ ž! 3 j$.
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:/(! o18−2m t d=¥ 6$
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50
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:o19−2m t TD. 6*‰ j$

S  R ] .%
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: .%

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+U K


. K +'Y ,5D =% $': .%

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. #Fr

: .v w$ G$

19−2 
S  R ] #.% #

Drivers@ZHòîãaŠë‡Ûa@paŠŒaû¾aI@pb׋Da@ 3-2
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`
 a­- ‡d F $ wK ŠB !*+ wE G> g
/(! 3 ]X qK & |  
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51
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Valves@Zpbßbà—Ûa 4-2
,C qU r{ #! sDg ž , U. wE-   / ,   ]X xj
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j-*
'(
3Y=E. NZ U!

Directional control Valve@@Zêb¤übi@áØznÛa@pbßbà–@ 1-4-2


r{- o21−2m t  ]X r@(  
r{-   /U ¦-! ,/!*+ ,C qU
bc A
" 3 = j ~j F8 ! 0
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Cw! wE-   Cw ¢- e =e 5@-
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 N]X A  & ],i `
` @U. Q"C! 3%i& Š!; E i]& ! A,B,C,D H-
@U. "C
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&$
o22−2m c 78! ,2˜2 c- 9" N]X AOU 0
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52
òîãbrÛa@ñ†yìÛa

@U. "C

%* @U A 2˜2 N]e p sbg @d


B
ˆ^ Y¶ L
3˜2 N]e T 6  @d
:!

sbg @d A
4˜2 N]e
6  @d B
%* @U C
D 4˜3 N]e
ˆ^ Y¶ L

22−2 
kyM 8 @ #%vG
:‫ﻃﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬
k*W ". ^  Sc3%ij n> ‡E- r{-    ]X bc j8! D 
A ,FD F =& , !i ,FU *1 9 , 8. n  ‡K  3bc K ŠB N]X
`
=j !‰ N]X   G9" , $P % N]X bc- g
`
%ij q> ! 3%ij= *!Ž n-
de.- eL n  ‡K (; 1  d;  , ¢D 3 
’ ‰ !
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l¶ @d ! g-$ %i& F Nj ^ 

g-$ %i& F D

! =&

FD 1 F ! =&

g-$ %i& F !i


23−2 

53
òîãbrÛa@ñ†yìÛa

:)

% z5{

bc D !
=&

n-$

k!i F =&

24−2 

:5% )

% z5{
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h^  !
/!*+ N#    sbg-   /( o26−2m t  ]X r@( "
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[&  ]X r@( bc K "j 3N#
3n-$ E- { )

26−2 
+&U S
D( "vG

54
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A ‰B ]U Sc F-. "8 N]X F8! 3A B !
3A^L F GXZ T ! osbg @d m p N]X
`
3/jDK c- =b `
!
/jDK c- d N]X

E$D% A |} P g% dT( d&%


d&% T
27−2 

<B *c Sj= - N]X A


( Sj= - sbg N]e! ?ij sbg N]e ¢- f, ‡d
3n- [& ,  E-

`
. -^ `
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28−2 

3sbg ]# ! ,sbg Td  ]e :ŠB sbg  ]e C


+&U #%vG

+&U S
D( "vG ~ )ata +&o 8%
29−2 

:‫ﺻﻤﺎﻣﺎﺕ ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬


qK & N]X [& sbg Pp ž W. &   N]e l /jDE ‡Z_2 F8! 
8m n- sbg- ,C ^H  ž \TD. 7E ŠB W.  Ni ,C *Dj-  

55
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’ ,n- %w x
TD"= Gjd 7EC! sbg & { % ˆ$ ‰B on- sb8
N]X AOU
3%iu
’ "w & sbg i! Sj ". ,Y=; @|! 37d

