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 Research Phase

SAMPLING DESIGNS: Design and Select a research design


Qualitative Research Planning Develop study procedures
FAMILY AND COMMUNITY MEDICINE 1 Phase Determine the sampling and
data collection plan.

RESEARCH METHODS 1 RESEARCH METHODS 1


FAMILY AND COMMUNITY MEDICINE FAMILY AND COMMUNITY MEDICINE 1
Marivic A. Villamor, MD, MHPEd, PhD
Marivic A. Villamor, MD, MHPEd, PhD
SAMPLING SAMPLING_PURPOSE
🛍 Draw conclusions about populations from samples.
🛍Act, process, or technique of selecting a 🛍 Inferences from the sample to the population
suitable sample, or a representative part of a
population for the purpose of determining
parameters or characteristics of the whole
population.

https://newonlinecourses.science.psu.edu/stat200/sites/stat200/files/inline-images/InferenceGraphicSU17.png

RESEARCH METHODS 1 RESEARCH METHODS 1


http://www.indiana.edu/~educy520/sec5982/week_2/ FAMILY AND COMMUNITY MEDICINE 1 FAMILY AND COMMUNITY MEDICINE 1
mugo02sampling.pdf http://www.indiana.edu/~educy520/sec5982/week_2/mugo02sampling.pdf
Marivic A. Villamor, MD, MHPEd, PhD Marivic A. Villamor, MD, MHPEd, PhD
RESEARCH METHODS 1 RESEARCH METHODS 1
https://www.questionpro.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2018/04/Sampling-Methods.jpg FAMILY AND COMMUNITY MEDICINE 1
Marivic A. Villamor, MD, MHPEd, PhD
https://research-methodology.net/sampling-in-primary-data-collection/ FAMILY AND COMMUNITY MEDICINE 1
Marivic A. Villamor, MD, MHPEd, PhD
SAMPLING PROCESS NONPROBABILITY SAMPLING
🛍 Define the population of concern 🛍 Nonprobability Sampling
🛍 Specify a sampling frame, a set of items or events possible to 🛍 Individuals are selected because they are available,
measure
convenient, and represent some characteristic the
🛍 Specify a sampling method for selecting items or events from the
investigator seeks to study.
frame
🛍 Convenience and snowball sampling approaches
🛍 Determine the sample size

🛍 Implement the sampling plan

🛍 Sample and data collection

🛍 Review the sampling process

RESEARCH METHODS 1 RESEARCH METHODS 1


FAMILY AND COMMUNITY MEDICINE 1 FAMILY AND COMMUNITY MEDICINE 1
Marivic A. Villamor, MD, MHPEd, PhD Marivic A. Villamor, MD, MHPEd, PhD
PURPOSEFUL SAMPLING SAMPLING PLAN
🛍 A formal plan specifying
🛍 sampling method
🛍 sample size
🛍 procedure for recruiting participants.

RESEARCH METHODS 1 RESEARCH METHODS 1


FAMILY AND COMMUNITY MEDICINE 1 FAMILY AND COMMUNITY MEDICINE 1
Marivic A. Villamor, MD, MHPEd, PhD Marivic A. Villamor, MD, MHPEd, PhD
SAMPLING PLAN SAMPLING PLAN_ QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
Key features
Participants are always sampled deliberately.
A qualitative sampling plan describes how Sample size differs for each study and is small.
The sample will emerge during the study
many observations, interviews, focus- group based on further questions raised in the process of data collection and
discussions or cases are needed to ensure analysis
inclusion and exclusion criteria might be altered
that the findings will contribute rich data. the sampling sites might be changed
The sample is determined by conceptual requirements and not primarily by
representativeness.

RESEARCH METHODS 1 RESEARCH METHODS 1


FAMILY AND COMMUNITY MEDICINE 1 FAMILY AND COMMUNITY MEDICINE 1
Marivic A. Villamor, MD, MHPEd, PhD Marivic A. Villamor, MD, MHPEd, PhD
PURPOSEFUL SAMPLING PURPOSEFUL SAMPLING

Involves identifying and selecting individuals


A technique widely used in qualitative research for or groups of individuals that are especially
the identification and selection of information-rich knowledgeable about or experienced with a
cases for the most effective use of limited phenomenon of interest (Cresswell and Plano
resources (Patton 2002). Clark 2011).

RESEARCH METHODS 1 RESEARCH METHODS 1


FAMILY AND COMMUNITY MEDICINE 1 FAMILY AND COMMUNITY MEDICINE 1
Marivic A. Villamor, MD, MHPEd, PhD Marivic A. Villamor, MD, MHPEd, PhD
SAMPLING PLAN_ QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

RESEARCH METHODS 1 RESEARCH METHODS 1


FAMILY AND COMMUNITY MEDICINE 1 https://research-methodology.net/wp-content/uploads/2012/06/Purposive-sampling.jpg FAMILY AND COMMUNITY MEDICINE 1
Marivic A. Villamor, MD, MHPEd, PhD Marivic A. Villamor, MD, MHPEd, PhD
RESEARCH METHODS 1 RESEARCH METHODS 1
https://cdn.scribbr.com/wp-content/uploads//2019/09/non-probability-sampling-2.png FAMILY AND COMMUNITY MEDICINE 1 https://cdn.scribbr.com/wp-content/uploads//2019/09/non-probability-sampling-2.png FAMILY AND COMMUNITY MEDICINE 1
Marivic A. Villamor, MD, MHPEd, PhD Marivic A. Villamor, MD, MHPEd, PhD
SAMPLING PLAN_ QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

