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List of Latin phrases

(full)

This article lists direct English translations


of common Latin phrases. Some of the
phrases are themselves translations of
Greek phrases, as Greek rhetoric and
literature reached its peak centuries before
that of ancient Rome.

This list is a combination of the twenty


divided "List of Latin phrases" pages.

A
Latin Translation Notes

a maiore ad from the greater From general to particular; "What holds for all X also holds for
minus to the smaller one particular X." – argumentum a fortiori

An inference from smaller to bigger; what is forbidden at least


from the
a minore ad is forbidden at more ("If riding a bicycle with two on it is
smaller to the
maius forbidden, riding it with three on it is at least similarly
greater
punished".)

A solis ortu
from sunrise to
usque ad
sunset
occasum

Said of an argument either for a conclusion that rests on the


alleged absurdity of an opponent's argument (cf. appeal to
ab absurdo from the absurd ridicule) or that another assertion is false because it is
absurd. The phrase is distinct from reductio ad absurdum,
which is usually a valid logical argument.

ab abusu ad An inference
usum non from an abuse
Rights abused are still rights; confer abusus non tollit usum.
valet to a use is not
consequentia valid

Literally, "from the everlasting", "from eternity", and "from


outside of time". Philosophically and theologically, it indicates
something, e. g., the universe, that was created from outside
ab aeterno from the eternal of time. Sometimes the phrase is used incorrectly to denote
"from time immemorial", "since the beginning of time", or
"from an infinitely remote time in the past", i. e., not from
without time but from a point within time.

ab antiquo from the From ancient times


ancient

Or, "at will" or "at one's pleasure". This phrase, and its Italian
from one well
a bene placito (beneplacito) and Spanish (beneplácito) derivatives, are
pleased
synonymous with the more common ad libitum (at pleasure).

from the Regarding or pertaining to correspondence;[1] secretarial


ab epistulis
letters[1] office in the Roman Empire

Legal term denoting derivation from an external source, rather


from
ab extra than from a person's self or mind, this latter source being
beyond/without
denoted by "ab intra".

ab hinc from here on Also sometimes written as "abhinc"

ab imo from the Or "from the bottom of my heart", "with deepest affection", or
pectore deepest chest "sincerely". Attributed to Julius Caesar.

New Latin for "based on unsuitability", "from inconvenience",


or "from hardship". An argumentum ab inconvenienti is one
from an
ab based on the difficulties involved in pursuing a line of
inconvenient
inconvenienti reasoning, and is thus a form of appeal to consequences. The
thing
phrase refers to the legal principle that an argument from
inconvenience has great weight.

Thus, "from the beginning" or "from infancy". Incunabula is


commonly used in English to refer to the earliest stage or
ab incunabulis from the cradle
origin of something, and especially to copies of books that
predate the spread of the printing press circa AD 1500.

ab initio from the Or, "from the outset", referring to an inquiry or investigation. In
beginning literature, it refers to a story told from the beginning rather
than in medias res ("from the middle"). In law, it refers to a
thing being true from its beginning or from the instant of the
act, rather than from when the court declared it so. An
annulment is a judicial declaration of the invalidity or nullity of
a marriage ab initio; i. e., that the pseudo marriage was "no
thing" (in Latin, nullius, from which the word "nullity" derives)
and never existed, except perhaps in name only. In science,
the phrase refers to the first principles. In other contexts, it
often refers to beginner or training courses. Ab initio mundi
means "from the beginning of the world".

from an From a decedent, i. e., a dead person, who died without


ab intestato
intestate executing a legal will; cf. ex testamento

ab intra from within From the inside; the opposite of ab extra

ab invito unwillingly

Or, "by an angry person"; used in law to describe a decision or


action that is detrimental to those whom it affects and is
motivated by hatred or anger instead of reason. The form
from an angry
ab irato irato is masculine; however, this does not limit the application
man
of the phrase to men: rather, "person" is meant because the
phrase probably elides "homo" ("man/person"), not "vir"
("man").

From the origin, beginning, source, or commencement; i. e.,


ab origine from the source
"originally". It is the source of the word aboriginal.

From Horace, Satire, 1.3. Means "from beginning to end",


based on the Roman main meal typically beginning with an
ab ovo usque from the egg to
egg dish and ending with fruit; cf. the English phrase soup to
ad mala the apples
nuts. Thus, ab ovo means "from the beginning", and can
connote thoroughness.

absens haeres an absent Legal principle that a person who is not present is unlikely to
non erit person will not inherit
be an heir

[with] the
absente reo
defendant being Legal phrase denoting action "in the absence of the accused"
(abs. re.)
absent

Expresses the wish that no insult or injury be presumed or


"let injury be done by the speaker's words, i. e., "no offense". Also rendered
absit iniuria
absent" absit iniuria verbis ("let injury be absent from these words").
Contrast with absit invidia.

Said in the context of a statement of excellence: unlike the


English expression "no offense", absit invidia is intended to
"let ill will/envy ward off envious deities who might interpret a statement of
absit invidia
be absent" excellence as hubris. Also extended to absit invidia verbo,
("may ill will/envy be absent from these words"). Contrast it
with absit iniuria verbis. An explanation of Livy's usage.

Or, "let this not be a bad omen". Expresses the wish that
let an omen be something seemingly ill-boding does not turn out to be an
absit omen
absent omen for future events, and calls on Divine protection against
evil.

absolutum absolute Total, if not supreme, power, dominion, ownership, and


dominium dominion sovereignty

Legal term pronounced by a judge to acquit a defendant


following his trial. Te absolvo or absolvo te, translated, "I
absolvo I acquit forgive you", said by Roman Catholic priests during the
Sacrament of Confession, in Latin prior to the Second Vatican
Council and in vernacular thereafter.

abundans abundant Frequently re-phrased as "one can never be too careful"


cautela non caution does no
nocet harm

From Virgil, Aeneid, Book 2, 65-6. Refers to situations where a


ab uno disce from one, learn single example or observation indicates a general or universal
omnes all truth. Visible in the court of the character King Silas in the
American television series Kings.

Or, "from the founding of Rome", which occurred in 753 BC,


ab urbe from the city according to Livy's count. It was used as a referential year in
condita having been ancient Rome from which subsequent years were calculated,
(a.u.c.) founded prior to being replaced by other dating conventions. Also anno
urbis conditae (a.u.c.); literally "in the year of the founded city".

abusus non misuse does The misuse of some thing does not eliminate the possibility
tollit usum not remove use of its correct use.

ab utili from utility Used of an argument

abyssus
deep calleth
abyssum From Psalms 42:7; some translations have "sea calls to sea".
unto deep
invocat

Or, "from Heaven all the way to the center of the Earth". In law,
it may refer to the proprietary principle of Cuius est solum,
a caelo usque from the sky to
eius est usque ad coelum et ad inferos ("Whosesoever is the
ad centrum the center
soil, it is his up to the sky and down to the depths [of the
Earth]").

a capite ad from head to From top to bottom; all the way through; or from head to toe;
calcem heel see also a pedibus usque ad caput

accipe hoc take this Motto of the 848 Naval Air Squadron, British Royal Navy

accusare no one ought to Legal principle denoting that an accused person is entitled to
nemo se accuse himself plead not guilty, and that a witness is not obligated to respond
debet nisi except in the or submit a document that would incriminate himself. A
coram Deo presence of similar phrase is nemo tenetur se ipsum accusare ("no one is
God bound to accuse himself"). See right to silence.

Equivalent to "on the contrary" and "au contraire". An


from the
a contrario argumentum a contrario ("argument from the contrary") is an
opposite
argument or proof by contrast or direct opposite.

acta deos Ovid, Tristia, 1.2.97: si tamen acta deos numquam mortalia
mortal actions
numquam fallunt, / a culpa facinus scitis abesse mea. ("Yet if mortal
never deceive
mortalia actions never deceive the gods, / you know that crime was
the gods
fallunt absent from my fault.")

Common ending to ancient Roman comedies; Suetonius


The play has claimed in The Twelve Caesars that these were the last words
acta est
been of Augustus; Sibelius applied them to the third movement of
fabula
performed; his String Quartet No. 2, so that his audience would recognize
plaudite
applaud! that it was the last one, because a fourth would be ordinarily
expected.

acta non Deeds not


Motto of the United States Merchant Marine Academy
verba Words

Also used in the singular preceding a saint's name: Acta


acta Deeds of the
Sancti ("Deeds of Saint") N.; a common title of hagiography
sanctorum Saints
works

actiones
action follows
secundum "We act according to what we believe (ourselves to be)."[2]
belief
fidei

actus me the act done by


invito factus me against my
non est meus will is not my
actus act

The act does


actus non not make [a
facit reum nisi person] guilty Legal principle of the presumption of mens rea in a crime
mens sit rea unless the mind
should be guilty.

The actual crime that is committed, as distinguished from the


intent, thinking, and rationalizing that procured the criminal
actus reus guilty act
act; the external elements of a crime, as contrasted with the
mens rea, i. e., the internal elements.

In logic, to the point of being silly or nonsensical. See also


ad absurdum to absurdity reductio ad absurdum. Not to be confused with ab absurdo
("from the absurd").

In legal language, used when providing additional evidence to


ad
to abundance an already sufficient collection. Also used commonly, as an
abundantiam
equivalent of "as if this wasn't enough".

ad acta to the archives Denoting the irrelevance of a thing

ad altiora I strive towards


tendo higher things

at will, at
ad arbitrium
pleasure

Name or motto, in whole or part, of many organizations'


ad astra to the stars
publications

ad astra per to the stars Or, "a rough road leads to the stars", as on the Launch
aspera through Complex 34 memorial plaque for the astronauts of Apollo 1;
difficulties motto of the State of Kansas and other organisations

to rise to a high
ad augusta position
per angusta overcoming
hardships

in order to To appeal to the masses. Often said of or used by politicians.


ad captandum
capture the An argumentum ad captandum is an argument designed to
vulgus
crowd please the crowd.

Formal letter or communication in the Christian tradition from


a bishop to his clergy. An "ad clerum" may be an
ad clerum to the clergy
encouragement in a time of celebration or a technical
explanation of new regulations or canons.

from or since
a Deucalione A long time ago; from Gaius Lucilius, Satires, 6, 284
Deucalion

An ad eundem degree, from the Latin ad eundem gradum ("to


the same step" or "to the same degree"), is a courtesy degree
ad eundem to the same awarded by a university or college to an alumnus of another. It
is not an honorary degree but a recognition of the formal
learning for which the degree was earned at another college.

Motto of Renaissance humanism and the Protestant


ad fontes to the sources
Reformation

Said during a generic toast; equivalent to "bottoms up!" In


ad fundum to the bottom
other contexts, it generally means "back to the basics".

Generally means "for this", in the sense of improvised or


ad hoc to this
intended only for a specific, immediate purpose.

ad hominem to the man Or, "at the man". Typically used in argumentum ad hominem, a
logical fallacy consisting of criticizing a person when the
subject of debate is the person's ideas or argument, on the
mistaken assumption that the soundness of an argument is
dependent on the qualities of the proponent.

"for the honour", not for the purpose of gaining any material
ad honorem to the honour
reward

Enduring forever. Used to designate a property which repeats


ad infinitum to infinity in all cases in mathematical proof. Also used in philosophical
contexts to mean "repeating in all cases".

ad interim (ad for the As in the term "chargé d'affaires ad interim", denoting a
int.) meantime diplomatic officer who acts in place of an ambassador

Attributed by Suetonius in The Twelve Caesars to Augustus.


ad kalendas at the Greek The Calends were specific days of the Roman calendar, not of
graecas Calends the Greek, and so the "Greek Kalends" would never occur.
Similar to "when pigs fly".

Loosely, "according to what pleases" or "as you wish"; libitum


comes from the past participle of libere, "to please". It
typically indicates in music and theatrical scripts that the
ad libitum (ad
toward pleasure performer has the liberty to change or omit something. Ad lib
lib)
is specifically often used when someone improvises or
ignores limitations. Also used by some restaurants in favor of
the colloquial "all you can eat or drink".

Legal phrase referring to a party appointed by a court to act in


a lawsuit on behalf of another party who is deemed incapable
ad litem to the lawsuit
of representing himself. An individual who acts in this
capacity is called a guardian ad litem.

ad locum (ad at the place Used to suggest looking for information about a term in the
loc.) corresponding place in a cited work of reference.

ad lucem to the light frequently used motto for educational institutions

ad maiorem
Dei gloriam or
For the greater Motto of the Society of Jesus (Jesuits). Edward Elgar
ad majorem
glory of God dedicated his oratorio The Dream of Gerontius "A.M.D.G."
Dei gloriam
(AMDG)

towards better
ad meliora Motto of St Patrick's College, Cavan, Ireland
things

ad mortem to death Medical phrase serving as a synonym for death

ad multos
to many years Wish for a long life; similar to "many happy returns"
annos

Or, "to the point of disgust". Sometimes used as a humorous


alternative to ad infinitum. An argumentum ad nauseam is a
ad nauseam to sickness logical fallacy whose erroneous proof is proffered by
prolonged repetition of the argument, i. e., the argument is
repeated so many times that persons are "sick of it".

ad oculos to the eyes "obvious on sight" or "obvious to anyone that sees it"

ad pedem to the foot of Thus, "exactly as it is written"; similar to the phrase "to the
litterae the letter letter", meaning "to the last detail"

ad perpetuam to the perpetual Generally precedes "of" and a person's name, and is used to
memoriam memory wish for someone to be remembered long after death

More loosely, "considering everything's weight". The


ad pondus
to the weight of abbreviation was historically used by physicians and others to
omnium (ad
all things signify that the last prescribed ingredient is to weigh as much
pond om)
as all of the previously mentioned ones.
ad quod to whatever Meaning "according to the harm" or "in proportion to the
damnum damage harm". The phrase is used in tort law as a measure of
damages inflicted, implying that a remedy, if one exists, ought
to correspond specifically and only to the damage suffered
(cf. damnum absque iniuria).

to be proposed
ad referendum Loosely "subject to reference": provisionally approved, but still
[before the
(ad ref) needing official approval. Not the same as a referendum.
Senate]

ad rem to the matter "to the point", without digression

adsumus here we are Motto of the Brazilian Marine Corps

in order to
ad susceptum achieve what
Motto of the Association of Trust Schools
perficiendum has been
undertaken

for the term


ad terminum Legal phrase for a writ of entry ad terminum qui praeteriit ("for
which has
qui praeteriit the term which has passed").[3]
passed

ad undas to the waves Equivalent to "to Hell"

ad unum to one

Said of a work that has been expurgated of offensive or


improper parts. The phrase originates from editions of Greek
ad usum for the use of
and Roman classics which King Louis XIV of France had
Delphini the Dauphin
censored for his heir apparent, the Dauphin. Also rarely "in
usum Delphini" ("into the use of the Dauphin").

ad usum for one's own


proprium (ad use
us. propr.)

Motto of Lund University, with the implied alternatives being


prepared for
ad utrumque the book (study) and the sword (defending the nation in war),
either
paratus and of the United States Marine Corps' III Marine
[alternative]
Expeditionary Force

Used in commerce to refer to ad valorem taxes, i. e., taxes


according to
ad valorem based on the assessed value of real estate or personal
value
property

More commonly translated "for victory", it was a battlecry of


ad victoriam to victory
the Romans

ad vitam
to eternal life Also "to life everlasting"; a common Biblical phrase
aeternam

Phrase describing the term of a political office as ending upon


ad vitam aut for life or until
the death of the officer or his commission of a sufficiently
culpam fault
grave immorality and/or legal crime.

thing to be An item to be added, especially as a supplement to a book.


addendum
added The plural is addenda.

adaequatio correspondence One of the classic definitions of "truth". When the mind has
intellectus et of the mind and the same form as reality, we think truth. Also found as
rei reality adaequatio rei et intellectus.

adaequatio conformity of
Phrase used in epistemology regarding the nature of
intellectus our minds to
understanding.
nostri cum re the fact

Equivalent to "Present!" or "Here!" The opposite of absum ("I


adsum I am here
am absent").

adversus do not speak Or, "do not argue what is obviously/manifestly incorrect".
solem ne against the Sun
loquitor

Someone who, in the face of a specific argument, voices an


advocatus argument that he does not necessarily accept, for the sake of
Devil's advocate
diaboli argument and discovering the truth by testing the opponent's
argument. Confer the term "arguendo".

a sick man's
aegri somnia Horace, Ars Poetica, 7. Loosely, "troubled dreams".
dreams

aes alienum financial debt literally "someone else's money"

Often abbreviated to "aetat.", or more frequently further to


aetatis of age / aged "aet."; meaning "of age _ [years]" or "aged _ [years]". E. g.,
"aetatis 36" denotes being "36 years old".

Thus, "at the age of _ [years]". Appears on portraits,


gravestones, monuments, et cetera. Usually preceded by anno
(AAS), "in the year [of his age/life] _". Sometimes shortened to
of his age aetatis, aetat.", or even "aet. Frequently combined with Anno
aetatis suae (followed by an Domini, giving a date as both the theoretical age of Jesus
ordinal number) Christ and the age of the decedent; e. g., Obiit anno Domini
MDCXXXVIo (tricensimo sexto), [anno] aetatis suae XXVo
(vicensimo quinto) ("he died in the 1636th year of the Lord,
[being] the 25th [year] of his age[/life]").

a falsis to set forth


principiis from false Legal phrase; Cicero, De Finibus, 4.53.
proficisci principles

Legal term from "fides" ("faith"), originating at least from


affidavit he asserted
Medieval Latin to denote a statement under oath.
a fortiori from the Loosely, "even more so" or "with even stronger reason". Often
stronger used to lead from a less certain proposition to a more evident
corollary.

More often translated as "do well whatever you do". Literally


translated, it means "do what you do"; figuratively it means
"keep going, because you are inspired or dedicated to do so".
This is the motto of several Roman Catholic schools. It was
do what you are also used by Pope John XXIII in the sense of "do not be
age quod agis
doing concerned with any other matter than the task in hand"; he
was allaying worry of what would become of him in the future:
his sense of "age quod agis" was "joy" regarding what is
presently occurring and "detachment" from concern of the
future. (Pope John XXIII, Journal of a Soul, pages 154-5)

agere sequitur action follows Metaphysical and moral principle that indicates the
(esse) being connection of ontology, obligation, and ethics.[2]

Latin translation from John 1: 36, when St. John the Baptist
exclaimed "Ecce Agnus Dei!" ("Behold the Lamb of God!")
Agnus Dei Lamb of God upon seeing Jesus Christ; it refers both to the innocence of a
lamb and to Christ being a sacrificial lamb after the Jewish
religious practice.

Or, in Greek, ἀνερρίφθω κύβος anerrhíphthō kýbos; said by


Julius Caesar upon crossing the Rubicon in 49 BC, according
to Suetonius. The original meaning was similar to "the game
alea iacta est the die is cast is afoot", but its modern meaning, like that of the phrase
"crossing the Rubicon", denotes passing the point of no return
on a momentous decision and entering into a risky endeavor
where the outcome is left to chance.
alenda lux ubi light [is] to be Motto of Davidson College
orta libertas nourished
where liberty
[has] arisen

at another time, An assumed name or pseudonym; similar to alter ego, but


alias
otherwise more specifically referring to a name, not to a "second self".

Legal defense where a defendant attempts to show that he


was elsewhere at the time a crime was committed.
alibi elsewhere
His alibi is sound; he gave evidence that he was in another
city on the night of the murder.

something
aliquid stat
stands for Foundational definition in semiotics
pro aliquo
something else

Quotation from Isaiah, 40: "But those who wait for the Lord
on an eagle's shall find their strength renewed, they shall mount up on
alis aquilae
wings wings like eagles, they shall run and not grow weary, they
shall walk and not grow faint."

nothing [is]
Or, "nothing is heavy to those who have wings". Motto of the
alis grave nil heavy with
Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
wings

Motto of the State of Oregon, adopted in 1987; it replaced the


alis volat she flies with
previous state motto of "The Union", which was adopted in
propriis her own wings
1957.

alma mater nourishing Term used for the university one attends or has attended.
mother Another university term, matriculation, is also derived from
mater. The term suggests that the students are "fed"
knowledge and taken care of by the university. The term is
also used for a university's traditional school anthem.

Another self, a second persona or alias. Can be used to


describe different facets or identities of a single character, or
alter ego another I different characters who seem representations of the same
personality. Often used of a fictional character's secret
identity.

Final sentence from Aesop ascribed fable (see also Aesop's


alterius non let no man be Fables) "The Frogs Who Desired a King" as appears in the
sit qui suus another's who collection commonly known as the "Anonymus Neveleti", in
esse potest can be his own Fable 21B: De ranis a Iove querentibus regem). Motto of
Paracelsus. Usually attributed to Cicero.

alterum non to not wound


One of Justinian I's three basic legal precepts
laedere another

Graduate or former student of a school, college, or university.


alumnus or
pupil Plural of alumnus is alumni (male). Plural of alumna is
alumna
alumnae (female).

This translation ignores the word usque, which is an


emphasis word, so a better translation is probably from sea
a mari usque even unto sea. From Psalm 71:8, "Et dominabitur a mari usque
from sea to sea
ad mare ad mare, et a flumine usque ad terminos terrae" (KJV: "He shall
have dominion also from sea to sea, and from the river unto
the ends of the earth"). National motto of Canada.

a sure friend in
amicus certus
an unsure Ennius, as quoted by Cicero in Laelius de Amicitia s. 64
in re incerta
matter

amicus curiae friend of the An adviser, or a person who can obtain or grant access to the
court favour of a powerful group, e. g., the a Roman Curia. In current
United States legal usage, an amicus curiae is a third party
allowed to submit a legal opinion in the form of an amicus
brief to the court.

Plato is my
Amicus Plato, An assertion that truth is more valuable than friendship;
friend, but truth
sed magis attributed to Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics, 1096a15 and
is a better
amica veritas. Roger Bacon, Opus Majus, Part 1, Chapter 5.
friend.

amittere to lose the law An obsolete legal phrase signifying the forfeiture of the right
legem terrae of the land of swearing in any court or cause, or to become infamous.

amat victoria victory favors


frequently used motto for educational institutions
curam care

amor Dei intellectual love


Baruch Spinoza
intellectualis of God

amor et melle love is rich with


et felle est both honey and
fecundissimus venom

Nietzscheian alternative world view to that represented by


amor fati love of fate memento mori ("remember you must die"): Nietzsche believed
"amor fati" was more affirmative of life.

amor omnibus love is the same


Virgil, Georgics, 3
idem for all

love of the
amor patriae Or, "love of the nation", i. e., patriotism
fatherland

amor vincit love conquers Inscribed on a bracelet worn by the Prioress in Chaucer's The
omnia all Canterbury Tales; originally from Virgil, Eclogues, 10, 69: omnia
vincit amor: et nos cedamus amori ("love conquers all: let us
too surrender to love").

Do you not
An nescis, mi
know, my son, Said by Axel Oxenstierna to encourage his son, a delegate to
fili, quantilla
with how little the negotiations that would lead to the Peace of Westphalia,
prudentia
wisdom the who worried about his ability to hold his own amidst
mundus
world is experienced and eminent statesmen and diplomats.
regatur?
governed?

Used before the anglicized version of a word or name. For


anglice in English
example, "Terra Mariae, anglice, Maryland".

animus in a mind
consulendo unfettered in Motto of NATO
liber deliberation

Also used in such phrases as anno urbis conditae (see ab urbe


anno (an.) in the year
condita), Anno Domini, and anno regni.

Abbreviated from Anno Domini Nostri Jesu Christi ("in the year
of Our Lord Jesus Christ"), the predominantly used system for
dating years across the world; used with the Gregorian
Calendar and based on the perceived year of the birth of
anno Domini in the year of
Jesus Christ. The years before His birth were formerly
(A.D.) our Lord
signified by a. C. n (ante Christum natum ("before Christ was
born")), but now use the English abbreviation "BC" ("before
Christ"). For example, Augustus was born in the year 63 BC
and died in AD 14.

In the year of
anno regni Precedes "of" and the current ruler
the reign

annuit cœptis he nods at Or, "he approves our undertakings". Motto on the reverse of
things now the Great Seal of the United States and, consequently, on the
begun reverse of the United States one-dollar bill; in this context the
motto refers to God.

Variation on annus mirabilis, recorded in print from 1890;[4]


notably used in a speech by Queen Elizabeth II to describe
annus
horrible year what a bad year 1992 had been for her. In Classical Latin, this
horribilis
phrase actually means "terrifying year". See also annus
terribilis.

Used particularly to refer to the years 1665 and 1666, during


which Isaac Newton made revolutionary inventions and
discoveries in calculus, motion, optics and gravitation. Annus
Mirabilis is also the title of a poem by John Dryden written in
annus
wonderful year the same year. It has since been used to refer to other years,
mirabilis
especially to 1905, when Albert Einstein made equally
revolutionary discoveries concerning the photoelectric effect,
Brownian motion, mass-energy equivalence, and the special
theory of relativity. (See Annus Mirabilis papers)

annus Used to describe 1348, the year the Black Death began to
dreadful year
terribilis afflict Europe

As in status quo ante bellum ("as it was before the war");


ante bellum before the war commonly used in the Southern United States as antebellum
to refer to the period preceding the American Civil War.

ante cibum
before food Medical shorthand for "before meals"
(a.c.)

Ante faciem before the face


Motto of the Christian Brothers College, Adelaide
Domini of the Lord

ante litteram before the letter Said of an expression or term that describes something which
existed before the phrase itself was introduced or became
common. Example: Alan Turing was a computer scientist ante
litteram, since the field of "computer science" was not yet
recognized in Turing's day.

ante meridiem
before midday From midnight to noon; confer post meridiem
(a.m.)

ante mortem before death See post mortem ("after death")

ante omnia before all else,


armari be armed

ante prandium Used on pharmaceutical prescriptions to denote "before a


before lunch
(a.p.) meal". Less common is post prandium ("after lunch").

antiqui colant let the ancients


antiquum worship the The motto of Chester
dierum ancient of days

a pedibus Or, "completely"; similar to the English expressions "from tip to


from feet to
usque ad toe" and "from head to toe". Equally a capite ad calcem. See
head
caput also ab ovo usque ad mala.

Motto of Ferdinand de Lesseps referring to the Suez and


aperire terram open the land to
Panama Canals. Also appears on a plaque at Kinshasa train
gentibus nations
station.

a posse ad from being able "From possibility to actuality" or "from being possible to being
esse to being actual".

a posteriori from the latter Based on observation, i. e., empirical evidence; the reverse of
a priori. Used in mathematics and logic to denote something
that is known after a proof has been carried out. In
philosophy, used to denote something known from
experience.

apparatus Textual notes or a list of other readings relating to a


tools of a critic
criticus document, especially in a scholarly edition of a text.

Presupposed independent of experience; the reverse of a


posteriori. Used in mathematics and logic to denote
something that is known or postulated before a proof has
a priori from the former been carried out. In philosophy, used to denote something is
supposed without empirical evidence. In everyday speech, it
denotes something occurring or being known before the
event.

apologia pro defense of [5]


vita sua one's life

in the writings
apud Used in scholarly works to cite a reference at second hand
of

aqua (aq.) water

Refers to nitric acid, thus called because of its ability to


aqua fortis strong water
dissolve all materials except gold and platinum

aqua pura pure water Or, "clear water" or "clean water"

Refers to a mixture of hydrochloric acid and nitric acid, thus


aqua regia royal water
called because of its ability to dissolve gold and platinum

"Spirit of Wine" in many English texts. Used to refer to various


native distilled beverages, such as whisky (uisge beatha) in
aqua vitae water of life
Scotland and Ireland, gin in the Netherlands, brandy (eau de
vie) in France, and akvavit in Scandinavia.

aquila non an eagle does Or, "a noble or important person does not deal with
capit muscas not catch flies insignificant matters"

to plough the Desiderius Erasmus, Adagia (AD 1508); meaning "wasted


arare litus
seashore labor"

One who prescribes, rules on, or is a recognized authority on


arbiter matters of social behavior and taste. Said of Petronius.
judge of tastes
elegantiarum Sometimes found in the singular as arbiter elegantiae ("judge
of taste").

the secrets of Originally used by Tacitus to refer to the state secrets and
arcana imperii
power unaccountable acts of the Roman imperial government

arcanum boni The secret


tenoris behind a good Motto of the Starobrno Brewery in Brno
animae mood

bow of an old An opaque circle around the cornea of the eye, often seen in
arcus senilis
person elderly people

arduus ad Striving towards


Motto of Victoria University of Manchester
solem the Sun

argentum Also "silver coin"; mentioned in the Domesday Book; signifies


white silver
album bullion or silver uncoined

Or, "for the sake of argument". Said when something is done


arguendo for arguing purely in order to discuss a matter or illustrate a point. E. g.,
"let us assume, arguendo, that your claim is correct."

argumentum argument Or "reasoning", "inference", "appeal", or "proof". The plural is


argumenta. Commonly used in the names of logical
arguments and fallacies, preceding phrases such as a silentio
(by silence), ad antiquitatem (to antiquity), ad baculum (to the
stick), ad captandum (to capturing), ad consequentiam (to the
consequence), ad crumenam (to the purse), ad feminam (to
the woman), ad hominem (to the person), ad ignorantiam (to
ignorance), ad invidiam (to hatred – appealing to low
passions), ad judicium (to judgment), ad lazarum (to poverty),
ad logicam (to logic), ad metum (to fear), ad misericordiam (to
pity), ad nauseam (to nausea), ad novitatem (to novelty), ad
personam (to the character), ad numerum (to the number), ad
odium (to spite), ad populum (to the people), ad temperantiam
(to moderation), ad verecundiam (to reverence), ex silentio
(from silence), in terrorem (into terror), and e contrario
(from/to the opposite).

armata armed and charge made by a Justice of the Peace in Medieval England
potentia powerful against those who rode in arms against the King's Peace.

An aesthetic ideal that good art should appear natural rather


ars celare art [is] to
than contrived. Of medieval origin, but often incorrectly
artem conceal art
attributed to Ovid.[6]

Translated into Latin from Baudelaire's L'art pour l'art. Motto of


art for the sake
ars gratia artis Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. While symmetrical for the logo of
of art
MGM, the better word order in Latin is "Ars artis gratia".

Seneca, De Brevitate Vitae, 1.1, translating a phrase of


ars longa, vita art is long, life is Hippocrates that is often used out of context. The "art"
brevis short referred to in the original aphorism was the craft of medicine,
which took a lifetime to acquire.

by art and by
arte et labore Motto of Blackburn Rovers F.C.
labour

by skill and by Motto of the Electrical and Mechanical Engineering (EME)


arte et marte
fighting Branch of the Canadian Forces
Artis Friends of Award of the Minister of Culture of the Czech Republic for the
Bohemiae Czech Arts promotion of the positive reputation of Czech culture abroad
Amicis

asinus ad an ass to the Desiderius Erasmus, Adagia (AD 1508); meaning "an awkward
lyram lyre or incompetent individual"

the jackass
asinus asinum Used to describe 2 persons who are lavishing excessive
rubs the
fricat praise on one another
jackass

the assured
assecuratus
does not seek
non quaerit
profit but Refers to the insurance principle that the indemnity can not be
lucrum sed
makes [it his larger than the loss
agit ne in
profit] that he
damno sit
not be in loss

astra the stars incline


Refers to the distinction of free will from astrological
inclinant, sed us, they do not
determinism
non obligant bind us

Used in bibliography for books, texts, publications, or articles


auctores varii various authors
that have more than 3 collaborators

auctoritas authority Level of prestige a person had in Roman society

auctoritas non authority, not


This formula appears in the 1668 Latin revised edition of
veritas facit truth, makes
Thomas Hobbes's Leviathan, book 2, chapter 26, p. 133 .
legem law

audacia pro boldness is our


Cornelis Jol,[7] in a bid to rally his rebellious captains to fight
muro et scuto wall, action is
and conquer the Spanish treasure fleet in 1638.
opus our shield
audacter slander boldly, Francis Bacon, De Augmentis Scientiarum (AD 1623)
calumniare, something
semper always sticks
aliquid haeret

audax at
bold but faithful Motto of Queensland, Australia
fidelis

Motto of the Canadian Special Operations Regiment [CSOR]


on their regimental coat of arms; of Otago University
audeamus let us dare Students' Association, a direct response to the university's
motto of sapere aude ("dare to be wise"); and of Champlain
College in Burlington, Vermont.

Motto of the State of Alabama, adopted in AD 1923;


audemus jura we dare to translated into Latin from a paraphrase of the stanza "Men
nostra defend our who their duties know / But know their rights, and knowing,
defendere rights dare maintain" from William Jones, "What Constitutes a
State?"

From Virgil, Aeneid, Book 10, 284, where the first word is in the
archaic form audentis. Allegedly the last words of Pliny the
audentes fortune favors Elder before he left the docks at Pompeii to rescue people
fortuna iuvat the bold from the eruption of Vesuvius in 79. Often quoted as audaces
fortuna iuvat. Also the motto of the Portuguese Army
Commandos and the USS Montpelier in the latter form.

audere est
to dare is to do Motto of Tottenham Hotspur F.C.
facere

audi alteram hear the other Legal principle; also worded as audiatur et altera pars ("let the
partem side other side be heard also")

audio hostem I hear the Motto of the 845 NAS Royal Navy
enemy

audi, vide, hear, see, be


tace silent

From Horace's Odes, 2, 10. Refers to the ethical goal of


aurea reaching a virtuous middle ground between two sinful
golden mean
mediocritas extremes. The golden mean concept is common to many
philosophers, chiefly Aristotle.

From Virgil, Aeneid, Book 3, 57. Later quoted by Seneca as


auri sacra accursed quod non mortalia pectora coges, auri sacra fames ("what do
fames hunger for gold not you force mortal hearts [to do], accursed hunger for
gold").

Common ancient proverb, this version from Terence. It


auribus teneo I hold a wolf by indicates that one is in a dangerous situation where both
lupum the ears holding on and letting go could be deadly. A modern version is
"to have a tiger by the tail".

The Southern Lights, an aurora that appears in the Southern


aurora Hemisphere. It is less well-known than the Northern Lights
southern dawn
australis (aurorea borealis). The Aurora Australis is also the name of an
Antarctic icebreaker ship.

aurora The Northern Lights, an aurora that appears in the Northern


northern dawn
borealis Hemisphere.

Title of a distich by Iohannes Christenius (1599–1672):


"Conveniens studiis non est nox, commoda lux est; / Luce
aurora musis dawn is a friend labor bonus est et bona nocte quies." ("Night is not suitable
amica to the muses for studying, daylight is; / working by light is good, as is rest at
night."); in Nihus, Barthold (1642). Epigrammata disticha .
Johannes Kinckius.
aurum gold is power Motto of the fictional Fowl Family in the Artemis Fowl series,
potestas est written by Eoin Colfer

auspicium hope/token of a Motto of the Order of St Michael and St George and of Raffles
melioris aevi better age Institution in Singapore

Denotes an absolute aspiration to become the Emperor, or the


equivalent supreme magistrate, and nothing else. More
aut Caesar aut either Caesar or generally, "all or nothing". A personal motto of Cesare Borgia.
nihil nothing Charlie Chaplin also used the phrase in The Great Dictator to
ridicule Hynkel's (Chaplin's parody of Hitler) ambition for
power, but substituted "nullus" for "nihil".

I. e., either through reasoned discussion or through war. It


either by
aut consilio was the first motto of Chile (see coat of arms), changed to
meeting or the
aut ense Spanish: Por la razón o la fuerza. Name of episode 1 in season
sword
3 of Berlin Station.

Or, "do or die" or "no retreat". A Greek expression («Ἢ τὰν ἢ


ἐπὶ τᾶς») that Spartan mothers said to their sons as they
either with
aut cum scuto departed for battle. It refers to the practices that a Greek
shield or on
aut in scuto hoplite would drop his cumbersome shield in order to flee the
shield
battlefield, and a slain warrior would be borne home atop his
shield.

Seneca the Younger, Epistulae morales ad Lucilium, 7:7. From


aut imiteris imitate or
the full phrase: "necesse est aut imiteris aut oderis" ("you
aut oderis loathe it
must either imitate or loathe the world").

aut neca aut either kill or be


Also: "neca ne neceris" ("kill lest you be killed")
necare killed

aut pax aut either peace or


Motto of the Gunn Clan
bellum war
aut simul they will either
Said of two situations that can only occur simultaneously: if
stabunt aut stand together
one ends, so does the other, and vice versa.[8]
simul cadent or fall together

aut viam I will either find


inveniam aut a way or make Hannibal
faciam one

General pledge of victoria aut mors ("victory or death"). Motto


either to of the Higgenbotham and Higginbottom families of Cheshire,
aut vincere
conquer or to England; participants in the War of the Roses. Also the motto
aut mori
die for the United States 1st Fighter Wing, Langley Air Force Base
in Virginia.

hail and
ave atque vale Catullus, Carmen 101, addressed to his deceased brother
farewell

ave Europa
hail Europe, our
nostra vera Anthem of Imperium Europa
true fatherland
patria

From Suetonius' The Twelve Caesars, Claudius 21. A salute


and plea for mercy recorded on one occasion by
Hail, Emperor!
Ave Imperator, naumachiarii–captives and criminals fated to die fighting
Those who are
morituri te during mock naval encounters. Later versions included a
about to die
salutant variant of "We who are about to die", and this translation is
salute you!
sometimes aided by changing the Latin to nos morituri te
salutamus.

Roman Catholic prayer of intercession asking St. Mary, the


Ave Maria Hail, Mary
Mother of Jesus Christ to pray for the petitioner

ave mater Hail, Mother of Motto of Canterbury, England


Angliae England
B
Latin Translation Notes

beard
grows,
barba crescit
head
caput nescit
doesn't
grow wiser

a beard
barba non
doesn't
facit
make one a
philosophum
philosopher

wise as far
barba tenus
as the Wise only in appearance. From Erasmus's collection of Adages.
sapientes
beard

A common name in the Roman Catholic Church for Mary, the


Beata Virgo Blessed mother of Jesus. The genitive, Beatae Mariae Virginis (BMV),
Maria (BVM) Virgin Mary occurs often as well, appearing with such words as horae (hours),
litaniae (litanies) and officium (office).

beatae of blessed
See in memoriam
memoriae memory

beati blessed in A Beatitude from Matthew 5:3 in the Vulgate: beati pauperes
pauperes spirit [are] spiritu, quoniam ipsorum est regnum caelorum "Blessed in spirit
spiritu the poor. [are] the poor, for theirs is the kingdom of the heavens".

blessed
beati [are] those
Translated from Euripides
possidentes who
possess
beati qui blessed are Inscription above the entrance to St. Andrew's Church (New York
ambulant they who City), based on the second half of Psalm 119:1
lege domini walk in the
law of the
Lord

blessed are
beati quorum
they whose first half of Psalm 119:1, base of several musical setting such as
via integra
way is Beati quorum via (Stanford)
est
upright

blessed is
beatus homo
the man From Proverbs 3:13; set to music in a 1577 motet of the same
qui invenit
who finds name by Orlando di Lasso.
sapientiam
wisdom

war, a
Bella, mulier
woman
qui hominum
who lures
allicit et Latin proverb
men and
accipit eos
takes them
per fortis
by force

Originally from Ovid, Heroides 13.84,[9] where Laodamia is writing


let others
bella gerant to her husband Protesilaus who is at the Trojan War. She begs him
wage war
alii to stay out of danger, but he was in fact the first Greek to die at
Protesilaus
Protesilaus Troy. Also used of the Habsburg marriages of 1477 and 1496,
should
amet! written as bella gerant alii, tu felix Austria nube (let others wage war;
love!
you, happy Austria, marry). Said by King Matthias.

bella detesta war hateful


From Horace
matribus to mothers
bello et jure I grow old Motto of the House of d'Udekem d'Acoz
senesco through
war and
law

bellum
war of all
omnium A phrase used by Thomas Hobbes to describe the state of nature
against all
contra omnes

war as the
bellum All-out war without restraint as Romans practiced against groups
Romans
Romanum they considered to be barbarians
did it

bellum se war feeds


ipsum alet itself

Biblia Paupers' Tradition of biblical pictures displaying the essential facts of


pauperum Bible Christian salvation

I drink,
bibo ergo
therefore I A play on "cogito ergo sum", "I think therefore I am"
sum
am

he gives
bis dat qui twice, who
A gift given without hesitation is as good as two gifts.
cito dat gives
promptly

bis in die twice in a


Medical shorthand for "twice a day"
(bid) day

bona fide in good In other words, "well-intentioned", "fairly". In modern contexts, often
faith has connotations of "genuinely" or "sincerely". Bona fides is not the
plural (which would be bonis fidebus), but the nominative, and
means simply "good faith". Opposite of mala fide.