:‫ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬
N]X [& sbg Pp! ,k. &  sbg-   AOU /jDK c- ‚d. #.  
 & N]X q=b! n- [& Pp %w  ž TD. 7E [& ,C FE"-   qK &
`
k¥ ŠB W sbg  KD( r@( ‡Z_2 ="& lDCU n- %w x
kL sb8 7DX
3  c- N]X q=b ,%iu "w ŠB kL sb8 X  &! 3oqU-   ŠB ?ip 4mN]X
AOU 5@ ,N]X k¥ & nd. "j sb8! N]X W & /"#&; "j sb8 sD8 !
3sbg Td N]e  C /  be
sb8 w & sU NC sbg ]#

Flow control Valve@ZÕχnÛbi@áØznÛa@pbßbà–@ 3-4-2


ž ,qU Gj [& Pp sbg  ]e F o30−2m t qU-    ]e "j
` qU Gj A  & 3%* ~j 0 &¨ # !
  ".  7DX
A
l ,-P
3sbg N]e F qU-   N]e "& qK & 5‰! ,qU C- N$

30−2 
dT 8 @ "vG

56
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&$ 3 !^=- %P­. S_ 5=! !^=- %P­.  ]X ¢- ^"$ $OU qU-   N]e  
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3sbg Sb lC Sj= - q$L U j  3Sj= -w q$W W!
`
3o31−2m t ,sbg A1 - g
Sj= - q$L —j!
j 9"  ! q$L ^ * <=Wi   EC"- Sj= - q$L N]X 9: !
3sbg
3o32−2m t ,Sj= -w N]X A
ŠB EC. x& *. ,. C Sc

qU iu qU iu

Sj= -w Sj= -w


31−2 
#*$D d$3

Sj= -w Sj= -w Xd. ^ 


q$W (U
32−2 
~ )4a dT 8 @ "vG

57
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Check Valve@ZÊìu‹Ûa@â‡Ç@pbßbà–@ 4-4-2


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& q=b. r{  AH= $ B '(  *W %*tB F 6  N& N]e   <$B ž 3  *W
3  *W %*tB qK

33−2 
R$> "F "vG

t [& N2 • *  3N2 • [& %^ % t [& 6  N&  ]X ^ !
! ,qU r{ ŠB T! q=b. r{ ŠB C v
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n-- "u "u S_


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t€} "vG  8 @% R$> "F "vG



> 6 ,  } d5V gF
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58
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l
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ƒ„ N]e ’
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FU Td N]e TD AOU
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59
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ZÁÌ›Ûa@Á,ë@ÑîîØmë@ñŠ‡ÔÛa@ÝÔã@ 5-2
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!*+ * EE¥   1  NC
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/,- 'u
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60
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3 g.! ' . ?i"j NiX & { hEW; Gj $* AOU 5‰
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61
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62
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Heaters@ZpbãbƒBÛa 3-7-2
`
—+3 &¶- [9. bc %* *i [& X  D_ o40−2m t $C ŠB k $
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sbg # !
   ]X r@(! wE- > ~j VEL [&  ]X l  N#=
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40−2 
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63
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Hydraulic Accumulator@ZòîØîÛ늇îa@á×a‹¾a 4-7-2


´ º —j
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Spring Loaded Accumulator :/x$^ . -

Piston Type Accumulator :fD. . -

Bladder Type Accumulator :»d. . -

:
 Š5€m 

 
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k>  & Vbg. ,C- i · /K A^" . NC :/K i B A^¥ −

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64
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Pipes and lines@Zpý–ìÛaë@áî a‹©aë@kîibãþa 5-7-2


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KL Q"C
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h #F‹ l 9(i M Q
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:
 dT h Œ
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4.0 m/s :"& sb8 50 bar Q

4.5 m/s :"& sb8 100 bar Q

5.0 m/s:"& sb8 150 bar Q

5.5 m/s :"& sb8 200 bar Q

6.0 m/s :"& sb8 300 bar Q

1.5 m/s :l  YD$


2.0 m/s :FUi YD$


`
:  X [& i]&- ; $D r@( ŠB i ’
Y=E. qU= N1Z ½j FE. lC€‘
Q
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" ij. r@(
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65
òîãbrÛa@ñ†yìÛa

o41−2m t :‫ﺃ( ﺍﳋﺮﺍﻃﻴﻢ ﺍﳌﺮﻧﺔ‬

’ !*+ ^H ¢- NC‘ $ -D$


Ze! /(!
ij-; %i! .  ;  !

