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LEADERSHIP

TABLE OF CONTENTS
1 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................... 1
1.1 OBJECTIVE: ........................................................................................................................ 1
1.2 LEADERSHIP DEFINED ........................................................................................................ 1
2 EARLY STUDIES: THE TRAIT APPROACH TO LEADERSHIP .................................. 2
2.1 WHAT TRAITS OR CHARACTERISTICS GO TO MAKE UP AN EFFECTIVE LEADER? ............. 2
2.2 ASSETS AND LIABILITIES WITH THE TRAIT APPROACH TO LEADERSHIP ........................ 2
3 EARLY STUDIES: LEADERSHIP STYLE ......................................................................... 3
3.1 AUTHORITARIAN, DEMOCRATIC, AND LAISSEZ FAIRE ..................................................... 3
3.2 EARLY LEWIN, LIPPIT, AND WHITE STUDY ...................................................................... 3
4 EARLY STUDIES: THE BEHAVIORAL APPROACH TO LEADERSHIP ................... 4
4.1 OHIO STATE LEADERSHIP STUDIES (1945) ....................................................................... 4
4.2 ASSETS AND LIABILITIES WITH THE LATER BEHAVIORAL APPROACH ............................ 4
5 EARLY STUDIES: BLAKE AND MOUTON’S MANAGERIAL GRID .......................... 5
5.1 CONCERN FOR PRODUCTION AND PEOPLE ........................................................................ 5
5.2 IS THERE ONE “BEST” LEADERSHIP STYLE? ...................................................................... 5
6 THE CONTINGENCY APPROACH: FIEDLER'S CONTINGENCY THEORY .......... 6
6.1 ASSUMPTIONS OF FIEDLER'S THEORY............................................................................... 6
6.2 LEADER PERSONALITY....................................................................................................... 6
6.3 LEADERSHIP STYLE ............................................................................................................ 6
6.4 THE SITUATION .................................................................................................................. 6
6.5 FIEDLER'S MODEL OF LEADER-SITUATION MATCH ........................................................ 7
7 CONTEMPORARY THEORIES: IMPLICIT LEADERSHIP THEORY (ILT): THE
FOLLOWER’S PERSPECTIVE ............................................................................................ 8
7.1 WHAT MAKES A LEADER A REAL LEADER”........................................................................ 8
7.2 WHAT MAKES FOLLOWERS WANT TO FOLLOW? ............................................................... 8
7.3 PROTOTYPICALITY:............................................................................................................ 8
7.4 WHAT COMES WITH LEADER PROTOTYPICALITY.............................................................. 8
7.5 ILT: IMPLICATIONS FOR YOU ........................................................................................... 9

Leader S OB.docx © Anthony T. Cobb 10/8/2010


8 CONTEMPORARY THEORIES: LEADER-MEMBER EXCHANGE THEORY (LMX)
.................................................................................................................................................... 9
8.1 LEADERS AND FOLLOWERS ARE IN AN EXCHANGE RELATIONSHIP ................................... 9
8.2 TRANSACTIONAL EXCHANGE ............................................................................................. 9
8.3 RELATIONAL EXCHANGE.................................................................................................. 10
8.4 LMX DEVELOPMENT........................................................................................................ 10
8.5 LMX: IMPLICATIONS FOR YOU ....................................................................................... 10
9 SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP: A PRACTITIONER’S CONTINGENCY THEORY 11
9.1 BASIC ASSUMPTIONS ........................................................................................................ 11
9.2 BASIC FOCUS AND GOALS ................................................................................................ 11
9.3 FOUR STYLES OF LEADERSHIP ......................................................................................... 12
9.4 ASSESSING "READINESS LEVEL" .................................................................................... 13
9.5 USING LIFE CYCLE THEORY: .......................................................................................... 14
9.6 LIFE CYCLE THEORY MODEL: ........................................................................................ 15
9.1 THERE ARE FOUR STAGES OF SUBORDINATE DEVELOPMENT REQUIRING DIFFERENT
LEADER BEHAVIORS: ....................................................................................................... 16
9.3 LIFE CYCLE THEORY "MISMATCH" ANALYSIS: ............................................................ 17
9.4 TWO - QUADRANT PROFILE ANALYSES: ......................................................................... 18

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LEADERSHIP
1 Introduction
1.1 Objective:

1.2 Leadership Defined


2 Early Studies: The Trait Approach to Leadership
2.1 What traits or characteristics go to make up an effective leader?

2.2 Assets and Liabilities with the Trait Approach to Leadership

2
3 Early Studies: Leadership Style
3.1 Authoritarian, Democratic, and Laissez Faire

3.2 Early Lewin, Lippit, and White Study

Outcome /
Authoritarian Democratic Laissez Faire
Super Style

Prod w/ Supervision

Prod w/o Supervision

Satisfaction

3.2.1 Assets and Liabilities with the Leadership Style Approach to Leadership

3
4 Early Studies: The Behavioral Approach to Leadership
• What specific leader behaviors are best?