In law, if a person dying has goods, or good debts, in another


note- diocese or jurisdiction within that province, besides his goods in
bona
worthy the diocese where he dies, amounting to a certain minimum value,
notabilia
goods he is said to have bona notabilia; in which case, the probat of his
will belongs to the archbishop of that province.

good
bona officia A nation's offer to mediate in disputes between two other nations
services

goods of a
bona patria A jury or assize of countrymen, or good neighbors
country

bona vacant United Kingdom legal term for ownerless property that passes to
vacantia goods The Crown

it is a good
boni pastoris shepherd's
est tondere [job] to Tiberius reportedly said this to his regional commanders, as a
pecus non shear his warning against taxing the populace excessively.
deglubere flock, not to
flay them

overcome
bono malum
evil with Motto of Westonbirt School
superate
good

bonum common Or "general welfare". Refers to what benefits a society, as opposed


commune good of the to bonum commune hominis, which refers to what is good for an
communitatis community individual. In the film Hot Fuzz, this phrase is chanted by an
assembled group of people, in which context it is deliberately
similar to another phrase that is repeated throughout the film,
which is The Greater Good.

bonum common Refers to an individual's happiness, which is not "common" in that it


commune good of a serves everyone, but in that individuals tend to be able to find
hominis man happiness in similar things.

the North is
boreas
our home,
domus, mare Motto of Orkney
the sea is
amicus
our friend

harmless
brutum Used to indicate either an empty threat, or a judgement at law
(or inert)
fulmen which has no practical effect
thunderbolt

John of Cornwall (ca. 1170) was once asked by a scribe what the
word meant. It turns out that the original text said in diebus illis (“in
baffling those days”), which the scribe misread as in die busillis (“at the day
puzzle, of Busillis”) believing this was a famous man. This mondegreen
busillis
thorny has since entered the literature; it occurs in Alessandro Manzoni’s
problem novel The Betrothed (1827), in Dostoyevsky’s The Brothers
Karamazov (1880), and in Andrea Camilleri’s Inspector Montalbano
series.

C
Latin Translation Notes

From Gottfried August Bürger's Prinzessin Europa (line 60);


popularised by Heinrich Heine's Deutschland. Ein Wintermärchen
That what's
cacatum non (XI, 44); also the title of Joseph Haydn's canon for four voices,
shat, is not
est pictum Hob. XXVIIb:16; Ludwig van Beethoven set the text by Bürger as
painted.
a three-voice canon, WoO 224. Contemporary critics applied this
epithet to both of Turner's Regulus (1828 and 1837).[10]

Cacoēthes[11] "bad habit", or medically, "malignant disease" is a


insatiable borrowing of Greek kakoēthes.[12] The phrase is derived from a
cacoethes
desire to line in the Satires of Juvenal: Tenet insanabile multos scribendi
scribendi
write cacoethes, or "the incurable desire (or itch) for writing affects
many". See hypergraphia.

truly
cadavera vero Used by the Romans to describe the aftermath of the Battle of
countless
innumera the Catalaunian Plains.
bodies

Caedite eos. Kill them all. Supposed statement by Abbot Arnaud Amalric before the
Novit enim For the Lord Massacre at Béziers during the Albigensian Crusade, recorded
Dominus qui knows those 30 years later, according to Caesarius of Heisterbach. cf. "Kill
sunt eius. who are his. them all and let God sort them out."

Those who
hurry across
Caelum non
the sea
animum Hexameter by Horace (Epistula XI).[13] Seneca shortens it to
change the
mutant qui Animum debes mutare, non caelum (You must change [your]
sky [upon
trans mare disposition, not [your] sky) in his Letter to Lucilium XXVIII, 1.
them], not
currunt
their souls or
state of mind
Caesar non Caesar has Political power is limited; it does not include power over
supra no authority grammar.[14]
grammaticos over the
grammarians

the rest is
caetera desunt Caetera is Medieval Latin spelling for cētera.
missing

my cup
calix meus
making me
inebrians
drunk

The pen is
calamus
mightier than
gladio fortior
the sword

camera dark An optical device used in drawing, and an ancestor of modern


obscura chamber photography. The source of the word camera.

Tell, oh Nero, Perfectly correct Latin sentence usually reported as funny from
Cane Nero
of the great modern Italians because the same exact words, in today's
magna bella
wars of dialect of Rome, mean "A black dog eats a beautiful peach",
Persica
Persia which has a ridiculously different meaning.

canes war dogs or


pugnaces fighting dogs

canis canem Refers to a situation where nobody is safe from anybody, each
dog eats dog
edit man for himself. Original name of the video game Bully.

capable of From Augustine, De Trinitate XIV, 8.11: Mens eo ipso imago Dei
capax Dei receiving est quo eius capax est,[15] "The mind is the image of God, in that
God it is capable of Him and can be partaker of Him."

capax imperii capable of Written by Tacitus in The Histories to describe Galba as


nisi imperial emperor.[16]
imperasset power if only
he had not
held it

holding the Capability of achieving goals by force of many instead of a


capax infiniti
infinite single individual.

(she
So aggrandized as to be beyond practical (earthly) reach or
caput inter plunges)
understanding (from Virgil's Aeneid and the shorter form
nubila (condit) [her] head in
appears in John Locke's Two Treatises of Government)
the clouds

Originally an alchemical reference to the dead head or worthless


caput
dead head residue left over from a reaction. Also used to refer to a
mortuum
freeloader or worthless element.

It implies a command to love as Christ loved. Motto of St.


The love of
Caritas Christi Francis Xavier High School located in West Meadowlark Park,
Christ
Edmonton.

Caritas in Charity in
Pope Benedict XVI's third encyclical.
veritate Truth

An exhortation to live for today. From Horace, Odes I, 11.8.


carpe diem seize the day Carpere refers to plucking of flowers or fruit. The phrase collige
virgo rosas has a similar sense.

An exhortation to make good use of the night, often used when


seize the carpe diem, q.v., would seem absurd, e.g., when observing a
carpe noctem
night deep-sky object or conducting a Messier marathon or engaging
in social activities after sunset.

carpe vinum seize the


wine

The Roman senator Cato the Elder ended every speech after the
Carthage
Carthago Second Punic War with ceterum censeo Carthaginem esse
must be
delenda est delendam, literally "For the rest, I am of the opinion that
destroyed
Carthage is to be destroyed."

One corrects Or, "[Comedy/Satire] criticises customs through humour", is a


castigat customs by phrase coined by French New Latin poet Jean-Baptiste de
ridendo mores laughing at Santeul (1630–1697), but sometimes wrongly attributed to his
them contemporary Molière or to Roman lyric poet Horace.

casus belli event of war Refers to an incident that is the justification or case for war.

The cause is
causa latet, vis hidden, but
Ovid: Metamorphoses IV, 287; motto of Alpha Sigma Phi.
est notissima the result is
well known.

cause of
causa mortis
death

especially used by Doctors of Medicine, when they want to warn


each other (e.g.: "cave nephrolithiases" in order to warn about
cave beware! side effects of an uricosuric). Spoken aloud in some British
public schools by pupils to warn each other of impending
authority.

Beware of Earliest written example is in the Satyricon of Petronius, circa


cave canem
the dog 1st century C.E.

caveat emptor let the buyer The purchaser is responsible for checking whether the goods
beware suit his need. Phrases modeled on this one replace emptor with
lector, subscriptor, venditor, utilitor: "reader", "signer", "seller",
"user".

It is a counter to caveat emptor and suggests that sellers can


caveat let the seller also be deceived in a market transaction. This forces the seller
venditor beware to take responsibility for the product and discourages sellers
from selling products of unreasonable quality.

"Let military power yield to civilian power", Cicero, De Officiis


cedant arma let arms yield
I:77. Former motto of the Territory of Wyoming. See also
togae to the gown
Toga#Roman_military.

I know not
cedere nescio Motto of HMAS Norman
how to yield

Motto of the United States Marine Corps Force Reconnaissance,


also known as FORCE RECON or FORECON, one of the United
States Marine Corps Special Operations Capable Forces (SOC)
Celer – Silens Swift – Silent
that provide essential elements of military intelligence to the
– Mortalis – Deadly
command element of the Marine Air-Ground Task Force
(MAGTF), supporting their task force commanders, and their
subordinate operating units of the Fleet Marine Force (FMF).

more swiftly
Or simply "faster than cooking asparagus". A variant of the
celerius quam than
Roman phrase velocius quam asparagi coquantur, using a
asparagi asparagus
different adverb and an alternative mood and spelling of
cocuntur [stem]s are
coquere.
cooked

In law, it is a return made by the sheriff, upon a capias, or other


I have taken
cepi corpus process to the like purpose; signifying, that he has taken the
the body
body of the party. See also habeas corpus.

certum est it is certain, Or "... if it can be rendered certain." Often used in law when
quod certum whatever can something is not known, but can be ascertained (e.g. the
reddi potest be rendered purchase price on a sale which is to be determined by a third-
certain party valuer)

when the
reason for
cessante A rule of law becomes ineffective when the reason for its
the law
ratione legis application has ceased to exist or does not correspond to the
ceases, the
cessat ipsa lex reality anymore. By Gratian.
law itself
ceases

the rest are


cetera desunt Also spelled "caetera desunt".
missing

all other
That is, disregarding or eliminating extraneous factors in a
ceteris paribus things being
situation.
equal

a paper of
charta
pardon to The form of a pardon for killing another man in self-defence
pardonationis
defend (see manslaughter).
se defendendo
oneself

charta a paper of
The form of a pardon of a man who is outlawed. Also called
pardonationis pardon to the
perdonatio utlagariae.
utlagariae outlaw

[Throw the]
Christianos ad
Christians to
leones
the lions!

Christo et For Christ


The motto of Furman University.
Doctrinae and Learning
Christus nos Christ has title of volume I, book 5, chapter XI of Les Misérables by Victor
liberavit freed us Hugo.

Christ the
Christus Rex A Christian title for Jesus.
King

Cicero's
speech in 57
Cicero pro BC to regain Said of someone who pleads cases for their own benefit; see
domo sua his List of Latin phrases (P) § pro domo
confiscated
house

circa (c.) or In the sense of "approximately" or "about". Usually used of a


around
(ca.) date.

circle made
circulus in
in testing [a Circular reasoning. Similar term to circulus vitiosus.
probando
premise]

In logic, begging the question, a fallacy involving the


circulus presupposition of a proposition in one of the premises (see
vicious circle
vitiosus petitio principii). In science, a positive feedback loop. In
economics, a counterpart to the virtuous circle.

citius altius faster, higher,


Motto of the modern Olympics.
fortius stronger

I am (a)
civis romanus Is a phrase used in Cicero's In Verrem as a plea for the legal
Roman
sum rights of a Roman citizen
citizen

clamea   A writ whereby the king of England could command the justice
admittenda in to admit one's claim by an attorney, who being employed in the
itinere per king's service, cannot come in person.
atturnatum

clarere audere [be] bright,


Motto of the Geal family.
gaudere daring, joyful

A legal action for trespass to land; so called, because the writ


demands the person summoned to answer wherefore he broke
clausum fregit  
the close (quare clausum fregit), i.e., why he entered the
plaintiff's land.

claves Sancti the keys of


A symbol of the Papacy.
Petri Saint Peter

The means of discovering hidden or mysterious meanings in


clavis aurea golden key
texts, particularly applied in theology and alchemy.

In law, a writ directed to the bishop, for the admitting a clerk to a


clerico for being
benefice upon a ne admittas, tried, and found for the party who
admittendo made a clerk
procures the writ.

clerico capto
In law, a writ for the delivery of a clerk out of prison, who is
per statutum  
imprisoned upon the breach of statute merchant.
mercatorum

clerico
convicto
commisso In law, a writ for the delivery of a clerk to his ordinary, that was
gaolae in   formerly convicted of felony; by reason that his ordinary did not
defectu challenge him according to the privilege of clerks.
ordinarii
deliberando

clerico intra   In law, a writ directed to the bailiffs, etc., that have thrust a
sacros ordines bailiwick or beadleship upon one in holy orders; charging them
constituto non to release him.
eligendo in
officium

Codex Iuris Book of The official code of canon law in the Roman Catholic Church (cf.
Canonici Canon Law Corpus Iuris Canonici).

"No one
Cogitationis suffers
A Latin legal phrase. See, State v. Taylor, 47 Or. 455, 84 P. 82
poenam nemo punishment
(1906).
patitur for mere
intent."

I think,
cogito ergo A rationalistic argument used by French philosopher René
therefore I
sum Descartes to attempt to prove his own existence.
am.

coitus interrupted Aborting sexual intercourse prior to ejaculation—the only


interruptus congress permitted form of birth control in some religions.

congress in
coitus more
the way of A medical euphemism for the doggy-style sexual position.
ferarum
beasts

Exhortation to enjoy fully the youth, "Gather ye


similar to Carpe diem, from "De rosis rosebuds while ye
collige virgo pick, girl, the
nascentibus" (also titled "Idyllium de may", 1909, by
rosas roses
rosis"), attributed to Ausonius or John William
Virgil.[17] Waterhouse

combinatio new It is frequently abbreviated comb. nov.. It is used in the life


nova combination sciences literature when a new name is introduced, e.g.
Klebsiella granulomatis comb. nov..

communibus in common One year with another; on an average. "Common" here does not
annis years mean "ordinary", but "common to every situation"

A term frequently used among philosophical and other writers,


communibus in common implying some medium, or mean relation between several
locis places places; one place with another; on a medium. "Common" here
does not mean "ordinary", but "common to every situation"

prevailing doctrine, generally accepted view (in an academic


communis common
field), scientific consensus; originally communis opinio
opinio opinion
doctorum, "common opinion of the doctors"

Describes someone of sound mind. Sometimes used ironically.


compos in control of
Also a legal principle, non compos mentis (not in control of one's
mentis the mind
faculties), used to describe an insane person.

concilio et by wisdom
Motto of the city of Manchester.
labore and effort

concordia cum in harmony


Motto of the University of Waterloo
veritate with truth

well-being
concordia Motto of Montreal. It is also the Bank of Montreal coat of arms
through
salus and motto.
harmony

concordia small things


parvae res grow in Motto of Merchant Taylors' School, Northwood
crescunt harmony

condemnant They The quod here is ambiguous: it may be the relative pronoun or a
quod non condemn conjunction.
intellegunt what they do
not
understand
or
They
condemn
because they
do not
understand

condition A required, indispensable condition. Commonly mistakenly


condicio sine
without rendered with conditio ("seasoning" or "preserving") in place of
qua non
which not condicio ("arrangement" or "condition").

conditur in it is founded
Motto of Peterhouse Boys' School and Peterhouse Girls' School
petra on the rock

confer The abbreviation cf. is used in text to suggest a comparison


compare
(cf.)[18][19] with something else (cf. citation signal).

Congregatio Congregation
Sanctissimi of the Most
Redemptorists
Redemptoris Holy
C.Ss.R Redeemer

with
coniunctis Or "with united powers". Sometimes rendered conjunctis viribus.
connected
viribus Motto of Queen Mary, University of London.
strength

consensu with consent

consuetudo Custom is Where there are no specific laws, the matter should be decided
pro lege held as law. by custom;[20] established customs have the force of laws.[21]
servatur Also consuetudo est altera lex (custom is another law) and
consuetudo vincit communem legem (custom overrules the
common law); see also: Consuetudinary.

consummatum It is The last words of Jesus on the cross in the Latin translation of
est completed. John 19:30.

contemptus scorn for the Despising the secular world. The monk or philosopher's
mundi/saeculi world/times rejection of a mundane life and worldly values.

contra bonos against good


Offensive to the conscience and to a sense of justice.
mores morals

Especially in civil law jurisdictions, said of an understanding of a


against the
contra legem statute that directly contradicts its wording and thus is neither
law
valid by interpretation nor by analogy.

In contract law, the doctrine of contractual interpretation which


contra against the provides that an ambiguous term will be construed against the
proferentem proferror party that imposed its inclusion in the contract – or, more
accurately, against the interests of the party who imposed it.

Title of a poem by Lesya Ukrainka; it derives from an expression


found in Paul's Letter to the Romans 4:18 (Greek: παρ' ἐλπίδα
contra spem I hope
ἐπ' ἐλπίδι) with reference to Abraham the Patriarch who
spero against hope
maintained faith in becoming the father of many nations despite
being childless and well-advanced in years.

No herb (or
contra vim sage) grows
mortis non in the
there is no medicine against death; from various medieval
crescit herba gardens
medicinal texts
(or salvia) in against the
hortis power of
death
contradictio in contradiction A thing or idea that would embody a contradiction, for example,
terminis in terms payment for a gift, or a circle with corners. The fallacy of
proposing such a thing.

contra there can be


principia no debate
Debate is fruitless when you don't agree on common rules,
negantem non with those
facts, presuppositions.
est who deny the
disputandum foundations

From Augustine's Confessions, referring to a prescribed method


cor ad cor heart speaks of prayer: having a "heart to heart" with God. Commonly used in
loquitur to heart reference to a later quote by Cardinal John Henry Newman. A
motto of Newman Clubs.

(Your choice is between) The Heart (Moral Values, Duty, Loyalty)


Heart or
cor aut mors or Death (to no longer matter, to no longer be respected as
Death
person of integrity.)

my heart I
cor meum tibi
offer to you
offero domine
Lord John Calvin's personal motto, also adopted by Calvin College
prompte et
promptly and
sincere
sincerely

A popular school motto. Often used as names for religious and


cor unum one heart
other organisations such as the Pontifical Council Cor Unum.

A phrase from Christian theology which summarizes the idea of


in the
Christians living in the presence of, under the authority of, and to
coram Deo presence of
the honor and glory of God; see also coram Deo
God
(disambiguation).

coram nobis, in our Two kinds of writs of error.


coram vobis presence, in
your
presence

in the
coram populo presence of Thus, openly.
the people

in view of the
coram publico
public

The name of a feast in the Roman Catholic Church


Body of commemorating the Eucharist. It is also the name of a city in
Corpus Christi
Christ Texas, Corpus Christi, Texas, the name of Colleges at Oxford
and Cambridge universities, and a controversial play.

The fact that a crime has been committed, a necessary factor in


body of the
corpus delicti convicting someone of having committed that crime; if there
offence
was no crime, there can not have been a criminal.

Corpus Iuris Body of The official compilation of canon law in the Roman Catholic
Canonici Canon Law Church (cf. Codex Iuris Canonici).

Corpus Iuris Body of Civil


The body of Roman or civil law.
Civilis Law

worthless A person or thing fit only to be the object of an experiment, as in


corpus vile
body the phrase 'Fiat experimentum in corpore vili.'

things to be
corrigenda
corrected

corruptio the
optimi corruption of
pessima
the best is
the worst

When the
republic is at
corruptissima its most
re publica corrupt the Tacitus
plurimae leges laws are
most
numerous

a raven does
not pick out
corvus oculum
an eye of
corvi non eruit
another
raven

corruptus in corrupt to the


Motto of the fictional Mayor's office in The Simpsons
extremis extreme

May he who
has never
loved before,
cras amet qui The refrain from the 'Pervigilium Veneris', a poem which
love
nunquam describes a three-day holiday in the cult of Venus, located
tomorrow;
amavit; quique somewhere in Sicily, involving the whole town in religious
And may he
amavit, cras festivities joined with a deep sense of nature and Venus as the
who has
amet "procreatrix", the life-giving force behind the natural world.
loved, love
tomorrow as
well

cras es noster Tomorrow, be As "The Future is Ours", motto of San Jacinto College, Texas
ours

A concept about creation, often used in a theological or


creatio ex creation out
philosophical context. Also known as the 'First Cause' argument
nihilo of nothing
in philosophy of religion. Contrasted with creatio ex materia.

Credo in Unum I Believe in


The first words of the Nicene Creed and the Apostles' Creed.
Deum One God

A very common misquote of Tertullian's et mortuus est Dei Filius


prorsus credibile quia ineptum est (and the Son of God is dead: in
short, it is credible because it is unfitting), meaning that it is so
absurd to say that God's son has died that it would have to be a
I believe it
credo quia matter of belief, rather than reason. The misquoted phrase,
because it is
absurdum est however, is commonly used to mock the dogmatic beliefs of the
absurd
religious (see fideism). This phrase is commonly shortened to
credo quia absurdum, and is also sometimes rendered credo
quia impossibile est (I believe it because it is impossible) or, as
Darwin used it in his autobiography, credo quia incredibile.

I believe so
credo ut A motto of St Anselm, used as the motto of St. Anselm Hall,
that I may
intelligam Manchester
understand

May we grow
crescamus in in Him
Motto of Cheverus High School.
Illo per omnia through all
things

let
crescat Motto of the University of Chicago. Often rendered in English as
knowledge
scientia vita "Let knowledge grow from more to more, And so be human life
grow, let life
excolatur enriched," so as to achieve an iambic meter.
be enriched
crescente luce Light ever Motto of James Cook University.
increasing

Civilization
crescit cum
prospers
commercio Motto of Claremont McKenna College.
with
civitas
commerce

From Lucretius' De rerum natura book VI, where it refers in


context to the motion of a thunderbolt across the sky, which
acquires power and momentum as it goes. This metaphor was
it grows as it
crescit eundo adapted as the state motto of New Mexico (adopted in 1887 as
goes
the territory's motto, and kept in 1912 when New Mexico
received statehood) and is seen on the seal. Also the motto of
Rocky Mount, Virginia.

while I live, I
trust in the
cruci dum cross, Whilst Motto of the Sisters of Loreto (IBVM) and its associated
spiro fido I trust in the schools.
Cross I have
life

The hood
cucullus non
does not
facit William Shakespeare, Twelfth Night, Scene I, Act V 48–50
make the
monachum
monk

cui bono Good for "Who benefits?" An adage in criminal investigation which
whom? suggests that considering who would benefit from an
unwelcome event is likely to reveal who is responsible for that
event (cf. cui prodest). Also the motto of the Crime Syndicate of
America, a fictional supervillain group. The opposite is cui malo
(Bad for whom?).

Short for cui prodest scelus is fecit (for whom the crime
for whom it advances, he has done it) in Seneca's Medea. Thus, the
cui prodest
advances murderer is often the one who gains by the murder (cf. cui
bono).

to each his
cuique suum
own

Whose the
cuius est land is, all
First coined by Accursius of Bologna in the 13th century. A
solum, eius est the way to
Roman legal principle of property law that is no longer observed
usque ad the sky and
in most situations today. Less literally, "For whosoever owns the
coelum et ad to the
soil, it is theirs up to the sky and down to the depths."
inferos underworld is
his.

whose The privilege of a ruler to choose the religion of his subjects. A


cuius regio,
region, his regional prince's ability to choose his people's religion was
eius religio
religion established at the Peace of Augsburg in 1555.

cuiusvis
Anyone can
hominis est
err, but only
errare, nullius
the fool Cicero, Philippica XII, 5.
nisi insipientis
persists in
in errore
his fault
perseverare.

Also "blame" or "guilt". In law, an act of neglect. In general, guilt,


culpa fault
sin, or a fault. See also mea culpa.

cum gladiis et with swords From the Bible. Occurs in Matthew 26:47 and Luke 22:52 .
fustibus and clubs

cum gladio et with sword


Motto of a well-paid soldier. See salary.
sale and salt

cum grano with a grain


Not to be taken too seriously or as the literal truth.
salis of salt

with this,
cum hoc ergo therefore on
Fallacy of assuming that correlation implies causation.
propter hoc account of
this

The standard formula for academic Latin honors in the United


cum laude with praise States. Greater honors include magna cum laude and summa
cum laude.

with the dead


cum mortuis in
in a dead Movement from Pictures at an Exhibition by Modest Mussorgsky
lingua mortua
language

cum privilegio
with the
ad Copyright notice used in 16th-century England, used for comic
exclusive
imprimendum effect in The Taming of the Shrew by William Shakespeare
right to print
solum

cuncti adsint
let all come
meritaeque
who by merit
expectent Motto of University College London.
deserve the
praemia
most reward
palmae

desire to be From the Bible, locution indicating a will to death ("I want to
cupio dissolvi
dissolved die").
cur Deus Why the God- The question attributed to Anselm in his work of by this name,
Homo Man wherein he reflects on why the Christ of Christianity must be
both fully Divine and fully Human. Often translated "why did God
become Man?"

cura care for the Motto of Georgetown University School of Medicine and
personalis whole person University of Scranton.

take care of An exhortation to physicians, or experts in general, to deal with


cura te ipsum
your own self their own problems before addressing those of others.

curriculum An overview of a person's life and qualifications, similar to a


course of life
vitae résumé.

custodi
guard the
civitatem, Motto of the City of Westminster.
city, O Lord
Domine

keeper of
custos morum A censor.
morals

distinguished
cygnis insignis Motto of Western Australia.
by its swans

cygnus inter swan among


anates ducks

D
Latin Translation Notes

da Deus O God, give


A traditional greeting of Czech brewers.
fortunae fortune/happiness

Also da mihi facta, dabo tibi ius (plural "facta" (facts) for
Give me the fact, I the singular "factum"). A legal principle of Roman law that
da mihi factum,
will give you the parties to a suit should present the facts and the judge will
dabo tibi ius
law rule on the law that governs them. Related to iura novit
curia (the court knows the law).

Paraphrase of Quintilianus, De Institutione Oratoria, Book


10, Chapter 1, 26:
Modesto tamen et circumspecto iudicio de tantis viris
pronuntiandum est, ne, quod plerisque accidit, damnent
They condemn
damnant quod quae non intellegunt.
what they do not
non intellegunt Yet students must pronounce with diffidence and
understand
circumspection on the merits of such illustrious
characters, lest, as is the case with many, they
condemn what they do not understand. (translated
by Rev. John Selby Watson)

damnatio ad condemnation to
Colloquially, "thrown to the lions".
bestias [the] beasts

The ancient Roman custom by which it was pretended


damnatio damnation of that disgraced Romans, especially former emperors),
memoriae memory never existed, by eliminating all records and likenesses of
them.

damnum damage without Meaning a loss that results from no one's wrongdoing. In
absque injuria injury Roman law, a person is not responsible for unintended,
consequential injury to another that results from a lawful
act. This protection does not necessarily apply to
unintended damage caused by one's negligence or folly.

dat deus
incrementum
or God gives growth Motto of several schools.
deus dat
incrementum

with due respect /


data venia Used before disagreeing with someone.
given the excuse

datum We shall
Motto of Batalhão de Operações Policiais Especiais
perficiemus accomplish the
(BOPE), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
munus mission assigned

In law, a de bene esse deposition is used to preserve the


de bene esse as well done testimony of a witness who is expected not to be available
to appear at trial and be cross-examined.

In law, trespass de bonis asportatis was the traditional


de bonis carrying goods
name for larceny, i.e., the unlawful theft of chattels
asportatis away
(moveable goods).

Used, e.g., in "as we agreed in the meeting d.d. 26th May


de dato of the date
2006".

Said of something that is the actual state of affairs, in


contrast to something's legal or official standing, which is
de facto by deed described as de jure. De facto refers to "the way things
really are" rather than what is officially presented as the
fact of the matter in question.

de fideli with faithfulness A clerk of a court makes this declaration when he is


appointed, by which he promises to perform his duties
faithfully as a servant of the court.

de fideli of faithful Describes an oath taken to faithfully administer the duties


administratione administration of a job or office, like that taken by a court reporter.[22]

regarding the
de futuro Usually used in the context of "at a future time".
future

Less literally, "there is no accounting for taste", because


they are judged subjectively and not objectively: everyone
de gustibus Of tastes there is has his own and none deserve preeminence. The
non est nothing to be complete phrase is "de gustibus et coloribus non est
disputandum disputed disputandum" ("when we talk about tastes and colours
there is nothing to be disputed"). Probably of Scholastic
origin; see Wiktionary.

again, a second
de integro
time

"Official", in contrast with de facto; analogous to "in


principle", whereas de facto is to "in practice". In other
de jure by law
contexts, it can mean "according to law", "by right", and
"legally".

of/from law to be
de lege ferenda
passed

of/from law
de lege lata passed / of/from
law in force

de minimis non The law does not A court does not care about small, trivial things. A case
curat lex care about the must have some importance in order for a court to hear it.
smallest things. See "de minimis non curat praetor".

Also, "the chief magistrate does not concern himself with


The commander trifles." Trivial matters are no concern of a high official; cf.
de minimis non does not care aquila non capit muscas (the eagle does not catch flies).
curat praetor about the smallest Sometimes rex (king) or lex (law) is used in place of
things. praetor. De minimis is a legal phrase referring to things
unworthy of the law's attention.

about the dead,


de mortuis aut Less literally, "speak well of the dead or not at all"; cf. de
either well or
bene aut nihil mortuis nil nisi bonum.
nothing

From de mortuis nil nisi bonum dicendum est ("nothing


must be said about the dead except the good"), attributed
about the dead,
de mortuis nil by Diogenes Laërtius to Chilon. In legal contexts, this
nothing unless a
nisi bonum quotation is used with the opposite meaning: defamation
good thing
of a deceased person is not a crime. In other contexts, it
refers to taboos against criticizing the recently deceased.

Thus: "their story is our story". Originally it referred to the


de nobis fabula About us is the
end of Rome's dominance. Now often used when
narratur story told
comparing any current situation to a past story or event.

"Anew" or "afresh". In law, a trial de novo is a retrial. In


biology, de novo means newly synthesized, and a de novo
mutation is a mutation that neither parent possessed or
de novo from the new transmitted. In economics, de novo refers to newly
founded companies, and de novo banks are state banks
that have been in operation for five years or less. (Cf. ex
novo)

de omni re about every The Italian scholar Giovanni Pico della Mirandola of the
scibili et knowable thing, 15th century wrote the De omni re scibili ("concerning
quibusdam aliis and even certain every knowable thing") part, and a wag added et
other things quibusdam aliis ("and even certain other things").

Attributed to the French philosopher René Descartes. It


Be suspicious of
de omnibus was also Karl Marx's favorite motto and a title of one of
everything / doubt
dubitandum Søren Kierkegaard's works, namely, De Omnibus
everything
Dubitandum Est.

de oppresso free from having Loosely, "to liberate the oppressed". Motto of the United
liber been oppressed States Army Special Forces.[23]

from/through the
de praescientia
foreknowledge of Motto of the Worshipful Company of Barbers.
Dei
God

Meaning from out of the depths of misery or dejection.


From the Latin translation of the Vulgate Bible of Psalm
de profundis from the depths
130, of which it is a traditional title in Roman Catholic
liturgy.

In logic, de dicto statements regarding the truth of a


about/regarding
de re proposition are distinguished from de re statements
the matter
regarding the properties of a thing itself.

Used in genealogical records, often abbreviated as d.s.p.,


decessit sine
died without issue to indicate a person who died without having had any
prole
children.

Used in genealogical records, often abbreviated as d.s.p.l.,


decessit sine died without
to indicate a person who died without having had any
prole legitima legitimate issue
children with a spouse.

decessit sine died without Used in genealogical records in cases of nobility or other
prole mascula legitimate male hereditary titles, often abbreviated as d.s.p.m.l. or d.s.p.m.
legitima issue legit, to indicate a person who died without having had any
legitimate male children (indicating there were illegitimate
male children)

decessit sine died without Used in genealogical records, often abbreviated as


prole mascula surviving male d.s.p.m., to indicate a person who died without having had
superstite issue any male children who survived, i.e., outlived, him.

Used in genealogical records, often abbreviated as d.s.p.s.,


decessit sine died without
to indicate a person who died without having had any
prole superstite surviving issue
children who survived, i.e., outlived him.

decessit vita died in the lifetime Used in genealogical records, often abbreviated as d.v.m.,
matris of the mother to indicate a person who predeceased his mother.

decessit vita died in the lifetime Used in genealogical records, often abbreviated as d.v.p.,
patris of the father to indicate a person who predeceased his father.

A phrase from the Aeneid of Virgil. Inscription on British


decus et an ornament and one-pound coins. Originally inscribed on coins of the 17th
tutamen a safeguard century, it refers to the inscribed edge of the coin as a
protection against the clipping of its precious metal.

defendit There is safety in


numerus numbers

Defender of the Official motto of the United States Air Force Security
Defensor Fortis
Force Forces (Security Police).

Part of the full style of a monarch historically considered


By the grace of
Dei gratia to be ruling by divine right, notably in the style of the
God
English and British monarch since 1521

Dei gratia By the Grace of Also Dei gratia rex ("By the Grace of God, King").
regina God, Queen Abbreviated as D G REG preceding Fidei Defensor (F D) on
British pound coins, and as D G Regina on Canadian coins.

Dei sub numine Under God's Spirit Motto of Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey,
viget she flourishes United States.

In Catholic theology, pleasure taken in a sinful thought or


imagination, such as brooding on sexual images. As
delectatio
peevish delight voluntary and complacent erotic fantasizing, without
morosa
attempt to suppress such thoughts, it is distinct from
actual sexual desire.

A legal principle whereby one to whom certain powers


delegata Delegated powers
were delegated may not ipso facto re-delegate them to
potestas non can not be
another. A distinction may be had between delegated
potest delegari [further] delegated
powers and the additional power to re-delegate them.

A Latin translation of René Goscinny's phrase in French ils


delirant isti They are mad, sont fous, ces romains! or Italian Sono pazzi questi Romani.
Romani those Romans[!] Cf. SPQR, which Obelix frequently used in the Asterix
comics.

for God and for


Deo ac veritati Motto of Colgate University.
truth

Deo confidimus In God we trust Motto of Somerset College.

For God and for


Deo domuique Motto of Methodist Ladies' College, Melbourne.
home

For God and Motto of Regis High School in New York City, New York,
Deo et patriae
country United States.

Deo gratias Thanks [be] to A frequent phrase in the Roman Catholic liturgy, used
God especially after the recitation of a lesson, the Last Gospel
at Mass or as a response to Ite Missa Est / Benedicamus
Domino.

Motto of Monaco and its monarch, which is inscribed on


Deo juvante with God's help
the royal arms.

Deo non by God, not


Motto of the Epsom College in Surrey, England.
fortuna fortune/luck

Derived from the pagan Iupiter optimo maximo ("to the


Deo optimo To the best and
best and greatest Jupiter"). Printed on bottles of
maximo (DOM) greatest God
Bénédictine liqueur.

Deo patriae For God, country,


Motto of Scotch College (Melbourne).
litteris [and] learning

For God, king and


Deo regi vicino Motto of Bromsgrove School.
neighbour

This was often used in conjunction with a signature at the


end of letters. It was used in order to signify that "God
willing" this letter will get to you safely, "God willing" the
contents of this letter come true. As an abbreviation
(simply "D.V.") it is often found in personal letters (in
Deo volente God willing
English) of the early 1900s, employed to generally and
piously qualify a given statement about a future planned
action, that it will be carried out, so long as God wills (see
James 4:13-15, which encourages this way of speaking).
The motto of Southern Illinois University-Carbondale.

The descent into


descensus in Down the rabbit hole. See Alice's Adventures in
the cave of the
cuniculi cavum Wonderland#Famous lines and expressions.
rabbit
desiderantes they desired a From Hebrews 11: 16. Adopted as the motto of the Order
meliorem better land of Canada.
patriam

Title and first words of the first encyclical of Pope


Deus caritas
God Is Love Benedict XVI. For other meanings see Deus caritas est
est
(disambiguation).

From the Greek ἀπὸ μηχανῆς θεός (apò mēchanēs theós).


A contrived or artificial solution, usually to a literary plot.
deus ex a god from a Refers to the practice in Greek drama of lowering by crane
machina machine (the mechanê) an actor playing a god or goddess onto the
stage to resolve an insuperable conflict in the plot. The
device is most commonly associated with Euripides.

Deus lux mea


God is my light The motto of The Catholic University of America.
est

Deus meumque The principal motto of Scottish Rite Freemasonry. See


God and my right
jus also Dieu et mon droit.

God has given us


Deus nobis
these days of Motto of the city of Liverpool, England.
haec otia fecit
leisure

Deus otiosus God at leisure

Deus spes The motto of Sir Thomas de Boteler, founder of Boteler


God is our hope
nostra Grammar School in Warrington in 1526.

The principal slogan of the Crusades. Motto of Bergen


Deus vult God wills it
Catholic High School in New Jersey, United States.

dictatum erat as previously A recent academic substitution for the spacious and
(dict) stated inconvenient phrase "as previously stated". Literally, has
been stated. Compare also "dicta prius"; literally, said
previously.

I.e. "from a rule without exception." Short for a dicto


simpliciter, the a is often dropped because it is confused
with the English indefinite article. A dicto simpliciter
occurs when an acceptable exception is ignored or
dicto [from] a maxim,
eliminated. For example, the appropriateness of using
simpliciter simply
opiates is contingent on suffering extreme pain. To justify
the recreational use of opiates by referring to a cancer
patient or to justify arresting said patient by comparing
him to the recreational user would be a dicto simpliciter.

what is said is
dictum factum Motto of United States Navy Fighter Squadron VF-194.
done

dictum meum my word [is] my


Motto of the London Stock Exchange.
pactum bond

From the Roman Emperor Titus. Recorded in the


diem perdidi I have lost the day biography of him by Suetonius in Lives of the Twelve
Caesars.

Reference to the Judgment Day in Christian eschatology.


The title of a famous Medieval Latin hymn by Tommaso
dies irae Day of wrath
da Celano in the 13th century and used in the Requiem
Mass.

Days under common law (traditionally Sunday), during


dies non Day without which no legal process can be served and any legal
juridicum judiciary judgment is invalid. The English Parliament first codified
this precept in the reign of King Charles II.

Dies tenebrosa a day as dark as First entry in Annales Cambriae, for the year 447.[24]
sicut nox night

In Classical Latin, "I arrange". Motto of the State of Maine,


dirigo I direct United States; based on a comparison of the State to the
star Polaris.

In other words, the gods have ideas different to those of


mortals, and so events do not always occur in the way
It seemed
persons wish them to. Confer Virgil, Aeneid, 2: 428. Also
dis aliter visum otherwise to the
confer "Man proposes and God disposes" and "My
gods
Thoughts are not your thoughts, neither are your ways My
ways", Isaiah 55, 8-9.

Refers to the Manes, i.e. Roman spirits of the dead.


Loosely, "to the memory of". A conventional pagan
dis manibus
Sacred to the inscription preceding the name of the deceased on his
sacrum
ghost-gods tombstone; often shortened to dis manibus (D.M.), "for the
(D.M.S.)
ghost-gods". Preceded in some earlier monuments by hic
situs est (H. S. E.), "he lies here".

disce aut learn or depart / Motto of Royal College, Colombo and of King's School,
discede learn or leave Rochester.

disce ut Learn as if always


semper going to live; live Attributed to St. Edmund of Abingdon. First seen in Isidoro
victurus, vive ut as if tomorrow de Sevilla
cras moriturus going to die.

discendo while learning we


See also docendo…(2).
discimus learn

discere Motto of California Polytechnic State University, California,


learn by doing
faciendo United States.
disiecta scattered limbs I.e., "scattered remains". Paraphrased from Horace,
membra Satires, 1, 4, 62, where it is written "disiecti membra poetae"
(limbs of a scattered poet).

Motto of the State of Arizona, United States, adopted in


ditat Deus God enriches 1911. Probably derived from the translation of the Vulgate
Bible of Genesis 14: 23.

divide and rule / A Roman maxim adopted by Roman Dictator Julius


divide et
"divide and Caesar, King Louis XI of France and the Italian political
impera
conquer" author Niccolò Machiavelli.

A popular, eloquent expression, usually used in the end of


a speech. The implied meaning is that the speaker has
dixi I have spoken
said all that he had to say and thus his argument is
completed.

Used to attribute a statement or opinion to its author,


["...", ...] dixit ["...", ...] said
rather than the speaker.

I give that you Often said or written of sacrifices, in which one "gives" and
do ut des
may give expects a return from the gods.

It is learned by
docendo
teaching / one Attributed to Seneca the Younger.
discitur
learns by teaching

docendo disco,
I learn by teaching,
scribendo
I think by writing
cogito

dolus specialis special intent "The ... concept is particular to a few civil law systems and
cannot sweepingly be equated with the notions of 'special'
or 'specific intent' in common law systems. Of course, the
same might equally be said of the concept of 'specific
intent', a notion used in the common law almost
exclusively within the context of the defense of voluntary
intoxication." (Genocide scholar William A. Schabas)[25]

Domine dirige
O Lord, guide us Motto of the City of London, England.
nos

Domine salvum O Lord, save the


Psalm 20, 10.
fac regem king

Domine salvam O Lord, save the


After Psalm 20, 10.
fac reginam queen

Sunday in [Setting
Dominica in Latin name of the Octave of Easter in the Roman Catholic
Aside the] White
albis [depositis] liturgy.
Garments

Dominus The Lord is our


Motto of the Southland College, Philippines. Psalm 28, 8.
fortitudo nostra strength

Dominus The Lord is my


Motto of the University of Oxford, England. Psalm 27, 1.
illuminatio mea light

The Lord is [our] Motto of St. John's College and Prep School, Harare,
Dominus pastor
shepherd Zimbabwe. After Psalm 23, 1.

A phrase used in the Roman Catholic liturgy, and


Dominus The Lord be with sometimes in its sermons and homilies, and a general
vobiscum you. form of greeting among and towards members of Catholic
organizations. See also Pax vobiscum.