 eWm -D$; VEL l U *@j / 0  NC! 3o !*+   eWm
:DK %& FX!
‘ 31^(! …Hg ¤X  5@ KL NC‘ ] 3o ’ . h^ ;

41−2 
)
 
 "$V53 


3 -$ !
A$-S-! ,! SC-! A=d! /&e VE &X o1m =W DE
3/&e  !
SC- !
‰d 'Z; Dt /(! sbg "  / /( QE DE
3sbg lC - 9
!
%! DK A
’ A
" o2m QE DE= ½j FE.
"‘ ] 3)W
i !
A* ¦D ,! SC-! N! /w! VE A o3m =j DE
`
3 !R !
$!^= Ud= =Wi %i]- $.  X 5@ -D$; VEL « 
’ A

:‫• ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﳋﺮﺍﻃﻴﻢ ﺍﳌﺮﻧﺔ‬


3 p >! *D& ¢j- ,i
@W
?*!z $. KL i]& &
3 *0! ,"! $. SP­= 8j ’ ,C x& . wE ŠB U82-
’ KL AOU
3o/ m /0! o/m ªC  j sbg > . ŸW;-!
3YC . sbg —j8
?!C A
"  ]X=
’ F¶ ‡Z_· H ¾ d. sbg 6d*
¯ v­ »B333 ,"! *0 !.! "0! /" v  $D- a  i  !
AOU
3 w de. i>
’ / /( (! j$X ¡
’
320023! 20022! DIN20021  %i . sbg! /" v- =j. e Q&‘ A

3DIN 20024  !E $. K= dj *DW

66
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:‫• ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﺎﺕ‬
: E$ )F %. +&U 
`
3 eW –
sbg= ,g
/0 N& c-! ,ªC  j sbg j$X ¡  i€
’ ‘
¯ ?
34 = A
 & F i€
3*Hd$ sb8 F-* (  j sbg A
’ ‘ ªC  j sbg
: 9DM +&o 
3sbg @( ˆ> Y¶ ’ ™Z‘ A
l sbg @(
’ ‘ !
Hd  NKL! , D{ " w-
:)59 +&U 
’  %.  j sbg /djg KL sbg‘
3 $P 60 & ^ ! $P 30 & 
:N$ O `&
h 

¯ * ! , j sbg & ¢j


"X [& "j Sb ’ GK * Q <K Sb
¯ ’
NKW 
’ ! +2% & ^  w Sb
3−4% &  ’ @(! 3 Dc QE DE
:s@M 5K XC 

YD;! 3#&;  j sbg & ?*j NKW 
be; h $ Ew ƒX$ i€
’ ‘
3)bX " r@( & VD+ N& .
:
. , 5: > - 
’ ‘ j %*0  *i 3N# x& *.
%c- = ’ ˆ^ ŠB %i’ . ="j %*  *i Sc‘
3NK= L "&
¯ ( $. KL l & ­=
5> A A
l! 37 e NC. GE A
’ –
` 9;  ;
`
]- SD ¯ 5@ U82- 3VEL [& SP­ A!i 4
A A
l h $ Ew ƒX$ AOU ` h^ ;
:KL F"{ & ; & nj- ¢D
² ‘ o42−2m c! 3/d

