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! Sleeping Matters B y!Colvin!Chan!(4),!Vanessa!Law!(16),!Chun!Hei!Li!(20)! ! ! Content ( ! 1.!Introduction ! 2.
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Sleeping Matters
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y!Colvin!Chan!(4),!Vanessa!Law!(16),!Chun!Hei!Li!(20)!
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Content (
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1.!Introduction !
2. ! Survey!results!
3.!Implications! from!the!results!
P.1!
P.2C
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4.!Importance!of!sleeping!
P.6C
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5.! Methods!to!grasp!more!time!to!sleep !
6.!Conclus ion!and!Reflections!
P. 10!
P. 11!
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1.! Introduction !
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Everyday!we! sleep .!Actually!researchers!state!that!we!would!spend!about!one!
third!of!our!lifetime!sleeping.!But!why!sleeping!is!that!essential?!What!would!be!the!
consequences!if!we!don't!sleep!enough!every!night? !
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Hong!Kong!is! a! wellC known ! dynamic!metropolis. ! People!living! here!are!
particular!about!efficiency.!It!is!common!to!see!employees!sacrificing!their!lunch!
hours!or!even!sleeping!time!for!paper!works,!or!students!staying!up!late!to!prepare!
for! exams!or!f inishing!assignments.! As!a!result! of!the!fast!pace,!citizens!are!often!
suffering!from!the!lack!of!sleep. !
We! titled!our!project!“Sleeping!Matters”! and!we!aim! at!exploring!more!about!
sleeping!matters!– ! sleeping!behaviors!of!people,!the!importance!of!sleeping,!the!
mechanism!of!sleeping,!and!more… !
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2.! Survey!results !

We!hosted!a!10C questioned C survey!online!at!surveymonkey.com.! From!the!survey,!we! hope!to!gather!information!on!interviewees’!sleeping!pattern!and!whether!they!think! they!sleep!enough!or!not.!We!received!82!responses! from!the!survey.!Here!are!the! results:!

1.

What!is!your!gender? !

60%!of!the!interviewees!are!male;!

while!40%!are!female. !

while!40%!are!female. ! ! 2.! What!is!your!age? ! !
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2.!What!is!your!age? !

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Most!of!the!interviewees’!age!lies!between!“14C 17”! and!“18C 25”,!who!are!quite!young.!We! guess!this!is! because!these!are!the!ones!who!surfs!Internet!the! most. !

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! 3. How!many!hours!do!you!sleep!every!night!( on!average)? ! !
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How!many!hours!do!you!sleep!every!night!( on!average)? !
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Most!people!sleep!6!to!7!hours!every!night,!which!is!about!2! hours ! less!than!the!
optimum!8C 9! hours!of!sleep!every!night. !
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There!are!about!10%!of!the!interviewees!
who!get!less!than!5!hours!of!sleep!every!day.!!
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! ! 4. When!do!you!usually!go!to!bed? ! ! Almost!half!of!the!interviewees!go!to!bed!at!
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When!do!you!usually!go!to!bed? !
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Almost!half!of!the!interviewees!go!to!bed!at!
12am,!while!11pm!and!1am!comes!as!the!
second!popular!option. !
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5. Do!you!think!you!get!enough!sleep? ! (1=absolutely!not!enough,!10=absolutely!enough) !

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This!question!asks!people!to!rate!whether!

they!sleep!enough!or!not. !

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As!we!could!see,!people!don’t!really!think!

they!get!enough!sleep.!There!are!even!12!

people!chose!“1”,!which!means!they!think!

they!get!really!insufficient!sleep.!

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ink! they!get!really!insufficient!sleep.! ! ! ! ! ! ! 6.
! ! ! ! 6. What!is/are!the!reasons!for!not!having!enough!sleep? ! ! ! !
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6.
What!is/are!the!reasons!for!not!having!enough!sleep? !
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We!asked!the!interviewees!to!identify!the!
reasons!of!their!lack!of!sleep. !
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Studying,!working,!web C surfing!and!
chatting!with!friends!were!popular!
choices,! and!are!the!main!reasons!
resulting!in!the!lack!of!sleep. !
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Do!you!know!the!optimum! number!of! hours!of!sleeping?!

