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1

ANALYSIS OF MATTER (RUPA) IN THERAYADA BUDDHISM


WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE ABHIDHAMMA

"by
Y a k u p itiy a g e Karunadasa

T h e s is p r e s e n t e d f o r th e Degree o f D o cto r o f P h ilo s o p h y


U n i v e r s i t y o f London
1963
2

ABSTRACT

T h i s s t u d y c o n s t i t u t e s an i n q u i r y i n t o t h e a n a l y s i s
o f m a t t e r as e x p r e s s e d i n t h e s o u r c e s o f T h e ra v a d a B u dd hism ,
s p e c i a l l y i n t h e l a t e r s y s t e m a t i z a t i o n s known as t h e A b h i -
dharama* The i n t r o d u c t o r y c h a p t e r i s d e v o t e d t o an ex a m in a­
t i o n o f t h e t o n y s e n s e s , a n d c o n t e x t s i n w h ic h ru p a - a te rm
o f t e n used i n the sense of m a tte r - o c c u r s ; the d e f i n i t i o n
o f ru p a i n t h e s e n s e o f m a t t e r ; and t h e g e n e r a l n a t u r e o f
t h e ru pa-d ham m as, i . e . , t h e u l t i m a t e f a c t o r s i n t o w h ich
m a tte r i s an aly sed . These ru pa-dh am m as, tw e n t y e i g h t i n
a l l , a r e c l a s s i f i e d i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s as p rim a ry an d s e c ­
ondary. Chapter I I d e a ls w ith th o se t h a t c o n s t i t u t e the
p r i m a r y c a t e g o r y and shows how t h e y r e p r e s e n t f o u r p r o p e r t i e s
of m a t t e r ; s o l i d i t y and e x te n s io n ; v i s c i d i t y and c o h e s i o n ;
t h e t e m p e r a t u r e of c o l d and h e a t ; d i s t e n s i o n and m o b i l i t y .
C h a p t e r I I I exam ines t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e s e c o n d a r y r u p a -
dhammas i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e p r i m a r y and i n d i c a t e s how some o f
th e form er c a te g o r y s t a n d f o r c e r t a i n f a c t s i n t i m a t e l y conn­
e c te d w ith m a tte r. C h a p t e r IV d e a l s w i t h t h o s e s e c o n d a r y
rupa-dhammas w hich i n t h e Abhidhammic c o m m e n ta rie s came t o
be r e c o g n i z e d as r e a l e n t i t i e s . T his in v o lv e s a d is c u s s io n
of f i v e m a t e r i a l s e n s e - o r g a n s , f o u r v a r i e t i e s o f s e n s e - o b j e c t s ,
two f a c u l t i e s o f s e x , t h e m a t e r i a l f a c u l t y o f l i f e , t h e
3

n u t r i t i v e ’*q u a l i t y " o f m a t t e r , and t h e p h y s i c a l toasis o f


m ental a c t i v i t y . C hapter V d e a ls w ith th o se secondary
rupa-dhammas w hich i n t h e Abhidhammic c o m m e n ta rie s came t o
be r e c o g n i s e d a s n o m in a l e n t i t i e s w i t h no autonomous o b j e c t ­
ive c o u n t e r p a r t s . T h i s i n v o l v e s a d i s c u s s i o n of tv^ro modes
o f s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n , t h r e e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and f o u r p h a s e s o f
t h e m a t t e r of t h e b o d y , and t h e s p a c e d e l i m i t e d by m a t t e r .
C h a p t e r VI i n t r o d u c e s t h e many ways i n w hich t h e r u p a -
dhammas a r e s o u g h t t o be c l a s s i f i e d , and C h a p t e r V II e x ­
p l a i n s how t h e i r i n t e r - d e p e n d e n c e an d i n t e r - c o n n e c t i o n a r e
s o u g h t t o be e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o laws o f c a u s a t i o n ,
and c o n d i t i o n a l i t y . C hapter V III in tr o d u c e s the th e o ry of
rupalcal*apas - t h e T h e ra v a d a form o f atomism - a n d shows how
it p r e s e n t s a c l o s e a n a l o g y t o t h e ato m ic t h e o r i e s of t h e
s c h o o l s o f S a n s k r i t Buddhism. The c o n c l u d i n g C h a p t e r e n d e a ­
v o u r s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l and t h e e t h i c a l b a s i s
o f t h e B u d d h i s t a n a l y s i s o f m a t t e r , and t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e
whole s u b j e c t i n t h e c o n t e x t o f Buddhism a s a r e l i g i o n .
4

PREFACE.