42−2 

$ 8
V53 =
y

67
òîãbrÛa@ñ†yìÛa

’ !*+   e! ~j %i& KL NC


¦-! 3 -P "#$
%& ! 
o6−2m G!£! ,/!*+ N# H > & *D& ¢j- ∆p sbg VD( @W
?*!z
3l-$;  sbg VD( $* 78
6−2 N >
(Prof. Charchut) 
$ 8
V5P ∆p 25 % %
(p = 850 kg/m3 ; v = 20 mm2/s) G #1
/y 2  N$V J%    ∆P
NG da 10 20 30 50 70 100 125 150 175 200
(mm) (L/min) (L/min)
6 14 0.33 1.13 2.16
18 0.14 0.46 0.88
8 16 0.10 0.31 0.59 1.41 1.2
20 0.045 0.12 0.23 0.55 0.97 0.82 1.2
10 19 0.045 0.12 0.23 0.55 0.97 0.82 1.2
22 0.02 0.04 0.08 0.19 0.37 0.65 0.96 0.68 0.87 1.1
12 20 0.02 0.04 0.08 0.19 0.37 0.65 0.96 0.68 0.87 1.1
26 0.008 0.02 0.03 0.075 0.15 0.27 0.39 0.57 0.73 0.92
16 26 0.01 0.041 0.07 0.14 0.2 0.27 0.35 0.43
30 0.021 0.04 0.073 0.1 0.15 0.186 0.23
20 30 0.012 0.02 0.041 0.06 0.007 0.106 0.136
34 0.013 0.025 0.035 0.05 0.106 0.083
24 36 0.009 0.016 0.023 0.032 0.06 0.051
38.1 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.04 0.033
32 46 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.025 0.014
50.8 0.003 0.004 0.005 0.011 0.009
40 60.3 0.003 0.004

®= Ze! Q"C


’ ‘ ]- gj- F Q !
^H d=. h^ ; ŠB KL e A
"
’  X A

[& Pp ¯ "g -9 NKL Ze!! 3o43−2m t F¶ s- Ze! !

: ="j

43−2 
G$ – "$V53

68
òîãbrÛa@ñ†yìÛa

:‫ﺏ( ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻼﺕ‬
:"$V53 Ž5 F G$ 
 0
 5V ‰ DIN 24950 DG$% 0K5Th (a
:I$ 0 "$V53 G •
’ ‘ NKL- Y=E. ˆD9
A
" r@( NKL =e! A
] 3 =C. h^ § *u ®=- q€
µ
3N %i&2 =-w! eW ^{ A!- N& c- ’ ‘
l

:,  
h "$V53 G •
’ ‘ NKL- Y=E. ˆD9
NKL =e!! 3w; [& ¢K!. ˆD9 /,^ 
<c- q€
’ %i&2 =-w S_ /(! eW !i
N- l
3l !
5d ’ ‘ A
" r@(

: 0
( •
’ ‘ NKL- Y=E. ˆD9
%i&2 -w ˆD9 @(! 3v+- !
/ *W ˆD9 l= N- q€
’
’ ‘ A
"! l! 5d
3s" lC a!- !
eW !i
N- l

:S  %1 0


( •
lC %i ’ N- q€
’  . KL N1Z N ? ’ ‘ NKL- Y=E. ˆD9
6 @(! 3DIN32620 lC %i
’ . c -D$; ^; N- !
,DIN3017
Cw F ƒX! ’ ‘ A
" ˆD9
’ ‘ "X lC a!- !
eW !i
N- 5@ l
3 j Vbg= D aOU
’ Á [&! 3l! 5d
’ %i&2 - Ze

:uB "$V53 0
( •
c GZW %i&
` q€’ ‘ NKL- Y=E. ˆD9 3Gt; d=¥ ˆD9 F-e
 FX‘ %i&
`
’ ‘ A
"!
%i&2 -w (! eW !i
A!- ˆD9 6 @( l ‘ 3os-.m FDe§ l
3 j Vbg= D S_ aOU
’ Á [&! 3l! 5d
’

69
òîãbrÛa@ñ†yìÛa

:
 #tG$ ‰ DIN 24950 0K5Th (b
o44−2m t :G$ # V 
K$ #tG$ +5 Ž5V7 R$7

:I$% G •
3 C- %i!^
’

:
$7 G •
3s_g ^H ,YD$­- %i!^
’

:'T G •
3 c=d- %i!^
’

:
: G •
3 = - %i!^
’

: K G •
S_ !
%® dX$ $*- %i!^
’
44−2  3%®
G$ # V 
K$ #tG$ +5 Ž5V7 R$7
:
:$( G •
3/= s-- %i!^
’