Often set to music, either by itself or as the final phrase of


dona nobis
give us peace the Agnus Dei prayer of the Holy Mass. Also an ending in
pacem
the video game Haunting Ground.
donatio mortis a donation in A legal concept in which a person in imminent mortal
causa expectation of danger need not satisfy the otherwise requisite
death consideration to effect a testamentary donation, i.e., a
donation by instituting or modifying a will.

draco dormiens a sleeping dragon Motto of the fictional Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and
nunquam is never to be Wizardry of the Harry Potter series; translated more
titillandus tickled loosely in the books as "never tickle a sleeping dragon".

the
dramatis More literally, "the masks of the drama"; the cast of
parts/characters
personae characters of a dramatic work.
of the play

duae tabulae
two blank slates
rasae in quibus Stan Laurel, inscription for the fan club logo of The Sons
with nothing
nihil scriptum of the Desert.
written upon them
est

ducimus we lead Motto of the Royal Canadian Infantry Corps.

ducit amor love of country Motto of the 51st Battalion, Far North Queensland
patriae leads me Regiment, Australia.

ducunt
the fates lead the
volentem fata,
willing and drag Attributed to Lucius Annaeus Seneca (Sen. Ep. 107.11).
nolentem
the unwilling
trahunt

Motto of the United States Marine Corps Officer


ductus leadership by
Candidates School, at the base in Quantico, Virginia,
exemplo example
United States.

dulce bellum war is sweet to Meaning: "war may seem pleasant to those who have
inexpertis the inexperienced never been involved in it, though the experienced know
better". Erasmus of Rotterdam.

It is sweet on
dulce est occasion to play
Horace, Odes 4, 12, 28. Also used by George Knapton for
desipere in the fool. / It is
the portrait of Sir Bourchier Wrey, 6th Baronet in 1744.
loco pleasant to relax
once in a while.

dulce et It is sweet and Horace, Odes 3, 2, 13. Also used by Wilfred Owen for the
decorum est honorable to die title of a poem regarding World War I, Dulce et Decorum
pro patria mori for the fatherland. Est.

a sweet and
useful thing / Horace, Ars Poetica: poetry must be dulce et utile, i.e., both
dulce et utile
pleasant and enjoyable and instructive.
profitable

dulce Horace, Odes, 3 25, 16. Motto of the Scottish clan


danger is sweet
periculum MacAulay.

dulcius ex sweeter after


Motto of the Scottish clan Fergusson.[26]
asperis difficulties

dum cresco I hope when I


Motto of The Ravensbourne School.
spero grow

while Rome
dum Roma Used when someone has been asked for urgent help, but
debates,
deliberat responds with no immediate action. Similar to Hannibal
Saguntum is in
Saguntum perit ante portas, but referring to a less personal danger.
danger

dum spiro while I breathe, I Cicero. Motto of the State of South Carolina. Motto of the
spero hope Clan MacLennan.

dum vita est, while there is life,


spes est there is hope

dum vivimus while we live, we


Motto of Presbyterian College.
servimus serve

dum vivimus, while we live, let An encouragement to embrace life. Motto inscribed on the
vivamus us live sword of the main character of the novel Glory Road.

[the] law [is] harsh, Ulpian, Digesta Iustiniani, Roman jurist of the 3rd century
dura lex sed lex
but [it is the] law AD.

dura mater tough mother The outer covering of the brain.

durante bene during good Meaning: "serving at the pleasure of the authority or officer
placito pleasure who appointed". A Mediaeval legal Latin phrase.

For example, the Governor General of Canada is durante


durante
while in office munere the Chancellor and Principal Companion of the
munere
Order of Canada.

dux bellorum war leader

The fear of the


initium
Lord is the A quotation of Psalm 111:10. Motto of the University of
sapientiae
beginning of Aberdeen, Scotland.
timor Domini
wisdom.

E
Latin Translation Notes

e causa Often used in medicine when the underlying disease


of unknown cause
ignota causing a symptom is not known.

Literally, out of more (than one), one. The former national


motto of the United States, which "In God We Trust" later
E pluribus
out of many, one replaced; therefore, it is still inscribed on many US coins
unum
and on the United States Capitol. Also the motto of S.L.
Benfica. Less commonly written as ex pluribus unum.

behold the From Luke 1:38 in the Vulgate Bible. Name of an oil
ecce ancilla
handmaiden of the painting by Dante Gabriel Rossetti and motto of
domini
Lord Bishopslea Preparatory School.

From the Gospel of John in the Vulgate 19:5 (Douay-


Rheims) , where Pontius Pilate speaks these words as
he presents Christ, crowned with thorns, to the crowd. It
ecce homo behold the man is also the title of Nietzsche's autobiography and of the
theme music by Howard Goodall for the ITV comedy Mr.
Bean, in which the full sung lyric is Ecce homo qui est faba
("Behold the man who is a bean").

From the Catholic hymn Lauda Sion; occasionally


ecce panis behold the bread of inscribed near the altar of Catholic churches; it refers to
angelorum angels the Eucharist, the Bread of Heaven; the Body of Christ.
See also: Panis angelicus.

editio
first edition The first published edition of a work.
princeps

ejusdem of the same kinds, From the canons of statutory interpretation in law. When
generis class, or nature more general descriptors follow a list of many specific
descriptors, the otherwise wide meaning of the general
descriptors is interpreted as restricted to the same class,
if any, of the preceding specific descriptors.

Part of the formula of Catholic sacramental absolution, i.


ego te
I absolve you e., spoken by a priest as part of the Sacrament of
absolvo
Penance .

ego te Used as a challenge; "I dare you". Can also be written as


I challenge you
provoco te provoco.

eheu fugaces Alas, the fleeting


From Horace's Odes, 2, 14.
labuntur anni years slip by

eluceat let the light shine


The motto of Sidwell Friends School.
omnibus lux out from all

Retired from office. Often used to denote an office held at


the time of one's retirement, as an honorary title, e. g.
emeritus veteran professor emeritus and provost emeritus. Inclusion in
one's title does not necessarily denote that the honorand
is inactive in the pertinent office.

a faithful study of
the liberal arts
emollit mores
humanizes From Ovid, Epistulae ex Ponto (II, 9, 48). Motto of
nec sinit esse
character and University of South Carolina.
feros
permits it not to be
cruel

Or "being one's own cause". Traditionally, a being that


existing because of
ens causa sui owes its existence to no other being, hence God or a
oneself
Supreme Being .

ense petit by the sword she Motto of the US state of Massachusetts, adopted in
placidam sub seeks a serene 1775.
libertate repose under liberty
quietem

entia non sunt


entities must not be Occam's Razor or Law of Parsimony; arguments which do
multiplicanda
multiplied beyond not introduce extraneous variables are to be preferred in
praeter
necessity logical argumentation.
necessitatem

entitas ipsa
involvit
aptitudinem reality involves a
A phrase used in modern Western philosophy on the
ad power to compel
nature of truth.
extorquendum certain assent
certum
assensum

Technical term in philosophy and law. Similar to ipso


facto. Example: "The fact that I am does not eo ipso mean
eo ipso by that very (act)
that I think." From the Latin ablative form of id ipsum
("that thing itself").

eo nomine by that name

equo ne do not trust the From Virgil, Aeneid, II. 48–49; a reference to the Trojan
credite horse Horse.

in relation to Used in law, especially international law, to denote a kind


erga omnes
everyone of universal obligation.

ergo therefore Denotes a logical conclusion .

errare to err is human Sometimes attributed to Seneca the Younger, but not
humanum est attested: Errare humanum est, perseverare autem
diabolicum, et tertia non datur (To err is human; to persist
[in committing such errors] is of the devil, and the third
possibility is not given.) Several authors contemplated
the idea before Seneca: Livy, Venia dignus error is
humanus (Storie, VIII, 35) and Cicero: is Cuiusvis errare:
insipientis nullius nisi, in errore perseverare (Anyone can
err, but only the fool persists in his fault) (Philippicae, XII,
2, 5). Cicero, being well-versed in ancient Greek, may well
have been alluding to Euripides' play Hippolytus some
four centuries earlier.[27] 300 years later Saint Augustine
of Hippo recycled the idea in his Sermones, 164, 14:
Humanum fuit errare, diabolicum est per animositatem in
errore manere.[28] The phrase gained currency in the
English language after Alexander Pope's An Essay on
Criticism of 1711: "To err is human, to forgive divine" (line
325).

I. e., mistake. Lists of errors in a previous edition of a


erratum error
work are often marked with the plural errata ("errors").

Roman legal principle formulated by Pomponius in the


errantis the will of a
Digest of the Corpus Juris Civilis, stating that legal actions
voluntas nulla mistaken party is
undertaken by man under the influence of error are
est void
invalid.

eruditio et scholarship and


Motto of Duke University
religio duty

Motto of George Berkeley for his subjective idealist


esse est to be is to be
philosophical position that nothing exists independently
percipi perceived
of its perception by a mind except minds themselves.
esse quam to be, rather than to Truly being a thing, rather than merely seeming to be a
videri seem thing. The motto of many institutions. From Cicero, De
amicitia (On Friendship), Chapter 26. Prior to Cicero,
Sallust used the phrase in Bellum Catilinae, 54, 6, writing
that Cato esse quam videri bonus malebat ("preferred to
be good, rather than to seem so"). Earlier still, Aeschylus
used a similar phrase in Seven Against Thebes, line 592:
ou gar dokein aristos, all' enai thelei ("he wishes not to
seem the best, but to be the best").

there is a middle or mean in things, there is a middle way


or position; from Horace, Satires 1.1.106; see also:
Golden mean (philosophy). According to Potempski and
Galmarini (Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 9471-9489, 2009) the
est modus in there is measure in sentence should be translated as: "There is an optimal
rebus things condition in all things", which in the original text is
followed by sunt certi denique fines quos ultra citraque
nequit consistere rectum ("There are therefore precise
boundaries beyond which one cannot find the right
thing").

Said of Venice, Italy, by the Venetian historian Fra Paolo


Sarpi shortly before his death. Motto of the US state of
esto perpetua may it be perpetual
Idaho, adopted in 1867; of S. Thomas' College, Mount
Lavinia, Sri Lanka; of Sigma Phi Society.

esto quod es be what you are Motto of Wells Cathedral School.

et adhuc sub it is still before the


From Horace, Ars Poetica (The Art of Poetry) 1.78.
iudice lis est court

et alibi (et al.) and elsewhere A less common variant on et cetera ("and the rest") used
at the end of a list of locations to denote
unenumerated/omitted ones.

Used similarly to et cetera ("and the rest") to denote


names that, usually for the sake of space, are
unenumerated/omitted. Alii is masculine, and therefore it
can be used to refer to men, or groups of men and
women; the feminine et aliae is proper when the "others"
are all female, but as with many loanwords, interlingual
use, such as in reference lists, is often invariable. Et alia is
neuter plural and thus in Latin text is properly used only
for inanimate, genderless objects, but some use it as a
et alii (et al.) and others
gender-neutral alternative.[29] APA style uses et al.
(normal font)[30] if the work cited was written by more
than six authors; MLA style uses et al. for more than
three authors; AMA style lists all authors if ≤6, and 3 + et
al if >6. AMA style forgoes the period (because it forgoes
the period on abbreviations generally) and it forgoes the
italic (as it does with other loanwords naturalized into
scientific English); many journals that follow AMA style
do likewise.

et cetera (etc.
(US English);
etc (UK In modern usage, used to mean "and so on" or "and
and the rest
English)) or more".
(&c. (US); &c
(UK))

et cum spiritu A response in the Sursum corda element of the Catholic


and with your spirit
tuo Mass.
Et facere et Acting and suffering The words of Gaius Mucius Scaevola when Lars Porsena
pati fortia bravely is the captured him.
Romanum est attribute of a Roman

et facta est And light came to be From Genesis, 1:3: "and there was light". Motto of
lux or was made Morehouse College in Atlanta, Georgia, United States.

et hoc genus and all that sort of


Abbreviated as e.h.g.o. or ehgo
omne thing

et in Arcadia
and in Arcadia [am] I In other words, "I too am in Arcadia".
ego

et lux in and light shines in


tenebris lucet the darkness

et nunc reges "And now, O ye


intelligite kings, understand:
From the Book of Psalms, II.x. (Vulgate) , 2.10 (Douay-
erudimini qui receive instruction,
Rheims) .
judicatis you that judge the
terram earth."

Also et sequentia ("and the following things": neut.),


abbreviations: et seqq., et seq., or sqq. Commonly used in
and the following legal citations to refer to statutes that comprise several
et sequentes
(masculine/feminine sequential sections of a code of statutes (e. g. National
(et seq.)
plural) Labor Relations Act, 29 U.S.C. § 159 et seq.; New Jersey
Prevention of Domestic Violence Act, N.J. Stat. Ann. §
2C:25-17 et seq.).

et suppositio and a supposition


nil ponit in puts nothing in More usually translated as "Sayin' it don't make it so".
esse being
Et tu, Brute? And you, Brutus? Or "Even you, Brutus?" or "You too, Brutus?" Indicates
betrayal by an intimate associate. From William
Shakespeare, Julius Caesar, based on the traditional
dying words of Julius Caesar. However, these were
almost certainly not Caesar's true last words: Plutarch
quotes Caesar as saying in Greek, the language of the
Roman elite at the time, καὶ σὺ τέκνον (Kaì sù téknon?),
translated as "You too, (my) child?", quoting from
Menander.

et uxor (et
and wife A legal term.
ux.)

et vir and husband A legal term.

Etiam si Saint Peter to Jesus Christ, from the Vulgate, Gospel of


Even if all others, I
omnes, ego Matthew 26:33 ; New King James Version:
will never
non Matthew 26:33 ).

etsi deus non even if God were not This sentence synthesizes a famous concept of Hugo
daretur a given Grotius (1625).

In law, describes someone taking precautions against a


very remote contingency. "One might wear a belt in
addition to braces ex abundanti cautela".[31] In banking, a
loan in which the collateral is more than the loan itself.
ex abundanti out of an abundance
Also the basis for the term "an abundance of caution"
cautela of caution
employed by United States President Barack Obama to
explain why the Chief Justice of the US Supreme Court
John Roberts had to re-administer the presidential oath
of office, and again in reference to terrorist threats.

ex abundantia for out of the From the Gospel of Matthew, XII.xxxiv (Vulgate) , 12.34
enim cordis abundance of the (Douay-Rheims) and the Gospel of Luke, VI.xlv
os loquitur heart the mouth (Vulgate) , 6.45 (Douay-Rheims) . Sometimes rendered
speaketh. without enim ("for").

Denoting "on equal footing", i. e., in a tie. Used for those


ex aequo from the equal two (seldom more) participants of a competition who
demonstrated identical performance.

"(There is) always Pliny the Elder, Naturalis Historia, 8, 42 (unde etiam
ex Africa
something new vulgare Graeciae dictum semper aliquid novi Africam
semper
(coming) out of adferre[32]), a translation of the Greek «Ἀεὶ Λιβύη φέρει τι
aliquid novi
Africa" καινόν».

Often used on internal diplomatic event invitations. A


ex amicitia peace from
motto sometimes inscribed on flags and mission plaques
pax friendship
of diplomatic corps.

ex animo from the soul Sincerely.

Denoting "beforehand", "before the event", or "based on


ex ante from before
prior assumptions"; denoting a prediction.

The motto of the fictional Starfleet Academy of Star Trek.


Ex Astris From the Stars,
Adapted from ex luna scientia, which in turn derived from
Scientia Knowledge
ex scientia tridens.

ex cathedra from the chair A phrase applied to the declarations or promulgations of


the Catholic Supreme Pontiff (Pope) when, preserved
from the possibility of error by the Holy Spirit , he
solemnly declares or promulgates ("from the chair" that
was the ancient symbol of the teacher and governor, in
this case of the Church) a dogmatic doctrine on faith or
morals as being contained in divine revelation, or at least
being intimately connected to divine revelation. Used, by
extension, of anyone who is perceived as speaking as
though with supreme authority.

from culture [comes]


ex cultu robur The motto of Cranleigh School, Surrey.
strength

ex Deo from God

"From harmful deceit"; dolus malus is the Latin legal term


denoting "fraud". The full legal phrase is ex dolo malo non
oritur actio ("an action does not arise from fraud"). When
ex dolo malo from fraud
an action has its origin in fraud or deceit, it cannot be
supported; thus, a court of law will not assist a man who
bases his course of action on an immoral or illegal act.

From suffering
ex duris gloria Motto of Rapha Cycling club .
[comes] glory

Idiomatically rendered "on the face of it". A legal term


ex facie from the face typically used to state that a document's explicit terms
are defective absent further investigation.

from faith [comes] Motto of St George's College, Harare and Hartmann


ex fide fiducia
confidence House Preparatory School.

from faith [comes] Motto of Loyola School in New York City, New York,
ex fide fortis
strength United States.

ex glande from the acorn the Motto of the Municipal Borough of Southgate, London,
quercus oak England, United Kingdom.

ex gratia from kindness More literally "from grace". Refers to someone voluntarily
performing an act purely from kindness, as opposed to
for personal gain or from being compelled to do it. In law,
an ex gratia payment is one made without recognizing
any liability or obligation.

ex hypothesi from the hypothesis Denoting "by hypothesis".

ex ignorantia
ad from ignorance into
Motto of the fictional Miskatonic University in Arkham,
sapientiam; wisdom; from light
Massachusetts, from the Cthulhu Mythos
ex luce ad into darkness
tenebras (e.i.)

Recent academic notation denoting "from below in this


ex infra (e.i.) "from below"
writing".

from that which The medical pitfall in which response to a therapeutic


ex juvantibus
helps regimen substitutes proper diagnosis.

ex lege from the law

Precedes a person's name, denoting "from the library of"


ex libris from the books
the nominate; also a synonym for "bookplate".

The motto of the Apollo 13 lunar mission, derived from ex


ex luna from the moon,
scientia tridens, the motto of Jim Lovell's alma mater, the
scientia knowledge
United States Naval Academy.

From Saint Augustine of Hippo, "Sermon LXI", in which he


contradicts the dictum of Seneca the Younger in Epistulae
ex malo
good out of evil morales ad Lucilium, 87:22: bonum ex malo non fit ("good
bonum
does not come from evil"). Also the alias of the song
"Miserabile Visu" by Anberlin in the album New Surrender.

ex mea
in my opinion
sententia

ex mero motu out of mere impulse,


or of one's own
accord

From Lucretius, and said earlier by Empedocles. Its


original meaning is "work is required to succeed", but its
modern meaning is a more general "everything has its
origins in something" . It is commonly applied to the
conservation laws in philosophy and modern science. Ex
ex nihilo nihil nothing comes from
nihilo is often used in conjunction with "creation", as in
fit nothing
creatio ex nihilo, denoting "creation out of nothing". It is
often used in philosophy and theology in connection with
the proposition that God created the universe from
nothing. It is also mentioned in the final ad-lib of the
Monty Python song Always Look on the Bright Side of Life.

Denotes something that has been newly made or made


ex novo anew
from scratch .

Ex Oblivione from oblivion The title of a short story by H. P. Lovecraft.

By virtue or right of office. Often used when someone


holds one office by virtue of holding another: for example,
the President of France is an ex officio Co-Prince of
Andorra. A common misconception is that all ex officio
members of a committee or congress may not vote; but
ex officio from the office
in some cases they do. In law ex officio can also refer to
an administrative or judicial office taking action of its
own accord, in the case of the latter the more common
term is ex proprio motu or ex meru motu, for example to
invalidate a patent or prosecute infringers of copyright.[33]

ex opere from the work of the A theological phrase contrasted with ex opere operato,
operantis one working referring to the notion that the validity or promised benefit
of a sacrament depends on the person administering it.

A theological phrase meaning that the act of receiving a


sacrament actually confers the promised benefit, such as
ex opere from the work a baptism actually and literally cleansing one's sins. The
operato worked Catholic Church affirms that the source of grace is God,
not just the actions or disposition of the minister or the
recipient of the sacrament.

Originally refers to the sun rising in the east, but alludes


ex oriente lux light from the east to culture coming from the Eastern world. Motto of
several institutions.

peace comes from Shown on the logo as used by East Germany's CDU, a
ex oriente pax the east (i.e. from blue flag with two yellow stripes, a dove, and the CDU
the Soviet Union) symbol in the center with the words ex oriente pax.

A legal term that means "by one party" or "for one party".
ex parte from a part
Thus, on behalf of one side or party only.

ex pede from his foot, so From the measure of Hercules' foot you shall know his
Herculem Hercules size; from a part, the whole.

"Afterward", "after the event". Based on knowledge of the


ex post from after
past. Measure of past performance.

from a thing done


ex post facto Said of a law with retroactive effect.
afterward

Or 'with due competence'. Said of the person who


from one declaring
ex professo perfectly knows his art or science. Also used to mean
[an art or science]
"expressly".[34]

ex rel. or ex [arising] out of the The term is a legal phrase; the legal citation guide called
relatio relation/narration [of the Bluebook describes ex rel. as a "procedural phrase"
the relator] and requires using it to abbreviate "on the relation of," "for
the use of," "on behalf of," and similar expressions. An
example of use is in court case titles such as Universal
Health Services, Inc. v. United States ex rel. Escobar

The United States Naval Academy motto. Refers to


ex scientia from knowledge, sea
knowledge bringing men power over the sea comparable
tridens power.
to that of the trident-bearing Greek god Poseidon.

ex scientia from knowledge, The motto of the College of Graduate Studies at Middle
vera truth Tennessee State University.

In general, the claim that the absence of something


demonstrates the proof of a proposition. An argumentum
ex silentio ("argument from silence") is an argument
ex silentio from silence based on the assumption that someone's silence on a
matter suggests ("proves" when a logical fallacy) that
person's ignorance of the matter or their inability to
counterargue validly.

ex situ out of position opposite of "in situ"

ex solo ad from the Earth to the The motto of the University of Central Lancashire,
solem Sun Preston

ex supra (e.s.) "from above" Recent academic notation for "from above in this writing".

from [this moment "This instant", "right away" or "immediately". Also written
ex tempore
of] time extempore.

Ex turpi causa From a dishonorable A legal doctrine which states that a claimant will be
non oritur cause an action unable to pursue a cause of action, if it arises in
actio does not arise
connection with his own illegal act. Particularly relevant
in the law of contract, tort and trusts.

ex umbra in from the shadow


Motto of Federico Santa María Technical University.
solem into the light

from the waves [of


ex undis motto in the coat of arms of Eemsmond
the sea]

Ex Unitate union is strength, or


Former motto of South Africa.
Vires unity is strength

from the force of the


ex vi termini Thus, "by definition".
term

ex vita
discedo,
I depart from life as
tanquam ex
from an inn, not as Cicero, Cato Maior de Senectute (On Old Age) 23
hospitio, non
from home
tanquam ex
domo

Used in reference to the study or assay of living tissue in


ex vivo out of or from life
an artificial environment outside the living organism.

Thus, in accordance with a promise. An ex voto is also an


ex voto from the vow
offering made in fulfillment of a vow.

ex vulgus from crowd, used to describe social computing, in The Wisdom of


scientia knowledge Crowds and discourse referring to it.

"Ever upward!" The state motto of New York. Also a


excelsior higher
catchphrase used by Marvel Comics head Stan Lee.

exceptio The exception A juridical principle which means that the statement of a
firmat (or confirms the rule in rule's exception (e.g., "no parking on Sundays") implicitly
probat) cases which are not confirms the rule (i.e., that parking is allowed Monday
regulam in excepted through Saturday). Often mistranslated as "the exception
casibus non that proves the rule".
exceptis

excusatio non an excuse that has


More loosely, "he who excuses himself, accuses
petita not been sought [is]
himself"—an unprovoked excuse is a sign of guilt. In
accusatio an obvious
French, qui s'excuse, s'accuse.
manifesta accusation

exeat s/he may go out A formal leave of absence.

exegi I have reared a


monumentum monument more
Horace, Carmina III:XXX:I
aere enduring than
perennius bronze

Exempli gratiā, 'for example', is usually abbreviated "e.g."


(less commonly, ex. gr.). The abbreviation "e.g." often is
interpreted anglicised as 'example given'. It is not usually
for the sake of
exempli gratia followed by a comma in British English, but it is in
example, for
(e.g.) American usage. E.g. is often confused with i.e. (id est,
example
meaning 'that is' or 'in other words').[35] Some writing
styles give such abbreviations without punctuation, as ie
and eg.[a]

exercitus sine
an army without a
duce corpus On a plaque at the former military staff building of the
leader is a body
est sine Swedish Armed Forces.
without a spirit
spiritu

exeunt they leave Third-person plural present active indicative of the Latin
verb exire; also seen in exeunt omnes, "all leave"; singular:
exit.

This term has been used in dermatopathology to express


that there is no substitute for experience in dealing with
experientia all the numerous variations that may occur with skin
experience teaches
docet conditions.[52] The term has also been used in
gastroenterology.[53] It is also the motto of San Francisco
State University.

experimentum experiment of the Or "crucial experiment". A decisive test of a scientific


crucis cross theory.

Literally "believe one who has had experience". An


experto crede trust the expert
author's aside to the reader.

"Mentioning one thing may exclude another thing". A


principle of legal statutory interpretation: the explicit
expressio the expression of presence of a thing implies intention to exclude others;
unius est the one is the e.g., a reference in the Poor Relief Act 1601 to "lands,
exclusio exclusion of the houses, tithes and coal mines" was held to exclude mines
alterius other other than coal mines. Sometimes expressed as
expressum facit cessare tacitum (broadly, "the expression
of one thing excludes the implication of something else").

Refers to a possible result of Catholic ecclesiastical legal


[placed] outside of
extra domum proceedings when the culprit is removed from being part
the house
of a group like a monastery.

This expression comes from the Epistle to Jubaianus,


extra outside the Church paragraph 21, written by Saint Cyprian of Carthage, a
Ecclesiam [there is] no bishop of the third century. It is often used to summarise
nulla salus salvation the doctrine that the Catholic Church is absolutely
necessary for salvation.
extra omnes outside, all [of you] It is issued by the Master of the Papal Liturgical
Celebrations before a session of the Papal conclave
which will elect a new Pope. When spoken, all those who
are not Cardinals, or those otherwise mandated to be
present at the Conclave, must leave the Sistine Chapel.

extra he who administers


territorium jus justice outside of his
Refers to extraterritorial jurisdiction. Often cited in law of
dicenti territory is
the sea cases on the high seas.
impune non disobeyed with
paretur impunity

"extreme solution",
"last possibility",
extrema ratio
"last possible course
of action"

F
Latin Translation Notes

faber est
every man is
suae Appius Claudius Caecus; motto of Fort Street High School in
the artisan of
quisque Petersham, Sydney, Australia
his own fortune
fortunae

fac et spera do and hope motto of Clan Matheson

fac fortia et do brave deeds


motto of Prince Alfred College in Adelaide, Australia
patere and endure

make a similar
fac simile origin of the word facsimile, and, through it, of fax
thing

faciam eos I will make


in gentem them into one appeared on British coinage following the Union of the Crowns
unum nation

faciam
quodlibet I'll do whatever
quod it takes
necesse est

faciam ut
I'll make you from Plautus, Persa IV.3–24; used by Russian hooligans as tattoo
mei
remember me inscription
memineris

facile said of the acknowledged leader in some field, especially in the


easily the first
princeps arts and humanities

facilius est It is easier to Quintilian, Institutio Oratoria 1/12:7


multa do many
facere things, than
quam diu
one thing
consecutively

"I make free


facio adults out of
liberos ex children by motto of St. John's College in Annapolis, Maryland, and Santa Fe,
liberis libris means of New Mexico
libraque books and a
balance."

facta, non deeds, not


Frequently used as motto
verba words

factum fieri It is impossible


infectum for a deed to be Terence, Phormio 5/8:45
non potest undone

A Roman legal principle indicating that a witness who willfully


falsus in falsifies one matter is not credible on any matter. The underlying
false in one,
uno, falsus motive for attorneys to impeach opposing witnesses in court: the
false in all
in omnibus principle discredits the rest of their testimony if it is without
corroboration.

familia
family over
supra frequently used as a family motto
everything
omnia

fas est et It is lawful to


ab hoste be taught even Ovid, Metamorphoses 4:428
doceri by an enemy

feci quod I have done Slight variant ("quod potui feci") found in James Boswell's An
potui, what I could; let Account of Corsica, there described as "a simple beautiful
faciant inscription on the front of Palazzo Tolomei at Siena".[54] Later,
meliora those who can found in Henry Baerlein's introduction to his translation of The
potentes do better. Diwan of Abul ʿAla by Abul ʿAla Al-Maʿarri (973–1057);[55] also in
Anton Chekhov's Three Sisters, act 1. Also in Alfonso Moreno
Espinosa, Compendio de Historia Universal, 5. ed. (Cádiz 1888).

a formula used traditionally in the author's signature by painters,


NN fecit NN made (this)
sculptors, artisans, scribes etc.; compare pinxit

fecisti
"From differing
patriam
peoples you Verse 63 from the poem De reditu suo by Rutilius Claudius
diversis de
have made one Namatianus praising emperor Augustus.[56]
gentibus
native land"
unam

"be more
felicior
fortunate than
Augusto,
Augustus and ritual acclamation delivered to late Roman emperors
melior
better than
Traiano
Trajan"

Felicitas, Happiness,
The motto of Oakland Colegio Campestre school through which
Integritas Et Integrity and
Colombia participates of NASA Educational Programs
Sapientia Knowledge

felix culpa fortunate fault from the "Exsultet" of the Catholic liturgy for the Easter Vigil

felix qui happy is he


potuit who can Virgil. "Rerum cognoscere causas" is the motto of the London
rerum ascertain the School of Economics, University of Sheffield, and University of
cognoscere causes of Guelph.
causas things

felo de se felon from archaic legal term for one who commits suicide, referring to early
himself English common law punishments, such as land seizure, inflicted
on those who killed themselves

fere libenter
men generally
homines id People's beliefs are shaped largely by their desires. Julius
believe what
quod volunt Caesar, The Gallic War 3.18
they want to
credunt

An oxymoronic motto of Augustus. It encourages proceeding


festina quickly, but calmly and cautiously. Equivalent to "more haste, less
hurry slowly
lente speed". Motto of the Madeira School, McLean, Virginia and
Berkhamsted School, Berkhamsted, England, United Kingdom

festinare
nocet, it is bad to
nocet et hurry, and delay
cunctatio is often as bad;
saepe; the wise
Ovid[57]
tempore person is the
quaeque one who does
suo qui everything in its
facit, ille proper time.
sapit.

let justice be
fiat iustitia
done, though
et pereat motto of Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor
the world shall
mundus
perish

let justice be
fiat justitia
done, should attributed to Lucius Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus
ruat caelum
the sky fall

fiat lux let there be from the Genesis, "dixitque Deus fiat lux et facta est lux" ("and
light God said: 'Let there be light', and there was light."); frequently
used as the motto of schools.

fiat mihi
be it done to
secundum
me according Virgin Mary's response to the Annunciation
verbum
to thy word
tuum

let there be Motto of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization
fiat panis
bread (FAO)

fiat
May God's will
voluntas motto of Robert May's School; see the next phrase below
be done
Dei

motto of Archbishop Richard Smith of the Roman Catholic


fiat Archdiocese of Edmonton; quotation of the third petition of the
Thy will be
voluntas Pater Noster (Our Father) prayer dictated by Jesus Christ and his
done
tua response to the Father during the Agony in the Garden of
Gethsemane

ficta fictions meant


voluptatis to please
Horace, Ars Poetica (338); advice presumably discounted by the
causa sint should
magical realists
proxima approximate
veris the truth

A title given to King Henry VIII of England by Pope Leo X on 17


Fidei
October 1521, before Henry broke from the Roman Church and
Defensor Defender of the
founded the Church of England. British monarchs continue to
(Fid Def) or Faith
use the title, which is still inscribed on all British coins, and
(fd)
usually abbreviated.

fidem scit he knows the sometimes mistranslated to "keep the faith" when used in
faith contemporary English writings of all kinds to convey a light-
hearted wish for the reader's well-being

the faith by Roman Catholic theological term for the personal faith that
fides qua
which it is apprehends what is believed, contrasted with fides quae creditur,
creditur
believed which is what is believed; see next phrase below

Roman Catholic theological term for the content and truths of


fides quae the faith which the Faith or "the deposit of the Faith", contrasted with fides qua
creditur is believed creditur, which is the personal faith by which the Faith is believed;
see previous phrase

fides
faith seeking
quaerens motto of St. Anselm; Proslogion
understanding
intellectum

fidus faithful refers to a faithful friend; from the name of Aeneas's faithful
Achates Achates companion in Virgil's Aeneid

filiae
may our
nostrae
daughters be
sicut anguli
as polished as motto of Francis Holland School
incisi
the corners of
similitudine
the temple
templi

finis A major part of a work is properly finishing it. Motto of St. Mary's
the end crowns
coronat Catholic High School in Dubai, United Arab Emirates; on the Coat
the work
opus of Arms of Seychelles; and of the Amin Investment Bank

finis vitae
the end of life,
sed non unknown
but not of love
amoris
flagellum the scourge of title for Attila the Hun, the ruthless invader of the Western Roman
dei God Empire

a mere name, word, or sound without a corresponding objective


[a or the] reality; expression used by the nominalists of universals and
flatus vocis
breath of voice traditionally attributed to the medieval philosopher Roscelin of
Compiègne

flectere si
nequeo if I can not
superos, reach Heaven I Virgil, Aeneid, Book VII.312
Acheronta will raise Hell
movebo

floreat may Eton


Motto of Eton College, England, United Kingdom
Etona flourish

floreat
may our school
nostra a common scholastic motto
flourish
schola

indicates the period when a historic person was most active or


was accomplishing that for which he is famous; may be used as
floruit (fl.) one flourished
a substitute when the dates of his birth and/or death are
unknown.

she wavers and


fluctuat nec
is not Motto of the City of Paris, France
mergitur
immersed

fons et the spring and


also: "the fountainhead and beginning"
origo source

fons the fount of motto of Bishop Blanchet High School


sapientiae, knowledge is
verbum Dei the word of
God

fons vitae love is the


motto of Chisipite Senior School and Chisipite Junior School
caritas fountain of life

formosam
teach the
resonare
woods to re-
doces Virgil, Eclogues, 1:5
echo "fair
Amaryllida
Amaryllis"
silvas

perhaps even
forsan et
these things
haec olim
will be good to Virgil, Aeneid, Book 1, Line 203
meminisse
remember one
iuvabit
day

fortes Fortune
The motto of the United States Marine Corps 3rd Marine
fortuna favours the
Regiment
adiuvat bold

fortes Fortune
fortuna favours the The motto of the Jutland Dragoon Regiment of Denmark
juvat bold

fortes in
strong in faith a common motto
fide

fortis
the brave may
cadere, motto on the Coat of Arms of the Fahnestock Family and of the
fall, but can not
cedere non Palmetto Guard of Charleston, South Carolina
yield
potest
fortis est truth is strong motto on the Coat of Arms of Oxford, England, United Kingdom
veritas

fortis et
strong and free motto of Alberta, Canada
liber

fortis in strong in motto of the Municipal Borough of Middleton, from the Earl of
arduis difficulties Middleton

fortiter et bravely and


a common motto
fideliter faithfully

resolute in
fortiter in
execution,
re, suaviter a common motto
gentle in
in modo
manner

fortunae
artisan of my
meae,
fate and that of motto of Gatineau
multorum
several others
faber

a legal
principle: the
occurrence or
fraus omnia taint of fraud in
vitiat a (legal)
transaction
entirely
invalidates it

fui quod es, I once was An epitaph that reminds the reader of the inevitability of death,
eris quod what you are, as if to state: "Once I was alive like you are, and you will be dead
sum
you will be as I am now." It was carved on the gravestones of some Roman
what I am military officers.

presumption of
fumus boni
sufficient legal a legal principle
iuris
basis

fundamenta unshakable
inconcussa foundation

G
Latin Translation Notes

gaudia according to Cassiodorus, an expression used by Attila in


the joys of battle
certaminis addressing his troops prior to the 451 Battle of Châlons

gaudeamus
let us rejoice today
hodie

gaudeamus therefore let us First words of an academic anthem used, among other
igitur rejoice places, in The Student Prince.

gaudete in
rejoice in the Lord Motto of Bishop Allen Academy
domino

gaudium in
joy in truth Motto of Campion School
veritate

general provisions
A principle of statutory interpretation: If a matter falls under
enacted in later
generalia a specific provision in a statute enacted before a general
legislation do not
specialibus provision enacted in a later statute, it is to be presumed that
detract from
non the legislature did not intend that the earlier specific
specific provisions
derogant provision be repealed, and the matter is governed by the
enacted in earlier
earlier specific provision, not the more recent general one.
legislation

The unique, distinctive aspects or atmosphere of a place,


such as those celebrated in art, stories, folk tales, and
genius loci spirit of place
festivals. Originally, the genius loci was literally the protective
spirit of a place, a creature usually depicted as a snake.

Learn each field of


generatim
study according to
discite Motto of the University of Bath.
its kind. (Virgil,
cultus
Georgics II.)
gens una we are one people Motto of FIDE. Can be traced back to Claudian's poem De
sumus consulatu Stilichonis.

gesta non
deeds, not words Motto of James Ruse Agricultural High School.
verba

Gloria in Often translated "Glory to God on High". The title and


Glory to God in the
excelsis beginning of an ancient Roman Catholic doxology, the
Highest
Deo Greater Doxology. See also ad maiorem Dei gloriam.

Gloria By your fame you


invidiam have conquered Sallust, Bellum Jugurthum ("Jugurthine War") 10:2.
vicisti envy

gloria The glory of sons


filiorum is their fathers Motto of Eltham College
patres (Proverbs17:6)

Gloria Patri Glory to the Father The beginning of the Lesser Doxology.

gloriosus et
glorious and free Motto of Manitoba
liber

Motto of private spaceflight company Blue Origin, which


gradatim by degrees,
officially treats "Step by step, ferociously" as the English
ferociter ferociously
translation

gradibus ascending by
Motto of Grey College, Durham
ascendimus degrees

Graecia
Conquered Greece
capta ferum
in turn defeated its Horace Epistles 2.1
victorem
savage conqueror
cepit

Graecum It is Greek (and Most commonly from Shakespeare's Julius Caesar where
est; non therefore) it cannot Casca couldn't explain to Cassius what Cicero was saying
legitur be read. because he was speaking Greek. The more common
colloquialism would be: It's all Greek to me.

By hard work, all


grandescunt
things increase Motto of McGill University
aucta labore
and grow

gratia et
grace and learning Motto of Arundel School
scientia

gratiae
Truth through
veritas Motto of Uppsala University
mercy and nature
naturae

graviora heavier things Virgil Aeneid 6:84; more severe things await, the worst is yet
manent remain to come

Gravis
serious sweet
Dulcis Title of a poem by James Elroy Flecker [58]
immutable
Immutabilis

gutta cavat
a water drop
lapidem
hollows a stone main phrase is from Ovid, Epistulae ex Ponto IV, 10, 5.;[59]
[non vi sed
[not by force, but expanded in the Middle Ages
saepe
by falling often]
cadendo]

H
Latin Translation Notes

A legal term from the 14th century or earlier. Refers to a number


of legal writs to bring a person before a court or judge, most
commonly habeas corpus ad subiciendum (you may have the body
habeas You should to bring up). Commonly used as the general term for a prisoner's
corpus have the body legal right to challenge the legality of their detention. (Corpus here
is used in a similar sense to corpus delicti, referring to the
substance of the reason for detention rather than a physical
human body.)

habemus we have a Used after a Catholic Church papal election to announce publicly
papam pope a successful ballot to elect a new pope.

Books have
their destiny
Habent sua [according to
Terentianus Maurus, De Litteris, De Syllabis, De Metris, 1:1286.
fata libelli the
capabilities of
the reader]

hac lege with this law

one day, this


haec olim Commonly rendered in English as "One day, we'll look back on this
will be
meminisse and smile". From Virgil's Aeneid 1.203. Also, motto of Handsworth
pleasing to
iuvabit Grammar School, and the Jefferson Society.
remember

"These are my
haec Attributed to Cornelia Africana (talking about her children) by
ornaments" or
ornamenta Valerius Maximus in Factorum ac dictorum memorabilium libri IX,
"These are my
mea [sunt] IV, 4, incipit.[60][61]
jewels"

Hannibal ad Hannibal at Found in Cicero's first Philippic and in Livy's Ab urbe condita
portas the gates Hannibal was a fierce enemy of Rome who almost brought them
to defeat.
Sometimes rendered "Hannibal ante portas", with verisimilar
meaning: "Hannibal before the gates"

I speak not of
haud ignota Thus, "I say no things that are unknown". From Virgil's Aeneid,
unknown
loquor 2.91.
things

Hei mihi!
quod nullis Oh me! love
amor est can not be From Ovid's Metamorphoses ("Transformations"), I, 523.
medicabilis cured by herbs
herbis.

hic
here lions Written on uncharted territories of old maps; see also: here be
abundant
abound dragons.
leones

The imperative motto for the satisfaction of desire. "I need it,
hic et nunc here and now
Here and Now"

hic et here and


ubique everywhere

Also rendered hic iacet. Written on gravestones or tombs,


hic jacet preceding the name of the deceased. Equivalent to hic sepultus
here lies
(HJ) (here is buried), and sometimes combined into hic jacet sepultus
(HJS), "here lies buried".

hic locus This is the A motto of many morgues or wards of anatomical pathology.
est ubi place where
mors
gaudet death delights
succurrere in helping life
vitae

According to Titus Livius the phrase was pronounced by Marcus


hic Furius Camillus, addressing the senators who intended to
here we'll stay
manebimus abandon the city, invaded by Gauls, circa 390 BC. It is used today
excellently
optime to express the intent to keep one's position, even if the
circumstances appear adverse.