Most!of!the!interviewees!could!identify!8C

! Most!of!the!interviewees!could!identify!8C ! ! 9! hours!as!the!optimum!number!of!hours! for!sleeping.

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9! hours!as!the!optimum!number!of!hours! for!sleeping. !

! 9! hours!as!the!optimum!number!of!hours! for!sleeping. ! 8.! How!would!you!rate!the!qu ality!of!sleep? !

8.!How!would!you!rate!the!qu ality!of!sleep? ! (1=extremely!poor,!10=just!perfect) !

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It!is!surprisin g!that!quite!a!number!of!people! think!they!enjoy!good!quality!of!sleep,!! with!“7”!as!the!most!popular!option. !

! ! ! ! 9. Do ! you!feel!energetic!when!you!wake!up! every!morning?! (1=strongly!d isagree,!10=strongly!agree) ! !
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Do ! you!feel!energetic!when!you!wake!up!
every!morning?!
(1=strongly!d isagree,!10=strongly!agree) !
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The!results!are! quite!average.!“5”!was!the!most!
popular!choice.! !
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! The!results!are! quite!average.!“5”!was!the!most! popular!choice.! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Sleeping(Matters( 4( !

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! 10. Could!you!identify!the!health!problems!associated!with!the!lack!of!sleep?! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !
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10.
Could!you!identify!the!health!problems!associated!with!the!lack!of!sleep?!
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It!is!a!pity!that!most!interviewees!could!not!identify!the!health!problems!caused!
by!the!lack!of!sleep.!Within!the!6!options,!only!heart!disease!is!a!direct!problem!
associated!with!having!not!enough!sleep.!Yet!44!people!chose!low!back!pain,!
while!14!of!them!even!chose!short!sight!!
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.! Implications!from!the!results !

From!the!survey,!the!following!implications!could!be!derived:!

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1. Most!people!know!the!optimum!number!of!sleeping!hours,!but!most!of!them! do!not!sleep!enough. !

 

It!is!great!that!about!74%!of!interviewees!know!that!8C 9! hours!of!sleep! is!needed!every!day,!but!most!of!them!failed!to!do!so. !

2. The!main!reasons!for!the!lack!of!sleep!are!things!related!to!study,!work,! web! surfing ! and! chatting!with!friends. !

 

It!is!understandable!that! people!sacrifices!their!time!in!things!related!to! study!and!work;!yet!it!is!not!encouraged!to! use!sleeping!hours!in!surfing!the! web!or!chatting!with!friends.!It!is!bad!for!our!health.!!

3. People!enjoy!good!quality!of!sleep . !

4. People!do!not!feel!rejuvenated!in!the!morning!when!they!wake!up.! !Probably!because!they!don’t!sleep!enough,!although!most!of!the! interviewees!enjoy!good!quality!of!sleep,!it!is!even!more!to!have! enough!sleep!every!night. !

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5. People!lack!knowledge!on!the!health!problems!associated!with!the!lack!of!

sleep. !

! !Sleeping!is!important!in!keeping!our!body!healthy.!People!could!read! more!abo ut!impacts!on!health!caused!by!the!lack!of!sleep.!

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4 .! Importance!of!sleeping !

Before!we!investigate!the!bad!impacts!on!sleeping!deprivation(!the!lack!of!sleep),!lets! have!a!brief!look!on!our!body’s!sleeping!mechanism. !