70
òîãbrÛa@ñ†yìÛa

Π1>  '(
:8
V53 0
( #tG g% s h ) . 45−2  ‰
\G $%G •
:> •
’ ‘ 3NKL ‡E
D9! ®=. D9 ¢- ( ‡d! ’ ?@ NKL s-  h^£ (!
3NKL ^= !  ^=. D9! *­.
:
T5% 0
( ?
7 ,?> $'^ =G7 •
’ 3 =e —K [& GX
^H   Q! ` ’ NKL Wi ¡€‘ ?@ „j (!
’ @d
-! NKL —K [& &8. s- h^
¢- ˆwU ’ c- %i!^.
’ DIN24950 AOU ’
:ˆD9 E$ [& &8.
3NKL "8 %-
’ ¡  Q
’ =e !  : =e NKL —K [& 
ˆD9
’ ‘ l-$
,NB a ‰ Ze! , ®= Ze!   :s-. =e —K [& 
3e! = !
c=U ,YD$
,W  $ !-

45−2 
=G − 8
V53 G +

71
òîãbrÛa@ñ†yìÛa

o46−2m t 5d !


l j¨ Ze= F¶ s- Ze! NC‘ A
"‘
3j
’ . ƒ=¥ 
’ sb8    ž U 36 * N& N]e
e AOU ’ =-w A!- !
F  B’ %U Ze r@(!
’ 5d
3/!*+ ,C Y¶
’ A!- 6 * N& N]e
’ E- 4

3n-$ −5 3 K!¥ j$ −3 3e j¨  e −1


3/= nD −6 3 j$. F8
’ A −4 3e E$ −2
46−2 
~D .‹ G

:‫ﺝ( ﺍﳋﻄﻮﻁ ﺍﻷﻧﺒﻮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻮﻻﺫﻳﺔ‬


lC iu
’ ( ] l-$
VE
X= =-w S_ A*£ "&$ ‰d l-$; NC‘
A
 & [&! YD$;  #&; sbg [& i]&- l-$§ A*£ ] lC>‘! 3DIN 2391
3 X- ’ 
/0 j- 3 D / !i
N-! C- !
i*D [&  B’ l-$; Q>‘ A
"‘ l Dw!
’
D [&! 3h 2 @( hP
=c. ¡ DE 12 d# l W l-$; A  &!
:1 =e! ŠB YD$
!
YD$; YD$
Ze= D  ~j :G9.
3o ="j sb8 [& "jm 38 /" E Q : ®=. l-$; Ze! •
338 /" E ‡U : c=d- Ze •

72
òîãbrÛa@ñ†yìÛa

o47−2m t :
 I$ ?
 #tG ‰ DIN 3850 0K5Th
3N = "& Ze! •
3 Kbg$ Ze! •
3o¢£ m k!i^ /K!¥  ‰ = Ze! •
3  = ! C- Ze! •
3  $ Ze! •
3?! s"$ ‰ C- Ze! •

47−2 
I$% 
$7 G

`
¢ qcj & 3&t ’ N C
®=. ^H V]$
9
/( Kbg$ Ze AOU
YD$;  ¶! ˆD9 3e  e c- `
’ =e= ±W V!. ŠB o¶!m ¡ = FU‘ j
3N2  e FU‘  &
7−2 N >

V&UM #tG$ 
LL .
DIN ?: X5. XG$
3816 Vbg$ =
3862 !i^ K!¥ =
3863 $j $ED- %i!^
’ !
3864 $j $ED- %i!^
’ dt
3867 sb8 =

73
òîãbrÛa@ñ†yìÛa

8−2 N >
#.% #tG$ 
LL .