From the Latin


version of
"The Boastful
Athlete" in
hic Rhodus, "Here is Rhodes, here is where you jump." – Prove what you can
Aesop's
hic salta do, here and now. Cited by Hegel and Marx.
Fables[62] as
formulated by
Erasmus in his
Adagia

hic sunt here there are Written on a globe engraved on two conjoined halves of ostrich
dracones dragons eggs, dated to 1504.

hic sunt here there are


Written on uncharted territories of old maps.
leones lions

from both
hinc et inde
sides

From Terence, Andria, line 125. Originally literal, referring to the


hinc illae hence those tears shed by Pamphilus at the funeral of Chrysis, it came to be
lacrimae tears used proverbially in the works of later authors, such as Horace
(Epistula XIX, 41).
hinc itur ad from here the Written on the wall of the old astronomical observatory of Vilnius
astra way leads to University, Lithuania, and the university's motto.
the stars

herefore
hinc robur
strength and Motto of the Central Bank of Sweden.
et securitas
safety

historia
history, the
vitae From Cicero's De Oratore, II, 9. Also "history is the mistress of life".
teacher of life
magistra

hoc age do this Motto of Bradford Grammar School

hoc est
This is war
bellum

hoc est
Christum To know
cognoscere, Christ is to Famous dictum by the Reformer Melanchthon in his Loci
beneficia know his Communes of 1521
eius benefits
cognoscere

hoc est
The words of Jesus reiterated in Latin during the Roman Catholic
enim For this is my
Eucharist. Sometimes simply written as "Hoc est corpus meum"
corpus Body
or "This is my body".
meum

From Horace's Satires, 1/2:2. Refers to the crowd at Tigellio's


hoc genus All that
funeral (c. 40–39 BC). Not to be confused with et hoc genus
omne crowd/people
omne (English: and all that sort of thing).

hodie mihi, Today it's me, Inscription that can be seen on tombstones dating from the
cras tibi tomorrow it Middle Ages, meant to outline the ephemerality of life.
will be you

hominem It is of man
From Martial's Epigrams, Book 10, No. 4, Line 10; stating his
pagina that my page
purpose in writing.
nostra sapit smells

hominem
Treat the Man,
non
not the Motto of the Far Eastern University – Institute of Nursing
morbum
Disease
cura

Varro (116 BC – 27 BC), in the opening line of the first book of


Rerum Rusticarum Libri Tres, wrote "quod, ut dicitur, si est homo
man is a
homo bulla bulla, eo magis senex" (for if, as they say, man is a bubble, all the
bubble
more so is an old man)[63] later reintroduced by Erasmus in his
Adagia, a collection of sayings published in 1572.

homo First attested in Plautus' Asinaria (lupus est homo homini). The
man [is a] wolf
homini sentence was drawn on by Hobbes in Leviathan as a concise
to man
lupus expression of his views on human nature.

Homo Man, the


minister et servant and
Motto of the Lehigh University
interpres interpreter of
naturae nature

homo
praesumitur
One is
bonus
innocent until See also: presumption of innocence.
donec
proven guilty
probetur
malus
homo sum I am a human From Terence's Heauton Timorumenos (The Self-Tormentor) (163
humani a being; nothing BC). Originally "strange" or "foreign" (alienum) was used in the
me nihil human is sense of "irrelevant", as this line was a response to the speaker
alienum strange to me being told to mind his own business, but it is now commonly used
puto to advocate respecting different cultures and being humane in
general. Puto (I consider) is not translated because it is
meaningless outside of the line's context within the play.

homo unius a man of a Attributed to Thomas Aquinas: «Hominem unius libri timeo» “I
libri single book fear a man of a single book.”

honestas
honesty
ante Motto of King George V School (Hong Kong)
before glory
honores

honor esteem is the


virtutis reward of Motto of Arnold School, Blackpool, England
praemium virtue

honoris for the sake of Said of an honorary title, such as "Doctor of Science honoris
causa honor causa"

hora fugit the hour flees See tempus fugit

hora somni at the hour of


Medical shorthand for "at bedtime"
(h.s.) sleep

I do not count
horas non
the hours
numero nisi A common inscription on sundials.
unless they
serenas
are sunny

horresco I shudder as I From Virgil's Aeneid, 2.204, on the appearance of the sea-serpents
referens tell who kill the Trojan priest Laocoön and his sons
horribile horrible to say cf. mirabile dictu
dictu

hortus in A garden in Motto of the Chicago Park District, a playful allusion to the city's
urbe the city motto, urbs in horto, q.v.

hortus
A dry garden A collection of dry, preserved plants
siccus

hostis
enemy of the Cicero defined pirates in Roman law as being enemies of
humani
human race humanity in general.
generis

humilitas humility
occidit conquers
superbiam pride

I do not
hypotheses From Newton, Principia. Less literally, "I do not assert that any
fabricate
non fingo hypotheses are true".
hypotheses

I
Latin Translation Notes

Go, oh Vitellius, Perfectly correct Latin sentence usually reported as funny by


I, Vitelli, dei
at the war sound modern Italians because the same exact words, in Italian,
Romani sono
of the Roman mean "Romans' calves are beautiful", which has a ridiculously
belli
god different meaning.

in the same Usually used in bibliographic citations to refer to the last


ibidem (ibid.)
place source previously referenced.

"That is (to say)" in the sense of "that means" and "which


that is (literally
id est (i.e.) means", or "in other words", "namely", or sometimes "in this
"it is")
case", depending on the context.

id quod that which


A phrase used in legal language to indicate the most probable
plerumque generally
outcome from an act, fact, event or cause.
accidit happens

Used to refer to something that has already been cited; ditto.


idem (id.) the same
See also ibidem.

idem quod
the same as Not to be confused with an intelligence quotient.
(i.q.)

In the Roman calendar, the Ides of March refers to the 15th


day of March. In modern times, the term is best known as the
the Ides of
Idus Martiae date on which Julius Caesar was assassinated in 44 BC; the
March
term has come to be used as a metaphor for impending
doom.

Used by Johann Sebastian Bach at the beginning of his


Jesu juva
Jesus, help! compositions, which he ended with "S.D.G." (Soli Deo gloria).
(J.J.)
Compare Besiyata Dishmaya.

Iesus Jesus the


Nazarenus Nazarene, King From Vulgate; John 19:19 . John 19:20 states that this
Rex of the Jews inscription was written in three languages—Aramaic, Latin
Iudaeorum and Greek—at the top of the cross during the crucifixion of
(INRI) Jesus.

igitur qui
Therefore
desiderat Publius Flavius Vegetius Renatus, De Re Militari; similar to si
whoever desires
pacem, vis pacem, para bellum and in pace ut sapiens aptarit idonea
peace, let him
praeparet bello.
prepare for war
bellum

igne natura through fire,


An alchemical aphorism invented as an alternate meaning for
renovatur nature is reborn
the acronym INRI.
integra whole

A phrase describing scorched earth tactics. Also rendered as


igni ferroque with fire and iron
igne atque ferro, ferro ignique, and other variations.

A phrase referring to the refining of character through difficult


ignis aurum
fire tests gold circumstances, it is also the motto of the Prometheus
probat
Society.

ignis fatuus foolish fire Will-o'-the-wisp.

(or ignorantia
legis non
excusat or
ignorantia
ignorantia legis A legal principle whereby ignorance of a law does not allow
juris non
neminem one to escape liability.
excusat
excusat)
ignorance of the
law is no excuse
ignoratio ignorance of the The logical fallacy of irrelevant conclusion: making an
elenchi issue argument that, while possibly valid, doesn't prove or support
the proposition it claims to. An ignoratio elenchi that is an
intentional attempt to mislead or confuse the opposing party
is known as a red herring. Elenchi is from the Greek elenchos.

unknown by
ignotum per An explanation that is less clear than the thing to be
means of the
ignotius explained. Synonymous with obscurum per obscurius.
more unknown

ignotus (ign.) unknown

He must
illum oportet In the Gospel of John 3:30 , a phrase said by John the
become greater;
crescere me Baptist after baptizing Jesus. Motto of Saint John the Baptist
I must become
autem minui Catholic School, San Juan, Metro Manila.
less

From the religious concept that man was created in "God's


imago Dei image of God
image".

imitation of a A principle, held by several religions, that believers should


imitatio dei
god strive to resemble their god(s).

1. A group of people who owe utmost fealty to their leader(s),


subordinating the interests of the larger group to the authority
imperium in an order within of the internal group's leader(s).
imperio an order 2. A "fifth column" organization operating against the
organization within which they seemingly reside.
3. "State within a state"

In Virgil's Aeneid, Jupiter ordered Aeneas to found a city


imperium sine an empire
(Rome) from which would come an everlasting, never-ending
fine without an end
empire, the endless (sine fine) empire.
impossibilium there is no Publius Juventius Celsus, Digesta L 17, 185.
nulla obligatio obligation to do
est the impossible

An authorization to publish, granted by some censoring


imprimatur let it be printed
authority (originally a Catholic Bishop).

Used in a number of situations, such as in a trial carried out in


in absentia in the absence
the absence of the accused.

in absentia in the absence


lucis, of light,
tenebrae darkness
vincunt prevails

in actu in act In the very act; in reality.

[Sunday in
[Dominica] in
Setting Aside
albis Latin name of the Octave of Easter.
the] White
[depositis]
Garments

in articulo at the point of


mortis death

in bono truth is in the


veritas good

in camera in the chamber In secret. See also camera obscura.

in casu (i.c.) in the event In this case.

Using the metaphor of a scorpion, this can be said of an


in cauda the poison is in account that proceeds gently, but turns vicious towards the
venenum the tail end—or more generally waits till the end to reveal an intention
or statement that is undesirable in the listener's ears.
in com. Ebor. In the county of Eboracum was the Roman name for York and this phrase is
Yorkshire used in some Georgian and Victorian books on the genealogy
of prominent Yorkshire families.

in Christi in the light of


lumine pro Christ for the life Motto of Pontifical Catholic University of Chile.
mundi vita on the world

in Deo
in God we hope Motto of Brown University.
speramus

in doubt, on Expresses the judicial principle that in case of doubt the


in dubio pro
behalf of the decision must be in favor of the accused (in that anyone is
reo
[alleged] culprit innocent until there is proof to the contrary).

in duplo in double In duplicate

In (the form of) an image; in effigy (as opposed to "in the


in effigie in the likeness
flesh" or "in person").

in esse in existence In actual existence; as opposed to in posse.

in extenso in the extended In full; at full length; complete or unabridged

in the furthest At the very end. In extremity; in dire straits; also "at the point
in extremis
reaches of death" (cf. in articulo mortis).

in fide To our faith add


Motto of Newington College.
scientiam knowledge

in fidem into faith To the verification of faith.

in fieri in becoming In progress; pending.

At the end. The footnote says "p. 157 in fine": "the end of page
in fine (i.f.) in the end
157".

in flagrante in a blazing Caught in the act (esp. a crime or in a "compromising


delicto wrong, while the position"); equivalent to "caught red-handed" in English idiom.
crime is blazing

in flore in blossom Blooming.

in foro in forum In court (legal term).

We enter the
in girum imus
circle at night
nocte et A palindrome said to describe the behavior of moths. Also the
and are
consumimur title of a film by Guy Debord.
consumed by
igni
fire

in harmonia progress in
Motto of Bandung Institute of Technology, Indonesia.
progressio harmony

in hoc sensu
or in sensu in this sense Recent academic abbreviation for "in this sense".
hoc (s.h.)

in hoc signo by this sign you Words Constantine the Great claimed to have seen in a vision
vinces will conquer before the Battle of the Milvian Bridge.

in hunc Describes a meeting called for a particular stated purpose


for this purpose
effectum only.

in the blink of an
in ictu oculi
eye

in illo ordine Recent academic substitution for the spacious and


in that order
(i.o.) inconvenient "..., respectively."

At that time, found often in Gospel lectures during Masses,


in illo tempore in that time
used to mark an undetermined time in the past.

in inceptum lit.: in the or: the beginning foreshadows the end


finis est beginning is the
end

Preliminary, in law, a motion in limine is a motion that is made


at the
in limine to the judge before or during trial, often about the
outset/threshold
admissibility of evidence believed prejudicial.

in the place, on That is, 'on site'. "The nearby labs were closed for the
in loco
the spot weekend, so the water samples were analyzed in loco."

in loco in the place of a Assuming parental or custodial responsibility and authority


parentis parent (e.g., schoolteachers over students); a legal term.

in luce Tua Motto of Valparaiso University. The phrase comes from the
in Thy light we
videmus book of Psalms 36:9 "For with you is the fountain of life; in
see light
lucem your light we see light."

in lumine tuo Motto of Columbia University, Presbyterian Boys' Secondary


in your light we
videbimus School and Ohio Wesleyan University. Also, it is the motto of
will see the light
lumen the South African University of Fort Hare.

in manus tuas
commendo into your hands I According to Luke 23:46, the last words of Jesus on the
spiritum entrust my spirit cross.
meum

From Horace. Refers to the literary technique of beginning a


narrative in the middle of, or at a late point in, the story, after
into the middle
in medias res much action has already taken place. Examples include the
of things
Iliad, the Odyssey, Os Lusíadas, Othello, and Paradise Lost.
Compare ab initio.

Equivalent to "in the memory of". Refers to remembering or


in memoriam into the memory
honoring a deceased person.

in natura in nature
in necessariis in necessary "Charity" (caritas) is being used in the classical sense of
unitas, in things unity, in "compassion" (cf. agape). Motto of the Cartellverband der
dubiis doubtful things katholischen deutschen Studentenverbindungen. Often
libertas, in liberty, in all misattributed to Augustine of Hippo.
omnibus things charity
caritas

advice comes
over night.
Literally: the
in nocte night brings I.e., "Tomorrow is a new day." Motto of Birkbeck College,
consilium advice, source University of London.
of the English
expression
"Sleep over it"

in nomine in the name of


diaboli the devil

in nomine in the name of Motto of Trinity College, Perth, Australia; the name of a 1050
Domini the Lord papal bull

in nomine in the name of


patris, et filii, the Father, and
invocation of the Holy Trinity
et spiritus of the Son, and
sancti of the Holy Spirit

in nuce in a nut in a nutshell; briefly stated; potential; in the embryonic phase

in hatred of the
in odium fidei Used in reference to the deaths of Christian martyrs
faith

in omnia Ready for


Motto of the United States Army's 18th Infantry Regiment
paratus anything.
in omnibus In everything, The motto of Ateneo de Iloilo, a school in the Philippines
amare et love and serve
servire the Lord.
Domino

in omnibus Everywhere I
requiem have searched
quaesivi, et for peace and
nusquam nowhere found Quote by Thomas à Kempis
inveni nisi in it, except in a
angulo cum corner with a
libro book

in the egg or in An experiment or process performed in an egg or embryo


in ovo
the embryo (e.g. in ovo electroporation of chicken embryo).

in pace ut in peace, like the


sapiens wise man, make Horace, Satires 2/2:111; similar to si vis pacem, para bellum
aptarit idonea preparations for and igitur qui desiderat pacem, praeparet bellum.
bello war

Alternate form of requiescat in pace ("let him rest in peace").


in pace in peace may he
Found in this form at the end of The Cask of Amontillado by
requiescat rest
Edgar Allan Poe.

upon the same In statutory interpretation, when a statute is ambiguous, its


in pari
matter or meaning may be determined in light of other statutes on the
materia
subject same subject matter.

"In the land of the infidels"; used to refer to bishoprics that


in partibus in the parts of
remains as titular sees even after the corresponding territory
infidelium the infidels
was conquered by Muslim empires.

in pectore in the heart A cardinal named in secret by the pope. See also ab imo
pectore.

in personam into a person Directed towards a particular person

in posse in potential In the state of being possible; as opposed to in esse.

For one's self, for the sake of one's "Personhood"; acting on


one's own behalf, especially a person representing
in propria in one's own
themselves in a legal proceeding; see also litigant in person,
persona person
pro se legal representation in the United States (abbreviated
pro per).

in the beginning
in principio
was the Word Beginning of the Gospel of John
erat Verbum
(Logos)

A legal term used to indicate that a judicial proceeding may


not have formally designated adverse parties or is otherwise
in re in the matter [of] uncontested. The term is commonly used in case citations of
probate proceedings, for example, In re Smith's Estate; it is
also used in juvenile courts, as, for instance, In re Gault.

Primarily of philosophical use to discuss properties and


property exemplification. In philosophy of mathematics, it is
in the thing
in rebus typically contrasted with "ante rem" and, more recently, "post
[itself]
res" structuralism. Sometimes in re is used in place of in
rebus.

In the land of the


in regione A quote of Desiderius Erasmus from Adagia (first published
blind, the one-
caecorum rex 1500, with numerous expanded editions through 1536), III, IV,
eyed man is
est luscus 96.
king.

in rem to the thing Legal term indicating a court's jurisdiction over a piece of
property rather than a legal person; contrast with personal (ad
personam) jurisdiction. See In rem jurisdiction; Quasi in rem
jurisdiction

in rerum in the nature of


See also Lucretius' De rerum natura (On the Nature of Things).
natura things

among things Used to describe documents kept separately from the regular
in retentis
held back records of a court for special reasons.

in saecula
roughly: down to
(saeculorum),
the times of the forever (and ever), liturgical
in saeculum
times
saeculi

In the secular world, esp. outside a monastery, or before


in saeculo in the times
death.

in salvo in safety

in scientia et In Knowledge,
Motto of St. Joseph's College, Colombo. Sri Lanka.
virtue and Virtue

great things
in se magna
collapse of their Lucan, Pharsalia 1:81.
ruunt
own weight

In the original place, appropriate position, or natural


in situ in the place
arrangement.

in somnis In dreams there


veritas is truth

in spe in hope "future" ("my mother-in-law in spe", i.e. "my future mother-in-
law"), or "in embryonic form", as in "Locke's theory of
government resembles, in spe, Montesquieu's theory of the
separation of powers."

in specialibus To seek the


That is, to understand the most general rules through the
generalia general in the
most detailed analysis.
quaerimus specifics

in statu in the state of


Just as something is about to begin
nascendi being born

in theatro like a scene in a


Surreal
ludus play

in toto in all Totally; entirely; completely.

in triplo in triple In triplicate.

in umbra, Then we will


igitur, fight in the
pugnabimus shade

in utero in the womb

in utrumque prepared for


paratus either (event)

in vacuo in a void In a vacuum; isolated from other things.

in varietate united in
The motto of the European Union and the Council of Europe
concordia diversity

invidiae prudence
prudentia conquers
victrix jealousy

in wine [there is] That is, wine loosens the tongue (referring to alcohol's
in vino veritas
truth disinhibitory effects).
in vitro in glass An experimental or process methodology performed in a
"non-natural" setting (e.g. in a laboratory using a glass test
tube or Petri dish), and thus outside of a living organism or
cell. Alternative experimental or process methodologies
include in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo.

in life/in a living
in vivo An experiment or process performed on a living specimen.
thing

An expression used by biologists to express the fact that


in a living thing laboratory findings from testing an organism in vitro are not
in vivo veritas
[there is] truth always reflected when applied to an organism in vivo. A pun
on in vino veritas.

Westville Boys' High School and Westville Girls' High School's


motto is taken directly from Virgil. These words, found in
Aeneid, Book 1, are used by Juno, queen of heaven who hated
May I not shrink
incepto ne the Trojans led by Aeneas. When she saw the fleet of Aeneas
from my
desistam on its way to Italy, after the sack of Troy by the Greeks, she
purpose!
planned to scatter it by means of strong winds. In her
determination to accomplish her task she cried out "Incepto
Ne Desistam!"

of uncertain A term used to classify a taxonomic group when its broader


incertae sedis
position (seat) relationships are unknown or undefined.

incredibile
incredible to say A variant on mirabile dictu.
dictu

intus et in Inwardly, under Persius, Satire 3:30.


cute the skin
[intimately,
without
reservation]

Index of
Index
Prohibited (or, A list of books considered heretical by the Roman Catholic
Librorum
Forbidden) Church.
Prohibitorum
Books

being-in-need-of- From Augustine, De Civitate Dei XII, 1.3: beatitudinem


indigens Deo God, beggar consequatur nec expleat indigentiam suam , "since it is not
before God satisfied unless it be perfectly blessed."

indignor
I too am
quandoque
annoyed
bonus Horace, Ars Poetica 358
whenever good
dormitat
Homer nods off
Homerus

indivisibiliter
indivisible and Motto of Austria-Hungary before it was divided and separated
ac
inseparable into independent states in 1918.
inseparabiliter

Infinitus est
Infinite is the
numerus
number of fools.
stultorum.

God chooses The motto of Venerable Vital-Justin Grandin, the bishop of the
infirma mundi
the weak of the St. Albert Diocese, which is now the Roman Catholic
elegit Deus
world Archdiocese of Edmonton

infra
beneath one's
dignitatem
dignity
(infra dig)
ingenio stat The honors of Propertius, Elegies Book III, 2
sine morte genius are
decus eternal

iniuriae qui You who have


addideris added insult to Phaedrus, Fables 5/3:5.
contumeliam injury

To poverty many
inopiae
things are
desunt multa,
lacking; to Publilius Syrus.
avaritiae
avarice,
omnia
everything

insita Men have an


hominibus innate desire to
libidine alendi propagate Titus Livius, (XXVII, XXIV); Michel de Montaigne, (Essays).
de industria rumors or
rumores reports

Used in formal correspondence to refer to the current month,


instante in the present sometimes abbreviated as inst; e.g.: "Thank you for your letter
mense (inst.) month of the 17th inst."—ult. mense = last month, prox. mense = next
month.

Used to express the exploitation of religion by State or


Instrumentum instrument of
ecclesiastical polity as a means of controlling the masses, or
regni government
in particular to achieve political and mundane ends.

Instrumentum instrument with So Varro in his De re rustica (On Agriculture) defines the slave:
vocale voice an instrument (as a simple plow, or etc.) with voice.

intaminatis Untarnished, she From Horace's Odes (III.2.18). Motto of Wofford College.
fulget shines with
honoribus honor

integer vitae unimpaired by


scelerisque life and clean of From Horace. Used as a funeral hymn.
purus wickedness

Few words
intelligenti suffice for he
pauca who
understands

A term used in formal extract minutes to indicate that the


among other minute quoted has been taken from a fuller record of other
inter alia (i.a.)
things matters, or when alluding to the parent group after quoting a
particular example.

inter alios among others Often used to compress lists of parties to legal documents

Said by Cicero in Pro Milone as a protest against unchecked


political mobs that had virtually seized control of Rome in the
inter arma in a time of war,
60s and 50s BC. Famously quoted in the essay Civil
enim silent the law falls
Disobedience by Henry David Thoreau as "The clatter of arms
leges silent
drowns out the voice of the law". This phrase has also been
jokingly translated as "In a time of arms, the legs are silent."

inter caetera among others Title of a papal bull

inter mutanda Steadfast in the Motto for Rockwell College in Ireland and Francis Libermann
constantia midst of change Catholic High School in Ontario, Canada

inter spem et between hope


metum and fear

inter faeces et we are born Attributed to Saint Augustine


urinam between feces
nascimur and urine

Refers to property transfers between living persons, as


between the
inter vivos opposed to a testamentary transfer upon death such as an
living
inheritance; often relevant to tax laws.

Not public; source of the word intramural. See also


intra muros within the walls
Intramuros, Manila.

within the
intra vires Within one's authority
powers

You would still


invenias
recognize the
etiam disiecti Horace, Satires, I, 4, 62, in reference to the earlier Roman poet
scattered
membra Ennius
fragments of a
poetae
poet

Attributed to Petronius[64] or Prudentius. Motto of Nature in


Cambridgeshire:[65]
inveniet quod Each shall find Inveniet quod quisque velit; non omnibus unum est, quod
quisque velit what he desires placet; hic spinas colligit, ille rosas.
("Each shall find what he desires; no one thing pleases all;
one gathers thorns, another roses.")

invicta Unconquered Motto of the English county of Kent and the city of Oporto

invictus I remain
Motto of the Armstrong Clan
maneo unvanquished

Iohannes est John is his


Motto of the Seal of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico
nomen eius name

ipsa scientia knowledge itself


Famous phrase written by Sir Francis Bacon in 1597
potestas est is power
ipse dixit he himself said Commonly said in Medieval debates and referring to Aristotle.
it Used in general to emphasize that some assertion comes
from some authority, i.e., as an argument from authority, and
the term ipse-dixitism has come to mean any unsupported
rhetorical assertion that lacks a logical argument. A literal
translation by Cicero (in his De Natura Deorum 1.10) of the
Greek «αὐτὸς ἔφα», an invocation by Pythagoreans when
appealing to the pronouncements of the master.

"Strictly word for word" (cf. verbatim). Often used in Biblical


ipsissima the very words
Studies to describe the record of Jesus' teaching found in the
verba themselves
New Testament (specifically, the four Gospels).

ipsissima in the very 'voice' To approximate the main thrust or message without using the
voce itself exact words

ipso facto by the fact itself By that very fact

Like the vast majority of inhabitants of the ancient world, the


ancient Romans practiced pagan rituals, believing it
wrath of the
ira deorum important to achieve a state of pax deorum (peace of the
gods
gods) instead of ira deorum (wrath of the gods): earthquakes,
floods, famine, etc.

Wrath (anger) is
ira furor
but a brief
brevis est
madness

A useful phrase, as the Romans had no word for "yes",


preferring to respond to questions with the affirmative or
ita vero thus indeed negative of the question (e.g., "Are you hungry?" was
answered by "I am hungry" or "I am not hungry", not "Yes" or
"No).
ite, missa est Go, it is the Loosely: "You have been dismissed", literally "Go. Mass is
dismissal over". Concluding words addressed to the people in the Mass
of the Roman Rite.[66]

The path of the The path a law takes from its conception to its
iter legis
law implementation

iucunda
Pleasant is the
memoria est
memory of past Cicero, De finibus bonorum et malorum 2, 32, 105
praeteritorum
troubles
malorum

From Gerhard Gerhards' (1466–1536) [better known as


Erasmus] collection of annotated Adagia (1508). It can mean
iugulare to cut the throat
attacking the work or personality of deceased person.
mortuos of corpses
Alternatively, it can be used to describe criticism of an
individual already heavily criticised by others.

also spelled juncta juvant; from the legal principle quae non
together they
iuncta iuvant valeant singula, iuncta iuvant ("What is without value on its
strive
own, helps when joined")

A legal principle in civil law countries of the Roman-German


iura novit the court knows tradition that says that lawyers need not to argue the law, as
curia the law that is the office of the court. Sometimes miswritten as iura
novat curia (the court renews the laws).

in right of his
iure matris Indicates a right exercised by a son on behalf of his mother
mother

in right of his
iure uxoris Indicates a right exercised by a husband on behalf of his wife
wife

iuris it is ignorance of
ignorantia est the law when we
cum ius do not know our
nostrum own rights
ignoramus

Commonly referred to as "right of survivorship": a rule in


ius
right of accrual property law that surviving joint tenants have rights in equal
accrescendi
shares to a decedent's property

Refers to the laws that regulate the reasons for going to war.
ius ad bellum law towards war Typically, this would address issues of self-defense or
preemptive strikes.

Refers to a fundamental principle of international law


considered to have acceptance among the international
community of states as a whole. Typically, this would address
issues not listed or defined by any authoritative body, but
ius cogens compelling law
arise out of case law and changing social and political
attitudes. Generally included are prohibitions on waging
aggressive war, crimes against humanity, war crimes, piracy,
genocide, slavery, and torture.

Refers to the "laws" that regulate the conduct of combatants


during a conflict. Typically, this would address issues of who
ius in bello law in war or what is a valid target, how to treat prisoners, and what
sorts of weapons can be used. The word jus is also
commonly spelled ius.

ius primae law of the first


The droit de seigneur
noctis night

iustitia justice is the Motto of the Supreme Public Prosecutor's Office of the Czech
fundamentum foundation of a Republic
regni reign

iustitia
justice for all The motto of Washington, D.C.
omnibus

to the young
iuventuti nil
nothing is Motto of Canberra Girls Grammar School
arduum
difficult

I bear the
iuventutis
fortunes of Motto of Dollar Academy
veho fortunas
youth

L
Latin Translation Notes

labor ipse The pleasure is in the


Motto of Leopold von Ranke (Manilius IV 155)
voluptas work itself.

Popular as a motto; derived from a phrase in Virgil's


labor omnia
Hard work conquers all. Eclogue (X.69: omnia vincit Amor – "Love conquers all");
vincit
a similar phrase also occurs in his Georgics I.145.

laborare
pugnare To work, (or) to fight;
Motto of the California Maritime Academy
parati we are ready
sumus

labore et
By labour and honour
honore

laboremus Let us work for the


Motto of the Carlsberg breweries
pro patria fatherland

laboris Games are the glory of


Motto of the Camborne School of Mines, Cornwall, UK
gloria Ludi work,

lacrimae The poignancy of


Virgil, Aeneid 1:462
rerum things.

lapse, slip, error;


involuntary mistake
lapsus
made while writing or
speaking

inadvertent
lapsus
typographical error, slip  
calami
of the pen

lapsus inadvertent speech  


linguae error, slip of the tongue

lapsus
slip of memory source of the term memory lapse
memoriae

latius est
impunitum
relinqui It is better to let the
facinus crime of the guilty go
Ulpian, Digest 5:6.
nocentis unpunished (than to
(quam condemn the innocent)
innocentem
damnari)

lauda finem praise to the end Motto of Nottingham High School

Laudatio
Ejus Manet His Praise Remains
Motto of Galway
In Secula unto Ages of Ages
Seculorum

One who is discontent with the present and instead


laudator
prefers things of the past ("the good old days"). In
temporis praiser of time past
Horace's Ars Poetica, line 173. The motto of
acti
HMS Veteran

laudetur
Praise (Be) Jesus Often used as a salutation, but also used after prayers or
Jesus
Christ the reading of the gospel
Christus

Inscription on the east side at the peak of the


laus Deo praise be to God Washington Monument in Washington, D.C.; motto of
the Viscount of Arbuthnott and Sydney Grammar School
lectio The shorter reading is A maxim in text criticism. Codified, but simultaneously
brevior the better refuted, by Marxist educators.
potior

lectio
The more difficult
difficilior
reading is the stronger
potior

lectori
Often abbreviated to L.S., used as opening words for a
salutem (L. greetings to the reader
letter
S.,)

Denotes that a certain intervention is performed in a


according to the law of
lege artis correct way. Used especially in a medical context. The
the art
'art' referred to in the phrase is medicine.

legem
the law of the land
terrae

leges
humanae
laws of man are born,
nascuntur,
live and die
vivunt, et
moriuntur

leges sine
laws without morals From Horace's Odes; motto of the University of
moribus
[are] vain Pennsylvania
vanae

legio patria The Legion is our


Motto of the French Foreign Legion
nostra fatherland

legi, I read, understood, and


intellexi, et condemned.
condemnavi

legis
charity (love) is the Motto of Ratcliffe College, UK and of the Rosmini
plenitudo
fulfilment of the law College, NZ
charitas

In Roman and civil law, a forced share in an estate; the


portion of the decedent's estate from which the
legitime lawfully
immediate family cannot be disinherited. From the
French héritier legitime (rightful heir).

lex artis law of the skill The rules that regulate a professional duty.

lex dei vitae the law of God is the


Motto of the Presbyterian Ladies' College, Melbourne
lampas lamp of life

the law that should be


lex ferenda The law as it ought to be.
borne

The rule whereby a spouse cannot by deed inter vivos or


lex hac bequeath by testament to his or her second spouse
the law here proclaims
edictali more than the amount of the smallest portion given or
bequeathed to any child.

A law that only concerns one particular case. See law of


lex in casu law in the event
the case.

the law that has been


lex lata The law as it is.
borne

lex loci law of the place

lex non law that has not been


Unwritten law, or common law
scripta written

lex orandi, the law of prayer is the


lex credendi law of faith
the law shall bring
lex paciferat Motto of the European Gendarmerie Force
peace

lex
law of succinctness also known as Occam's Razor
parsimoniae

A principle of government advocating a rule by law


rather than by men. The phrase originated as a double
lex rex the law [is] king entendre in the title of Samuel Rutherford's controversial
book Lex, Rex (1644), which espoused a theory of
limited government and constitutionalism.

lex scripta written law Statutory law; contrasted with lex non scripta

lex talionis the law of retaliation Retributive justice (i.e., eye for an eye)

libertas,
justitia, Liberty Justice Truth Motto of the Korea University and Freie Universität Berlin
veritas

Libertas
Freedom will flood all Motto of the University of Barcelona and the
perfundet
things with light Complutense University of Madrid
omnia luce

Libertas
freedom which [is] Liberty even when it comes late; motto of Minas Gerais,
quae sera
however late Brazil
tamen

Libertas
Securitas Liberty Security Justice Motto of the Frontex
Justitia

libra (lb) balance; scales Its abbreviation lb is used as a unit of weight, the pound.

lignum The wood of the cross School motto of Denstone College


crucis arbor is the tree of
scientiae knowledge

littera
The written word
scripta Attributed to Horace
endures
manet

loco citato
in the place cited More fully written in loco citato; see also opere citato
(lc)

A worker who temporarily takes the place of another


locum
place holder with similar qualifications, for example as a doctor or a
tenens
member of the clergy; usually shortened to locum.

locus The most typical or classic case of something;


a classic place
classicus quotation which most typifies its use.

A medical term to describe a location on or in a body


locus
that offers little resistance to infection, damage, or
minoris place of less resistance
injury. For example, a weakened place that tends to be
resistentiae
reinjured.

A legal term, it is the opportunity of withdrawing from a


locus projected contract, before the parties are finally bound;
a place of repentance
poenitentiae or of abandoning the intention of committing a crime,
before it has been completed.

locus standi A right to stand Standing in law (the right to have one's case in court)

longissimus
even the longest day
dies cito Pliny the Younger, Epistulae 9/36:4
soon ends
conditur

lorem ipsum sorrow itself; pain for A mangled fragment from Cicero's De Finibus Bonorum
its own sake et Malorum (On the Limits of Good and Evil, 45 BC), used
as typographer's filler to show fonts (a.k.a. greeking).
(The first syllable of lorem is cut off; the original was
dolorem ipsum').

luce
By the light of truth School motto of Queen Margaret College
veritatis

luceat lux
Let your light shine From Matthew Ch. 5 V. 16; popular as a school motto
vestra

lucem
We follow the light Motto of the University of Exeter
sequimur

luceo non
I shine, not burn Motto of the Highland Scots Clan Mackenzie
uro

lucida
The shining stars Horace, Carmina 1/3:2
sidera

Motto of the Dutch province of Zeeland to denote its


luctor et
I struggle and emerge battle against the sea, and the Athol Murray College of
emergo
Notre Dame

Luctor, non 'I struggle, but am not


Motto of the Glass Family (Sauchie, Scotland)[67]
mergor overwhelmed

lucus a non [it is] a grove by not From late 4th-century grammarian Honoratus Maurus,
lucendo being light who sought to mock implausible word origins such as
those proposed by Priscian. A pun based on the word
lucus (dark grove) having a similar appearance to the
verb lucere (to shine), arguing that the former word is
derived from the latter word because of a lack of light in
wooded groves. Often used as an example of absurd
etymology, it derives from parum luceat (it does not
shine [being darkened by shade]) by Quintilian in
Institutio Oratoria.

ludemus
bene in We play well in groups Motto of the Barony of Marinus
compania

Plautus' adaptation of an old Roman proverb: homo


homini lupus est ("man is a wolf to [his fellow] man"). In
lupus est
A man to a man is a Asinaria, act II, scene IV, verse 89 [495 overall]. Lupus est
homo
wolf homo homini, non homo, quom qualis sit non novit ("a
homini
man to a man is a wolf, not a man, when the other
doesn't know of what character he is.")[68]

lupus in With the meaning "speak of the wolf, and he will come";
the wolf in the story
fabula from Terence's play Adelphoe.

lupus non
a wolf does not bite a
mordet
wolf
lupum

lupus non
a wolf is not afraid of a
timet canem
barking dog
latrantem

lux aeterna eternal light epitaph

Motto of the Franklin & Marshall College and the


lux et lex light and law
University of North Dakota

lux et A translation of the Hebrew Urim and Thummim. Motto


light and truth
veritas of several institutions, including Yale University.

lux ex
light from darkness Motto of the 67th Network Warfare Wing
tenebris
lux light the life of man Motto of the University of New Mexico
hominum
vita

lux in
light in the Lord Motto of the Ateneo de Manila University
Domino

lux in
The light that shines in Motto of Columbia University School of General
tenebris
the darkness Studies[69] Also: John 1:5.
lucet

lux libertas light and liberty Motto of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Lux mentis Light of the mind, Light


Motto of Sonoma State University
Lux orbis of the world

A more literal Latinization of the phrase; the most


common translation is fiat lux, from Latin Vulgate Bible
lux sit let there be light phrase chosen for the Genesis line ";‫ יְ ִהי אוֹר‬,‫ֹאמר ֱא ִהים‬
ֶ ‫וַ יּ‬
‫אוֹר‬-‫( "וַ יְ ִהי‬And God said: 'Let there be light.' And there was
light). Motto of the University of Washington.

lux tua nos


Your light guides us
ducat

lux, veritas,
light, truth, courage Motto of Northeastern University
virtus

M
Latin Translation Notes

Macte animo!
Young, cheer up!
Generose Motto of Academia da Força Aérea (Air Force Academy) of
This is the way
puer sic itur the Brazilian Air Force
to the skies.
ad astra

macte virtute those who excel,


or "excellence is the way to the stars"; frequent motto; from
sic itur ad thus reach the
Virgil's Aeneid IX.641 (English, Dryden)
astra stars

the teacher has Canonical medieval reference to Aristotle, precluding further


magister dixit
said it discussion

magister
Christ is my common Catholic edict and motto of a Catholic private
meus
teacher school, Andrean High School in Merrillville, Indiana
Christus

Set of documents from 1215 between Pope Innocent III, King


Magna Carta Great Charter
John of England, and English barons.

magna cum Common Latin honor, above cum laude and below summa
with great praise
laude cum laude

The gods care


magna di about great
curant, parva matters, but they Cicero, De Natura Deorum 2:167
neglegunt neglect small
ones

magna est vis great is the


consuetudinis power of habit

Magna Greater Europe Political motto of pan-Europeanists


Europa est is Our
patria nostra Fatherland

magno cum
with great joy
gaudio

magnum
great work Said of someone's masterpiece
opus

Cicero, Paradoxa 6/3:49. Sometimes translated into English


as "thrift (or frugality) is a great revenue (or income)", edited
magnum
Economy is a from its original subordinate clause: "O di immortales! non
vectigal est
great revenue intellegunt homines, quam magnum vectigal sit parsimonia."
parsimonia
(English: O immortal gods! Men do not understand what a
great revenue is thrift.)

maior e greater
When viewed from a distance, everything is beautiful. Tacitus,
longinquo reverence from
Annales 1.47
reverentia afar

maiora greater things Used to indicate that it is the moment to address more
premunt are pressing important, urgent, issues.

Said of an act done with knowledge of its illegality, or with


mala fide in bad faith intention to defraud or mislead someone. Opposite of bona
fide.

Mala Ipsa
Bad News Itself Motto of the inactive 495th Fighter Squadron, US Air Force
Nova

Also used ironically, e.g.: New teachers know all tricks used
mala tempora bad times are
by pupils to copy from classmates? Oh, mala tempora
currunt upon us
currunt!.

male captus wrongly An illegal arrest will not prejudice the subsequent
bene captured, detention/trial.
detentus properly
detained

Malo mori Death rather Motto of the inactive 34th Battalion (Australia), the Drimnagh
quam foedari than dishonour Castle Secondary School

Malo
periculosam I prefer liberty
libertatem with danger to Attributed to the Count Palatine of Posen before the Polish
quam peace with Diet, cited in The Social Contract by Jean-Jacques Rousseau
quietam slavery
servitutem

Alludes to the apple of Eris in the Judgement of Paris, the


mythological cause of the Trojan War. It is also a pun based
malum
apple of discord on the near-homonymous word malum (evil). The word for
discordiae
"apple" has a long ā vowel in Latin and the word for "evil" a
short a vowel, but they are normally written the same.