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A. The!Five!Sleep!Stages ! ! In!mammals!and!b irds,!sleep!is!divided!into!two!broad!types:!rapid!eye!
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The!Five!Sleep!Stages !
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In!mammals!and!b irds,!sleep!is!divided!into!two!broad!types:!rapid!eye!
movement!(REM)!and!non C rapid!eye!movement!(NREM!or!non C REM)!sleep.!Each!
type!has!a!distinct!set!of!associated!physiological,!neurological,!and!psychological!
features.!The!American!Academy!of!Sleep!Medi cine!(AASM)!further!divides!NREM!
into!three!stages:!N1,!N2,!and!N3. !
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Sleep!proceeds!in!cycles!of!REM!and!NREM,!and!the!order!normally!being!!
!!! N1! C >!N2! C >!N3! C >!N2! C >!REM!
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NREM:!There!are!distinct!electroencephalographic!and!other!characteristics!
seen!in!each!stage.!There!is!usually!l ittle!or!no!eye!movement!during!this!stage.!
Dreaming!is!rare!during!NREM!sleep,!and!muscles!are!not!paralyzed.!In!addition,!
there!is!a!parasympathetic!dominance!during!NREM. !
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REM:!This!stage!accounts!for!20– 25%!of!total!sleep!time!in!most!human!adults.!
Mos t!memorable!dreaming!occurs!in!this!stage.!At!least!in!mammals,!a!
descending!muscular!atonia!is!seen.!Such!paralysis!may!be!necessary!to!protect!
organisms!from!self C damage!through!physically!acting!out!scenes!from!the!oftenC
vivid!dreams!that!occur!during!this!stage. !
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B.
Optimal!Sleeping!Hours !
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Age(and(condition(
Average(amount(of(sleep(per(day(
Newborn !
up!to!18!hours !
1– 12!months !
14– 18!hours!
1– 3!years !
12– 15!hours!
3– 5!years !
11– 13!hours!
5– 12!years !
9– 11!hours!
Adolescents!
9– 10!hours!
Adults,!including!elderly!
7– 8(+)!hours !
Pregnant!women !
8(+)!hours !
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Here!is!a!graph!illustrating!the!bad!impacts!of!sleep!deprivation!on!our!health.!

! ! ! ! From!the!graph,!we!could!see!that!sleep!deprivation!is!responsible!for!quite!a!number! of!health!problems. !
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From!the!graph,!we!could!see!that!sleep!deprivation!is!responsible!for!quite!a!number!
of!health!problems. !
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We!are!going!to!investigate!the!some!of!the!problems!above. !
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A) Obesity!
B) Weaker!immunity!
C) Memory!lapses!and!loses !
D) Depression !
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A)

Obesity !

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Prolonged,!complete!sleep!deprivation!increases!both!food!intake!and!energy! expenditure,!however!a!hormone!imbalance!is!observed,!leading!to!weight!gain!and! ultimately!death. !

Several!large!studies!using!nationally!representative!samples!suggest!that!the!

obesity!problem!in!the!United!States!might!have!as!one!of!its!causes!a!corresponding!

decrease!in!the!average!number!of!hours!that!people!are!sleeping.!The!findings!

suggest!that!this!might!be!happening!because!sleep!deprivation!could!be!disrupting!

hormones!that!regulate!glucose!metabolism!and!appetite.!

The!association!between!sleep!deprivation!and!obesity!appears!to!be! strongest!in!young!and!middl eC age!adults.!Other!scientists!hold!that!the!physical! discomfort!of!obesity!and!related!problems,!such!as!sleep!apnea,!reduce!an! individual's!chances!of!getting!a!good!night's! sleep !

sleep ! ! ! ! A!comparison!of!a!mouse!resulting!in!obesity!(left)!

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A!comparison!of!a!mouse!resulting!in!obesity!(left)! and!a!normal!mouse! (right) !