XG$ ?: X5. #.v 


LL .
DIN
e!  e A 3870 Vbg$ =
B !i^ K!¥ =
C %"C-  = c=U D=
/,- v-  = c=U D=
e!  e 3872 Kbg$ = F $1
e! }!=w A 3871 Vbg$ =
!i^ K!¥ =
C $j $ED- %i!^
’ !
$j $ED- %i!^
’ dt

:I$ 
$ #tG$ =% "P(i 
 
T5 #tG$ 2’T
h ~_ To
3 "C Ze! •
3%"C-  = Ze! ,T — c- ,L — c- , !1 Ze! •
3  $ C Ze! ,  = C Ze! ,v! %
’ Ze! •
3DIN 3850  *.  X d=¥ i&­- Ze i’ . s" U!
3DIN 3850  *j. ®=. Ze= " Vbg!  Uj "‘ 5@
,x; l-$§ 5@ dc Ze NC!
‘
A
!
 E- YD$;- dc ˆD9
’ ‘ A
"‘ 5@
:¢dt ¢=e! o48−2m c ¢’ D!
‘ 3<j 
à  =‘
’ ] 3K= )W;! l-$§ %!
 N A

48−2  F,t o‡C. Cm NPT ! o?. Cm B.S.F


'T G
3 ®= Ze 5!*+ 

74
òîãbrÛa@ñ†yìÛa

o49−2m t :‫• ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻂ‬

’ ‘  KL! l-$;-  ]X=


q€ ’ ’
 D. e AB
` iXw!
&w NC‘ lDC @+! 3j ` `  #$
 M ` `
 !i
µ
‡K! 3e ^H 5!*+  F! c- s-
’
qU ’ N]X=
*C =! ’ `
j¨ `
ZD 7 r@( e
3/!*+ ,C=
Uj ’  ]X
’ *j  U + r@( s- &w AOU ’ ]!
49−2  3DIN ISO 4401 lC
+5 F$K
’ à ! & r@( [& A­-  ]X
’ ‘ P
 l ’ ˆD9
’ ‘
 !*+ l-$;- e! «
’ !
  
3W l$£
3o !*( KZ-m 6d
’ [& e.  ]X=
’ d=¥ KZ- NC‘ l-$; "P  SU=!
3%*.
’ à ’ >
*  ’ = *!z e  U F lX  eW ’  FX!
‘
’ F"R c
3oKZD m > ’ à ’
r@( eL ’  e A
"!
‘

:‫ﺃ( ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﺑﻂ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻗﻮﱄ‬

C,* %&w ŠB }!!Z-! •


* k- t [& gj- F E de [&  ]X
’ e
3%i!u -=E. l-$; " A ¦-! 3 c

:‫ﺏ( ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﺑﻂ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﱄ‬


’ 3 ^  7,dX- gj- & Xd K 7,de :
U ’ ‘ ,>
’ *i %& ?€ ?@ N# 
3 ^ 0 dX F C- ˆD9
’ ‘ A
"‘ 
  ]X
’ ƒe
’ !
i;  ]X
’

75
òîãbrÛa@ñ†yìÛa

Pressure Gauge (manometers)@ZÁÌ›Ûa@H‘bîÓ@ñèucI@5îíbÔß@Êaìãc 6-7-2


o50−2m t :‫ﺃ( ﻣﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺃﻧﺒﻮﺑﺔ ﺑﻮﺭﺩﻭﻥ‬
`
3A!i*- -D$

D lC "j ,  9; v.
’ -D$; x& ,C qU
sbg AOU ’  & 3c ?!g- 7EC
’ ½& FE  . A!i*- -D$;
’ [& Pp
/ . 7EC! / *L / . 7EC ¢- C. —ZW lDC-! 3s E$  ’ ‘ <Cd$

’ ‘ 12 r@( 39


A!i*- -D$
/> / *L 7EC [& x
%w
qK &  p ŠB G> ’ … ±W
3k*.
’ v. sbg v‘ A
" (& 3‡P *!i FDeB! =&
’ W [& "š ‘ U l
GX ` ’ T T. 6 @(!
’ ‘ A
l! 3sbg &d* 8 "u
`- 100 bar ‡U Vbg= D= !
$!^=0 A!i*- -D$
NC! 3sbg  n- ]0
3 , A!i*- -D$­- 100 bar Q
’ Vbg v‘ A
"! 3 ,
’ ‘ A
"! jw  ˆD*
3sU + %i’ . Fw.  l ’ ‘ ‰B C
’ T. r@(

50−2 
2 - $ $7 “
%

:‫ﺏ( ﻣﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﺍﻟﻐﺸﺎﺋﻲ‬

sbg= N! hc_ !