A legal term meaning that something is inherently wrong (cf.


malum in se wrong in itself
malum prohibitum).

malum wrong due to A legal term meaning that something is only wrong because it
prohibitum being prohibited is against the law.

malum quo the more


communius common an evil
eo peius is, the worse it is

manu forte literally Motto of the Clan McKay


translated
means 'with a
strong hand',
often quoted as
'by strength of
hand'

A phrase from Virgil's Aeneid, VI.883, mourning the death of


manibus date give lilies with Marcellus, Augustus' nephew. Quoted by Dante as he leaves
lilia plenis full hands Virgil in Purgatory, XXX.21, echoed by Walt Whitman in Leaves
of Grass III, 6.

with a military
manu militari Using armed forces in order to achieve a goal
hand

With the implication of "signed by one's hand". Its abbreviated


form is sometimes used at the end of typewritten or printed
manu propria with one's own
documents or official notices, directly following the name of
(m.p.) hand
the person(s) who "signed" the document exactly in those
cases where there isn't an actual handwritten signature.

one hand famous quote from The Pumpkinification of Claudius, ascribed


manus
washes the to Seneca the Younger.[70] It implies that one situation helps
manum lavat
other the other.

manus
many hands,
multae cor Motto of the Alpha Delta Phi fraternity.
one heart
unum

manus nigra black hand

Seneca the Younger, De Providentia 2:4. Also, translated into


English as "[their] strength and courage droop without an
marcet sine valor becomes
antagonist" ("Of Providence" (1900) by Seneca, translated by
adversario feeble without
Aubrey Stewart),[71] "without an adversary, prowess shrivels"
virtus an opponent
(Moral Essays (1928) by Seneca, translated by John W,
Basore)[72] and "prowess withers without opposition".
mare closed sea In law, a sea under the jurisdiction of one nation and closed to
clausum all others.

The sea
Mare Ditat,
enriches, the Motto of Montrose, Angus and HMS Montrose
Rosa Decorat
rose adorns

mare liberum free sea In law, a sea open to international shipping navigation.

A nickname given to the Mediterranean during the height of


mare nostrum our sea the Roman Empire, as it encompassed the entire coastal
basin.

A name given to describe Mary, who gave birth to Jesus, who


Mater Dei Mother of God
is also called the Son of God.

mater the mother of


The female head of a family. See pater familias.
familias the family

mater
mother reading
lectionis

a Roman-law principle which has the power of praesumptio


iuris et de iure, meaning that no counter-evidence can be
Mater semper the mother is
made against this principle (literally: Presumed there is no
certa est always certain
counter evidence and by the law). Its meaning is that the
mother of the child is always known.

materia Branch of medical science concerned with the study of drugs


medical matter
medica used in the treatment of disease. Also, the drugs themselves.

greatest
maxima
deference is
debetur puero from Juvenal's Satires XIV:47
owed to the
reverentia
child
me vexat it annoys me at Less literally, "my foot itches". Refers to a trivial situation or
pede the foot person that is being a bother, possibly in the sense of wishing
to kick that thing away or, such as the commonly used
expressions, a "pebble in one's shoe" or "nipping at one's
heels".

Used in Christian prayers and confession to denote the


mea culpa through my fault inherently flawed nature of mankind; can also be extended to
mea maxima culpa (through my greatest fault).

mea navis
aëricumbens My hovercraft is A relatively common recent Latinization inspired by the Dirty
anguillis full of eels Hungarian Phrasebook sketch by Monty Python.
abundat

A well-known sequence, falsely attributed to Notker during the


media vita in In the midst of Middle Ages. It was translated by Cranmer and became a part
morte sumus our lives we die of the burial service in the funeral rites of the Anglican Book
of Common Prayer.

Used erroneously as Mediolanum Capta Est by the black metal


Mediolanum Milan has been
band Mayhem as an album title. Mediolanum was an ancient
captum est captured
city in present-day Milan, Italy.

Melius
Better too much
abundare
than not Also used in elliptical form as melius abundare.
quam
enough.
deficere

Carrying the connotation of "always better". The motto of the


meliora better things
University of Rochester.

Meliorare To improve the The motto of the Salem/Roanoke County, Virginia Bar
legem law is to Association.
meliorare improve life.
vitam est

He has planted
Meliorem The motto of the Belmont County, Ohio, and the motto in the
one better than
lapsa locavit seal of the Northwest Territory
the one fallen.

A relatively common recent Latinization from the joke


Melita, domi Honey, I'm
phrasebook Latin for All Occasions. Grammatically correct, but
adsum home!
the phrase would be anachronistic in ancient Rome.

memento remember that


remember your mortality
mori [you will] die

memento
remember to live
vivere

meminerunt
lovers
omnia
remember all
amantes

mindful of
memores acti
things done, Thus, both remembering the past and foreseeing the future.
prudentes
aware of things From the North Hertfordshire District Council coat of arms.
futuri
to come

A common first line on 17th century English church


Memoriae Sacred to the monuments. The Latinized name of the deceased follows, in
Sacrum the genitive case. Alternatively it may be used as a heading,
Memory (of ...)
(M.S.) the inscription following being in English, for example:
"Memoriae Sacrum. Here lies the body of ..."

mens agitat the mind moves


From Virgil; motto of several educational institutions
molem the mass
Mens conscia a mind aware of Motto of The College Preparatory School in Oakland, CA
recti what is right

mens et Motto of Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and also of


mind and hand
manus the Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine.

Also "culprit mind". A term used in discussing the mindset of


mens rea guilty mind
an accused criminal.

mens sana in a sound mind in Or "a sensible mind in a healthy body". Satire X of the Roman
corpore sano a sound body poet Juvenal (10.356)

for the sake of


metri causa Excusing flaws in poetry "for the sake of the metre"
the metre

Or "Boastful Soldier". Miles Gloriosus is the title of a play of


Plautus. A stock character in comedy, the braggart soldier. (It
Miles
Glorious Soldier is said that at Salamanca, there is a wall, on which graduates
Gloriosus
inscribe their names, where Francisco Franco had a plaque
installed reading "Franciscus Francus Miles Gloriosus".)

miles Soldier of the


A phrase on the plaque in commemoration of Prof. Benjamin
praesidii Bastion of
Marius Telders, Academiegebouw Leiden (Netherlands).
libertatis Freedom

mictus
bloody urine see hematuria
cruentus

minatur
he threatens the
innocentibus
innocent who
qui parcit
spares the guilty
nocentibus

mirabile dictu wonderful to tell Virgil

mirabile visu wonderful to see A Roman phrase used to describe a wonderful


event/happening.

Does it seem
wonderful
mirum videtur
[merely]
quod sit
because it was Livius Andronicus, Aiax Mastigophorus.
factum iam
done a long
diu
time/so long
ago?

He approves of
miscerique Latin Aeneid of Virgil, Book IV, line 112, "he" referring to the
the mingling of
probat great Roman god, who approved of the settlement of Romans
the peoples and
populos et in Africa. Old Motto of Trinidad and Tobago, and used in the
their bonds of
foedera jungi novel A Bend in the River by V. S. Naipaul.
union

misera est miserable is that


servitus ubi state of slavery
Quoted by Samuel Johnson in his paper for James Boswell on
jus est aut in which the law
Vicious intromission.
incognitum is unknown or
aut vagum uncertain

miserabile
terrible to see A terrible happening or event.
visu

miserere have mercy A phrase within the Gloria in Excelsis Deo and the Agnus Dei,
nobis upon us to be used at certain points in Christian religious ceremonies.

the Mission of
Missio Dei A theological phrase in the Christian religion.
God

missit me the Lord has


A phrase used by Jesus.
Dominus sent me
mittimus we send A warrant of commitment to prison, or an instruction for a
jailer to hold someone in prison.

"moving in a
moving thing" or,
poetically,
mobilis in The motto of the Nautilus from the Jules Verne novel Twenty
"changing
mobili Thousand Leagues Under the Sea.
through the
changing
medium"

modus
method of
operandi Usually used to describe a criminal's methods.
operating
(M.O.)

Loosely "method of affirming", a logical rule of inference


modus method of
stating that from propositions if P then Q and P, then one can
ponens placing
conclude Q.

Loosely "method of denying", a logical rule of inference


modus method of
stating that from propositions if P then Q and not Q, then one
tollens removing
can conclude not P.

modus An accommodation between disagreeing parties to allow life


method of living
vivendi to go on. A practical compromise.

Monasterium A monastery Used in the Umberto Eco novel The Name of the Rose. Part of
sine libris est without books is a much larger phrase: Monasterium sine libris, est sicut
sicut civitas like a city civitas sine opibus, castrum sine numeris, coquina sine
sine opibus without wealth suppellectili, mensa sine cibis, hortus sine herbis, pratum sine
floribus, arbor sine foliis. Translation: A monastery without
books is like a city without wealth, a fortress without soldiers,
a kitchen without utensils, a table without food, a garden
without plants, a meadow without flowers, a tree without
leaves.

montani mountaineers
State motto of West Virginia, adopted in 1872.
semper liberi [are] always free

Montis
Badge of the
Insignia
Rock of Gibraltar
Calpe

more ferarum like beasts used to describe any sexual act in the manner of beasts

in
more suo his/her/its/their
usual way

morior I die
sometimes also translated as "death before defeat"[73]
invictus unvanquished[73]

we who are
morituri
about to die From Terry Pratchett's The Last Hero
nolumus mori
don't want to

Used once in Suetonius' De Vita Caesarum 5, (Divus Claudius),


chapter 21,[74] by the condemned prisoners manning galleys
those who are
morituri te about to take part in a mock naval battle on Lake Fucinus in
about to die
salutant AD 52. Popular misconception ascribes it as a gladiator's
salute you
salute. See also: Ave Imperator, morituri te salutant and
Naumachia.

death is certain,
mors certa,
its hour is
hora incerta
uncertain

mors mihi death to me is A common epitaph, from St Paul's Epistle to the Philippians,
lucrum reward 1:21 (Mihi enim vivere Christus est et mori lucrum, translated in
the King James Bible as: "For to me to live is Christ and to die
is gain")

mors
death to all Signifies anger and depression.
omnibus

mors tua, vita your death, my From medieval Latin, it indicates that battle for survival, where
mea life your defeat is necessary for my victory, survival.

"death conquers
mors vincit
all" or "death An axiom often found on headstones.
omnia
always wins"

morte magis old age should


metuenda rather be feared from Juvenal in his Satires
senectus than death

mortui vivos The dead teach Used to justify dissections of human cadavers in order to
docent the living understand the cause of death.

From Gerhard Gerhards' (1466–1536) [better known as


mortuum you are flogging
Erasmus] collection of annotated Adagia (1508). Criticising
flagellas a dead
one who will not be affected in any way by the criticism.

an unwritten code of laws and conduct, of the Romans. It


the custom of
mos maiorum institutionalized cultural traditions, societal mores, and
our ancestors
general policies, as distinct from written laws.

on his own Or "by his own accord." Identifies a class of papal documents,
motu proprio
initiative administrative papal bulls.

From Gerhard Gerhards' (1466–1536) [better known as


mulgere to milk a male
Erasmus] collection of annotated Adagia (1508). Attempting
hircum goat
the impossible.
mulier est woman is man's "Part of a comic definition of woman" from the Altercatio
hominis ruin Hadriani Augusti et Secundi.[75] Famously quoted by
confusio Chauntecleer in Geoffrey Chaucer's Canterbury Tales.

Say much in few


multa paucis
words

from many
multis e
peoples, Motto of Saskatchewan
gentibus vires
strength

a multitude of
multitudo
the wise is the From the Vulgate, Wisdom of Solomon 6:24. Motto of the
sapientium
health of the University of Victoria.
sanitas orbis
world

Conciseness. The term "mipmap" is formed using the


phrase's abbreviation "MIP"; motto of Rutland, a county in
multum in
much in little central England.
parvo
Latin phrases are often multum in parvo, conveying much in
few words.

mundus the world grows


senescit old

Ascribed to Roman satirist Petronius. Also in Augustine of


Hippo's De Civitate Dei contra Paganos (5th century AD),
mundus vult the world wants
Sebastian Franck's Paradoxa Ducenta Octoginta (1542), and in
decipi to be deceived
James Branch Cabell's 1921 novel Figures of
Earth.[76][77][78][79]

mundus vult the world wants Ascribed to Roman satirist Petronius. Also in Augustine of
decipi, ergo to be deceived, Hippo's De Civitate Dei contra Paganos (5th century AD) as "si
decipiatur mundus vult decipi, decipiatur" ("if the world will be gulled, let
so let it be it be gulled"), and only the first part, "mundus vult decipi" ("the
deceived world wants to be deceived"), in Sebastian Franck's Paradoxa
Ducenta Octoginta (1542) and in James Branch Cabell's
Figures of Earth (1921).[76][77][78][79]

this one defends


munit haec et
and the other Motto of Nova Scotia.
altera vincit
one conquers

the law that


mutata lex
does not evolve Motto of Seneca the Younger
non perit
dies

after changing
mutatis
what needed to "with the appropriate changes"
mutandis
be changed

mutato change but the


nomine de te name, and the Horace, Satires, I. 1. 69. Preceded by Quid rides? ("Why do you
fabula story is told of laugh?"; see Quid rides).
narratur yourself

N
Latin Translation Notes

First recorded by John of Salisbury in the twelfth


nanos
century and attributed to Bernard of Chartres.
gigantum Dwarfs standing on the
Also commonly known by the letters of Isaac
humeris shoulders of giants
Newton: "If I have seen further it is by standing on
insidentes
the shoulders of giants".

nascentes
When we are born we die,
morimur
our end is but the pendant of
finisque ab
our beginning
origine pendet

nasciturus pro
iam nato The unborn is deemed to
habetur, have been born to the extent Refers to a situation where an unborn child is
quotiens de that his own inheritance is deemed to be entitled to certain inheritance rights
commodis eius concerned
agitur

Pseudo-explanation for why a liquid will climb up


natura abhorret
nature abhors vacuum a tube to fill a vacuum, often given before the
a vacuo
discovery of atmospheric pressure.

natura artis The name of the zoo in the centre of Amsterdam;


Nature is the teacher of art
magistra short: "Artis".

Cf. Aristotle: "οὐθὲν γάρ, ὡς φαμέν, μάτην ἡ


natura nihil φύσις ποιεῖ" (Politics I 2, 1253a9) and Leucippus
nature does nothing in vain
frustra facit "Everything that happens does so for a reason an
of necessity."

natura non nature is not saddened That is, the natural world is not sentimental or
contristatur compassionate. Derived by Arthur Schopenhauer
from an earlier source.

Shortened form of "sicut natura nil facit per saltum


natura non
nature does not make a leap, ita nec lex" (just as nature does nothing by a leap,
facit saltum ita
thus neither does the law so neither does the law), referring to both nature
nec lex
and the legal system moving gradually.

A famous aphorism of Carl Linnaeus stating that


natura non all organisms bear relationships on all sides, thei
nature makes no leaps
facit saltus forms changing gradually from one species to the
next. From Philosophia Botanica (1751).

Sir Isaac Newton's famous quote, defining


foundation of all modern sciences. Can be found
natura valde
Nature is exceedingly simple in his Unpublished Scientific Papers of Isaac
simplex est et
and harmonious with itself Newton: A selection from the Portsmouth
sibi consona
Collection in the University Library, Cambridge,
1978 edition[80]

naturalia non Based on Servius' commentary on Virgil's Georgic


What is natural is not dirty
sunt turpia (3:96): "turpis non est quia per naturam venit."

naturam
You may drive out Nature You must take the basic nature of something into
expellas furca,
with a pitchfork, yet she still account.
tamen usque
will hurry back – Horace, Epistles, Book I, epistle X, line 24.
recurret.

Attributed by Plutarch to Gnaeus Pompeius


navigare
Magnus, who, during a severe storm, commanded
necesse est, to sail is necessary; to live is
sailors to bring food from Africa to Rome.
vivere non est not necessary
Translated from Plutarch's Greek "πλεῖν ἀνάγκη,
necesse
ζῆν οὐκ ἀνάγκη".

ne plus ultra nothing more beyond Also nec plus ultra or non plus ultra. A descriptive
phrase meaning the best or most extreme
example of something. The Pillars of Hercules, fo
example, were literally the nec plus ultra of the
ancient Mediterranean world. Holy Roman
Emperor Charles V's heraldic emblem reversed
this idea, using a depiction of this phrase
inscribed on the Pillars – as plus ultra, without the
negation. The Boston Musical Instrument
Company engraved ne plus ultra on its
instruments from 1869 to 1928 to signify that
none were better. Non plus ultra is the motto of th
Spanish exclave Melilla.

Never give dangerous tools to someone who is


ne puero
do not give a sword to a boy untrained to use them or too immature to
gladium
understand the damage they can do.

ne supra
a shoemaker should not
crepidam sutor see Sutor, ne ultra crepidam
judge beyond the shoe
iudicaret

line from the Roman satirist Persius inscribed on


the boulder to the right of Sir John Suckling in the
ne te
painting of the aforementioned subject by Sir
quaesiveris do not seek outside yourself
Anthony Van Dyck (ca. 1638) and invoked by
extra
Ralph Waldo Emerson at the opening of his essay
Self-Reliance (1841)

Nec aspera They are not terrified of the They are not afraid of difficulties. Less literally
terrent rough things "Difficulties be damned." Motto for 27th Infantry
Regiment (United States) and the Duke of
Lancaster's Regiment. Nec = not; aspera = rough
ones/things; terrent = they terrify / do terrify / are
terrifying.

Nec deus
That a god not intervene, "When the miraculous power of God is necessary
intersit, nisi
unless a knot show up that let it be resorted to: when it is not necessary, let
dignus vindice
be worthy of such an the ordinary means be used." From Horace's Ars
nodus
untangler Poetica as a caution against deus ex machina.
(inciderit)

nec
Do not get distracted. Motto for Bishop Cotton
dextrorsum, Neither to the right nor to the
Boys' School and the Bishop Cotton Girls' School,
nec left
both located in Bangalore, India.
sinistrorsum

nec spe, nec


without hope, without fear
metu

Refers to the Burning Bush of Exodus 3:2. Motto


nec tamen
and yet it was not consumed of many Presbyterian churches throughout the
consumebatur
world.

nec temere nec Motto of the Dutch 11th Air Manoeuvre Brigade
neither reckless nor timid
timide and the city of Gdańsk, Poland

nec vi, nec


Without permission, without
clam, nec The law of adverse possession
secrecy, without interruption
precario

neca eos
kill them all, God will know alternate rendition of Caedite eos. Novit enim
omnes, Deus
his own Dominus qui sunt eius. by Arnaud Amalric
suos agnoscet

necesse est you must either imitate or Seneca the Younger, Epistulae morales ad
aut imiteris aut loathe the world Lucilium, 7:7
oderis

necessitas
need makes even the timid
etiam timidos Sallust, The Conspiracy of Catiline, 58:19
brave
fortes facit

nemine
Less literally, "without dissent". Used especially in
contradicente
with no one speaking against committees, where a matter may be passed nem.
(nem. con.,
con., or unanimously, or with unanimous consent
N.C.D.)

nemo contra
No one against God except From Goethe's autobiography From my Life: Poetr
Deum nisi
God himself and Truth, p. 598
Deus ipse

nemo dat quod no one gives what he does


Thus, "none can pass better title than they have"
non habet not have

nobody is above the law; or


nemo est supra
nemo est supra leges,
legem
nobody is above the laws

Nemo igitur vir


magnus sine No great man ever existed
From Cicero's De Natura Deorum, Book 2, chapter
aliquo adflatu who did not enjoy some
LXVI, 167[81]
divino umquam portion of divine inspiration
fuit

Legal principle that no individual can preside over


nemo iudex in no man shall be a judge in
a hearing in which he holds a specific interest or
causa sua his own cause
bias

nemo malus peace visits not the guilty Also translated to "no rest for the wicked." Refers
felix mind to the inherent psychological issues that plague
bad/guilty people.

Motto of the Order of the Thistle, and


consequently of Scotland, found stamped on the
nemo me milled edge of certain British pound sterling coins
No one provokes me with
impune It is the motto of the Montressors in the Edgar
impunity
lacessit Allan Poe short story "The Cask of Amontillado".
Motto of the San Beda College Beta Sigma
Fraternity.

nemo
mortalium
No mortal is wise at all times The wisest may make mistakes.
omnibus horis
sapit

nemo nisi per


No one learns except by Used to imply that one must like a subject in orde
amicitiam
friendship to study it.
cognoscitur

nemo propheta no man is a prophet in his Concept present in all four Gospels
in patria (sua) own land (Matthew 13:57; Mark 6:4; Luke 4:24; John 4:44

The short and more common form of Nemo enim


nemo saltat fere saltat sobrius, nisi forte insanit, "Nobody
Nobody dances sober
sobrius dances sober, unless he happens to be insane," a
quote from Cicero (from the speech Pro Murena)

nemo tenetur no one is bound to accuse A maxim banning mandatory self-incrimination.


se ipsum himself (the right to silence) Near-synonymous with accusare nemo se debet
accusare nisi coram Deo. Similar phrases include: nemo
tenetur armare adversarium contra se (no one is
bound to arm an opponent against himself),
meaning that a defendant is not obligated to in
any way assist the prosecutor to his own
detriment; nemo tenetur edere instrumenta contra
se (no one is bound to produce documents
against himself, meaning that a defendant is not
obligated to provide materials to be used against
himself (this is true in Roman law and has
survived in modern criminal law, but no longer
applies in modern civil law); and nemo tenere
prodere se ipsum (no one is bound to betray
himself), meaning that a defendant is not
obligated to testify against himself.

neque semper
nor does Apollo always keep Horace, Carmina 2/10:19-20. The same image
arcum tendit
his bow drawn appears in a fable of Phaedrus.
Apollo

Ne quid nimis Nothing in excess

nervos belli, In war, it is essential to be able to purchase


Endless money forms the
pecuniam supplies and to pay troops (as Napoleon put it, "A
sinews of war
infinitam army marches on its stomach").

nihil ad rem nothing to do with the point That is, in law, irrelevant and/or inconsequential.

nihil boni sine nothing achieved without


Motto of Palmerston North Boys' High School
labore hard work

In law, a declination by a defendant to answer


nihil dicit he says nothing
charges or put in a plea.

nihil enim
nothing dries sooner than a
lacrima citius Pseudo-Cicero, Ad Herrenium, 2/31:50
tear
arescit
nihil humanum nothing human is alien to me Adapted from Terence's Heauton Timorumenos
mihi alienum (The Self-Tormentor), homo sum humani a me nih
alienum puto ("I am a human being; nothing
human is strange to me"). Sometimes ending in
est.

The guiding principle of empiricism, and accepted


nihil in
nothing in the intellect in some form by Aristotle, Aquinas, Locke,
intellectu nisi
unless first in sense Berkeley, and Hume. Leibniz, however, added nisi
prius in sensu
intellectus ipse (except the intellect itself).

Or nothing to excess. Latin translation of the


nihil nimis nothing too
inscription of the Temple of Apollo at Delphi.

Or just "nothing new". The phrase exists in two


versions: as nihil novi sub sole (nothing new unde
the sun), from the Vulgate, and as nihil novi nisi
nihil novi nothing of the new commune consensu (nothing new unless by the
common consensus), a 1505 law of the Polish–
Lithuanian Commonwealth and one of the
cornerstones of its Golden Liberty.

A notation, usually on a title page, indicating that


Roman Catholic censor has reviewed the book
nihil obstat nothing prevents
and found nothing objectionable to faith or moral
in its content. See also imprimatur.

Motto of the Kingdom of Romania, while ruled by


nihil sine Deo nothing without God the Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen dynasty (1878–
1947).

nihil ultra nothing beyond Motto of St. Xavier's College, Calcutta

nil admirari be surprised at nothing Or "nihil admirari". Cicero, Tusculanae


Disputationes (3,30), Horace, Epistulae (1,6,1), and
Seneca, Epistulae morales ad Lucilium, (8,5). Mott
of the Fitzgibbon family. See John FitzGibbon, 1st
Earl of Clare

nil
nothing must be despaired at That is, "never despair".
desperandum

nil igitur fieri nothing, therefore, we must


From Lucretius' De rerum natura (On the Nature of
de nilo posse confess, can be made from
Things), I.205
fatendumst nothing

Nil igitur mors Death, therefore, is nothing From Lucretius' De rerum natura (On the Nature of
est ad nos to us Things), III.831

nil mortalibus nothing is impossible for From Horace's Odes. Motto of Rathkeale College,
ardui est humankind New Zealand and Brunts School, England.

Short for nil nisi bonum de mortuis dicere. That


is, "Don't speak ill of anyone who has died". Also
(about the dead say) nothing "Nil magnum nisi bonum" (nothing is great unless
nil nisi bonum
unless (it is) good good), motto of St Catherine's School, Toorak,
Pennant Hills High School and Petit Seminaire
Higher Secondary School.

nil nisi malis


no terror, except to the bad Motto of The King's School, Macclesfield
terrori

nil per os,


Medical shorthand indicating that oral foods and
rarely non per nothing through the mouth
fluids should be withheld from the patient.
os (n.p.o.)

nil satis nisi nothing [is] enough unless [it Motto of Everton F.C., residents of Goodison Park
optimum is] the best Liverpool.
nil sine labore nothing without labour Motto of many schools

Or "nothing without providence". State motto of


Colorado, adopted in 1861. Probably derived from
nothing without the divine Virgil's Aeneid Book II, line 777, "non haec sine
nil sine numine
will numine divum eveniunt" (these things do not com
to pass without the will of Heaven). See also
numen.

nil volentibus Nothing [is] arduous for the


Nothing is impossible for the willing
arduum willing

That is, "everything is in vain without God".


Summarized from Psalm 127 (126 Vulgate), nisi
Dominus aedificaverit domum in vanum
laboraverunt qui aedificant eam nisi Dominus
nisi Dominus
if not the Lord, [it is] in vain custodierit civitatem frustra vigilavit qui custodit
frustra
(unless the Lord builds the house, they work on a
useless thing who build it; unless the Lord guards
the community, he keeps watch in vain who
guards it); widely used motto.

Irascetur aliquis: tu contra beneficiis prouoca;


cadit statim simultas ab altera parte deserta; nisi
paria non pugnant. (If any one is angry with you,
nisi paria non
it takes two to make a fight meet his anger by returning benefits for it: a
pugnant
quarrel which is only taken up on one side falls to
the ground: it takes two men to fight.) Seneca the
Younger, De Ira (On Anger): Book 2, cap. 34, line 5

nisi prius unless previously In England, a direction that a case be brought up


to Westminster for trial before a single judge and
jury. In the United States, a court where civil
actions are tried by a single judge sitting with a
jury, as distinguished from an appellate court.

From Ovid's Amores, III.4:17. It means that when


we are denied of something, we will eagerly
nitimur in pursue the denied thing. Used by Friedrich
We strive for the forbidden
vetitum Nietzsche in his Ecce Homo to indicate that his
philosophy pursues what is forbidden to other
philosophers.

nobis bene, Inscription on the old Nobistor gatepost that


Good for us, Bad for no one
nemini male divided Altona and St. Pauli

That is, "whether unwillingly or willingly".


Sometimes rendered volens nolens, aut nolens au
nolens volens unwilling, willing volens or nolentis volentis. Similar to willy-nilly,
though that word is derived from Old English will-
he nil-he ([whether] he will or [whether] he will not

Commonly translated "touch me not". According


noli me
do not touch me to the Gospel of John, this was said by Jesus to
tangere
Mary Magdalene after his resurrection.

That is, "Don't upset my calculations!" Said by


noli turbare Archimedes to a Roman soldier who, despite
Do not disturb my circles!
circulos meos having been given orders not to, killed Archimede
at the conquest of Syracuse, Sicily.

nolite te From The Handmaid's Tale by Margaret Atwood –


bastardes Don't let the bastards grind the protagonist (Offred) finds the phrase inscribe
carborundorum you down on the inside of her wardrobe. One of many
(Dog Latin) variants of Illegitimi non carborundum.
nolle prosequi to be unwilling to prosecute A legal motion by a prosecutor or other plaintiff to
drop legal charges, usually in exchange for a
diversion program or out-of-court settlement.

That is, "no contest". A plea that can be entered o


behalf of a defendant in a court that states that
nolo
I do not wish to contend the accused doesn't admit guilt, but will accept
contendere
punishment for a crime. Nolo contendere pleas
cannot be used as evidence in another trial.

nomen
amicitiae sic, the name of friendship lasts
Petronius, Satyricon, 80.
quatenus just so long as it is profitable
expedit, haeret

A scientific name of unknown or doubtful


nomen dubium doubtful name
application.

nomen est
the name is a sign Thus, "true to its name".
omen

nomen nescio
I do not know the name Thus, the name or person in question is unknown
(N.N.)

A purported scientific name that does not fulfill


nomen nudum naked name the proper formal criteria and therefore cannot be
used unless it is subsequently proposed correctly

non auro, sed According to some roman this sentence was said
ferro, Not gold, but iron redeems by Marcus Furius Camillus to Brennus, the chief o
recuperanda the native land the Gauls, after he demanded more gold from the
est patria citizens of the recently sacked Rome in 390 BC.

non bene pro liberty is not well sold for all Motto of Republic of Ragusa, inscribed over the
toto libertas the gold gates of St. Lawrence Fortress. From Gualterus
venditur auro Anglicus's version of Aesop's fable "The Dog and
the Wolf".

non bis in idem not twice in the same thing A legal principle forbidding double jeopardy.

non canimus
surdis, we sing not to the deaf; the
Virgil, Eclogues 10:8
respondent trees echo every word
omnia silvae

Also known as the "questionable cause" or "false


non causa pro
not the cause for the cause cause". Refers to any logical fallacy where a caus
causa
is incorrectly identified.

See compos mentis. Also rendered non compos


sui (not in control of himself). Samuel Johnson,
non compos
not in control of the mind author of the first English dictionary, theorized tha
mentis
the word nincompoop may derive from this
phrase.

Used to explain scientific phenomena and


religious advocations, for example in medieval
history, for rulers to issue a 'Non Constat' decree,
banning the worship of a holy figure. In legal
non constat it is not certain
context, occasionally a backing for nulling
information that was presented by an attorney.
Without any tangible proof, Non constat
information is difficult to argue for.

non ducor, Motto of São Paulo city, Brazil. See also pro
I am not led; I lead
duco Brasilia fiant eximia.

non est factum it is not [my] deed a doctrine in contract law that allows a signing
party to escape performance of the agreement. A
claim of "non est factum" means that the
signature on the contract was signed by mistake,
without knowledge of its meaning, but was not
done so negligently. A successful plea would
make the contract void ab initio.

non est
princeps super the prince is not above the
leges, sed laws, but the law is above the Pliny the Younger, Panegyricus 65:1.
leges supra prince.
principem

non Motto of the Society of Antiquaries of London


shall not be extinguished
extinguetur accompanying their Lamp of knowledge emblem

non facias you should not make evil in More simply, "don't do wrong to do right". The
malum ut inde order that good may be direct opposite of the phrase "the ends justify the
fiat bonum made from it means".

Virgil, Aeneid, 4:647, of the sword with which Dido


will commit suicide. "Not for so dire an enterprise
design’d." (Dryden trans.; 1697)[82] "A gift asked fo
non hos
A gift sought for no such no use like this." (Mackail trans.; 1885).[83] "Ne'er
quaesitum
purpose given for an end so dire." (Taylor trans.; 1907)[84]
munus in usus
"A gift not asked for use like this!" (Williams trans
1910).[85] Quoted by Francis Bacon of the civil law
"not made for the countries it governeth".

non impediti
unencumbered by the
ratione motto of radio show Car Talk
thought process
cogitationis
non in legendo the laws depend not on
sed in being read, but on being
intelligendo understood
leges
consistunt

Also "it is not clear" or "it is not evident". A


sometimes controversial decision handed down
non liquet it is not proven
by a judge when they feel that the law is not
complete.

non loqui sed Motto of the University of Western Australia's


not talk but action
facere Engineering faculty student society.

non mihi solum not for myself alone Motto of Anderson Junior College, Singapore.

non ministrari Motto of Wellesley College and Shimer College


not to be served, but to serve
sed ministrare (from Matthew 20:28 in the Vulgate).

non multa sed


not quantity but quality Motto of the Daniel Pearl Magnet High School.
multum

Non nobis
Not to us (oh) Lord Christian hymn based on Psalm 115.
Domine

non nobis nati 'Born not for ourselves' Motto of St Albans School (Hertfordshire)

Appears in Cicero's De Officiis Book 1:22 in the


form non nobis solum nati sumus (we are not born
non nobis
not for ourselves alone for ourselves alone). Motto of Lower Canada
solum
College, Montreal and University College, Durham
University, and Willamette University.

non they are not counted, but Old saying. Paul Erdős (1913–1996), in The Man
numerantur, weighed Who Loved Only Numbers by Paul Hoffman [86]
sed
ponderantur

A judgment notwithstanding verdict, a legal


non obstante not standing in the way of a motion asking the court to reverse the jury's
veredicto verdict verdict on the grounds that the jury could not hav
reached such a verdict reasonably.

non olet it doesn't smell See pecunia non olet.

non omnia
not everyone can do
possumus Virgil, Eclogues 8:63 (and others).
everything
omnest

Horace, Carmina 3/30:6. "Not all of me will die", a


non omnis
I shall not all die phrase expressing the belief that a part of the
moriar
speaker will survive beyond death.

non plus ultra nothing further beyond the ultimate. See also 'ne plus ultra'

non possumus not possible

non possunt
primi esse not everyone can occupy the (It is impossible always to excel) Decimus
omnes omni in first rank forever Laberius.
tempore

non progredi to not go forward is to go


est regredi backward

A judgment in favor of a defendant when the


non
he does not proceed plaintiff failed to take the necessary steps in an
prosequitur
action within the time allowed.

non scholae [We learn] An inversion of non vitae sed scholae now used a
sed vitae not for school but for life a school motto
non qui parum It is not he who has little, but Seneca the Younger, Epistulae morales ad
habet, set qui he who wants more, who is Lucilium, 2:6.
plus cupit, the pauper.
pauper est

Used in the sense "what matters is not who says


non quis sed but what he says" – a warning against ad
not who but what
quid hominem arguments; frequently used as motto,
including that of Southwestern University.

In general, a comment which is absurd due to not


making sense in its context (rather than due to
being inherently nonsensical or internally
non sequitur it does not follow
inconsistent), often used in humor. As a logical
fallacy, a conclusion that does not follow from a
premise.

Possibly derived from a Vulgate mistranslation of


the Book of Jeremiah. Commonly used in
non serviam I will not serve literature as Satan's statement of disobedience to
God, though in the original context the quote is
attributed to Israel, not Satan.

non sibi Not for self A slogan used by many schools and universities.

Engraved on the doors of the United States Naval


non sibi, sed
Not for self, but for country Academy chapel; motto of the
patriae
USS Halyburton (FFG-40).

non sibi, sed Not for one's self but for


A slogan used by many schools and universities.
suis one's own

non sibi, sed


Not for one's self but for all A slogan used by many schools and universities.
omnibus
non sic dormit, Sleeps not but is awake Martin Luther on mortality of the soul.
sed vigilat

non silba, sed


Not for self, but for others;
anthar; Deo A slogan used by the Ku Klux Klan
God will vindicate
vindice

Or "I am not the kind of person I once was".


non sum qualis
I am not such as I was Expresses a change in the speaker. Horace, Odes
eram
4/1:3.

non teneas
aurum totum Do not hold as gold all that Also, "All that glitters is not gold." Shakespeare in
quod splendet shines as gold The Merchant of Venice.
ut aurum

non timebo It is possibly a reference to Psalm 23. Printed on


I will fear no evil
mala the Colt in Supernatural.

non vestra sed


Not yours but you Motto of St Chad's College, Durham.
vos

From a passage of occupatio in Seneca the


non vitae sed [We learn] Younger's moral letters to Lucilius,[87] wherein
scholae not for life but for schooltime Lucilius is given the argument that too much
literature fails to prepare students for life

From Martin Luther's "Invocavit Sermons"


preached in March, 1522, against the Zwickau
non vi, sed Not by force, but by the word prophets unrest in Wittenberg;[88] later echoed in
verbo [of God] the Augsburg Confession as ...sine vi humana, sed
Verbo: bishops should act "without human force,
but through the Word".[89]
nosce te ipsum know thyself From Cicero, based on the Greek γνῶθι σεαυτόν
(gnothi seauton), inscribed on the pronaos of the
Temple of Apollo at Delphi, according to the Gree
periegetic writer Pausanias (10.24.1). A non-
traditional Latin rendering, temet nosce (thine ow
self know), is translated in The Matrix as "know
thyself".

In statutory interpretation, when a word is


noscitur a a word is known by the
ambiguous, its meaning may be determined by
sociis company it keeps
reference to the rest of the statute.

noster nostri Literally "Our ours" Approximately "Our hearts beat as one."

Nota bene mark well That is, "please note" or "note it well".

From Virgil. Motto on the Great Seal of the United


novus ordo
new order of the ages States. Similar to Novus Ordo Mundi (New World
seclorum
Order).

nulla dies sine Not a day without a line Pliny the Elder attributes this maxim to Apelles, a
linea drawn ancient Greek artist.

nulla dies
umquam No day shall erase you from From Virgil's Aeneid, Book IX, line 447, on the
memori vos the memory of time episode of Nisus and Euryalus.
eximet aevo

Refers to the legal principle that one cannot be


nulla poena punished for doing something that is not
no penalty without a law
sine lege prohibited by law, and is related to Nullum crimen
nulla poena sine praevia lege poenali.

nulla quaestio there is no question, there is


no issue

nulla tenaci For the tenacious, no road is


Motto of the Dutch car builder Spyker.
invia est via impassable

That is, "nothing". It has been theorized that this


nullam rem expression is the origin of Italian nulla, French rien
no thing born
natam and Spanish and Portuguese nada, all with the
same meaning.

Motto of the Coldstream Guards and Nine


nulli secundus second to none Squadron Royal Australian Corps of Transport an
the Pretoria Regiment.

nullius in verba On the word of no man Motto of the Royal Society.

nullum crimen, Legal principle meaning that one cannot be


nulla poena no crime, no punishment penalised for doing something that is not
sine praevia without a previous penal law prohibited by law; penal law cannot be enacted
lege poenali retroactively.

nullum
magnum There has been no great
ingenium sine wisdom without an element
mixtura of madness
dementiae fuit

The motto of the University of Wisconsin-


numen lumen God our light
Madison. The motto of Elon University.

numerus A method to limit the number of students who


closed number
clausus may study at a university.

nunc aut Motto of the Korps Commandotroepen, Dutch


now or never
nunquam elite special forces.
nunc dimittis now you send beginning of the Song of Simeon, from the Gospe
of Luke.

Carpe-Diem-type phrase from the Odes of Horace


nunc est Nunc est bibendum, nunc pede libero pulsanda
now is the time to drink
bibendum tellus (Now is the time to drink, now the time to
dance footloose upon the earth).

Something that has retroactive effect, is effective


nunc pro tunc now for then
from an earlier date.

nunc scio quid


now I know what love is From Virgil, Eclogues VIII.
sit amor

nunquam
minus solus never less alone than when
quam cum alone
solus

nunquam non never unprepared, ever ready,


frequently used as motto
paratus always ready

nunquam
never forget
obliviscar

O
Latin Translation Notes

O Deus ego O God I Love


attributed to Saint Francis Xavier
amo te You

The farmers
would count
O fortunatos
themselves
nimium sua si
lucky, if only from Virgil in Georgics, 458
bona norint,
they knew how
agricolas
good they had
it

attributed (in Tacitus, Annales, III, 65) to the Roman Emperor


o homines ad
Men ready to Tiberius, in disgust at the servile attitude of Roman senators;
servitutem
be slaves! said of those who should be leaders but instead slavishly
paratos
follow the lead of others

O tempora, o Oh, the times! also translated "What times! What customs!"; from Cicero,
mores! Oh, the morals! Catilina I, 2

O tyrant Titus
Tatius, what
O Tite tute
terrible from Quintus Ennius, Annales (104), considered an example of
Tati tibi tanta
calamities you a Latin tongue-twister
tyranne tulisti
brought onto
yourself!

The obedience
Obedientia
of the citizens
civium urbis Motto of Dublin
makes us a
felicitas
happy city

obiit (ob.) one died "He/she died", inscription on gravestones; ob. also sometimes
stands for obiter (in passing or incidentally)

The old woman


obit anus, abit
dies, the burden Arthur Schopenhauer
onus
is lifted

in law, an observation by a judge on some point of law not


directly relevant to the case before him, and thus neither
a thing said in
obiter dictum requiring his decision nor serving as a precedent, but
passing
nevertheless of persuasive authority. In general, any comment,
remark or observation made in passing

obliti Forget private


Roman political saying which reminds that common good
privatorum, affairs, take
should be given priority over private matters for any person
publica care of public
having a responsibility in the State
curate ones

the truth being


obscuris vera
enveloped by from Virgil
involvens
obscure things

the obscure by
obscurum per An explanation that is less clear than what it tries to explain;
means of the
obscurius synonymous with ignotum per ignotius
more obscure

with a twisted
obtorto collo unwillingly
neck

oculus dexter
right eye Ophthalmologist shorthand
(O.D.)

oculus
left eye
sinister (O.S.)

oderint dum let them hate, favorite saying of Caligula, attributed originally to Lucius
metuant so long as they Accius, Roman tragic poet (170 BC)
fear

opening of Catullus 85; the entire poem reads, "odi et amo


quare id faciam fortasse requiris / nescio sed fieri sentio et
odi et amo I hate and I love excrucior" (I hate and I love. Why do I do this, you perhaps ask.
/ I do not know, but I feel it happening to me and I am burning
up.)