4.1 Ohio State Leadership Studies (1945)

4.1.1 Initiating Structure Defined


• The extent to which a leader organizes and defines roles for workers, and
explains what activities each is to do and when, where, and how tasks are to
be accomplished.

4.1.2 Consideration Defined:


• The extent to which a leader builds and maintains personal relationships
between himself/herself and workers; characterized by opening up channels
of communication, support, positive reinforcement, friendship, and mutual
respect and trust.

4.2 Assets and Liabilities with the Later Behavioral Approach

4
5 Early Studies: Blake and Mouton’s Managerial Grid
5.1 Concern for Production and People

C 1,9 9,9
o
n
c
e
r
n
5.5
F
o
r

P
e
o 1,1 9,1
p
l
e

C o n c e r n f o r P r o d u c t i o n

5.2 Is there one “best” leadership style?


• Is (9,1) ever best?

• Is (1,9) ever best?

• Is (1,1) ever best?

5
6 The Contingency Approach: Fiedler's Contingency Theory
6.1 Assumptions of Fiedler's Theory
• Focus on Leader personality, leadership style, and the situation

6.2 Leader Personality

6.3 Leadership Style

6.4 The Situation


• Leader/Member Relations:

• Task Structure:

• Position Power:

6
6.5 Fiedler's Model of Leader-Situation Match

Human
Relations
Oriented

Task
Oriented

Lead-Mem. Rel.

Task Structure

Position Power

7
7 Contemporary Theories: Implicit Leadership Theory (ILT): The
Follower’s Perspective

7.1 What makes a leader a real leader”

7.2 What makes followers want to follow?

7.3 Prototypicality:

7.4 What comes with leader prototypicality

8
7.5 ILT: Implications for you

8 Contemporary Theories: Leader-Member Exchange Theory (LMX)

8.1 Leaders and followers are in an exchange relationship

8.2 Transactional exchange

9
8.3 Relational exchange

8.4 LMX development

8.5 LMX: Implications for you


• Attend to your relationship with your leader

• Reciprocity: Is your leader giving back to you?

10
• Be proactive

9 Situational Leadership: A Practitioner’s Contingency Theory

9.1 Basic Assumptions


• Normal Operating Conditions:

9.2 Basic Focus and Goals

11
9.3 Four Styles of leadership
Supportive Behavior

Directive Behavior

12
9.4 Assessing "Readiness Level"
9.4.1 Can the worker do the job?
• Task Relevant Education:

• Task Relevant Experience:

9.4.2 Is the worker “psychologically equipped” to do the job?


• Achievement Motivation:

• Willingness and Ability to Accept Responsibility:

13
9.4.1 Calculating readiness level
• Readiness level =

• The only precision necessary is to calculate which “readiness quartile” the worker is in

R4 R3 R2 R1
High Readiness Low Readiness

9.5 Using Life Cycle Theory:

You must treat workers according to their readiness. This is not unfair or inconsistent.
• Assess Readiness Level of Worker
• Plot Your Assessment on Readiness Dimension
• Draw a Perpendicular Line Straight Up Until it Intersects with the
"Prescription Curve"
• Point of Intersection Indicates the Appropriate Leadership Style for that Situation

14
9.6 Situational Theory Model:

S3 S2

S4 S1

R4 R3 R2 R1

15
9.1 There are Four Stages of Subordinate Development Requiring Different Leader
Behaviors:
Leaders behave in a certain way to promote subordinate development through 4
stages.

9.1.1 The Telling Stage


• For R1 Subordinates
• Tell the worker how, when, and where to do the job. Basically one way communication.
• The objective is to teach the worker how to do the job and to establish your authority

9.1.2 The Selling Stage

• For R2 Subordinates

• Explain to the worker why the job is done the way it is,
why the operation is run the way it is
• Stress two way communications, develop good interactions and mutual trust.
• The objective is to explain the “big picture” to the worker and to get across the rational
behind the job and unit operations.
• This “sells” the worker on how things are presently operated

9.1.3 The Participating Stage

• For R3 Subordinates

• Allow worker to participate more in job decisions.


• The objective is to move the worker to make job related decisions more or less on his or
her own.

9.1.4 The Delegating Stage

• For R4 Subordinates

• Delegate the job to the worker. Let the worker take control of the job with only minimal
checking.
• Objective: To turn the job over to the worker.

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9.3 Life Cycle Theory "Mismatch" Analysis:
9.3.1 Under leadership And Over leadership

Under leadership
Typical Worker Responses
About the About the
Job Leader
Frustration Resentment
Confusion Lack of
Low Prod. Confidence
Over Under Lack of
Low Sat.
Leadership Leadership Respect
S3 S2 Low Rate of
Growth
S4 S1

Over leadership
Typical Worker Responses
Your About the About the
Your
Leader Job Leader
Leader-
ship Frustration Resentment
ship
=f Stifling Hostility
behaviors
Decreasing
productivity
Decreasing
R4 R3 R2 R1 satisfaction
Decreasing
maturity

17
9.4 Two - Quadrant Profile Analyses:

The Good Old The X - Y Style


1-2

The The
Impoverished Comfortable
Task Master Style

The Early The Mixed


Delegator Style

18