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Experiment:1

Effect of lignocaine gel on human

Introduction: -

A local anesthetic is a medication that causes reversible absence of pain sensational


although other senses are often affected as well. According to therapeutic action, local anesthetic are of
following types.

1.Soluble local anesthetic:

Suitable for injections e.g. procaine HCL

2.Surface on local anesthetic:

Used only topically e.g. cocaine hydrochloride

3.Local anesthetic of low solubility:

For topical use e.g. benzocaine

Lignocaine:-

It is topically local anesthetic which blocks nerve conduction of sensory impulse from periphery.

Local aesthetic abolish sensation in limited area of the body without producing unconsciousness.

The myelinated fibers that conduct impulses for pain, temperature and autonomic activity are most
sensitive to action of local anesthetic.

Lignocaine is most frequently used. these compounds interacts with protein receptors of Na+ channels
to inhibit their activity.

By adding vasoconstrictor adrenaline absorption is decreased.

Subject:

Human

Lignocaine HCL (21% w/v) as a drug apparatus:-

Lancet as needles ,maker.

Stopwatch.

Procedure:-
Mark the circle of an area that is free from blood vessels in forearms.

Hold the forearms of subject and the central point of circle.

Take the right arm as control and left as test arm.

Apply gel and check the sensitivity.

Repeat the procedure after few minutes

Result:-

Tabulate the results.

Experiment:2

Effect of anti-coagulant on blood clotting lime.

Subject:-

Rabbits

Apparatus:-

Lancet as needles, spirit lamp, test tube, syringes, stopwatch, capillary tube.

Chemicals:-

Heparin/EDTA as anti-coagulant.

Procedure:-

Add heparin/EDTA in syringe.

Take blood from ear vain of rabbit in both syringes with and without heparin.

Now fill the capillary tubes.

Turn on stopwatch.

After every 1 min, break off the small piece of capillary tubes until a fibers thread appear.

Precautions

Syringes must be sterile

Don’t keep the blood openly as it will immediately lost

Apparatus must be clean

Result: -
 In control tube blood will clot after 6-12
 While in test sample , blood will take about 1 hour to clot due to the presence of anticoagulant