I hate the
odi profanum
unholy rabble
vulgus et Horace, Carmina III, 1
and keep them
arceo
away

odium theological
name for the special hatred generated in theological disputes
theologicum hatred

oleum (pour) oil on the


from Erasmus' (1466–1536) collection of annotated Adagia
camino fire

or "everything unknown appears magnificent" The source is


omne every unknown Tacitus: Agricola, Book 1, 30 where the sentence ends with
ignotum pro thing [is taken] 'est'. The quotation is found in Arthur Conan Doyle's Sherlock
magnifico for great Holmes short story "The Red-Headed League" (1891) where
the 'est' is missing.

omne initium every beginning


difficile est is difficult

every living
omne vivum foundational concept of modern biology, opposing the theory
thing is from an
ex ovo of spontaneous generation
egg

Omnes All men are a sophisma proposed and solved by Albert of Saxony
homines sunt donkeys or men (philosopher)
asini vel and donkeys
homines et are donkeys
asini sunt
asini

omnes
vulnerant,
postuma all [the hours]
necat or wound, last one usual in clocks, reminding the reader of death
omnes kills
feriunt, ultima
necat

omnia cum motto for Mount Lilydale Mercy College, Lilydale, Victoria,
all with God
deo Australia

or "everything sounds more impressive when said in Latin"; a


omnia dicta everything said
more common phrase with the same meaning is quidquid
fortiora si [is] stronger if
Latine dictum sit altum videtur (whatever said in Latin, seems
dicta Latina said in Latin
profound)

Thou hast
omnia in
ordered all
mensura et
things in
numero et Book of Wisdom, 11:21
measure, and
pondere
number, and
disposuisti
weight.

Omnia mea All that is mine


is a quote that Cicero ascribes to Bias of Priene
mecum porto I carry with me

omnia everything Ovid (43 BC – 17 AD), Metamorphoses, book XV, line 165
mutantur, changes,
nihil interit nothing
perishes

omnia all things to all


1 Corinthians 9:22
omnibus men

if all (the words


Ovid, Metamorphoses, book XIII, lines 733–4: "si non omnia
si omnia ficta of poets) is
vates ficta"
fiction

omnia vincit love conquers


Virgil (70 BC – 19 BC), Eclogue X, line 69
amor all

everything [is]
omnia munda
pure to the pure from The New Testament
mundis
[men]

omnia all things are


praesumuntur presumed to be
legitime facta lawfully done,
in other words, "innocent until proven guilty"
donec until it is shown
probetur in [to be] in the
contrarium reverse

omnis vir Every man for


enim sui himself!

omnibus motto of Pieter Corneliszoon Hooft, usually accompanied by a


the same to all
idem sun, which shines for (almost) everyone

omnibus locis There is Julius Caesar's The Gallic War, 7.67


fit caedes slaughter
everywhere (in
every place)

omnis
every translator every translation is a corruption of the original; the reader
traductor
is a traitor should take heed of unavoidable imperfections
traditor

omnis vir
everyone a tiger motto of the 102nd Intelligence Wing
tigris

omnium miscellaneous collection or assortment; "gatherum" is English,


gathering of all
gatherum and the term is used often used facetiously

onus
burden of proof
probandi

onus burden of burden of a party to adduce evidence that a case is an


procedendi procedure exception to the rule

opera omnia all works collected works of an author

opera posthumous
works published after the author's death
posthuma works

act of doing
scholastic phrase, used to explain that there is no possible act
operari something
if there is not being: being is absolutely necessary for any
sequitur esse follows the act
other act
of being

opere citato in the work that used in academic works when referring again to the last
(op. cit.) was cited source mentioned or used

opere et in action and doing what you believe is morally right through everyday
veritate truth actions

opere laudato
  See opere citato
(op. laud.)
operibus leading the way
to speak with actions instead of words
anteire with deeds

ophidia in a snake in the


any hidden danger or unknown risk
herba grass

opinio juris an opinion of


a belief that an action was undertaken because it was a legal
sive law or
necessity; source of customary law
necessitatis necessity

opus
English work fine embroidery, especially used to describe church vestments
anglicanum

The Work of
Opus Dei Catholic organisation
God

This principle of the Benedictine monasteries reads in full: "Ora


et labora (et lege), Deus adest sine mora." "Pray and work (and
ora et labora pray and work
read), God is there without delay" (or to keep the rhyme: "Work
and pray, and God is there without delay")

"Sancta Maria, mater Dei, ora pro nobis pecatoribus"; Brazilian


ora pro nobis pray for us
name for Pereskia aculeata

orando by praying, by
motto of Rugby School
laborando working

oratio recta direct speech


expressions from Latin grammar
oratio obliqua indirect speech

from Satires of Juvenal (Book IV/10), referring to Alexander the


the world does
Great; James Bond's adopted family motto in the novel On Her
orbis non not suffice or
Majesty's Secret Service; it made a brief appearance in the film
sufficit the world is not
adaptation of the same name and was later used as the title of
enough
the nineteenth James Bond film, The World Is Not Enough.
orbis unum one world seen in The Legend of Zorro

out of chaos,
ordo ab chao one of the oldest mottos of Craft Freemasonry.[90]
comes order

(Let us pray),
one for the Popular salutation for Roman Catholic clergy at the beginning
(oremus) pro
other; let us or ending of a letter or note. Usually abbreviated OPI.
invicem
pray for each ("Oremus" used alone is just "let us pray").
other

orta recens newly risen,


quam pura how brightly Motto of New South Wales
nites you shine

P
Latin Translation Notes

"With all due respect to", "with due deference to", "by leave of",
Ablative form "no offence to", or "despite (with respect)". Used to politely
pace
of peace acknowledge someone with whom the speaker or writer
disagrees or finds irrelevant to the main argument.

with your
pace tua Thus, "with your permission".
peace

Pacem in Peace on
terris Earth

pacta sunt agreements Also "contracts must be honoured". Indicates the binding power
servanda must be kept of treaties. One of the fundamental rules of international law.

no reward
palma non
without Also "dare to try"; motto of numerous schools.
sine pulvere
effort

He who has
palmam qui earned the Loosely, "achievement should be rewarded" (or, "let the symbol
meruit ferat palm, let him of victory go to him who has deserved it"); frequently used motto
bear it.

From Juvenal, Satire X, line 81. Originally described all that was
panem et bread and needed for emperors to placate the Roman mob. Today used to
circenses circuses describe any entertainment used to distract public attention
from more important matters.

parvus The petty


pendetur fur, thief is
magnus abire hanged, the
videtur
big thief gets
away.

From "Si vis pacem para bellum": if you want peace, prepare for
war—if a country is ready for war, its enemies are less likely to
attack. Usually used to support a policy of peace through
prepare for
para bellum strength (deterrence). In antiquity, however, the Romans viewed
war
peace as the aftermath of successful conquest through war, so
in this sense the proverb identifies war as the means through
which peace will be achieved.

parare
to prepare for
Domino
God a perfect motto of the St. Jean Baptiste High School
plebem
people
perfectam

forgive the it is ungenerous to hold resentment toward the dead. Quote


parce sepulto
interred from the Aeneid, III 13-68.

parent of the A public policy requiring courts to protect the best interests of
parens patriae
nation any child involved in a lawsuit. See also Pater Patriae.

with equal
pari passu Thus, "moving together", "simultaneously", etc.
step

The
parturiunt mountains
said of works that promise much at the outset but yield little in
montes, are in labour,
the end (Horace, Ars poetica 137) – see also The Mountain in
nascetur a ridiculous
Labour
ridiculus mus mouse will
be born.

parum luceat It does not Quintilian, Institutio Oratoria, 1/6:34 – see also lucus a
shine [being nonlucendo
darkened by
shade].

the small
parva sub Implies that the weak are under the protection of the strong,
under the
ingenti rather than that they are inferior. Motto of Prince Edward Island.
huge

When you are


steeped in
parvis
little things, Motto of Barnard Castle School, sometimes translated as "Once
imbutus
you shall you have accomplished small things, you may attempt great
tentabis
safely ones safely".
grandia tutus
attempt great
things.

Less literally, "throughout" or "frequently". Said of a word, fact or


here and
notion that occurs several times in a cited text. Also used in
passim there,
proofreading, where it refers to a change that is to be repeated
everywhere
everywhere needed.

Or "master of the house". The eldest male in a family, who held


patria potestas ("paternal power"). In Roman law, a father had
father of the enormous power over his children, wife, and slaves, though
pater familias
family these rights dwindled over time. Derived from the phrase pater
familias, an Old Latin expression preserving the archaic -as
ending for the genitive case.

Pater Father
A more direct translation would be "omnipotent father".
Omnipotens Almighty

father of the Also rendered with the gender-neutral parens patriae ("parent of
Pater Patriae
nation the nation").

pater peccavi Father, I have The traditional beginning of a Roman Catholic confession.
sinned

pauca sed Similar to "quality over quantity"; though there may be few of
few, but good
bona something, at least they are of good quality.

pauca sed Said to be one of Carl Gauss's favorite quotations. Used in The
few, but ripe
matura King and I by Rodgers and Hammerstein.

slowly
paulatim ergo Former motto of Latymer Upper School in London (the text latim
therefore
certe er is concealed in the words)
surely

pax aeterna eternal peace A common epitaph

Pax American A euphemism for the United States of America and its sphere of
Americana Peace influence. Adapted from Pax Romana.

Pax Britannica British Peace A euphemism for the British Empire. Adapted from Pax Romana

Peace of Used as a wish before the Holy Communion in the Catholic


Pax Christi
Christ Mass, also the name of the peace movement Pax Christi

Used in the Peace and Truce of God movement in 10th-century


pax Dei peace of God
France

Like the vast majority of inhabitants of the ancient world, the


Peace of the Romans practiced pagan rituals, believing it important to
Pax Deorum
gods achieve a state of Pax Deorum (The Peace of the gods) instead
of Ira Deorum (The Wrath of the gods).

lord or master; used as a form of address when speaking to


Pax, Domine peace, lord
clergy or educated professionals

Motto of St. Francis of Assisi and, consequently, of his


peace and monastery in Assisi; understood by Catholics to mean 'Peace
pax et bonum
the good and Goodness be with you,' as is similar in the Mass; translated
in Italian as pace e bene.
peace and
pax et justitia Motto of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
justice

peace and
pax et lux Motto of Tufts University and various schools
light

European
Pax Europaea euphemism for Europe after World War II
Peace

Euphemism for the Spanish Empire; specifically can mean the


Spanish
Pax Hispanica twenty-three years of supreme Spanish dominance in Europe
Peace
(approximately 1598–1621). Adapted from Pax Romana.

peace on
pax in terra Used to exemplify the desired state of peace on earth
earth

Peace to
Pax
those who Used as an inscription over the entrance of buildings (especially
intrantibus,
enter, health homes, monasteries, inns). Often benedicto habitantibus
salus
to those who (Blessings on those who abide here) is added.
exeuntibus
depart.

peace of
pax matrum, mothers, If the mother is peaceful, then the family is peaceful. The inverse
ergo pax therefore of the Southern United States saying, "If mama ain't happy, ain't
familiarum peace of nobody happy."
families

Pax Mongolian
period of peace and prosperity in Asia during the Mongol Empire
Mongolica Peace

peace is the
pax optima
greatest Silius Italicus, Punica (11,595); motto of the university of Kiel
rerum
good
Pax Romana Roman period of relative prosperity and lack of conflict in the early
Peace Roman Empire

Chinese period of peace in East Asia during times of strong Chinese


Pax Sinica
Peace hegemony

peace be
pax tecum with you
(singular)

Pax tibi, Legend states that when the evangelist went to the lagoon
Peace to you,
Marce, where Venice would later be founded, an angel came and
Mark, my
Evangelista said this.[91] The first part is depicted as the note in the book
Evangelist.
meus. Hic shown opened by the lion of St Mark's Basilica, Venice;
Here will rest
requiescet registered trademark of the Assicurazioni Generali,
your body.
corpus tuum. Trieste.[92]

A common farewell. The "you" is plural ("you all"), so the phrase


peace [be]
pax vobiscum must be used when speaking to more than one person; pax
with you
tecum is the form used when speaking to only one person.

Telegraph message and pun from Charles Napier, British


general, upon completely subjugating the Indian province of
peccavi I have sinned
Sindh in 1842 ('I have Sindh'). This is, arguably, the most terse
military despatch ever sent. The story is apocryphal.

According to Suetonius' De vita Caesarum, when Emperor


Vespasian was challenged by his son Titus for taxing the public
pecunia non money lavatories, the emperor held up a coin before his son and asked
olet doesn't smell whether it smelled or simply said non olet ("it doesn't smell").
From this, the phrase was expanded to pecunia non olet, or rarely
aes non olet ("copper doesn't smell").
pecunia, si uti if you know Written on an old Latin tablet in downtown Verona (Italy).
scis, ancilla how to use
est; si nescis, money,
domina money is
your slave; if
you don't,
money is
your master

punishment
pede poena That is, retribution comes slowly but surely. From Horace, Odes,
comes
claudo 3, 2, 32.
limping

the works
pendent opera
hang From the Aeneid of Virgil, Book IV
interrupta
interrupted

By, through,
per See specific phrases below
by means of

through Joining sentence of the conspirators in the drama Hernani by


per angusta
difficulties to Victor Hugo (1830). The motto of numerous educational
ad augusta
greatness establishments.

per annum
each year Thus, "yearly"—occurring every year
(pa.)

through
per ardua Motto of the British RAF Regiment
adversity

through
per ardua ad Through hardship, great heights are reached; frequently used
difficulty to
alta motto
heights
per ardua ad through Motto of the Royal, Royal Australian and Royal New Zealand Air
astra adversity to Forces, the U. S. State of Kansas and of several schools. The
the stars phrase is used by Latin Poet Virgil in the Aeneid; also used in H.
Rider Haggard's novel The People of the Mist.

through
per aspera ad From Seneca the Younger; frequently used motto, sometimes as
hardships to
astra ad astra per aspera ("to the stars through hardships")
the stars

"Per head", i.e., "per person", a ratio by the number of persons.


per capita by heads
The singular is per caput.

through the
per capsulam That is, "by letter"
small box

through the
per contra Or "on the contrary" (cf. a contrario)
contrary

through the
per crucem
cross we Motto of St John Fisher Catholic High School, Dewsbury
vincemus
shall conquer

Per Crucem through the


Motto of Lambda Chi Alpha
Crescens cross, growth

through the
per curiam Legal term meaning "by the court", as in a per curiam decision
senate

per through the


Thus, "by definition"
definitionem definition

Thus, "per day". A specific amount of money an organization


per diem (pd.) by day allows an individual to spend per day, typically for travel
expenses.

per fas et through right By fair means or foul


nefas or wrong

per fidem fearless


intrepidus through faith

per literas
regias
per lit. reg. by letters patent;
by royal
per regias of academic degrees: awarded by letters patent from the
letters
literas King/Queen, rather than by a University[93][94]
per reg. lit.
etc.

per mare per by sea and Motto of the Royal Marines and (with small difference) of Clan
terram by land Donald and the Compagnies Franches de la Marine

per mensem
by month Thus, "per month", or "monthly"
(pm.)

per multum what can be


cras, cras, done today
crebro should not be
dilabitur aetas delayed

through the
per os (p.o.) Medical shorthand for "by mouth"
mouth

Used of a certain place that can be traversed or reached by foot,


per pedes by feet or to indicate that one is travelling by foot as opposed to by a
vehicle

per procura through the Also rendered per procurationem. Used to indicate that a person
(p.p.) or (per agency is signing a document on behalf of another person. Correctly
pro) placed before the name of the person signing, but often placed
before the name of the person on whose behalf the document is
signed, sometimes through incorrect translation of the
alternative abbreviation per pro. as "for and on behalf of".

In a UK legal context: "by reason of which" (as opposed to per se


by reason of
per quod which requires no reasoning). In American jurisprudence often
which
refers to a spouse's claim for loss of consortium.

per rectum through the


Medical shorthand; see also per os
(pr) rectum

a modern parody of per aspera ad astra, originating and most


commonly used in Russia, meaning that the path to success
per rectum ad via rectum to
took you through most undesirable and objectionable places or
astra the stars
environments; or that a found solution to a complex problem is
extremely convoluted.

per risum by excessive


multum laughter one
poteris can
cognoscere recognise the
stultum fool

Also "by itself" or "in itself". Without referring to anything else,


per se through itself intrinsically, taken without qualifications etc. A common
example is negligence per se. See also malum in se.

through the Used in wills to indicate that each "branch" of the testator's
per stirpes
roots family should inherit equally. Contrasted with per capita.

per unitatem through unity,


Motto of Texas A&M University Corps of Cadets
vis strength

per veritatem through truth, Motto of Washington University in St. Louis


vis strength

per volar Frequently used motto; not from Latin but from Dante's
born to soar
sunata[sic] Purgatorio, Canto XII, 95, the Italian phrase "per volar sù nata".

Be patient
Perfer et and tough;
obdura; dolor some day
From Ovid, Amores, Book III, Elegy XI
hic tibi this pain will
proderit olim be useful to
you.

periculum in danger in
mora delay

perinde ac [si] [well-


Phrase written by St. Ignatius of Loyola in his Constitutiones
cadaver disciplined]
Societatis Iesu (1954)
[essent] like a corpse

skilled hand,
perita manus
cultivated Motto of RMIT University in Melbourne, Australia
mens exculta
mind

advance, I from Virgil's Aeneid IV 114; in Vergil's context: "proceed with your
perge sequar
follow plan, I will do my part."

Danger is my
Pericula ludus Motto of the Foreign Legion Detachment in Mayotte
pleasure

thing in
perpetuum A musical term; also used to refer to hypothetical perpetual
perpetual
mobile motion machines
motion

Perseverantia Perseverance Motto of Bombay Scottish School, Mahim, India


et Fide in Deo and Faith in
God

An unwelcome, unwanted or undesirable person. In diplomatic


contexts, a person rejected by the host government. The reverse,
persona non person not
persona grata ("pleasing person"), is less common, and refers to
grata pleasing
a diplomat acceptable to the government of the country to which
he is sent.

Begging the question, a logical fallacy in which a proposition to


petitio request of
be proved is implicitly or explicitly assumed in one of the
principii the beginning
premises

pious
pia desideria Or "dutiful desires"
longings

Or "dutiful deceit". Expression from Ovid; used to describe


pia fraus pious fraud
deception which serves Church purposes

Or "tender mother". Translated into Latin from Arabic. The


pia mater pious mother delicate innermost of the three membranes that cover the brain
and spinal cord.

Freedom is
Pietate et made safe
doctrina tuta through Motto of Dickinson College
libertas character
and learning

Thus, "he painted this" or "she painted this". Formerly used on


pinxit one painted
works of art, next to the artist's name.

Latin proverb, attributed by Erasmus in his Adagia to Greek origin


piscem natare [you] teach a
(Diogenianus, Ἰχθὺν νήχεσθαι διδάσκεις); corollary Chinese
doces fish to swim
idiom (班⾨弄斧)
placet it pleases expression of assent

plene
fully written
scriptum

I.e., it is difficult to concentrate on mental tasks after a heavy


plenus venter A full belly
meal. The following variant is also attested: plenus si venter
non studet does not like
renuit studere libenter (the belly, when full, refuses to study
libenter studying
willingly).

plenus venter A full belly


facile de readily
Hieronymus, Epistulæ 58,2
ieiuniis discusses
disputat fasting.

The first-person plural pronoun when used by an important


pluralis plural of
personage to refer to himself or herself; also known as the "royal
majestatis majesty
we"

pluralis plural of
modestiae modesty

plus minusve Frequently found on Roman funerary inscriptions to denote that


more or less
(p.m.v.) the age of a decedent is approximate

further
plus ultra National motto of Spain and a number of other institutions
beyond

pollice goodwill
Life was spared with a thumb tucked inside a closed fist,
compresso decided by
simulating a sheathed weapon. Conversely, a thumb up meant to
favor compressed
unsheath your sword.
iudicabatur thumb

pollice verso with a turned Used by Roman crowds to pass judgment on a defeated
thumb gladiator. The type of gesture used is uncertain. Also the name
of a famous painting depicting gladiators by Jean-Léon Gérôme.

Polonia Rebirth of
Restituta Poland

pons bridge of Any obstacle that stupid people find hard to cross. Originally
asinorum asses used of Euclid's Fifth Proposition in geometry.

Or "Supreme Pontiff". Originally an office in the Roman Republic,


later a title held by Roman Emperors, and later a traditional
epithet of the pope. The pontifices were the most important
Pontifex Greatest
priestly college of the religion in ancient Rome; their name is
Maximus High Priest
usually thought to derive from pons facere ("to make a bridge"),
which in turn is usually linked to their religious authority over the
bridges of Rome, especially the Pons Sublicius.

Thus, to be able to be made into part of a retinue or force. In


posse force of the
common law, a sheriff's right to compel people to assist law
comitatus county[95]
enforcement in unusual situations.

They can
possunt quia
because they Inscription on the back of Putney medals, awarded to boat race
posse
think they winning Oxford blues. From Virgil's Aeneid Book V line 231.
videntur
can

post aut after it or by Causality between two phenomena is not established (cf. post
propter means of it hoc, ergo propter hoc)

post cibum
after food Medical shorthand for "after meals" (cf. ante cibum)
(p.c.)

post coitum After sex After sexual intercourse

post coitum After sexual Or: triste est omne animal post coitum, praeter mulierem
omne animal intercourse gallumque. Attributed to Galen of Pergamum.[96]
triste est sive every animal
gallus et is sad, except
mulier the cock
(rooster) and
the woman

Refers to an action or occurrence that takes place after the


event that is being discussed (similar in meaning to post
after the factum). More specifically, it may refer to a person who is
post eventum
event recounting an event long after it took place, implying that details
of the story may have changed over time. (Some sources
attribute this expression to George Eliot.)

post factum after the fact Not to be confused with ex post facto.

after the
post festum Too late, or after the fact
feast

after this,
post hoc ergo therefore A logical fallacy where one assumes that one thing happening
propter hoc because of after another thing means that the first thing caused the second.
this

post meridiem
after midday The period from noon to midnight (cf. ante meridiem)
(p.m.)

post mortem Usually rendered postmortem. Not to be confused with post


after death
(pm) meridiem

The phrase is used in legal terminology in the context of


Post mortem after the
intellectual property rights, especially copyright, which
auctoris author's
commonly lasts until a certain number of years after the author's
(p.m.a.) death
death.
post nubila after the Motto of the University of Zulia, Venezuela, as well as Hartford,
phoebus clouds, the Connecticut
sun

out of
post nubes lux darkness, Motto of Cranfield University
light

after “late
post prandial Refers to the time after any meal. Usually rendered postprandial.
breakfast”

after what
post scriptum A postscript. Used to mark additions to a letter, after the
has been
(p.s.) signature. Can be extended to post post scriptum (p.p.s.), etc.
written

post tenebras after


lux, or post darkness, [I
from Vulgata, Job 17:12; frequently used motto
tenebras hope for]
spero lucem light

I am going to
grow in the
postera
esteem of Motto of the University of Melbourne
crescam laude
future
generations

potest solum There can be


Highlander
unum only one

praemia honours are


virtutis the rewards  
honores of virtue

praemonitus forewarned Common catch phrase of the fictional character "Captain Blood"
praemunitus is forearmed from the novel Captain Blood (novel)

Lead in order
praesis ut
to serve, not
prosis ne ut Motto of Lancaster Royal Grammar School
in order to
imperes
rule.

praeter legem after the law Legal terminology, international law

Prague, Head
Praga Caput
of the Motto of Prague from Middle Ages
Regni
Kingdom

Prague, Head
Praga Caput
of the Motto of Prague from 1991
Rei publicae
Republic

Prague,
Praga mater
Mother of Motto of Prague from 1927
urbium
Cities

Prague, the
Praga totius
mistress of
Bohemiae Former motto of Prague
the whole of
domina
Bohemia

Pretium No mean
Laborum Non reward for Motto of the Order of the Golden Fleece
Vile labour

pretiumque et The prize and Motto of Burnley Football Club; from Ovid's Metamorphoses,
causa laboris the cause of 4.739 (Latin)/English): "The Tale of Perseus and Andromeda":
our labour resoluta catenis incedit virgo, pretiumque et causa laboris. ("freed
of her chains the virgin approaches, cause and reward of the
enterprise.")

Used to designate evidence in a trial which is suggestive, but not


prima facie at first sight
conclusive, of something (e.g., a person's guilt)

prima luce at dawn Literally "at first light"

I am a
primate;
primas sum:
nothing
primatum nil a A sentence by the American anthropologist Earnest Hooton and
about
me alienum the slogan of primatologists and lovers of the primates.
primates is
puto
outside of
my bailiwick

primum first moving


Or "first thing able to be moved"; see primum movens
mobile thing

Or "first moving one". A common theological term, such as in the


cosmological argument, based on the assumption that God was
primum
prime mover the first entity to "move" or "cause" anything. Aristotle was one of
movens
the first philosophers to discuss the "uncaused cause", a
hypothetical originator—and violator—of causality.

A medical precept. Often falsely attributed to the Hippocratic


Oath, though its true source is probably a paraphrase from
primum non first, to not Hippocrates' Epidemics, where he wrote, "Declare the past,
nocere harm diagnose the present, foretell the future; practice these acts. As
to diseases, make a habit of two things: to help, or at least to do
no harm."

primus inter first among Position of the Ecumenical Patriarch in the Eastern Orthodox
pares equals Church, position of the President of the Swiss Confederation
among the members of the Federal Council, and a title of the
Roman Emperors (cf. princeps).

principles
principia
prove; they Fundamental principles require no proof; they are assumed a
probant non
are not priori.
probantur
proved

resist the
principiis beginnings
obsta (et (and Ovid, Remedia Amoris, 91
respice finem) consider the
end)

principium psychological term: the self-formation of the personality into a


Individuation
individuationis coherent whole

earlier in
prior tempore time, A legal principle that older laws take precedence over newer
potior iure stronger in ones. The inverse principle is known as lex posterior.
law

pro aris et For altars The motto of the Royal Queensland Regiment, and many other
focis and hearths regiments.

Often abbreviated pro bono. Work undertaken voluntarily at no


pro bono for the public
expense, such as public services. Often used of a lawyer's work
publico good
that is not charged for.

let
exceptional
pro Brasilia
things be Motto of São Paulo state, Brazil.
fiant eximia
made for
Brazil
pro Deo Domo For God, Motto of the University of Mary Washington
Patria home and
country

pro Deo et For God and


Frequently used motto
Patria Country

for (one’s
pro domo serving the interests of a given perspective or for the benefit of a
own) home
(sua) given group.
or house

pro Ecclesia, For Church, Motto of Baylor University, a private Christian Baptist university
pro Texana For Texas in Waco, Texas.

Motto of the originally Irish Muldoon family and of several


pro fide et for faith and schools, such as the Diocesan College (Bishops) in Cape Town,
patria fatherland South Africa, and All Hallows High School in the Bronx, New
York.

Or "as a matter of form". Prescribing a set form or procedure, or


pro forma for form
performed in a set manner.

pro gloria et for glory and


Motto of Prussia
patria fatherland

for this Request of a state court to allow an out-of-state lawyer to


pro hac vice
occasion represent a client.

It is part of the Rite of Consecration of the wine in Western


pro multis for many
Christianity tradition, as part of the Mass.

pro parte in part Frequently used in taxonomy to refer to part of a group.

pro patria for country Pro Patria Medal: for operational service (minimum 55 days) in
defence of the Republic South Africa or in the prevention or
suppression of terrorism; issued for the Border War (counter-
insurgency operations in South West Africa 1966–89) and for
campaigns in Angola (1975–76 and 1987–88). Motto of The
Royal Canadian Regiment, Royal South Australia Regiment,
Hurlstone Agricultural High School.

pro patria watchful for


Motto of the United States Army Signal Corps.
vigilans the country

for the
pro populo et
people and Motto of HMS Westminster
gloria
glory

to defend oneself in court without counsel; abbreviation of


pro per for self
propria persona. See also: pro se.

pro rata for the rate i.e., proportionately.

Medical shorthand for "as the occasion arises" or "as needed".


for a thing Also "concerning a matter having come into being". Used to
pro re nata
that has been describe a meeting of a special Presbytery or Assembly called to
(PRN, prn)
born discuss something new, and which was previously unforeseen
(literally: "concerning a matter having been born").

pro rege et for king and


Found on the Leeds coat of arms.
lege the law

for king, the


pro rege, lege
law and the Found on the coat of arms of Perth, Scotland.
et grege
people

to defend oneself in court without counsel. Some jurisdictions


pro se for oneself
prefer, "pro per".

pro scientia for motto of Stuyvesant High School in New York City
atque knowledge
sapientia and wisdom

pro scientia et for science


motto of the National University of La Plata
patria and nation

pro studio et for study and


labore work

Denotes something that has only been partially fulfilled. A


pro tanto for so much philosophical term indicating the acceptance of a theory or idea
without fully accepting the explanation.

what shall
pro tanto quid we give in The motto of the city of Belfast; taken from the Vulgate
retribuemus return for so translation of Psalm 116.
much

for the time


pro tempore Denotes a temporary current situation; abbreviated pro tem.
(being)

probatio testing of the


Medieval Latin term for breaking in a new pen
pennae pen

I am open for
Traditionally inscribed above a city gate or above the front
probis pateo honest
entrance of a dwelling or place of learning.
people

To
Accomplish
prodesse
Rather Than motto of Miami University
quam conspici
To Be
Conspicuous

propria manu "by one's own


(p.m.) hand"
propter vitam to destroy That is, to squander life's purpose just in order to stay alive, and
vivendi the reasons live a meaningless life. From Juvenal, Satyricon VIII, verses 83–
perdere for living for 84.
causas the sake of
life

Protection
protectio draws
trahit allegiance,
subjectionem, and Legal maxim, indicating that reciprocity of fealty with protection
et subjectio allegiance
protectionem draws
protection

launch
provehito in
forward into motto of Memorial University of Newfoundland
altum
the deep

proxime
he came next the runner-up
accessit

in the
proximo Used in formal correspondence to refer to the next month. Used
following
mense (prox.) with ult. ("last month") and inst. ("this month").
month

pulchrum est
Beauty is for
paucorum from Friedrich Nietzsche's 1889 book Twilight of the Idols
the few
hominum

pulvis et we are dust


From Horace, Carmina book IV, 7, 16.
umbra sumus and shadow

punctum
leaping point Thus, the essential or most notable point. The salient point.
saliens
purificatus purified, not
non consumed
consumptus

Q
Latin Translation Notes

Thus: "by definition"; variant of per definitionem; sometimes


by virtue of
qua definitione used in German-speaking countries. Occasionally
definition
misrendered as "qua definitionem".

as far as the
qua patet orbis Motto of the Royal Netherlands Marine Corps
world extends

do not take
quae non
away what
posuisti, ne Plato, Laws
you did not
tollas
put in place

what alone is
quae non
not useful
prosunt singula Ovid, Remedia amoris
helps when
multa iuvant
accumulated

quaecumque whatsoever is frequently used as motto; taken from Philippians 4:8 of the
sunt vera true Bible

teach me
quaecumque motto of St. Joseph's College, Edmonton at the University of
whatsoever is
vera doce me Alberta
true

Or "you might ask..." Used to suggest doubt or to ask one to


quaere to seek consider whether something is correct. Often introduces
rhetorical or tangential questions.

quaerite seek ye first


primum regnum the kingdom Also quaerite primo regnum dei; frequently used as motto
Dei of God

qualis artifex As what kind Or "What a craftsman dies in me!" Attributed to Nero in
pereo of artist do I Suetonius' De vita Caesarum
perish?

Qualitas Quality is our


motto of Finnish Air Force
potentia nostra might

quam bene non how well, not


motto of Mount Royal University, Calgary, Canada
quantum how much

quam bene it is how well


vivas referre (or you live that
Seneca, Epistulae morales ad Lucilium CI (101)
refert), non matters, not
quam diu how long

I.e., "[while on] good behavior." So for example the Act of


as long as he Settlement 1701 stipulated that judges' commissions are valid
quamdiu (se) shall have quamdiu se bene gesserint (during good behaviour). (Notice
bene gesserit behaved well the different singular, "gesserit", and plural, "gesserint", forms.)
(legal Latin) It was from this phrase that Frank Herbert extracted the name
for the Bene Gesserit sisterhood in the Dune novels.

quantocius the sooner,


or, as quickly as possible
quantotius the better

quantum libet as much as


medical shorthand for "as much as you wish"
(q.l.) pleases

quantum sufficit as much as is medical shorthand for "as much as needed" or "as much as
(qs) enough will suffice"

medical shorthand; also quaque die (qd), "every day", quaque


quaque hora
every hour mane (qm), "every morning", and quaque nocte (qn), "every
(qh)
night"

quare clausum wherefore he An action of trespass; thus called, by reason the writ demands
fregit broke the the person summoned to answer to wherefore he broke the
close close (quare clausum fregit), i.e. why he committed such a
trespass.

quater in die four times a


medical shorthand
(qid) day

Whom the
quem deus vult gods would
perdere, destroy, they
dementat prius first make
insane

Other translations of diligunt include "prize especially" or


quem di diligunt he whom the "esteem". From Plautus, Bacchides, IV, 7, 18. In this comic play,
adulescens gods love a sarcastic servant says this to his aging master. The rest of
moritur dies young the sentence reads: dum valet sentit sapit ("while he is healthy,
perceptive and wise").

questio quid I ask what from the Summoner's section of Chaucer's General Prologue
iuris law? to The Canterbury Tales, line 648

qui audet Who Dares


The motto of the SAS, of the British Army
adipiscitur Wins

from St. Augustine of Hippo's commentary on Psalm 73, verse


he who sings
qui bene cantat 1: Qui enim cantat laudem, non solum laudat, sed etiam hilariter
well praises
bis orat laudat ("He who sings praises, not only praises, but praises
twice
joyfully")

who with common misspelling of the Latin phrase cui bono ("who
qui bono
good benefits?")

qui docet in he that Motto of the University of Chester. A less literal translation is
doctrina teacheth, on "Let those who teach, teach" or "Let the teacher teach".
teaching

he who has
qui habet aures
ears to hear "He that hath ears to hear, let him hear"; Mark Mark 4:9
audiendi audiat
shall hear

qui me tangit, who touches


vocem meam me, hears my common inscription on bells
audit voice

qui tacet he who is Thus, silence gives consent. Sometimes accompanied by the
consentire silent is taken proviso "ubi loqui debuit ac potuit", that is, "when he ought to
videtur to agree have spoken and was able to".

Who is first in
qui prior est As set forth in the "Property Law" casebook written by Jesse
point of time
tempore potior Dukeminier, which is generally used to teach first year law
is stronger in
est jure students.
right

qui tam pro he who brings Generally known as 'qui tam,' it is the technical legal term for
domino rege an action for the unique mechanism in the federal False Claims Act that
quam pro se the king as allows persons and entities with evidence of fraud against
ipso in hac well as for federal programs or contracts to sue the wrongdoer on behalf
parte sequitur himself of the Government.

he who wants
qui totum vult everything
Attributed to Publilius Syrus
totum perdit loses
everything

he who Or "he who brought us across still supports us", meaning God.
qui transtulit
transplanted State motto of Connecticut. Originally written as sustinet qui
sustinet
still sustains transtulit in 1639.
quia suam because he Attributed to Julius Caesar by Plutarch, Caesar 10. Translated
uxorem etiam should wish loosely as "because even the wife of Caesar may not be
suspicione his wife to be suspected". At the feast of Bona Dea, a sacred festival for
vacare vellet free even females only, which was being held at the Domus Publica, the
from any home of the Pontifex Maximus, Caesar, and hosted by his
suspicion second wife, Pompeia, the notorious politician Clodius arrived
in disguise. Caught by the outraged noblewomen, Clodius fled
before they could kill him on the spot for sacrilege. In the
ensuing trial, allegations arose that Pompeia and Clodius were
having an affair, and while Caesar asserted that this was not
the case and no substantial evidence arose suggesting
otherwise, he nevertheless divorced, with this quotation as
explanation.

What are you What's happening? What's going on? What's the news? What's
quid agis
doing? up?

In the Vulgate translation of John 18:38, Pilate's question to


Jesus (Greek: Τί ἐστιν ἀλήθεια;). A possible answer is an
quid est veritas What is truth?
anagram of the phrase: est vir qui adest, "it is the man who is
here."

What of the
quid novi ex less literally, "What's new from Africa?"; derived from an
new out of
Africa Aristotle quotation
Africa?

Commonly shortened to quidnunc. As a noun, a quidnunc is a


quid nunc What now? busybody or a gossip. Patrick Campbell worked for The Irish
Times under the pseudonym "Quidnunc".

quid pro quo what for what Commonly used in English, it is also translated as "this for
that" or "a thing for a thing". Signifies a favor exchanged for a
favor. The traditional Latin expression for this meaning was do
ut des ("I give, so that you may give").

Why do you
laugh?
Quid rides?
Change but
Mutato nomine
the name, and Horace, Satires, I. 1. 69.
de te fabula
the story is
narratur.
told of
yourself.

Or "anything said in Latin sounds profound". A recent ironic


whatever has
quidquid Latine Latin phrase to poke fun at people who seem to use Latin
been said in
dictum sit altum phrases and quotations only to make themselves sound more
Latin seems
videtur important or "educated". Similar to the less common omnia
deep
dicta fortiora si dicta Latina.

quieta non don't move


movere settled things

Commonly associated with Plato who in the Republic poses


this question; and from Juvenal's On Women, referring to the
Who will
practice of having eunuchs guard women and beginning with
Quis custodiet guard the
the word sed ("but"). Usually translated less literally, as "Who
ipsos custodes? guards
watches the watchmen?" This translation is a common
themselves?
epigraph, such as of the Tower Commission and Alan Moore's
Watchmen comic book series.

Who will read


quis leget haec?
this?

Who will
quis separabit? motto of Northern Ireland and of the Order of St Patrick
separate us?
quis ut Deus Who [is] as Usually translated "Who is like unto God?" Questions who
God? would have the audacity to compare himself to a Supreme
Being. It is a translation of the Hebrew name 'Michael' = Mi
cha El Who like God ‫ אל‬/‫כ‬/‫ מי‬Hebrew: ‫יכ ֵאל‬
ָ ‫( ִמ‬right to left).

quo errat where the


A pun on "quod erat demonstrandum"
demonstrator prover errs

where the
quo fata ferunt fates bear us motto of Bermuda
to

Quod verum what is true is


motto of Spier's School
tutum right

From Cicero's first speech In Catilinam to the Roman Senate


quousque For how regarding the conspiracy of Catiline: Quo usque tandem
tandem? much longer? abutere, Catilina, patientia nostra? ("For how much longer,
Catiline, will you abuse our patience?").

Where are we Title of the series finale of Aaron Sorkin's TV dramedy Sports
Quo Vadimus?
going? Night

According to Vulgate translation of John 13:36, Saint Peter


Where are asked Jesus Domine, quo vadis? ("Lord, where are you
quo vadis?
you going? going?"). The King James Version has the translation "Lord,
whither goest thou?"

whithersoever
quocunque
you throw it, it motto of the Isle of Man
jeceris stabit
will stand

quod abundat what is It is no problem to have too much of something.


non obstat abundant
doesn't hinder

what is done
quod cito fit, quickly, Things done in a hurry are more likely to fail and fail quicker
cito perit perishes than those done with care.
quickly

The abbreviation is often written at the bottom of a


quod erat what was to
mathematical proof. Sometimes translated loosely into
demonstrandum be
English as "The Five Ws", W.W.W.W.W., which stands for
(Q.E.D.) demonstrated
"Which Was What We Wanted".

Or "which was to be constructed". Used in translations of


quod erat
which was to Euclid's Elements when there was nothing to prove, but there
faciendum
be done was something being constructed, for example a triangle with
(Q.E.F.)
the same size as a given line.

quod est (q.e.) which is

quod est what is


necessarium necessary is
est licitum lawful

what is
asserted
quod gratis without
If no grounds have been given for an assertion, then there are
asseritur, gratis reason may
no grounds needed to reject it.
negatur be denied
without
reason

quod licet Iovi, what is If an important person does something, it does not
non licet bovi permitted to necessarily mean that everyone can do it (cf. double
Jupiter is not standard). Iovi (also commonly rendered Jovi) is the dative
permitted to form of Iuppiter ("Jupiter" or "Jove"), the chief god of the
an ox Romans.