jH Aj sbg= N! T- A!i*- -D$
ˆD
‘ v. @( 
’
¢dt ¢- l
sbg i€
’ ‘ @( œd$ * 3T !
hcb »d hcb !
T= ±W 7EC sbg‘  &
ŠB X A
"!
‘ "X [& sbg j
’ "j 3 M qK &  p
’ ŠB G€!
’ ‘ v.
325 bar

76
òîãbrÛa@ñ†yìÛa

:‫ﺝ( ﻣﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﺍﳌﻜﺒﺴﻲ‬


’ { % ,TD [& /!*+ ,C Pp
sb8 %w Tj- Pp ’ fD. sbg v 
/"u
’ µ
fD. sbg v 3TD. F  D c- X
’ v.  sbg #‘ ?@  p.
’ 3n-
3%,^ "0 8

:‫ﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ‬‫ﺩ( ﺣﺴ‬

C0 ’ 9
sb8 T '(
’ r@(  3/Eb8! SP­ NC ^* &X wi
’ sbg= l * !
 *X‘ / ^* %*=- [& ¦-! hc_ & sbg Pp
’ ‘ 3Pp.
g ’
3sbg= vw t [& *®B %i­- #!
‘ ,- %*t2 r@(
G€
’ ‘ 3sbg ˆ> hcb /  3hc_ [& X= jd$ T F "j C0
’ )W
V]$

)W
h^ ­- #! `
‘ ‘ ,- ’ ‘ *t2 r@( 3 ,- %*tB ŠB sbg … v. i:
g ’
,- g €  … i‘‘ C0
’ 6 @(   3oi&
’ ,v , ttm ^H
3Gjd$ v F % D
`

:
45/  +&U #L:
h #1
%
h
qK & HC ‘ e 'Z
N- %j- V$ ŠB v.‘ sbg $ "‘
’ ‘ A
"!
3="& HC
’
’
3g. qK & sbg  ]X
’  D. n  ". 5@

:‫ﻣﻘﺎﻳﻴﺲ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻓﹼﻖ ﺍﳊﺠﻤﻴﺔ‬


’ 3qU-
Ÿ d sC-; E AOU ’ ’  N]e ’
’ > !
g hi
Ÿ d id v l=K‘ ‰B
’
3vw h&! N /( /"H0 qU
à QD A
l /!*+ N#  qU

*W lHU "C c- <"w *®B F `Dw ’ A ‰B
’
3 w! hi; D=E F NhZ  dX  !i;

77
òîãbrÛa@ñ†yìÛa

o51−2m t :‫( ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﻓﹼﻖ‬


 TD [& SP­ [& *iw
³ V!¥ ˆD9
’ ‘ ž A d x& ,C *" ’ v
’ ‘ ,C qU
’ ‰B 3v -D$

r{ Tj- TD. sbg‘ TD.! V!. ¢- v. x& /!*+ ,C qU
’
F qU AH= ½j FE. C 3 = d "j TD. 3qU * lC - n-
’ ‘ sbg Sb
3n- F TD. A1! Pp. ’ Q TD. '’  3− FE. F8 – <j8
’
 ­EL Gj 3qU= ’ d & sbg Sb
v" # TD. 1B AOU ’
’ [& "j qU ’ ]-!
A

3%4 *®2

51−2 
h “
%
”5F =% dT(

j$]. ¤w
! (d T ! C.! ?gD ¤ ‰ T.! v d& NC‘
’ 9; =
3/j8. ’ = !
’ .- !
 ^ $E;- ’ ! # wi
’ GZW m (*®B ! qU=
osE¥ ’ H &¶ * ’ N- %,i
’ ‘ 3qU ` dj [& ™U€‘
`
#‘ &¶! 3vw 1 GZW g> ’ TC>  3/C. '’ . /C. v. FX‘
 
3%*t2 Gu ’ "w
’ GZW qU
`
v.   ]! g
`
g> v‘ &¶ )W
%
’ 3
D. Td- "j ?gD Ä v.
’
3 . &¶ YC qU ’ /C.
YC "! ,—!j %H0 H AOU
’
3qU= " #! `
‘ ,- ’ ‘ ∆p v‘ (d v  
G>!