RESEARCH METHODS 1 RESEARCH METHODS 1


FAMILY AND COMMUNITY MEDICINE 1 FAMILY AND COMMUNITY MEDICINE 1
Marivic A. Villamor, MD, MHPEd, PhD Marivic A. Villamor, MD, MHPEd, PhD
SAMPLE SIZE ETHICS IN QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
🛍 Interviews 🛍 A guiding principle in qualitative research is to sample only until
🛍 below 10 to no more than 30 people 
 data saturation has been achieved.
🛍 Focus Groups 🛍 Data saturation
🛍 3 and 6 groups with around 4 to 8 people in each 
 🛍 The collection of qualitative data to the point where a sense
of closure is attained because new data yield redundant
🛍 Participatory Methods
🛍 10 and 20 people 

information.
🛍 reached when no new analytical information arises anymore,
🛍  Observational Methods and the study provides maximum information on the
🛍 5 and 15 observational situations phenomenon.

RESEARCH METHODS 1 RESEARCH METHODS 1


https://www.ageuk.org.uk/globalassets/age-uk/documents/reports-and-publications/reports-and-briefings/guidance-- FAMILY AND COMMUNITY MEDICINE 1 http://www.columbia.edu/~mvp19/RMC/M5/QualEthics.pdf FAMILY AND COMMUNITY MEDICINE 1
sample_size_estimation_for_qualitative_methods_april2017.pdf Marivic A. Villamor, MD, MHPEd, PhD Marivic A. Villamor, MD, MHPEd, PhD
RESEARCH PARTICIPANTS GUIDELINES_ ETHICS
🛍 Main role of human participants in research is to serve as sources of data. 🛍 Autonomy
🛍 Researchers have a duty to protect the research subjects’ 🛍 This principle is honored by informed consent
🛍 life

🛍 health
🛍 Participants exercise their rights as autonomous persons to
🛍 dignity
voluntarily accept or refuse to participate in the study.
🛍 integrity 🛍 Consent has been referred to as a negotiation of trust, and it
🛍 right to self-determination requires continuous renegotiation (Field & Morse, 1992;
🛍 privacy Kvale, 1996; Munhall, 1988).
🛍 confidentiality of personal information

RESEARCH METHODS 1 RESEARCH METHODS 1


FAMILY AND COMMUNITY MEDICINE 1 FAMILY AND COMMUNITY MEDICINE 1
Marivic A. Villamor, MD, MHPEd, PhD Marivic A. Villamor, MD, MHPEd, PhD
GUIDELINES_ ETHICS GUIDELINES_ ETHICS
🛍 Beneficence 🛍 Justice
🛍 Doing good for others and preventing harm. 🛍 Principle of justice refers to equal share and fairness.
🛍 One of the crucial and distinctive features of this principle is
🛍 Researchers are responsible for:
avoiding exploitation and abuse of participants.
🛍 designing the research to minimize the risks of harm or
discomfort to participants
🛍 clarifying for participants the potential benefits and

risks of the research


🛍 the welfare of the participants in the research context.

RESEARCH METHODS 1 RESEARCH METHODS 1


FAMILY AND COMMUNITY MEDICINE 1 FAMILY AND COMMUNITY MEDICINE 1
Marivic A. Villamor, MD, MHPEd, PhD Marivic A. Villamor, MD, MHPEd, PhD
GUIDELINES_ ETHICS GUIDELINES _ ETHICS
🛍 Justice 🛍 Respect
🛍 Takes into account the 🛍 Respect for human beings is a recognition of their intrinsic value.
🛍 recognising vulnerability of the participants and their contributions to the study.

🛍 scope
🛍 In human research,
🛍 objectives of the proposed research
🛍 this recognition includes abiding by the values of research merit and integrity, justice and
beneficence.
🛍 selection

🛍 exclusion and inclusion of categories of research participants is fair


🛍 Respect also requires having due regard for the
🛍 accurately described in the results of the research.
1. Welfare
2. Beliefs
3. Perceptions
🛍 Research outcomes should be made accessible to research participants in a 4. Customs
way that is timely and clear. 5. Cultural heritage

RESEARCH METHODS 1 RESEARCH METHODS 1


FAMILY AND COMMUNITY MEDICINE 1 FAMILY AND COMMUNITY MEDICINE 1
Marivic A. Villamor, MD, MHPEd, PhD Marivic A. Villamor, MD, MHPEd, PhD
ETHICAL GUIDELINES
🛍 Quotes another person’s actual words, either oral or written
🛍 Paraphrases another person’s words, either oral or written
🛍 Uses another person’s idea, opinion, or theory
🛍 Borrows facts, statistics, or other illustrative material, unless
the information is common knowledge

RESEARCH METHODS 1 RESEARCH METHODS 1


UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA,CENTER FOR BIOETHICS FAMILY AND COMMUNITY MEDICINE 1 FAMILY AND COMMUNITY MEDICINE 1
Marivic A. Villamor, MD, MHPEd, PhD Marivic A. Villamor, MD, MHPEd, PhD
https://slideplayer.com/slide/12697525/76/images/4/Non-Probability+Sampling.jpg