Thought to have originated with Elizabethan playwright


what Christopher Marlowe. Generally interpreted to mean that that
quod me nutrit
nourishes me which motivates or drives a person can consume him or her
me destruit
destroys me from within. This phrase has become a popular slogan or
motto for pro-ana websites, anorexics and bulimics.

what nature
quod natura non does not give,
Refers to the Spanish University of Salamanca, meaning that
dat Salmantica Salamanca
education cannot substitute the lack of brains.
non praestat does not
provide

A well-known satirical lampoon left attached to the ancient


quod non What the "speaking" statue of Pasquino on a corner of the Piazza
fecerunt barbarians Navona in Rome, Italy.[97] Through a sharp pun the writer
barbari, did not do, criticizes Pope Urban VIII, of the Barberini family, who reused
fecerunt the Barberinis stones and decorations from ancient buildings to build new
Barberini did ones, thus wrecking classical constructions that even the
barbarians had not touched.

What has happened has happened and it cannot be changed,


quod periit, What is gone
thus we should look forward into the future instead of being
periit is gone
pulled by the past.

What I have
quod scripsi,
written I have Pilate to the chief priests (John 19:22)
scripsi
written.

quod Whatever you i.e. "You must thoroughly understand that which you hope to
supplantandum, hope to supplant". A caution against following a doctrine of Naive
prius bene supplant, you Analogy when attempting to formulate a scientific hypothesis.
sciendum will first know
thoroughly

Used after a term, phrase, or topic that should be looked up


quod vide (q.v.) which see elsewhere in the current document, book, etc. For more than
one term or phrase, the plural is quae vide (qq.v.).

Quodcumque Whatever He More colloquially: "Do whatever He [Jesus] tells you to do."
dixerit vobis, tells you, that Instructions of Mary to the servants at the Wedding at Cana.
facite. you shall do. (John 2:5). Also the motto of East Catholic High School.

quomodo vales How are you?

the number of members whose presence is required under the


quorum of whom
rules to make any given meeting constitutional

Those whom
quos amor
true love has
verus tenuit Seneca
held, it will go
tenebit
on holding

as many
quot capita tot heads, so
"There are as many opinions as there are heads" – Terence
sensus many
perceptions

as many men,
quot homines Or "there are as many opinions as there are people", "how
so many
tot sententiae many people, so many opinions"
opinions

R
Latin Translation Notes

radix malorum the root of evils is Or "greed is the root of all evil". Theme of "The Pardoner's
est cupiditas desire Tale" from The Canterbury Tales.

An extraordinary or unusual thing. From Juvenal's Satires


rara avis rare bird (very rare
VI: rara avis in terris nigroque simillima cygno ("a rare bird
(rarissima avis) bird)
in the lands, and very like a black swan").

rari nantes in Rare survivors in


Virgil, Aeneid, I, 118
gurgite vasto the immense sea

reasoning for the The legal, moral, political, and social principles used by a
ratio decidendi
decision court to compose a judgment's rationale.

ratio legis reasoning of law A law's foundation or basis.

ratione by reason of Also "Jurisdiction Ratione Personae" the personal reach of


personae his/her person the courts jurisdiction.[98]

by account of the Or "according to the soil". Assigning property rights to a


ratione soli
ground thing based on its presence on a landowner's property.

ratum et confirmed and


in Canon law, a consummated marriage
consummatum completed

in Canon law, a confirmed but unconsummated marriage


ratum tantum confirmed only
(which can be dissolved super rato)

re [in] the matter of More literally, "by the thing". From the ablative of res
("thing" or "circumstance"). It is a common misconception
that the "Re:" in correspondence is an abbreviation for
regarding or reply; this is not the case for traditional
letters. However, when used in an e-mail subject, there is
evidence that it functions as an abbreviation of regarding
rather than the Latin word for thing. The use of Latin re, in
the sense of "about", "concerning", is English usage.

The doctrine that treaty obligations hold only as long as


rebus sic with matters
the fundamental conditions and expectations that existed
stantibus standing thus
at the time of their creation hold.

recte et
Upright and Strong Motto of Homebush Boys High School
fortiter

recte et Upright and Also "just and faithful" and "accurately and faithfully".
fideliter Faithful Motto of Ruyton Girls' School

A common debate technique, and a method of proof in


mathematics and philosophy, that proves the thesis by
showing that its opposite is absurd or logically untenable.
In general usage outside mathematics and philosophy, a
reductio ad leading back to the
reductio ad absurdum is a tactic in which the logic of an
absurdum absurd
argument is challenged by reducing the concept to its
most absurd extreme. Translated from Aristotle's "ἡ εις
άτοπον απαγωγη" (hi eis atopon apagogi, "reduction to the
impossible").

A term coined by German-American political philosopher


Leo Strauss to humorously describe a fallacious argument
reductio ad leading back to
that compares an opponent's views to those held by Adolf
Hitlerum Hitler
Hitler or the Nazi Party. Derived from reductio ad
absurdum.

reductio ad leading back to the An argument that creates an infinite series of causes that
infinitum infinite does not seem to have a beginning. As a fallacy, it rests
upon Aristotle's notion that all things must have a cause,
but that all series of causes must have a sufficient cause,
that is, an unmoved mover. An argument which does not
seem to have such a beginning becomes difficult to
imagine. If it can be established, separately, that the chain
must have a start, then a reductio ad infinitum is a valid
refutation technique.

A decision from a court of appeal is amended to a worse


reformatio in one. With certain exceptions, this is prohibited at the
change to worse
peius Boards of Appeal of the European Patent Office by case
law.

Regem ego you made me a


comitem me Count, I will make Motto of the Forbin family
comes regem you a King

From "Reginam
occidere nolite
timere bonum est
si omnes
consentiunt ego
Written by John of Merania, bishop of Esztergom, to
non contradico", a
Reginam Hungarian nobles planning the assassination of Gertrude
sentence whose
occidere of Merania. The queen was assassinated as the plotters
meaning is highly
saw the bishop's message as an encouragement.
dependent on
punctuation: either
the speaker wishes
a queen killed or
not.[99]

regnat populus the people rule State motto of Arkansas, adopted in 1907. Originally
rendered in 1864 in the plural, regnant populi ("the peoples
rule"), but subsequently changed to the singular.
Regnum
Kingdom of Mary,
Mariae
the Patron of Former motto of Hungary.
Patrona
Hungary
Hungariae

regressus ad Concept used in psychoanalysis by Sándor Ferenczi and


return to the womb
uterum the Budapest School.

You have touched


rem acu
the point with a i.e., "You have hit the nail on the head"
tetigisti
needle

Lit: "Repeated things help". Usually said as a jocular


repeating does remark to defend the speaker's (or writer's) choice to
repetita iuvant
good repeat some important piece of information to ensure
reception by the audience.

repetitio est repetition is the


mater mother of
studiorum study/learning

requiem
eternal rest
aeternam

Or "may he/she rest in peace". A benediction for the dead.


requiescat in let him/her rest in Often inscribed on tombstones or other grave markers.
pace (R.I.P.) peace "RIP" is commonly mistranslated as "Rest In Peace",
though the two mean essentially the same thing.

rerum
to learn the causes Motto of the University of Sheffield, the University of
cognoscere
of things Guelph, and London School of Economics.
causas

res firma a firm resolve does Used in the 1985 film American Flyers where it is
mitescere not know how to colloquially translated as "once you got it up, keep it up".
nescit weaken

A phrase used in law representing the belief that certain


statements are made naturally, spontaneously and without
deliberation during the course of an event, they leave little
room for misunderstanding/misinterpretation upon
res gestae things done
hearing by someone else ( i.e. by the witness who will later
repeat the statement to the court) and thus the courts
believe that such statements carry a high degree of
credibility.

A phrase from the common law of torts meaning that


res ipsa the thing speaks
negligence can be inferred from the fact that such an
loquitur for itself
accident happened, without proof of exactly how.

A matter which has been decided by a court. Often refers


to the legal concept that once a matter has been finally
res judicata judged thing
decided by the courts, it cannot be litigated again (cf. non
bis in idem and double jeopardy).

From rēs ("things, facts") the plural of rēs ("a thing, a fact")
"actions speak
+ nōn ("not") + verba ("words") the plural of verbum ("a
louder than words",
res, non verba word"). Literally meaning "things, not words" or "facts
or "deeds, not
instead of words" but referring to that "actions be used
words"
instead of words".

Goods without an owner. Used for things or beings which


belong to nobody and are up for grabs, e.g., uninhabited
res nullius nobody's property
and uncolonized lands, wandering wild animals, etc. (cf.
terra nullius, "no man's land").

res publica Pertaining to the source of the word republic


state or public

respice
look behind, look i.e., "examine the past, the present and future". Motto of
adspice
here, look ahead CCNY.
prospice

i.e., "have regard for the end" or "consider the end".


Generally a memento mori, a warning to remember one's
look back at the
respice finem death. Motto of Homerton College, Cambridge, Trinity
end
College, Kandy, Georgetown College in Kentucky , Turnbull
High School, Glasgow, and the London Oratory School.

Regarded as a legal maxim in agency law, referring to the


legal liability of the principal with respect to an employee.
Whereas a hired independent contractor acting tortiously
respondeat let the superior
may not cause the principal to be legally liable, a hired
superior respond
employee acting tortiously will cause the principal (the
employer) to be legally liable, even if the employer did
nothing wrong.

restitutio ad
restoration to Principle behind the awarding of damages in common law
(or in)
original condition negligence claims
integrum

resurgam I shall arise ‘I shall rise again’, expressing Christian faith in


resurrection at the Last Day. It appears, inter alia, in
Charlotte Brontë's Jane Eyre, as the epitaph written on
Helen Burns's grave; in a poem of Emily Dickinson: Poems
(1955) I. 56 ("Arcturus" is his other name), I slew a worm
the other day — A ‘Savant’ passing by Murmured
‘Resurgam’ — ‘Centipede’! ‘Oh Lord—how frail are we’!; and
in a letter of Vincent van Gogh.[100] The OED gives "1662 J.
Trapp Annotations Old & New Testament I. 142 Howbeit
he had hope in his death, and might write Resurgam on his
grave" as its earliest attribution in the English corpus.

An utterance by the Delphic oracle recorded by Eusebius


retine vim Restrain your
of Caesarea in Praeparatio evangelica, VI-5, translated
istam, falsa strength, for if you
from the Greek of Porphyry (c.f. E. H. Gifford's
enim dicam, si compel me I will
translation)[101] and used by William Wordsworth as a
coges tell lies
subtitle for his ballad "Anecdote for Fathers".

rex regum king even of Latin motto that appears on the crest of the Trinity
fidelum et faithful kings Broadcasting Network of Paul and Jan Crouch.

The rigidity of corpses when chemical reactions cause the


limbs to stiffen about 3–4 hours after death. Other signs
rigor mortis stiffness of death of death include drop in body temperature (algor mortis,
"cold of death") and discoloration (livor mortis, "bluish
color of death").

risum teneatis, Can you help An ironic or rueful commentary, appended following a
amici? laughing, friends? fanciful or unbelievable tale.

risus abundat laughter is


in ore abundant in the excessive and inappropriate laughter signifies stupidity.
stultorum mouth of fools

Unconquered
Roma invicta Inspirational motto inscribed on the Statue of Rome.
Rome

Roma locuta, Rome has spoken, In Roman Catholic ecclesiology, doctrinal matters are
causa finita the case is closed ultimately decided by the Vatican.

Romanes eunt People called An intentionally garbled Latin phrase from Monty Python's
domus Romans they go Life of Brian. Its intended meaning is "Romans, go home!",
the house in Latin Romani ite domum.

drop down ye
rorate coeli a.k.a. The Advent Prose.
heavens

rosa
rubicundior, redder than the
lilio candidior, rose, whiter than
omnibus the lilies, fairer From Veni, veni, venias (Carmina Burana).
formosior, than all things, I do
semper in te ever glory in thee
glorior

She who has


Rosam quae
earned the rose Motto from Sweet Briar College
meruit ferat
may bear it

Generally used to refer to a haven of peace and quiet


A countryside in
rus in urbe within an urban setting, often a garden, but can refer to
the city
interior decoration.

S
Latin Translation Notes

saltus in leap in a leap in logic, by which a necessary part of an equation is


demonstrando explaining omitted.

a stronghold
a Roman Silver Age maxim. Also the school motto of
salus in arduis (or refuge) in
Wellingborough School.
difficulties

the welfare of From Cicero's De Legibus, book III, part III, sub. VIII. Quoted by
salus populi
the people is John Locke in his Second Treatise, On Civil Government, to
suprema lex
to be the describe the proper organization of government. Also the
esto
highest law state motto of Missouri.

Refers to two expressions that can be interchanged without


with truth
salva veritate changing the truth value of the statements in which they
intact
occur.

Savior of the Christian epithet, usually referring to Jesus. The title of


Salvator Mundi
World paintings by Albrecht Dürer and Leonardo da Vinci.

salvo errore et Used as a reservation on statements of financial accounts.


save for error
omissione Often now given in English "errors and omissions excluded" or
and omission
(s.e.e.o.) "e&oe".

Addressing
oneself to
salvo honoris
someone
titulo (SHT)
whose title is
unknown.|

Sancta Sedes Holy Chair literally, "holy seat". Refers to the Papacy or the Holy See.

sancta holy
Or "sacred simplicity".
simplicitas innocence
sancte et in a holy and Also sancte sapienter (holiness, wisdom), motto of several
sapienter wise way institutions, notably King's College London

sanctum referring to a more sacred and/or guarded place, within a


Holy of Holies
sanctorum lesser guarded, yet also holy location.

From Horace's Epistularum liber primus, Epistle II, line 40.


Made popular in Kant's essay Answering the Question: What Is
sapere aude dare to know
Enlightenment? defining the Age of Enlightenment. The phrase
is common usage as a university motto.

wise is he
sapiens qui
who looks Motto of Malvern College, England
prospicit
ahead

From Plautus. Indicates that something can be understood


without any need for explanation, as long as the listener has
enough for
sapienti sat enough wisdom or common sense. Often extended to dictum
the wise
sapienti sat est ("enough has been said for the wise",
commonly translated as "a word to the wise is enough").

sapientia et wisdom and Motto of Fordham University, New York. Motto of Hill House
doctrina learning School Doncaster, England.

One of the mottos of the Ateneo schools in the


sapientia et wisdom and Philippines.[102]
eloquentia eloquence
Motto of the Minerva Society

sapientia et wisdom and


Motto of Christchurch Girls' High School, New Zealand.
veritas truth

sapientia et wisdom and


Motto of the University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
virtus virtue
sapientia ianua wisdom is the Motto of the Wirral Grammar School for Boys, Bebington,
vitae gateway to England.
life

wisdom is
sapientia melior
better than Motto of University of Deusto, Bilbao, San Sebastián, Spain.
auro
gold

Wisdom,
sapientia, pax, Motto of Universidad de las Américas, Puebla, Cholula,
Peace,
fraternitas Mexico.
Fraternity

sapientia wisdom is Motto of the House of Akeleye, Sweden, Denmark,


potentia est power Czechoslovakia.

That which
has been
sat celeriter
done well has One of the two favorite saying of Augustus. The other is
fieri quidquid
been done "festina lente".[103]
fiat satis bene
quickly
enough

By/From/With
scientia ac
knowledge Motto of several institutions
labore
and labour

knowledge,
scientia, aere unknown origin, probably adapted from Horace's ode III (Exegi
more lasting
perennius monumentum aere perennius).
than bronze

religion and
scientia cum
knowledge Motto of St Vincent's College, Potts Point
religione
united
scientiae cedit The sea Motto of the United States Coast Guard Academy.
mare yields to
knowledge

For science
scientiae et
and Motto of University of Latvia
patriae
fatherland

knowledge
scientia et labor motto of Universidad Nacional de Ingeniería
and work

scientia et knowledge
motto of Illinois Wesleyan University
sapientia and wisdom

knowledge is
the
scientia imperii
adornment
decus et Motto of Imperial College London
and
tutamen
protection of
the Empire

Stated originally by Sir Francis Bacon in Meditationes Sacrae


scientia ipsa knowledge (1597), which in modern times is often paraphrased as
potentia est itself is power scientia est potestas or scientia potentia est (knowledge is
power).

scientia, labor, science,


Motto of the Free University of Tbilisi.
libertas labour, liberty

A variation on Emperor Vespasian's pecunia non olet in


scientia non knowledge Suetonius' De vita Caesarum. Used to say the way in which we
olet doesn't smell learn something doesn't matter as long as it is knowledge
acquired.
scientia vincere conquering Motto of several institutions, such as the Free University of
tenebras darkness by Brussels (Vrije Universiteit Brussel).
science

scilicet (sc. or it is permitted that is to say; to wit; namely; in a legal caption, it provides a
ss.) to know statement of venue or refers to a location.

scio I know

scio me nihil I know that I


scire know nothing

knowledge
scire quod
which is motto of now defunct publisher Small, Maynard & Company
sciendum
worth having

scribimus Each
as translated by Philip Francis. From Horace, Epistularum liber
indocti doctique desperate
secundus (1, 117)[104] and quoted in Fielding's Tom Jones; lit:
poemata blockhead
"Learned or not, we shall write poems without distinction."
passim dares to write

scuto amoris by the shield


The motto of Skidmore College
divini of God's love

seculo forever and


seculorum ever

But the same


sed ipse Spirit
spiritus postulat intercedes
pro nobis, incessantly Romans 8:26
gemitibus for us, with
inenarrabilibus inexpressible
groans
sed terrae But on earth, Virgil, Aeneid 6:84.
graviora manent worse things
await

with the seat The "seat" refers to the Holy See; the vacancy refers to the
sede vacante
being vacant interregnum between two popes.

sedes apostolic
Synonymous with Sancta Sedes.
apostolica chair

seat (i.e. Used in biological classification to indicate that there is no


sedes incertae location) agreement as to which higher order grouping a taxon should
uncertain be placed into. Abbreviated sed. incert.

sedet, seat, be
aeternumque seated a Virgi's verse, means when you stop trying, then you lose
sedebit forever

once in a year
Concept expressed by various authors, such as Seneca, Saint
semel in anno one is
Augustine and Horace. It became proverbial during the Middle
licet insanire allowed to go
Ages.
crazy

always
semper ad
towards Motto of several institutions
meliora
better things

Motto of the 45th Infantry Division (United States) and its


always
semper anticus successor, the 45th Infantry Brigade Combat Team (United
forward
States)

semper apertus always open Motto of University of Heidelberg

always Motto of Carl Jacobsen and name of a line of beers by Danish


semper ardens
burning brewery Carlsberg.
semper eadem ever the same personal motto of Elizabeth I, appears above her royal coat of
arms. Used as motto of Elizabeth College, Guernsey, Channel
Islands, which was founded by Elizabeth I, and of Ipswich
School, to whom Elizabeth granted a royal charter. Also the
motto of the City of Leicester and Prince George's County.

semper Motto of the K.A.V. Lovania Leuven and the House of Wrigley-
always higher
excelsius Pimley-McKerr[105]

always
semper fidelis Motto of several institutions, e.g. United States Marine Corps
faithful

semper fortis always brave Unofficial motto of the United States Navy

always the
semper idem Motto of Underberg
same

semper in We're always


excretia sumus in the
solim manure; only Lord de Ramsey, House of Lords, 21 January 1998[106]
profundum the depth
variat varies.

always
semper instans Motto of 846 NAS Royal Navy
threatening

always
semper invicta Motto of Warsaw
invincible

semper the necessity Latin maxim often associated with the burden of proof
necessitas of proof
probandi always lies
incumbit ei qui with the
agit
person who
lays charges

semper liber always free Motto of the city of Victoria, British Columbia

always
semper paratus Motto of several institutions, e.g. United States Coast Guard
prepared

semper primus always first Motto of several US military units

Motto of the island of Sint Maarten, of King City Secondary


semper always
School in King City, Ontario, Canada and of Fairfax High
progrediens progressing
School (Fairfax, Virginia)

A phrase deriving from the Nadere Reformatie movement in


the seventeenth century Dutch Reformed Church and widely
but informally used in Reformed and Presbyterian churches
always in today. It refers to the conviction of certain Reformed
semper
need of being Protestant theologians that the church must continually re-
reformanda
reformed examine itself in order to maintain its purity of doctrine and
practice. The term first appeared in print in Jodocus van
Lodenstein, Beschouwinge van Zion (Contemplation of Zion),
Amsterdam, 1674.[107]

Motto of Barrow-in-Furness, England. Motto of St. Stephen


School, Chandigarh, India. Motto of St. Joseph's College,
Allahabad, India. Motto of Palmerston North Girls' High
always aim
semper sursum School, Palmerston North, New Zealand. Motto of Vancouver
high
Technical Secondary School, Vancouver, British Columbia,
Canada. Motto of 865 Dartmouth Kiwanis Royal Canadian Air
Cadet Squadron, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, Canada.

semper vigilans always Motto of several institutions including the US Air Force
vigilant Auxiliary (Civil Air Patrol), the city of San Diego, California, and
the Providence, Rhode Island Police Department.

always
semper vigilo The motto of the Scottish Police Forces, Scotland.
vigilant

Senatus The Senate The official name of the Roman Republic. "SPQR" was carried
Populusque and the on battle standards by the Roman legions. In addition to being
Romanus People of an ancient Roman motto, it remains the motto of the modern
(SPQR) Rome city of Rome.

with the
broad, or
sensu lato Less literally, "in the wide sense".
general,
meaning

sensu stricto cf. "with the tight


Less literally, "in the strict sense".
stricto sensu meaning"

in the fuller In biblical exegesis, the deeper meaning intended by God, not
sensus plenior
meaning intended by the human author.

In an effort to understand why things may be happening


contrary to expectations, or even in alignment with them, this
idiom suggests that keeping track of where money is going
sequere follow the
may show the basis for the observed behavior. Similar in spirit
pecuniam money
to the phrase cui bono (who gains?) or cui prodest (who
advances?), but outside those phrases' historically legal
context.

Sermo Tuus Thy Word Is motto of the General Theological Seminary, Cornelius Fontem
Veritas Est Truth Esua

sero venientes those who are


male sedentes late are
poorly seated

sero
those who are
venientibus
late get bones
ossa

Keeper of the
servabo fidem I will keep the faith.
faith

The answer of St. Michael the Archangel to the non serviam, "I
will not serve" of Satan, when the angels were tested by God
serviam I will serve
on whether they will serve an inferior being, a man, Jesus, as
their Lord.

servant of the
servus
servants of A title for the Pope.
servorum Dei
God

From Horace's Ars Poetica, "proicit ampullas et sesquipedalia


words a foot
sesquipedalia verba" ("he throws down his high-flown language and his foot-
and a half
verba and-a-half-long words"). A self-referential jab at long words
long
and needlessly elaborate language in general.

if you
Si
understand
comprehendis Augustine of Hippo, Sermo 117.3.5; PL 38, 663
[something], it
[,] non est Deus
is not God

If I sleep, I
si dormiam
may be Motto of HMS Wakeful (H88)
capiar
caught

Si If you seek from the epitaph on Christopher Wren's tomb in St Paul's


monumentum (his) Cathedral.
requiris monument,
circumspice look around
you

If you can't
Si non oscillas, Inscribed on a plaque above the front door of the Playboy
swing, don't
noli tintinnare mansion in Chicago.
ring

si omnes... ego if all ones...


non not I

if we deny
si peccasse
having made From Christopher Marlowe's The Tragical History of Doctor
negamus
a mistake, we Faustus, where the phrase is translated "if we say that we have
fallimur et nulla
are deceived, no sin, we deceive ourselves, and there's no truth in us." (cf. 1
est in nobis
and there's no John 1:8 in the New Testament)
veritas
truth in us

si quaeris if you seek a Said to have been based on the tribute to architect Christopher
peninsulam delightful Wren in St Paul's Cathedral, London: si monumentum requiris,
amoenam peninsula, circumspice (see above). State motto of Michigan, adopted in
circumspice look around 1835.

if you can
si quid novisti
better these
rectius istis,
principles, tell
candidus
me; if not, join Horace, Epistles I :6, 67–68
imperti; si nil,
me in
his utere
following
mecum.
them

si tacuisses, If you had This quote is often attributed to the Latin philosopher
philosophus kept your Boethius of the late fifth and early sixth centuries. It translates
mansisses silence, you literally as, "If you had been silent, you would have remained a
would have philosopher." The phrase illustrates a common use of the
stayed a subjunctive verb mood. Among other functions it expresses
philosopher actions contrary to fact. Sir Humphrey Appleby translated it to
the PM as: "If you'd kept your mouth shut we might have
thought you were clever."

A common beginning for ancient Roman letters. An


if you are
si vales valeo abbreviation of si vales bene est ego valeo, alternatively written
well, I am well
(SVV) as SVBEEV. The practice fell out of fashion and into obscurity
(abbr)
with the decline in Latin literacy.

If you want to This is often attributed to the Roman philosopher Seneca,


si vis amari ama
be loved, love found in the sixth of his letters to Lucilius.

From Publius Flavius Vegetius Renatus, De Re Militari. Origin


if you want
of the name parabellum for some ammunition and firearms,
si vis pacem, peace,
such as the Luger Parabellum. (Similar to igitur qui desiderat
para bellum prepare for
pacem, praeparet bellum and in pace ut sapiens aptarit idonea
war
bello.)

Or "just so". States that the preceding quoted material appears


exactly that way in the source, despite any errors of spelling,
sic thus grammar, usage, or fact that may be present. Used only for
previous quoted text; ita or similar must be used to mean
"thus" when referring to something about to be stated.

sic currite ut More specifically, So run, that ye may obtain, 1 Corinthians 24.
Run to win
comprehendatis Motto of Divine Word University, Madang, Papua New Guinea.

sic et non thus and not More simply, "yes and no".

sic gorgiamus we gladly Mock-Latin motto of The Addams Family.


allos feast on
subjectatos those who
nunc would subdue
us

sic infit so it begins

thus you shall From Virgil, Aeneid book IX, line 641. Possibly the source of
sic itur ad astra go to the the ad astra phrases. Motto of several institutions, including
stars the Royal Canadian Air Force.

greatness
sic parvis
from small Motto of Sir Francis Drake
magna
beginnings

Thus here
sic passim Used when referencing books; see passim.
and there

Thus has it
sic semper erat,
always been,
et sic semper
and thus shall
erit
it ever be

Attributed to Brutus at the time of Julius Caesar's


assassination and to John Wilkes Booth at the time of
sic semper thus always
Abraham Lincoln's assassination; whether it was actually said
tyrannis to tyrants
at either of these events is disputed. State motto of Virginia,
adopted in 1776.

sic transit gloria thus passes A reminder that all things are fleeting. During Papal
mundi the glory of coronations, a monk reminds the Pope of his mortality by
the world saying this phrase, preceded by pater sancte ("holy father")
while holding before his eyes a burning paper illustrating the
passing nature of earthly glories. This is similar to the
tradition of a slave in a Roman triumphs whispering memento
mori in the ear of the celebrant.

use [what is]


sic utere tuo ut yours so as Or "use your property in such a way that you do not damage
alienum non not to harm others'". A legal maxim related to property ownership laws,
laedas [what is] of often shortened to simply sic utere ("use it thus").
others

Or "such is life". Indicates that a circumstance, whether good


sic vita est thus is life
or bad, is an inherent aspect of living.

Though the
constellations
sidere mens
change, the Latin motto of the University of Sydney.
eadem mutato
mind is
universal

signetur (sig) or let it be


Medical shorthand
(S/) labeled

Sign of the
signum fidei Motto of the Institute of the Brothers of the Christian Schools.
Faith

silentium est silence is Latinization of the English expression "silence is golden". Also
aureum golden Latinized as silentium est aurum ("silence is gold").

similia similibus similar things "like cures like" and "let like be cured by like"; the first form
curantur are taken care ("curantur") is indicative, while the second form ("curentur") is
of by similar subjunctive. The indicative form is found in Paracelsus (16th
similia similibus things century), while the subjunctive form is said by Samuel
curentur Hahnemann, founder of homeopathy, and is known as the law
let similar of similars.
things be
taken care of
by similar
things

similar
substances Used as a general rule in chemistry; "like dissolves like" refers
similia similibus
will dissolve to the ability of polar or non polar solvents to dissolve polar or
solvuntur
similar non polar solutes respectively.[108]
substances

simplicity is
simplex sigillum
the sign of expresses a sentiment akin to Keep It Simple, Stupid
veri
truth

sincere et sincere and


Motto of the Order of the Red Eagle
constanter constant

Used in bibliographies to indicate that the date of publication


sine anno (s.a.) without a year
of a document is unknown.

Originally from old common law texts, where it indicates that a


final, dispositive order has been made in the case. In modern
sine die without a day legal context, it means there is nothing left for the court to do,
so no date for further proceedings is set, resulting in an
"adjournment sine die".

sine ira et without anger


Thus, impartially. From Tacitus, Annals 1.1.
studio and fondness

sine honoris without


Addressing oneself to someone whose title is unknown.
titulo honorary title

sine labore non without


erit panis in ore labour there
will be no
bread in
mouth

without a Used in bibliographies to indicate that the place of publication


sine loco (s.l.)
place of a document is unknown.

sine metu "without fear" Motto of Jameson Irish Whiskey

sine nomine "without a Used in bibliographies to indicate that the publisher of a


(s.n.) name" document is unknown.

Without
sine poena nulla Refers to the ineffectiveness of a law without the means of
penalty, there
lex enforcement
is no law

Without Frequently abbreviated to "s.p." or "d.s.p." (decessit sine prole –


sine prole
offspring "died without offspring") in genealogical works.

Without
sine prole
surviving Without surviving offspring (even in abstract terms)
superstite
children

sine timore aut Without Fear St.George's School, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
favore or Favor motto

without which Used to denote something that is an essential part of the


sine qua non
not whole. See also condicio sine qua non.

without
sine remediis
remedies Inscription on a stained glass in the conference hall of a
medicina debilis
medicine is pharmaceutical mill in Kaunas, Lithuania.
est
powerless

sine scientia ars without Motto of The International Diving Society, and motto of Oxford
nihil est knowledge, University Medical Students' Society
skill is
nothing

sisto I cease the Phrase, used to cease the activities of the Sejm upon the
activitatem activity liberum veto principle

may it be
sit nomine
worthy of the Motto of Rhodesia
digna
name

sit sine labe let honour


Motto of the Brisbane Boys' College (Brisbane, Australia).
decus stainless be

sit tibi terra may the earth Commonly used on gravestones, often contracted as S.T.T.L.,
levis be light to you the same way as today's R.I.P.

may there be
sit venia verbo forgiveness Similar to the English idiom "pardon my French".
for the word

sol iustitiae sun of justice,


Motto of Utrecht University.
illustra nos shine upon us

the sun
sol lucet
shines on Petronius, Satyricon Lybri 100.
omnibus
everyone

the sun rules


sol omnia regit over Inscription near the entrance to Frombork Museum
everything

The material principle of the Protestant Reformation and one


sola fide by faith alone of the five solas, referring to the Protestant claim that the
Bible teaches that men are saved by faith even without works.

sola dosis facit the dose It is credited to Paracelsus who expressed the classic
venemum makes the toxicology maxim "All things are poison and nothing is without
poison poison; only the dose makes a thing not a poison."

A motto of the Protestant Reformation and one of the five


by grace
sola gratia solas, referring to the Protestant claim that salvation is an
alone
unearned gift (cf. ex gratia), not a direct result of merit.

the only good


sola lingua
language is a
bona est lingua Example of dog Latin humor.
dead
mortua
language

The formal principle of the Protestant Reformation and one of


by scripture
sola scriptura the five solas, referring to the Protestant idea that the Bible
alone
alone is the ultimate authority, not the Pope or tradition.

sola nobilitat virtue alone


virtus ennobles

solamen
miseris socios misery loves From Christopher Marlowe's The Tragical History of Doctor
habuisse company Faustus.
doloris

A motto of the Protestant Reformation and one of the five


solas, referring to the idea that God is the creator of all good
things and deserves all the praise for them. Johann Sebastian
soli Deo gloria glory to God
Bach often signed his manuscripts with the abbreviation
(S.D.G.) alone
S.D.G. to invoke this phrase, as well as with AMDG (ad
maiorem Dei gloriam). The motto of the MasterWorks Festival,
an annual Christian performing arts festival.

solus Christus Christ alone A motto of the Protestant Reformation and one of the five
solas, referring to the Protestant claim that the Bible teaches
that Jesus is the only mediator between God and mankind.
Also rendered solo Christo ("by Christ alone").

solus ipse I alone

solvitur it is solved by The problem is solved by taking a walk, or by simple


ambulando walking experiment.

your lot is
Spartam nactus cast in
from Euripides's Telephus, Agamemnon to Menelaus.[109]
es; hanc exorna Sparta, be a
credit to it

specialia special
generalibus departs from
derogant general

species nova new species Used in biological taxonomy

speculum mirror of
speculorum mirrors

the hope of
spem gregis from Virgil's Eclogues
the flock

he has
spem reduxit Motto of New Brunswick.
restored hope

I hope for
spero meliora
better things

spes bona good hope Motto of University of Cape Town.

hope Refers to Revelation 3:21, "To him that overcometh will I grant
spes vincit conquers to sit with me in my throne, even as I also overcame, and am
thronum (overcomes) set down with my Father in his throne." On the John Winthrop
the throne family tombstone, Boston, Massachusetts.
From The Second Coming (poem) by William Butler Yeats.
Refers to Yeats' belief that each human mind is linked to a
spirit of the single vast intelligence, and that this intelligence causes
spiritus mundi
world certain universal symbols to appear in individual minds. The
idea is similar to Carl Jung's concept of the collective
unconscious.

Refers to The Gospel of Saint John 3:8, where he mentions


the spirit how Jesus told Nicodemus "The wind blows wherever it
spiritus ubi vult spreads wants, and even though you can hear its noise, you don't know
spirat wherever it where it comes from or where it goes. The same thing
wants happens to whomever has been born of the Spirit." It is the
motto of Cayetano Heredia University[110]

brightness
splendor sine Loosely "splendour without diminishment" or "magnificence
without
occasu without ruin". Motto of British Columbia.
setting

The motto of the Jungle Patrol in The Phantom. The phrase


we stand actually violates Latin grammar because of a mistranslation
stamus contra
against by from English, as the preposition contra takes the accusative
malo
evil case. The correct Latin rendering of "we stand against evil"
would be "stamus contra malum".

with a
stante pede "Immediately".
standing foot

to stand by
stare decisis the decided To uphold previous rulings, recognize precedent.
things

stat sua cuique There is a day Virgil, Aeneid, X 467


dies [turn] for
everybody

statim (stat) "immediately" Medical shorthand used following an urgent request.[111]

A safe Motto of Cork City, Ireland. Adapted from Virgil's Aeneid (II, 23:
statio bene fide
harbour for statio male fida carinis, "an unsafe harbour") but corrupted for
carinis
ships unknown reasons to "fide".

The current condition or situation. Also status quo ante ("the


the situation situation in which [things were] before"), referring to the state
status quo
in which of affairs prior to some upsetting event (cf. reset button
technique).

the state
status quo ante
before the A common term in peace treaties.
bellum
war

Marginal mark in proofreading to indicate that something


stet let it stand
previously deleted or marked for deletion should be retained.

let the fortune First part of the motto of Harrow School, England, and
stet fortuna
of the house inscribed upon Ricketts House, at the California Institute of
domus
stand Technology.

stipendium From Christopher Marlowe's The Tragical History of Doctor


the reward of
peccati mors Faustus. (See Rom 6:23, "For the wages of sin is death, but the
sin is death
est free gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord.")

the heights
strenuis ardua
yield to Motto of the University of Southampton.
cedunt
endeavour

stricto sensu cf. with the tight


Less literally, "in the strict sense".
sensu stricto meaning

stupor mundi the wonder of A title given to Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor. More literally
the world translated "the bewilderment of the world", or, in its original,
pre-Medieval sense, "the stupidity of the world".

Legal term when a court takes up a motion on its own


by its own initiative, not because any of the parties to the case has made
sua sponte
accord the motion. The regimental motto of the 75th Ranger
Regiment of the U.S. Army.

under the Commonly abbreviated sa, it is used in citing annals, which


sub anno
year record events by year.

The Light Motto of the University of Adelaide, Australia. Refers to the


sub cruce
Under the figurative "light of learning" and the Southern Cross
lumen
Cross constellation, Crux.

under the Also, "under the sky", "in the open air", "out in the open" or
sub divo wide open "outdoors". Ablative "divo" does not distinguish divus, divi, a
sky god, from divum, divi, the sky.

Used in citations to refer to the end of a book, page, etc., and


toward the
sub finem abbreviated 's.f.' Used after the page number or title. E.g.,
end
'p. 20 s.f. '

under cold
sub Iove frigido At night; from Horace's Odes 1.1:25
Jupiter

Said of a case that cannot be publicly discussed until it is


sub judice under a judge
finished. Also sub iudice.

sub poena under penalty Commonly rendered subpoena. Said of a request, usually by a
court, that must be complied with on pain of punishment.
Examples include subpoena duces tecum ("take with you
under penalty"), a court summons to appear and produce
tangible evidence, and subpoena ad testificandum ("under
penalty to testify"), a summons to appear and give oral
testimony.

"In secret", "privately", "confidentially", or "covertly". In the


Middle Ages, a rose was suspended from the ceiling of a
council chamber to indicate that what was said in the "under
the rose" was not to be repeated outside. This practice
under the
sub rosa originates in Greek mythology, where Aphrodite gave a rose to
rose
her son Eros, and he, in turn, gave it to Harpocrates, the god of
silence, to ensure that his mother's indiscretions—or those of
the gods in general, in other accounts—were kept under
wraps.

sub nomine under the "in the name of", "under the title of"; used in legal citations to
(sub nom.) name indicate the name under which the litigation continued.

sub silentio under silence implied but not expressly stated.

under the
sub specie
sight of Thus, "from eternity's point of view". From Spinoza, Ethics.
aeternitatis
eternity

under the
sub specie Dei "from God's point of view or perspective".
sight of God

Name of the oldest extant hymn to the Theotokos (Blessed


sub tuum Beneath thy
Virgin Mary). Also "under your protection". A popular school
praesidium compassion
motto.

Under the
Sub umbra National Motto of Belize, referring to the shade of the
shade I
floreo mahogany tree.
flourish

sub verbo; sub Under the word or heading, as in a dictionary; abbreviated s.v.
voce

sublimis ab Raised from


Motto of King Edward VII and Queen Mary School, Lytham
unda the waves

subsiste
stop speaking
sermonem
immediately
statim

Cut down, we
Succisa virescit grow back Motto of Delbarton School
stronger

One doesn't
Sudetia non sing on the
Saying from Hanakia
cantat Sudeten
Mountains

Of its own
sui generis In a class of its own.
kind

Of one's own Capable of responsibility. Has both legal and ecclesiastical


sui iuris
right use. Commonly rendered sui juris.

A gravestone inscription to remind the reader of the


I am what you inevitability of death (cf. memento mori). Also rendered fui
sum quod eris
will be quod sis ("I have been what you are") and tu fui ego eris ("I
have been you, you will be I").

I am what I
sum quod sum from Augustine's Sermon No. 76.[112]
am

summa cum with highest


laude praise

summa sum or It refers to the final authority of power in government. For


potestas totality of example, power of the Sovereign.
power

summa Literally "sum of sums". When a short conclusion is rounded


all in all
summarum up at the end of some elaboration.

summum the supreme Literally "highest good". Also summum malum ("the supreme
bonum good evil").

From Cicero (De officiis, I, 10, 33). An acritical application of


law, without understanding and respect of laws's purposes
supreme law, and without considering the overall circumstances, is often a
summum ius,
supreme means of supreme injustice. A similar sentence appears in
summa iniuria
injustice Terence (Heautontimorumenos, IV, 5): Ius summum saepe
summa est malitia ("supreme justice is often out of supreme
malice (or wickedness)").

published
Found in self-published academic books of the 17th to 19th
sumptibus [cost of
century. Often preceded by Latin name of city in which the
auctoris printing paid]
work is published.
by author

From Virgil, Aeneid. Followed by et mentem mortalia tangunt


there are
sunt lacrimae ("and mortal things touch my mind"). Aeneas cries as he sees
tears for
rerum Carthaginian temple murals depicting the deaths of the Trojan
things
War. See also hinc illae lacrimae.

sunt omnes they are all


unum one

sunt pueri pueri, Children are anonymous proverb


pueri puerilia children, and
tractant children do
childish
things

Used in the context of titles of nobility, for instance where a


in one's own
suo jure wife may hold a title in her own right rather than through her
right
marriage.

Also rendered suo moto. Usually used when a court of law,


upon one's upon its own initiative, (i.e., no petition has been filed)
suo motu
own initiative proceeds against a person or authority that it deems has
committed an illegal act. It is used chiefly in South Asia.