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! B) Weaker!Immunity! ! Sleep!deprivation!affects!the!immune!system.!In!a!study!by!Zager!et!al.!in!2007,!
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B)
Weaker!Immunity!
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Sleep!deprivation!affects!the!immune!system.!In!a!study!by!Zager!et!al.!in!2007,!
rats!were!deprived!of!sleep!for!24!hours.!When!compared!with!a!control!group,!the!
sleep C deprived!rats'!blood!tests!indicated!a!20%!decrease!in!white!blood!cell!count,!a!
significant!change!in!the!immune!system.!It!is!now!possible!to!state!that!"sleep!loss!
impairs!immune!function!and!immune!challenge!alters!sleep,"!and!it!has!been!
suggested!that!mammalian!species!which!invest!in!longer!sleep!times!are! investing!in!
the!immune!system,!as!species!with!the!longer!sleep!times!have!higher!white!blood!
cell!counts!
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Sleep!serves!to!‘restore’!what!is!lost!in!the!body!while!we!are!awake.!When!
we!sleep,!different!kinds!of!anabolic!hormones!(growth!hormones)!release,!protein!
synthesis!carries!on!and!is!particularly!active.!These!procedures!facilitate!our!muscle!
growth!and!tissue!repair!which!help!us!to!restore!and!recover.!!
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C) Memory!lapses!and!loss ! ! Scientists!have!shown!numerous!ways!in!which!sleep!is!related!to!memory.!In!a!
C)
Memory!lapses!and!loss !
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Scientists!have!shown!numerous!ways!in!which!sleep!is!related!to!memory.!In!a!
study!conducted!by!Turner,!Drummond,!Salamat,!and!Brown,!working!memory!was!
shown!to!be!affected!by!sleep!deprivation.!Working!memory!is!important!because!it!
keeps!information!active!for!further!processing!and!supports!higherC level!cognitive!
fun ctions!such!as!decision!making,!reasoning,!and!episodic!memory.!The!study!
allowed!18!women!and!22!men!to!sleep!only!26!minutes!per!night!over!a!fourC day!
period.!Subjects!were!given!initial!cognitive!tests!while!wellC rested,!and!then!were!
tested!again!twice! a!day!during!the!four!days!of!sleep!deprivation.!On!the!final!test,!
the!average!working!memory!span!of!the!sleep C deprived!group!had!dropped!by!38%!
in!co mparison!to!the!control!group. !
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Momories!seems!to!be!affected!by!stages!of!sleep!such!as!REM.!During!sleep,!
memories!and!knowledge!are!solidified!and!organized.!No!external!information!is!
presented!to!dendrites*,!the!neurotransmitters.!These!dendrites!are!responsible!for!
presenting!and!transmitting!messages.!When!we!sleep,!these!nerve!cells!can!be!
reorganiz ed!into!neuronal!connections,!improving!and!refreshing!our!memory!and!
learning!ability. !
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*!A!dendrite!
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D)
Depression !
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Recent!studies!show!sleep!deprivation!has!some!potential!in!the!treatment!of!
depression.!60%!of!patients,!when!sleep C deprived,!show!imme diate!recovery,!with!
most!relapsing!the!following!night.!The!incidence!of!relapse!can!be!decreased!by!
combining!sleep!deprivation!with!medication.!Incidentally,!many!tricyclic!
antidepressants!happen!to!suppress!REM!sleep,!providing!additional!evidence!for!a!
link!between!mood!and!sleep. !
Due!to!physical!overexertion,!sleep!deprivation!will!cause!impairment!of!ability.!Such!
impairment!of!ability,!if!not!improved!promptly,!stress!will!be!accumulated!to!a!
higher!level,!and!thus!causing!anxiety!and!depression.!
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.! Methods!to!grasp!more!time!to!sleep !

1.

To!have!a!regular!lifestyle !

Young!people!in!Hong!Kong!often!have!an!irregular!lifestyle.!For!example,!they!

stay!till!2!or!3!at!night,!chatting!with!friends!or!surfing!the!net,!and!the!next!day!they!

have!to!get!u p!at!6.!Moreover,!at!weekends,!they!will!most!likely!spend!the!whole! night!and!sleep!at!the!very!late!hours.!As!a!result,!they!always!suffer!from!a!lack!of! sufficient!sleeping!and!cannot!concentrate!in!school!next!Monday.!!

 

To!solve!this!problem,!a!more!regular!lifestyle!should!be!formed!among!these!

Hong!Kong!teenagers.!For!example,!they!should!sleep!before!12!every!day!to!ensure!

they!can!have!a!sleep!of!at!least!7!to!8!hours.!At!the!very!first,!they!may!not!get!used!

to!this!sleeping!pattern!and!can’t!get!into!sleep!easily.!Yet,!with!the!everyday!practice! of!this!sleeping!pattern,!it!is!healthier!and!more!beneficial!to!the!teenagers!as!they! can!be!more!attentive!at!school.!Through!this!regular!lifestyle,!teenagers!are! guaranteed!to!have!enough!sleep!every!day.!In!addition,!it!is!wiser!not!to!sleep!till! afternoon!during!weekends.!Sleeping!till!late!hours!can!most!probably!cause! sleeplessness!in!the!following!night,!provoking!a!lack!of!sufficient!and!healthy! sleeping.!Then,!students!would!easily!fall!asleep!in! school!and!cannot!concentrate.! Therefore,!it!is!highly!advised!to!attain!a!regular!balance!of!sleeping,!especially!to! sleep!early!at!nights!and!wake!up!early!in!non C school!days. !