The work h e r e p r e s e n t e d i s a n a t t e m p t t o i n t e r p r e t
t h e B u d d h i s t v ie w of* m a t t e r a s a d v o c a t e d i n T h e r a v a d a B uddhism ,
a n d i s m a i n l y b a s e d on t h e s c h o l a s t i c s y s t e m a t i z a t i o n s known
as t h e Abhidhamma, b o t h o f t h e e a r l i e r p e r i o d c o n t a i n i n g th e
s e v e n m an u als o f t h e Abhidhamma I^itaka and o f t h e l a t e r
p e r i o d c o n t a i n i n g t h e Abhidhammic c o m m e n ta rie s ( a f t h a k a t h a ) ,
s u b - c o m m e n t a r i e s (fTlca) and s u c h compendiums a s t h e A b h i­
dhamma t t h a s a h g a h a o f A nuru dd ha.
G e n e r a l o b s e i * v a t i o n s on t h e B u d d h i s t t h e o r y o f m a t t e r
a r e met w i t h i n a l m o s t a l l books d e a l i n g w i t h I n d i a n P h i l o ­
sop h y o r w i t h Buddhism i n p a r t i c u l a r . T h ese b o o k s , c o v e r i n g
a wide p e r i o d o f o r i e n t a l r e s e a r c h , a r e t o o numerous t o be
m entioned h e re . S t u d i e s on some s p e c i a l a s p e c t s of t h e s u b ­
j e c t , u n d e r t a k e n m a i n l y w i t h a view t o d e t e r m i n i n g t h e
T
n a t u r e ofAe a r l i e s t form of Buddhism - s t i l l a m a t t e r o f co n ­
t r o v e r s y - have a p p e a r e d from tim e to t i m e i n t h e form o f
a r t i c l e s a n d m o no g rap h s. Pi*of. S t . S c h a y e r f s a r t i c l e ,
P r e c a n o n i c a l Buddhism (A rc h iv O r i e n t a l n i , V o l . V I I , 1 9 3 5 ) ,
and Mrs. M aryla F a llc 1s m onograph, hamar"upa an d Dharmarupa ( c a l t v
c u t t a , 1943), ( e . g . ) a re r e p r e s e n ta t iv e of t h i s c a te g o ry .
T r a n s l a t i o n s of f o u r of th e o r i g i n a l t e x t s , nam ely, th e
Dhammasahgaril and i t s com m entary, A t t h a s l a l i h i , t h e V i s u d d h i -
magga o f Buddhaghosa and t h e A b h id ham m atthasan gaha o f Anuruddha
5

w herein th e s u b j e c t under c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s d e a l t w ith in


g r e a t e r d e t a i l - have a l s o b e e n made a v a i l a b l e . M rs. Rhys
Davids* t r a n s l a t i o n o f t h e DhammasanganT, u n d e r t h e t i t l e s
A B u d d h i s t Manual o f P s y c h o l o g i c a l E t h i c s (London, 1923)
an d D r. S .Z .A u ng * s t r a n s l a t i o n o f t h e A bh id h am m atth asan gaha
u n d er the t i t l e : Compendium o f P h i l o s o p h y (PTS• , L ondon,
1927) - b o t h w i t h i n t r o d u c t o r y e s s a y s , c o p i o u s n o t e s and
c r i t i c a l o b s e rv a tio n s - deserve s p e c ia l m ention.
The works i n d i c a t e d above have b r o u g h t i n t o r e l i e f
some i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t s o f t h e B u d d h i s t v iew o f m a t t e r as
e x p r e s s e d , i n t h e s o u r c e s o f Theravetda Buddhism*- however,
so f a r no c l e a r p i c t u r e o f t h e s u b j e c t has emerged* A tten ­
t i o n h as t e n d e d t o be l a r g e l y c o n c e n t r a t e d , on t h e b r o a d
p h i l o s o p h i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s a r i s i n g from t h e B u d d h i s t t h e o r y
of m a tte r . C o n se q u e n tly , th e B uddhist a n a ly s i s of m a tte r
as s u c h r e m a in s l e s s e x h a u s t i v e l y d e a l t w i t h . Hence i t i s
t h a t a c r i t i c a l and d e t a i l e d e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e T h e r a v a d in s *
l i s t o f rupa-dhammas - t h e s e a r e t h e u l t i m a t e i r r e d u c i b l e
f a c t o r s i n t o w hich m a t e r i a l e x i s t e n c e i s a n a l y s e d - has
become a l l t h e more n e c e s s a r y .
.F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e e x t a n t w r i t i n g s t e n d e d t o be h a s e d
more on t h e e a r l i e r s o u r c e s s u c h a s -t h e P a l i c a n o n i c a l t e x t s
a n d l e s s on t h e l a t e r s o u r c e s s u c h as t h e p o s t - c a n o n i c a l
co m m e n ta rie s and t h e k i n d r e d l i t e r a t u r e * I n the c o m p a ra tiv e ly
6

l a t e woi’ks o f t h e T h e r a v a d i n s , e . g . , t h e P 'a l l tTk*as a n d t h e