Knowledge
suos cultores
crowns those The motto of Syracuse University, New York.
scientia coronat
who seek her

super firmum On the firm


fundamentum foundation of The motto of Ursinus College, Pennsylvania.
dei God

on the Where Thomas More accused the reformer, Martin Luther, of


super fornicam
lavatory going to celebrate Mass.

superbia in
pride in battle Motto of Manchester City F.C.
proelia

I surpass
supero omnia A declaration that one succeeds above all others.
everything

to belch
From Erasmus' collection of annotated Adagia (1508): a
surdo oppedere before the
useless action.
deaf

surgam I shall rise Motto of Columbia University's Philolexian Society.

sursum corda Lift up your


hearts

Thus, don't offer your opinion on things that are outside your
competence. It is said that the Greek painter Apelles once
Cobbler, no asked the advice of a cobbler on how to render the sandals of
sutor, ne ultra
further than a soldier he was painting. When the cobbler started offering
crepidam
the sandal! advice on other parts of the painting, Apelles rebuked him with
this phrase in Greek, and it subsequently became a popular
Latin expression.

to render to
suum cuique One of Justinian I's three basic precepts of law. Also
every man his
tribuere shortened to suum cuique ("to each his own").
due

s.v. Abbreviation for sub verbo or sub voce (see above).

T
Latin Translation Notes

tabula congratulatory
A list of congratulations.
gratulatoria tablet

Thus, "blank slate". Romans used to write on wax-covered


wooden tablets, which were erased by scraping with the flat end
tabula rasa scraped tablet
of the stylus. John Locke used the term to describe the human
mind at birth, before it had acquired any knowledge.

talis qualis just as such "Such as it is" or "as such".

taliter
somewhat
qualiter

for of such
from St Mark's gospel 10:14 "talium (parvuli) est enim regnum
(little children)
talium Dei Dei"; similar in St Matthew's gospel 19:14 "talium est enim
is the
regnum regnum caelorum" ("for of such is the kingdom of heaven");
kingdom of
motto of the Cathedral School, Townsville.
God

tanquam ex we know the Said in 1697 by Johann Bernoulli about Isaac Newton's
ungue lion by his anonymously submitted solution to Bernoulli's challenge
leonem claw regarding the Brachistochrone curve.

tarde
To the late are
venientibus
left the bones
ossa

Te occidere They can kill The motto of the fictional Enfield Tennis Academy in the David
possunt sed you, but they Foster Wallace novel Infinite Jest. Translated in the novel as
te edere non cannot eat "They can kill you, but the legalities of eating you are quite a bit
possunt you, it is dicier".
nefas est
against the
law.

technica Technology
impendi impulses Motto of Technical University of Madrid
nationi nations

A reference to the Greek γνῶθι σεαυτόν (gnothi seauton),


inscribed on the pronaos of the Temple of Apollo at Delphi,
temet nosce know thyself according to the Greek periegetic writer Pausanias (10.24.1).
Rendered also with nosce te ipsum, temet nosce ("thine own self
know") appears in The Matrix translated as "know thyself".

Literally "Heroic Times"; refers to the period between the


tempora
Heroic Age mythological Titanomachy and the (relatively) historical Trojan
heroica
War.

tempora the times are


16th century variant of two classical lines of Ovid: tempora
mutantur et changing, and
labuntur ("time labors", Fasti) and omnia mutantur ("everything
nos mutamur we change in
changes", Metamorphoses). See entry for details.
in illis them

Also "time, that devours all things", literally: "time, gluttonous of


tempus edax time, devourer
things", edax: adjectival form of the verb edo to eat. From Ovid,
rerum of all things
Metamorphoses, 15, 234-236.

From Virgil's Georgics (Book III, line 284), where it appears as


Time flees.
tempus fugit fugit inreparabile tempus. A common sundial motto. See also
Time flies.
tempus volat, hora fugit below.

tempus time, "Tempus Rerum Imperator" has been adopted by the Google
rerum commander Web Accelerator project. It is shown in the "About Google Web
imperator of all things Accelerator" page.
tempus spring time Name of song by popular Irish singer Enya
vernum

tempus volat, time flies, the


hora fugit hour flees

virtue strives
tendit in
for what is Appears in Ovid's Epistulae ex Ponto
ardua virtus
difficult

teneo te I hold you, Suetonius attributes this to Julius Caesar, from when Caesar
Africa Africa! was on the African coast.

The way must


tentanda via motto for York University
be tried

ter in die
thrice in a day Medical shorthand for "three times a day".
(t.i.d.)

The hour
terminat hora finishes the
diem; day; the Phrase concluding Christopher Marlowe's play Doctor
terminat author Faustus.[113]
auctor opus. finishes his
work.

In archaeology or history, refers to the date before which an


artefact or feature must have been deposited. Used with
terminus limit before terminus post quem (limit after which). Similarly, terminus ad
ante quem which quem (limit to which) may also refer to the latest possible date
of a non-punctual event (period, era, etc.), while terminus a quo
(limit from which) may refer to the earliest such date.

terra unknown First name used to refer to the Australian continent


australis southern land
incognita

terra firma solid earth Often used to refer to the ground

terra
unknown land
incognita

Latin name of Newfoundland (island portion of Canadian


terra nova new land province of Newfoundland and Labrador, capital- St. John's),
also root of French name of same, Terre-Neuve

That is, no man's land. A neutral or uninhabited area, or a land


terra nullius land of none
not under the sovereignty of any recognized political entity.

Or "let them give light to the world". An allusion to Isaiah 6.3:


plena est omnis terra gloria eius ("the whole earth is full of his
let them glory"). Sometimes mistranslated as "they will illuminate the
terras
illuminate the lands" based on mistaking irradiare for a future indicative third-
irradient
lands conjugation verb, whereas it is actually a present subjunctive
first-conjugation verb. Motto of Amherst College; the college's
original mission was to educate young men to serve God.

no third
tertium non A logical axiom that a claim is either true or false, with no third
(possibility) is
datur option.
given

1. Something that cannot be classified into either of two groups


a third
tertium quid considered exhaustive; an intermediate thing or factor. 2. A third
something
person or thing of indeterminate character.

testis unus, one witness is A law principle expressing that a single witness is not enough to
testis nullus not a witness corroborate a story.

textus received text


receptus

We
consecrate to
Tibi cordi
your
immaculato The inscription found on top of the central door of the Minor
immaculate
concredimus Basilica of the Immaculate Conception, otherwise known as the
heart and
nos ac Manila Cathedral in the Philippines
entrust to you
consecramus
(Mary) for
safekeeping

Danaos being a term for the Greeks. In Virgil's Aeneid, II, 49, the
phrase is said by Laocoön when warning his fellow Trojans
timeo
I fear Greeks against accepting the Trojan Horse. The full original quote is
Danaos et
even if they quidquid id est timeo Danaos et dona ferentis, quidquid id est
dona
bring gifts meaning "whatever it is" and ferentis being an archaic form of
ferentes
ferentes. Commonly mistranslated "Beware of Greeks bearing
gifts".

A proverb from Cornelius Nepos's Vita of Thrasybulus:


praeceptum illud omnium in animis esse debet, nihil in bello
A coward's oportere contemni, neque sine causa dici matrem timidi flere non
timidi mater
mother does solere (that old precept has to be held by all in our minds:
non flet
not weep nothing should be condemned in war, and it is for a reason that it
is said the mother of a coward does not weep [for her cowardly
son]).

Refrain originating in the response to the seventh lesson in the


the fear of
timor mortis Office of the Dead. In the Middle Ages, this service was read
death
conturbat me each day by clerics. As a refrain, it appears also in other poems
confounds me
and can frequently be found inscribed on tombs.
toto cælo by whole as far apart as possible; utterly.
heaven

Offering one's life in total commitment to another. The motto


totus tuus totally yours was adopted by Pope John Paul II to signify his love and
servitude to Mary the Mother of Jesus.

Literally "beneficial passage." Mentioned in "The Seamy Side of


to travel along
transire History" (L'envers de l'histoire contemporaine, 1848), part of La
while doing
benefaciendo Comédie humaine, by Honoré de Balzac, and Around the World in
good
Eighty Days by Jules Verne.

Used to express the belief in the transfer of imperial authority


translatio transfer of
from the Roman Empire of antiquity to the Medieval Holy Roman
imperii rule
Empire.

tres faciunt three makes It takes three to have a valid group; three is the minimum
collegium company number of members for an organization or a corporation.

A decree by the medieval Church that all feuds should be


treuga Dei Truce of God cancelled during the Sabbath—effectively from Wednesday or
Thursday night until Monday. See also Peace and Truce of God.

tria juncta in Three joined


Motto of the Order of the Bath
uno in one

Triste est Every animal


omne animal is sad after
post coitum, coitus except
præter the human
mulierem female and
gallumque the rooster

tu autem But Thou, O Phrase said at the end of biblical readings in the liturgy of the
Domine Lord, have medieval church. Also used in brief, "tu autem", as a memento
miserere mercy upon mori epitaph.
nobis us

Defence of
tuitio fidei et
the faith and Motto of the Association of Canadian Knights of the Sovereign
obsequium
assistance to and Military Order of Malta.[114]
pauperum
the poor

Thus, "what you are, I was; what I am, you will be.". A memento
tu fui ego I was you; you
mori gravestone inscription to remind the reader that death is
eris will be me
unavoidable (cf. sum quod eris).

you should
tu ne cede not give in to
malis, sed evils, but From Virgil, Aeneid, 6, 95. "Ne cede malis" is the motto of The
contra proceed ever Bronx.
audentior ito more boldly
against them

The logical fallacy of attempting to defend one's position merely


tu quoque you too
by pointing out the same weakness in one's opponent.

tu stultus es you are stupid Motto for the satirical news organization, The Onion

tuebor I will protect Found on the Great Seal on the flag of the state of Michigan.

A tunic is
tunica
closer [to the From Plautus' Trinummus 1154. Equivalent to "blood is thicker
propior est
body] than a than water" in modern English.
pallio
cloak

turris fortis God is my


Motto of the Kelly Clan
mihi Deus strong tower
tutum te I will give you Motto of the Clan Crawford
robore safety by
reddam strength

tuum est It's up to you Motto of the University of British Columbia

U
Latin Translation Notes

most
uberrima Or "utmost good faith" (cf. bona fide). A legal maxim of insurance
abundant
fides contracts requiring all parties to deal in good faith.
faith

ubertas et fertility and


Motto of Tasmania.
fidelitas faithfulness

where
ubi amor, ibi [there is]
dolor love, there
[is] pain

where [it is]


ubi bene, ibi well, there
Or "Home is where it's good"; see also ubi panis ibi patria.
patria [is] the
fatherland

where there
ubi caritas is charity
et amor, and love,
Deus ibi est God is
there

where
ubi dubium, [there is]
Anonymous proverb.
ibi libertas doubt, there
[is] freedom

ubi jus, ibi Where


remedium [there is] a
right, there
[is] a
remedy

where
[there is]
ubi mel, ibi Similar to "you catch more bees with honey than with vinegar"—treat
honey,
apes people nicely and they will treat you nicely in return.
there [are]
bees

where
[there is]
ubi libertas. liberty,
Or "where there is liberty, there is my country". Patriotic motto.
ibi patria there [is]
the
fatherland

where you
are worth
ubi nihil
nothing, From the writings of the Flemish philosopher Arnold Geulincx; also
vales, ibi
there you quoted by Samuel Beckett in his first published novel, Murphy.
nihil velis
will wish
for nothing

where
ubi non
[there is] no Thus, there can be no judgment or case if no one charges a
accusator,
accuser, defendant with a crime. The phrase is sometimes parodied as
ibi non
there [is] no "where there are no police, there is no speed limit".
iudex
judge

ubi panis ibi where there


patria is bread,
there is my
country

where there
ubi pus, ibi is pus,
evacua there
evacuate it

when, in a Or "whereas, in reality..." Also rendered ubi, revera ("when, in fact" or


ubi, re vera
true thing "when, actually").

if there's a
ubi
society, law
societas, ibi By Aristotle.
will be
ius
there

ubi
They make
solitudinem
a desert from a speech by Calgacus reported/constructed by Tacitus,
faciunt
and call it Agricola, ch. 30.
pacem
peace
appellant

Nostalgic theme of poems yearning for days gone by. From the line
where are
ubi sunt? ubi sunt, qui ante nos fuerunt? ("Where are they, those who have gone
they?
before us?").

ubique, quo everywhere, Motto of the Royal Engineers, Royal Artillery and most other
fas et gloria where right Engineer or Artillery corps within the armies of the British
ducunt and glory Commonwealth (for example, the Royal Australian Engineers, Royal
leads Canadian Engineers, Royal New Zealand Engineers, Royal Canadian
Artillery, Royal Australian Artillery, Royal New Zealand Artillery).
Interunit rivalry often leads to the sarcastic translation of ubique to
mean all over the place in a derogative sense.
Motto of the American Council on Foreign Relations, where the
translation of ubique is often given as omnipresent, with the
implication of pervasive hidden influence.[115]

The last resort. Short form for the metaphor "The Last Resort of
last Kings and Common Men" referring to the act of declaring war;
method used in the names the French sniper rifle PGM Ultima Ratio and
the final the fictional Reason weapon system. Louis XIV of France had
ultima ratio argument Ultima Ratio Regum ("last argument of kings") cast on the cannons
the last of his armies; motto of the American 1st Battalion 11th Marines;
resort (as motto of the French Fourth Artillery Regiment; motto of Swedish
force) Artilleriregementet. Also, the Third Battery of the French Third
Marine Artillery Regiment has the motto Ultima Ratio Tribuni.

ultimo in the last Used in formal correspondence to refer to the previous month. Used
mense (ult.) month with inst. ("this month") and prox. ("next month").

"Without authority". Used to describe an action done without proper


beyond
ultra vires authority, or acting without the rules. The term will most often be
powers
used in connection with appeals and petitions.

No one is
ultra posse obligated
nemo beyond
obligatur what he is
able to do.

ululas (to send) From Gerhard Gerhards' (1466–1536) [better known as Erasmus]
Athenas owls to collection of annotated Adagia (1508). Latin translation of a
Athens
classical Greek proverb. Generally means putting large effort in a
necessarily fruitless enterprise. Compare "selling coal to Newcastle".

one
una hirundo swallow
A single example of something positive does not necessarily mean
non facit does not
that all subsequent similar instances will have the same outcome.
ver make
summer

the only Less literally, "the only safe bet for the vanquished is to expect no
una salus safety for safety". Preceded by moriamur et in media arma ruamus ("let us die
victis the even as we rush into the midst of battle") in Virgil's Aeneid, book 2,
nullam conquered lines 353–354. Used in Tom Clancy's novel Without Remorse, where
sperare is to hope character John Clark translates it as "the one hope of the doomed is
salutem for no not to hope for safety". It was said several times in "Andromeda" as
safety the motto of the SOF units.

unitas, unity,
iustitia, justice, Motto of Vilnius.
spes hope

unity
unitas per
through Motto for the St. Xavier's Institution Board of Librarians.
servitiam
service

uniti united we
Motto of the Mississippi Makerspace Community
aedificamus build

Used in criticism of inconsistent pleadings, i.e. "one cannot argue


in one
uno flatu uno flatu both that the company does not exist and that it is also
breath
responsible for the wrong."

uno sumus we are one


Motto of Stedelijk Gymnasium Leiden
animo of soul
unus one of An average person.
multorum many

One pope in
Unus papa
Rome, one
Romae,
port in
unus portus
Ancona,
Anconae,
one tower Motto of the Czech Brewery in Rakovník.[116]
una turris
in
Cremonae,
Cremona,
una ceres
one beer in
Raconae
Rakovník

to the city
and the Meaning "To Rome and the World". A standard opening of Roman
Urbi et Orbi
circle [of proclamations. Also a traditional blessing by the pope.
the lands]

urbs in city in a
Motto of the City of Chicago.
horto garden

usque ad to the very Often used in reference to battle, implying a willingness to keep
finem end fighting until you die.

usus est practice is


In other words, practice makes perfect. Also sometimes translated
magister the best
"use makes master."
optimus teacher.

ut aquila As an eagle
versus towards the Motto of Bowdoin College, Brunswick, Maine
coelum sky

ut biberent so that they Also rendered with quando ("when") in place of quoniam. From a
quoniam might drink, book by Suetonius (Vit. Tib., 2.2) and Cicero (De Natura Deorum, 2.3).
esse nollent since they The phrase was said by Roman admiral Publius Claudius Pulcher
refused to right before the battle of Drepana, as he threw overboard the sacred
eat chickens which had refused to eat the grain offered them—an
unwelcome omen of bad luck. Thus, the sense is, "if they do not
perform as expected, they must suffer the consequences". He lost
the battle disastrously.

ut so that they
cognoscant may know Motto of Boston College High School.
te You.

though the
ut desint
power be
vires, tamen
lacking, the
est From Ovid, Epistulae ex Ponto (III, 4, 79).
will is to be
laudanda
praised all
voluntas
the same

as has
ut dicitur been said;
as above

as she
ut incepit
began loyal,
fidelis sic Poetically, "Loyal she began, loyal she remains." Motto of Ontario.
so she
permanet
persists

ut infra as below

ut in that in all
omnibus things, God
Motto of the Order of Saint Benedict
glorificetur may be
Deus. glorified
ut mare to sea and Motto of USNS Washington Chambers
quod ut into wind
ventus

ut omnes te that all may


Motto of Niagara University
cognoscant know you

That they
ut omnes
all may be Motto of Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Germany
unum sint
one

that I may
ut prosim Motto of Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
serve

ut
you know
proverbium
what they Lit: As the old proverb says...
loquitur
say...
vetus...

that the
ut res
matter may
magis
have effect
valeat quam
rather than
pereat
fail[117]

as Or "as on the back side"; thus, "as on the previous page" (cf. ut
ut retro
backwards supra).

as Rome
ut Roma falls, so
cadit, sic [falls] the
omnis terra whole
world
ut sit finis so there A traditional brocard. The full form is Interest reipublicae ut sit finis
litium might be an litium, "it is in the government's interest that there be an end to
end of litigation." Often quoted in the context of statutes of limitation.
litigation

ut supra as above

as the
Robert Hooke's expression of his discovery of his law of linear
ut tensio sic extension,
elasticity. Also: Motto of École Polytechnique de Montréal. Motto of
vis so the
the British Watch and Clockmaker's Guild.
force

utilis in usefulness Comes from 2 Timothy 4:11. Motto of Camberwell Girls Grammar
ministerium in service School.

Also translated as "that the two may be one." Motto found in 18th
utraque both into century Spanish dollar coins. Motto of Georgetown University.From
unum one the Vulgate, Eph. 2:14, Ipse enim est pax nostra, qui fecit utraque
unum, "For he is our peace, who hath made both one."

utrinque ready for Motto of The British Parachute Regiment. Motto of the Belize
paratus anything National Coast Guard.

V
Latin Translation Notes

vacate et Be still and


Motto of the University of Sussex
scire know.

vade ad From the Vulgate, Proverbs 6:6 . The full quotation translates as
go to the ant
formicam "Go to the ant, you sluggard; consider its ways and be wise!"[Pro 6:6]

vade A vade-mecum or vademecum is an item one carries around,


go with me
mecum especially a handbook.

An exhortation to Satan to be gone, often a Roman Catholic


response to temptation. From a popular Medieval Roman Catholic
vade retro go back, exorcism formula, derived from the rebuke of Jesus Christ to St.
Satana Satan Peter, as quoted in the Vulgate, Mark 8:33 : vade retro me Satana
("get behind Me, Satan").[Mark 8:33] The phrase "vade retro" ("go
back") is also in Terence's Formio, I, 4, 203.

valenter strongly and


Motto of HMS Valorous (L00)
volenter willingly

Attributed by Livy to Brennus, the chief of the Gauls, stated with


woe to the
vae victis his demand for more gold from the citizens of the sacked city of
conquered
Rome in 390 BC.

vanitas vanity of
vanitatum vanities; Or more simply: "vanity, vanity, everything vanity". From the
omnia everything [is] Vulgate, Ecclesiastes 1:2;12:8 .
vanitas vanity

vaticinium prophecy from A purported prediction stated as if it was made before the event it
ex eventu the event describes, while in fact being made thereafter.

Summary of alternatives, e. g., "this action turns upon whether the


vel non or not
claimant was the deceased's grandson vel non."
velle est to be willing is Non-literally, "where there is a will, there is a way". It is the motto
posse to be able of Hillfield, one of the founding schools of Hillfield Strathallan
College.

Rendered by Robert Graves in I, Claudius as "as quick as boiled


velocius
faster than asparagus". Ascribed to Augustus by Suetonius in The Twelve
quam
asparagus Caesars, Book 2 (Augustus), para. 87. It refers to anything done
asparagi
can be cooked very quickly. A very common variant is celerius quam asparagi
coquantur
cocuntur ("faster than asparagus [is] cooked").

as a tree with
velut arbor
the passage Motto of the University of Toronto, Canada
aevo
of time

The message supposedly sent by Julius Caesar to the Roman


veni, vidi, I came, I saw, I
Senate to describe his battle against King Pharnaces II of Pontus
vici conquered
near Zela in 47 BC.

venturis to the coming


Motto of Brasília, the capital of Brazil
ventis winds

vera causa true cause

Used in Metaphysics and specifically in Kant's Transcendental


vera natura true nature Idealism to refer to a subject as it exists in its logically distinct
form rather than as it is perceived by the human faculty.[118][119]

verba words
docent instruct, This refers to the relevance of illustrations, for example in
exempla illustrations preaching.
trahunt lead

words from Taking the words out of someone's mouth, speaking exactly what
verba ex ore
mouth the other colloquist wanted to say.
verba ita words are to I. e., when explaining a subject, it is important to clarify rather than
sunt be understood confuse.
intelligenda such that the
ut res subject matter
magis may be more
valeat quam effective than
pereat wasted

not to speak
verba vana
words in vain A Roman Catholic religious precept, being Rule 56 of the Rule of
aut risui
or to start Saint Benedict.
non loqui
laughter

verba
words fly
volant, Quotation from a famous speech of Caius Titus in the ancient
away, writings
scripta Roman Senate.
remain
manent

verbatim word for word The phrase refers to perfect transcription or quotation.

word for word


verbatim et
and letter by
literatim
letter

Verbi Divini servant of the


A phrase denoting a priest. Cf. "Verbum Dei" infra.
minister Divine Word

verbi gratia
(v. gr. or v. for example Literally, "for the sake of a word".
g.)

Verbum Dei Word of God See religious text.

verbum The word of Motto of the University of Groningen


Domini the Lord [is] a
lucerna light for our
pedibus feet
nostris

verbum
the word of
Domini
the Lord
manet in Motto of the Lutheran Reformation
endures
aeternum
forever
(VDMA)

verb. sap. a word to the A phrase denoting that the listener can fill in the omitted
verbum wise [is remainder, or enough is said. It is the truncation of "verbum
sap. sufficient] sapienti sat[is] est".

verbum A word that floats in the air, on which everyone is thinking and is
flying word
volitans just about to be imposed.

veritas truth Motto many educational institutions

veritas truth [and]


aequitas justice

veritas, truth,
bonitas, goodness,
Motto of Fu Jen Catholic University, Taiwan
pulchritudo, beauty, [and]
sanctitas sanctity

veritas The de iure motto of Harvard University, United States, which


truth for Christ
Christo et dates to its foundation; it is often shortened to veritas to remove
and church
ecclesiae its original religious meaning.

veritas cum truth with


Motto of Winthrop University
libertate liberty
veritas truth cures Motto of Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education
curat and Research

veritas Dei the truth of


Motto of the Hussites
vincit God conquers

veritas the truth of


Domini the Lord
manet in remains for
aeternum eternity

veritas et truth and


One of the mottos of the Lyceum of the Philippines University
fortitudo fortitude

veritas et truth and Motto of the University of Pittsburgh, Methodist University, and
virtus virtue Mississippi College

veritas,
truth, faith,
fides, Motto of Dowling Catholic High School
[and] wisdom
sapientia

veritas in
truth in charity Motto of Bishop Wordsworth's School and St Munchin's College
caritate

veritas,
truth, justice,
iustitia, Motto of the Free University of Berlin
[and] liberty
libertas

veritas truth shall


Motto of Xavier University – Ateneo de Cagayan
liberabit vos liberate you

veritas lux truth [is] my A common, non-literal translation is "truth enlightens me"; motto
mea light of Seoul National University, South Korea

veritas truth never by Seneca the Younger


numquam expires
perit

veritas odit truth hates


by Seneca the Younger
moras delay

veritas truth
A quotation from a letter of Jan Hus; frequently used as a motto
omnia vincit conquers all

veritas,
truth, honesty,
probitas, Motto of the University of Indonesia
justice
iustitia

veritas,
truth, unity,
unitas, Motto of Villanova University, United States
[and] love
caritas

Cf. "veritas omnia vincit" supra. Motto on the standard of the


veritas truth
presidents of Czechoslovakia and the Czech Republic, and of the
vincit conquers
Scottish Clan Keith

Veritas.
Truth. Virtue.
Virtus. Motto of the University of Szeged, Hungary
Liberty.
Libertas.

Another plausible translation is "truth is the mistress of life". It is


veritas vitæ truth is the
the unofficial motto of the University of Puerto Rico, Río Piedras
magistra teacher of life
and is inscribed in its tower.

truth will
veritas vos
liberate you Motto of Johns Hopkins University, United States
liberabit
[all]

veritate advancing
duce with truth Motto of the University of Arkansas, United States
progredi leading
[in] veritate in truth and Motto of Catholic Junior College, Singapore; St. Xavier's School,
et caritate charity and Hazaribagh, India

Motto of Sydney Boys High School. It is alternatively rendered


veritate et with truth and
"virtute et veritate" ("with virtue and truth"), which is the motto of
virtute virtue
Walford Anglican School for Girls and Pocklington School.

veritatem I esteemed
Alternatively, "I loved truth"; motto of Bryn Mawr College
dilexi truth

to bear
veritatem
witness to
fratribus Motto of Xaverian Brothers High School
truth in
testari
fraternity

veritatem Motto of the Clandestine Service of the United States Central


to know truth
cognoscere Intelligence Agency

nothing [is]
vero nihil
truer than Motto of Mentone Girls' Grammar School
verius
truth

A variation of the campaign slogan of then-Senator Barack


vero Obama, which was superimposed on a variation of the Great Seal
yes, we can
possumus of the United States during the US presidential campaign of
2008.[120]

Literally, "in the direction [of]". It is erroneously used in English for


versus (vs) "against", probably as the truncation of "adversus", especially in
towards
or (v.) reference to two opponents, e. g., the parties to litigation or a
sports match.

vestigia Never a Motto of Wanganui Collegiate School


nulla backward
retrorsum step

The word denotes the right to unilaterally forbid or void a specific


veto I forbid proposal, especially legislation. It is derived from ancient Roman
voting procedures.

Latin legal phrase denoting a question that is often debated or


vexata vexed
considered, but is not generally settled, such that contrary
quaestio question
answers may be held by different persons.

Authored by Dante Alighieri in Canto XXXIV of the Inferno, the


vexilla regis forth go the
phrase is an allusion to and play upon the Latin Easter hymn
prodeunt banners of the
Vexilla Regis. The phrase is repeatedly referenced in the works of
inferni king of Hell
Walter M. Miller, Jr..

under A legal phrase regarding contracts that indicates agreement made


vi coactus
constraint under duress.

with heart and


vi et animo Alternatively, "strength and courage"; motto of the Ascham School
soul

by the power
of truth, I,
vi veri
while living,
universum Magickal motto of Aleister Crowley.
have
vivus vici
conquered the
universe

by the The word denotes "by way of" or "by means of", e. g., "I will
via
road/way contact you via email".

middle This phrase describes a compromise between two extremes or


via media
road/way the radical center political position.

via, veritas, the Way, the Words of Jesus Christ in John 14:6; motto of many institutions
vita Truth, [and]
the Life

viam
I will show you
sapientiae
the way of Motto of DePaul University
monstrabo
wisdom
tibi

The word refers to one who acts in the place of another. It is used
vice in place of as a separate word or as a hyphenated prefix, e. g., "Vice
President" and "Vice-Chancellor".

Thus, "the other way around", "conversely", et cetera. Historically


and in British English, vice is pronounced as two syllables, but in
vice versa with position American English the singular syllable pronunciation is almost
versa vice turned universal. Classical Latin pronunciation dictates that the letter "c"
is only a hard sound, like "k". Moreover, the letter "v", when
consonantal, represents /w/; hence WEE-keh WEHR-sah.[121]

victoria aut victory or


Similar to "aut vincere aut mori".
mors death

victoria
victory comes
concordia Motto of Arsenal F.C.
from harmony
crescit

the victorious
victrix cause pleased
Authored by Lucan in Pharsalia, 1, 128. The dedicatory inscription
causa diis the gods, but
on the south face of the Confederate Memorial in Arlington
placuit sed the conquered
National Cemetery, Virginia, United States.
victa Catoni cause pleased
Cato

vide "see" or "refer The word is used in scholarly citations.


to"

vide infra (v.


see below The word is used in scholarly works.
i.)

vide supra The word is used in scholarly works to refer to previous text in the
see above
(v. s.) same document. It is sometimes truncated to "supra".

"namely", "that
videlicet
is to say", or A contraction of "videre licet" ("it is permitted to see"), vide infra.
(viz.)
"as follows"

video et I see and keep


Motto of Queen Elizabeth I of England
taceo silent

video I see and


meliora approve of the
From the Metamorphoses Book 7, 20-1 of Ovid, being a summary
proboque better, but I
of the experience of akrasia.
deteriora follow the
sequor worse

I see it, but I


video sed The statement of Caspar Hofmann after being shown proof of the
do not believe
non credo circulatory system by William Harvey.
it

"it is permitted
videre licet to see" or "one The phrase is used in scholarship.
may see"

vim promotes
promovet one's innate Motto of the University of Bristol, derived from Horace, Ode 4, 4.
insitam power

vince overcome evil A partial quotation of Romans 12:21; motto of Old Swinford
malum with good Hospital and Bishop Cotton School in Shimla
bono

vincere est to conquer is


Motto of Captain John Smith
vivere to live

you know
vincere scis [how] to win,
According to Livy, a colonel in the cavalry stated this to Hannibal
Hannibal Hannibal; you
after victory in the Battle of Cannae in 216 BC, meaning that
victoria uti do not know
Hannibal should have marched on Rome immediately.
nescis [how] to use
victory

vincit omnia truth


University of Mindanao
veritas conquers all

vincit qui he conquers First attributed to the Roman scholar and satirst Persius;
patitur who endures frequently used as a motto.

Motto of many educational institutions, including the Philadelphia


he (she) High School for Girls and North Sydney Boys High School. It is
conquers who alternatively rendered as bis vincit qui se vincit ("he (she) who
vincit qui se
conquers prevails over himself (herself) is twice victorious"). It is also the
vincit
himself motto of the Beast in Disney's film Beauty and the Beast, as seen
(herself) inscribed in the castle's stained glass window near the beginning
of the film.

The phrase denotes that a thing is legally binding. "A civil


vinculum the chain of
obligation is one which has a binding operation in law, vinculum
juris the law
juris." (Bouvier's Law Dictionary (1856), "Obligation")

vinum et wine and


musica music Asterix and Caesar's Gift; it is a variation of "vinum bonum
laetificant gladden the laetificat cor hominis".
cor heart
vinum the wine of The phrase describes Hungarian Tokaji wine, and is attributed to
regum, rex kings, the king King Louis XIV of France.
vinorum of wines

viperam sub
a viper nursed A caveat regarding trusting someone against his inherent nature;
ala
at the bosom the moral of Aesop's fable The Farmer and the Viper.
nutricare

[a] wise man


vir prudens
does not
non contra
urinate [up]
ventum
against the
mingit
wind

vir quisque every man a


Motto of the US collegiate fraternity Lambda Chi Alpha.
vir man

Vires she gathers


A quotation from Vergil's Aeneid, Book 4, 175, which in the original
acquirit strength as
context refers to Pheme. Motto on the Coat of arms of Melbourne
eundo she goes

Viribus with united


Motto of the house of Habsburg-Lorraine
Unitis forces

the manly
virile agitur thing is being Motto of Knox Grammar School
done

"act manfully"
viriliter age or "act Motto of Marist College Ashgrove and other institutions
courageously"

viriliter act in a manly Motto of St Muredach's College and the PAREF Southridge School
agite way for Boys
viriliter act manfully, Motto of Culford School
agite estote be strong
fortes

virtus et virtue and


labor [hard] work

virtus et virtue and


Common motto
scientia knowledge

A principle derived from the ethical theory of Aristotle.


virtus in virtue stands
Idiomatically, "good practice lies in the middle path" between two
media stat in the middle
extremes. It is disputed whether media or medio is correct.

that which
virtus junxit
virtue unites,
mors non
let not death
separabit
separate

virtus greatness
laudata increases with Motto of the Berkhamsted School
crescit praise

Motto of the Duke of Westminster, inscribed at his residence in


virtus non valor, not
Eaton, and the motto of Grosvenor Rowing Club and Harrow
stemma garland
County School for Boys

virtus sola virtue alone


Motto of Christian Brothers College, St Kilda
nobilitas [is] noble

virtus strength
tentamine rejoices in the Motto of Hillsdale College, Michigan, United States
gaudet challenge

virtus unita virtue united State motto of Andorra


fortior [is] stronger

virtute duce led by virtue

led by virtue,
virtute duce
accompanied
comite
by [good]
fortuna
fortune

Alternatively, "by manliness and weapons". The State motto of


virtute et by virtue and Mississippi, United States. The phrase was possibly derived from
armis arms the motto of Lord Gray de Wilton, virtute non armis fido ("I trust in
virtue, not in arms").

virtute et by virtue and


Motto of Bristol, United Kingdom
industria industry

virtute et by virtue and


Motto of Pocklington School
veritate truth

the power of
vis legis
the law

force majeure,
vis major
superior force

vision of a
visio dei
god

vita ante a life done The phrase denotes a previous life, generally believed to be the
acta before result of reincarnation.

vita, Mary, [our] life, Motto of the University of Notre Dame, Indiana, United States,
dulcedo, sweetness, which is derived from the Roman Catholic hymn to the Blessed
spes [and] hope Virgin Mary titled Salve Regina.

vita incerta, life is More simply, "the most certain thing in life is death".
mors uncertain,
certissima death is most
certain

vita life is
The phrase is a quotation from the preface of the first Roman
mutatur, changed, not
Catholic rite of the Mass for the Dead.
non tollitur taken away

during the life Hence the term "decessit vita patris" (d. v. p) or "died v. p.", which
vita patris
of the father is seen in genealogical works such as Burke's Peerage.

the shortness
vita summa
of life
brevis spem This is a wistful refrain that is sometimes used ironically. It is
prevents us
nos vetat derived from the first line of Horace's Ode 1. It was later used as
from
incohare the title of a short poem of Ernest Dowson.
entertaining
longam
far-off hopes

A quotation from the poem of Lucretius, De rerum natura, Book 2,


vitai they hand on 77-9. The ordinary spelling "vitae" in two syllables had to be
lampada the torch of changed to "vitaï" in three syllables to satisfy the requirements of
tradunt life the poem's dactylic hexameters. Motto of the Sydney Church of
England Grammar School and others.

vitam
mankind
amplificare
[who] extends
hominibus Motto of East Los Angeles College, California, United States
the life of the
hominesque
community
societati

The phrase denotes an oral, as opposed to written, examination of


viva voce living voice
a candidate.

vivat may it live,


crescat grow, [and]
floreat flourish

may the king The acclamation is ordinary translated as "long live the king!". In
vivat rex
live the case of a queen, "vivat regina" ("long live the queen").

long live the


vivat rex, A curious translation of the pun on "vivat rex", found in Westerham
king, guardian
curat lex parish church in Kent, England.
of the law

live
vive memor
remembering Authored by Persius. Cf. "memento mori".
leti
death

live so that The phrase suggests that one should live life to the fullest and
vive ut vivas
you may live without fear of the possible consequences.

vivere est to live is to


Authored by Cicero. Cf. "cogito ergo sum".
cogitare think

Authored by Seneca the Younger in Epistle 96, 5. Cf. the allegory


vivere to live is to
of Miles Christianus based on "militia est vita hominis" from the
militare est fight
Vulgate, Book of Job 7:1 .

vocare ad Alternatively, "call to Kingdom". Motto of professional wrestler


call to fight
regnum Triple H, and seen in his entrance video.

vocatus
called and not Alternatively, "called and even not called, God approaches".
atque non
called, God Attributed to the Oracle at Delphi. Motto of Carl Jung, and
vocatus
will be present inscribed in his home and grave.
Deus aderit

volenti non to one willing, Alternatively, "to him who consents, no harm is done". The
fit injuria no harm is principle is used in the law of torts and denotes that one can not
done
be held liable for injuries inflicted on another who consented to
the act that injured him.

volo non I fly but do not


Motto of HMS Venetia[122]
fugia flee

you are the


vos estis
salt of the A famous biblical sentence proclaimed by Jesus Christ.
sal terrae
earth

votum
separate vow The phrase denotes an independent, minority voice.
separatum

Or traditionally, "the voice of one crying in the wilderness". A


vox the voice of
quotation of the Vulgate, Isaiah 40:3 , and quoted by St. John the
clamantis in one clamoring
Baptist in Mark 1:3 and John 1:23 ). Motto of Dartmouth
deserto in the desert
College, Hanover, New Hampshire, United States.

voice of
vox nihili The phrase denotes a useless or ambiguous statement.
nothing

The phrase denotes a brief interview of a common person that is


voice of the
vox populi not previously arranged, e. g., an interview on a street. It is
people
sometimes truncated to "vox pop."

the voice of
vox populi, the people [is]
In the opinion of the majority of the people.
vox Dei the voice of
God

vulpes the fox By extension, and in common morality, humanity can change their
pilum changes his attitudes, but they will hardly change their objectives or what they
mutat, non fur, not his have set themselves to achieve. Ascribed to Titus by Suetonius in
mores habits the eighth book (chapter 16) of The Twelve Caesars.
Footnotes
a. Assertions, such as those by Bryan A.
Garner in Garner's Modern English
Usage,[36] that "eg" and "ie" style
versus "e.g.," and "i.e.," style are two
poles of British versus American
usage are not borne out by major style
guides and usage dictionaries, which
demonstrate wide variation. To the
extent anything approaching a
consistent general conflict can be
identified, it is between American and
British news companies' different
approaches to the balance between
clarity and expediency, without
complete agreement on either side of
the Atlantic, and with little evidence of
effects outside journalism circles, e.g.
in book publishing or academic
journals.

There is no consistent British style. For


example, The Oxford Dictionary for
Writers and Editors has "e.g." and "i.e."
with points (periods);[37] Fowler's
Modern English Usage takes the same
approach,[38] and its newest edition is
especially emphatic about the points
being retained.[39] The Oxford Guide to
Style (also republished in Oxford Style
Manual and separately as New Hart's
Rules) also has "e.g." and "i.e.";[40] the
examples it provides are of the short
and simple variety that often see the
comma dropped in American usage as
well. None of those works prescribe
specifically for or against a comma
following these abbreviations, leaving
it to writers' own judgment.

Some specific publishers, primarily in


news journalism, drop one or both
forms of punctuation as a matter of
house style. They seem more
frequently to be British than American
(perhaps owing to the AP Stylebook
being treated as a de facto standard
across most American newspapers,
without a UK counterpart). For
example, The Guardian uses "eg" and
"ie" with no punctuation,[41] while The
Economist uses "eg," and "ie," with
commas and without points,[42] as
does The Times of London.[43] A 2014
revision to New Hart's Rules states
that it is now "Oxford style" to not use
a comma after e.g. and i.e. (which
retain the points), "to avoid double
punctuation".[44] This is a rationale it
does not apply to anything else, and
Oxford University Press has not
consistently imposed this style on its
publications that post-date 2014,
including Garner's Modern English
Usage.

By way of US comparison, The New


York Times uses "e.g." and "i.e.",
without a rule about a following
comma – like Oxford usage in actual
practice.[45] The Chicago Manual of
Style requires "e.g.," and "i.e.,".[46] The
AP Stylebook preserves both types of
punctuation for these
abbreviations.[47]
"British" and "American" are not
accurate as stand-ins for
Commonwealth and North American
English more broadly; actual practice
varies even among national
publishers. The Australian
government's Style Manual for
Authors, Editors and Printers
preserves the points in the
abbreviations, but eschews the
comma after them (it similarly drops
the title's serial comma before "and",
which most UK and many US
publishers would retain).[48] Editing
Canadian English by the Editors'
Association of Canada uses the
periods and the comma;[49] so does A
Canadian Writer's Reference.[50] The
government publication The Canadian
Style uses the periods but not the
comma.[51]

Style guides are generally in


agreement that both abbreviations are
preceded by a comma or used inside a
parenthetical construction, and are
best confined to the latter and to
footnotes and tables, rather than used
in running prose.

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Additional references

Adeleye, Gabriel G. (1999). Thomas J.


Sienkewicz; James T. McDonough, Jr.
(eds.). World Dictionary of Foreign
Expressions . Wauconda, Illinois:
Bolchazy-Carducci. ISBN 0865164223.
Stone, Jon R. (1996). Latin for the
Illiterati . London and New York City:
Routledge. ISBN 0415917751.

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