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To!have!a!better!management!of!work !

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! Students!in!Hong!Kong!always!point!out! that!the!heavy!workloads!they!are!
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Students!in!Hong!Kong!always!point!out! that!the!heavy!workloads!they!are!
facing!often!cause!them!to!have!not!enough!time!to!sleep.!They!think!that!the!
homework!from!school!or!other!tutors!cause!them!to!spare!some!time!from!sleeping.!
Also,!studying!for!constant!tests!and!examinations!also!cause! them!to!have!a!lack!of!
sufficient!sleep. !
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To!overcome!this!problem,!it!is!highly!advised!that!a!clear!work!schedule!
should!be!formulated.!In!other!words,!work!should!be!divided!to!many!parts.!
Everyday’s!work!should!be!finished!within!the!same!day.!As!a!result,!we!need!not!to!
face!the!heavy!and!accumulated!workload!every!Sunday!night.!With!this!schedule,!it!
can!help!us!make!use!of!our!time!more!efficiently!and!earn!more!time!for!sleeping.!In!
addition,!they!may!have!to!sacrifice!some!time!for!leisure!if!they!cannot!attain!a!
balance!between!school!workload!and!sleeping.!For!example,!the!teenagers!can!
sacrifice!their!time!spent!on!shopping,!playing!sports,!etc.!Then,!they!can!make!good!
use!of!their!time!on!studying!and!enjoy!sufficient!sleeping.!
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! 6 .! Conclusi on!and!reflections ! ! At!the!beginning!of!the!project,!we!figured!out!that!there!are! some!
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.! Conclusi on!and!reflections !
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At!the!beginning!of!the!project,!we!figured!out!that!there!are! some!
misunderstandings!about!sleeping!among!our!classmates!and!friends.!Because!of!this,!
we!decided! to!explore!more!about!sleeping!matters!through!the!project.!
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After!this!p roject,!we!really!have!a!thorough!understand ing!about!sleeping.!
We!now!understan d!the!fundamental!importance!of!having!sufficient!sleeping!of!8C 9!
hours!and!realize!the!potential!health!risks!as!a!result!of!inadequate!sleeping.!We!
understan d!the!urgent!need ! of!twisting!our!lifestyle!a!little!bit!so!we! developed!
measures!to!grasp!more!time!to!sleep. !
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As!teenagers,!we!may!not!realize!how!our!health!is!threatened!by!the!lack!of!
sleeping!and!still!live!an!unhealthy!lifestyle.!Yet,!after!the!project,!we!are!enlightened!
that!it!is!our!body!to!bear!the!severe!consequences!of!the!lack!of!sleeping.!In!order!to!
maintain!our!body!fitness!and!to!prevent!any!serious!illness,!it!is!an!essence!for!us!to!
improve!our!lifestyle!by!allowing!more!hours!of!sleep. !
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As!students,!we! may!face!heavy!pressure!from!academic!fields!and!very!often!
suffer!from!sleeplessness.!Normally,!we!would!opt!for!the!option!of!forgoing!our!
sleeping!time!to!finish!our!undone!assignments!or!to!have!revision.!But,!after!this!
project,!we!acquire!the!knowledge!that!there’s!no!reason!for!us!to!sacrifice!out!
precious!sleeping!time.!On!the!other!hand,!we!should!remind!ourselves!the!utmost!
importance!of!sleeping!and!manage!out!time!well!in!order!to!attain!a!balance!
between!sleeping!and!studying.!Only!by!doing!so! can!we!learn!efficiently!and!healthily.!
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All!in!all,!we!really!think!that!this!project!is!very!rewarding!and!fruitful.!We!
learn!much!about!sleeping!and!can!really!benefit!ourselves.!
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