78
òîãbrÛa@ñ†yìÛa

o52−2m c  ] :‫ ﻣﺒﺪﺃ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﻴﺤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺻﻠﺔ‬−


A£ Gj `
’ F l Kt ’
^H / A£ YD$
 =ed dX [& qU ’ ‘
Pp
’ #!
K 3qU ’ ‘ /,- kL %*tB 3 C Z  E- Vc GK TC>
‘ G> ’  ’
’ 3oqU m
3 g> &¶ YC

52−2 
)
 $( “
%

:  1  t [& !*+ EE.  v !i


#!

sb8 v

%* A^
qU v
h. )C  p
53−2 

79
òîãbrÛa@ñ†yìÛa

Safety @@Zæbßþa@pb bînya 8-2


3DIN 24346  %i’ .  A ;  & N^- 5 X$ /!*+ N#=
’ q=j
%id.  - ’ / (VBG) ¢ ­ Cp !pC i>
’ G]j=
’ i0 F de
’ ‘ )W
A
¼iD 5@ *D& ¢j- @Wp A
l! o !*+ T-.m 9 =  #!
E
µ *w
: –; G& µ [& /(! (

` sbg !  #$
3<d®! =j  ˆ ‰B *1 ` ’  •
bc
’  •
3VEL F” X ©  @b %*i bc
3A^L ’ ­
’ ŠB ?ip ol¶ l-$
m %ij VEW F” A
’ •
’
7U N#= ¦!; bc &! 3 dX ~& S_ ’ 3*@ - N# sb8 Td$’ e Dw •
’ P
Td  ]e `
’ 
3 j sbg ŠB N# sb8 FU*  [&! D   c- A ; N]e
’
’  E- l
3="& Ej ’ A
l sbg
’  ]X
3 U!j A A
l D. ’ F” •
3$E;! N# Td$’ •
’ •
3<B Ge  A  ¼*E ‚d l*
3sU w h^
N •
’  Sb
3hÅ G–B A!- %* sE¥ ’ F” A!i
’ •
3‚8- /" sbg ŠB *c‘ A
l •
3 j /"#&; sbg &  N#  D. ’ ­
’ ^H A
’ •
’
3N# ŠB <Wi " . h+ Ÿ= ’ ‘ E- "X
: ’ ‘ A
l l C l-$

360 °C1!H 
l g.
’ ŠB ¤X  sW  %*0 *i •
3 ew
’ ) Œj
’ 
l! 3/   A
l $E; T- 6*‰

3=!
’ ƒ= T-. 6*‰
 •

80
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m
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1 bar = 10 N/cm2 105 1 102 750 1.02

1 mbar = 1 N/dm2 100 10-3 1 0.75 1.02 × 10-3

1 Torr = 1 mm Hg 1.33 × 102 1.33 × 10-3 1.33 1 1.36 × 10-3

1 at = 1 kp/cm2 0.981 × 105 0.981 0.981 × 103 736 1

:N%
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5000 kPa = ? bar

5000000
P = 5000 kPa = 5000000 Pa = 5000000 × 10 −5 bar = bar = 50 bar
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:‫ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺟﻊ ﺍﻷﺟﻨﺒﻴﺔ‬:‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺎﹰ‬

1. Basic Principals & Components of Fluid Technology, H. E xnor


Mannesman 1991.

2. Hydraulics, headquarters, department of the army, published 31murch


1997, USA of Army.

3. Fluid Power, prepared by MMC Albert Beasley, Jr. 1990. NAVAL


EDUCATION AND TRAINING PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT
AND TECHNOLOGY CENTER.

4. Practical Hydraulic Systems, Elsevier (2005), Publisher: Elsevier Science


Technology Books: March 2005.

5. Practical Machinery Vibration Analysis and Predictive Maintenance,


Paresh Girdhar BEng (Mech. Eng), Girdhar and Associates published
2004 AMSTERDAM • BOSTON

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