S i n h a l e s e s a n h e s , t h e Abhidhammic compendiums o f t h e t w e l f t h
c e n t u r y a n d l a t e r , one m e e ts w i t h v a l u a b l e d a t a r e l a t i n g t o
th e s u b je c t. T h a t t h e y have so f a r f a i l e d t o a t t r a c t much
a t t e n t i o n i s shown by t h e a b s e n c e o f d e t a i l e d a c c o u n t s on
t h e c o m p a r a t i v e l y l a t e d e v e lo p m e n ts o f T h e r a v a d a s c h o l a s t i c -
i s m , s u c h as ( t h e T h e r a v a d a form s o f ) a t o m i c t h e o r y , t h e
t h e o r y o f moments and t h e d e n i a l o f m o t i o n . H e r e i n an
a t t e m p t h as b e e n made t o s i f t t h e m a t e r i a l em bodied i n t h e
works r e f e r r e d , t o , w i t h a v iew t o p r e s e n t i n g a c o m p re h e n s iv e
account of the s u b j e c t .
What has so f a r b e e n o b s e r v e d a b o u t t h e T h e ra v ’ada i s
l e s s t r u e a b o u t t h e o t h e r s c h o o l s o f B uddhism. For P r o f .
S t c h e r b a t s k y * s w o r k s , n o t a b l y , The C e n t r a l C o n c e p t i o n o f
Buddhism (L o nd o n, 1923)* P r o f . O . K . J . R o s e n b e r g 1s Die P roblem e
d e r b u d d h i s t i s c h e n P h i l o s o p h i e ( H e i d e l b e r g , 1924) an d D r.
McGovern1s A Manual o f B u d d h i s t P h i l o s o p h y , V o l . I (London,
1923) ( e . g . * ) have gone a l o n g way i n e l u c i d a t i n g t h e B u d d h i s t
t h e o r i e s o f m a t t e r as e x p r e s s e d i n t h e S a n s k r i t , T i b e t a n and.
Chinese s o u r c e s . Along w i t h t h i s s h o u l d be m e n t i o n e d P r o f .
De l a V a l i n e P o u s s i n ’ s monumental t r a n s l a t i o n o f t h e Hiuan.
Tsang v e r s i o n o f t h e A b h id h arm a k o S a, u n d e r t h e t i t l e : L ’A b h i -
dharmakoiSa de V a s u b a n d h u , V o ls .X -V I ( P a r i s , 19 23 -3 1 )* With
i t s v o lu m in o u s n o t e s and c r i t i c a l o b s e r v a t i o n s * t h i s t r a n s l a t i o n .
7

i s an i n d i s p e n s a b l e s o u r c e book fox* a s t u d y o f t h e d o c t r i n e s
and t h e o r i e s o f t h e s c h o o l s o f S a n s k r i t B uddhism .
A l t h o u g h , a s i n d i c a t e d by i t s t i t l e , t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y
i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e B u d d h i s t a n a l y s i s o f m a t t e r as e x p r e s s e d
i n t h e s o u r c e s o f T h e r a v a d a Buddhism, an a t t e m p t has b e e n
made t o t a k e i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h e p a r a l l e l d a t a f o u n d i n
t h e s o u r c e s o f n o n -T h e ra v ’ada .sch o o ls o f Buddhism . This
h as b e e n done w i t h a view t o b r i n g i n g t h e s u b j e c t i n t o a
w i d e r p e r s p e c t i v e a n d t o p r e s e n t i n g i t w i t h a g r e a t e r m easure
of p r e c i s i o n * I n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n , t h e em p h a s is has f a l l e n ,
more on t h e V a i b h a s i k a an d S a u t r a n t i k a s c h o o l s o f Buddhism.
These were two o f t h e l e a d i n g liTnayana s c h o o l s w i t h who® t h e
T herav a’d i n s h a d much i n common. B oth s u b s c r i b e d t o a r e a l ­
i s t i c v ie w o f e x i s t e n c e $ t h e form er had a t e n d e n c y t o n a i v e
r e a l i s m and t h e l a t t e r a p r e d i l e c t i o n f o r - b u t c e r t a i n l y
n o t a com m ittal to - s u b je c tiv is m . .Although l e s s e m p h a tic ,,
t h e s e two t r e n d s a r e o b s e r v a b l e w i t h i n t h e T h e r a v a d a i t s e l f .
I n t h e l a t e r works o f t h e T h e r a v a d i n s , t h e r e i s a marked,
t e n d e n c y t o d e c l a r e as n o m in a l what i n t h e e a r l i e r works
a re recognized, as r e a l . I n view o f t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s ,
i t was deemed p r o p e r t h a t s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n s h o u l d be p a i d
t o t h e t h e o r i e s an d d o c t r i n e s o f t h e V a i b l i a s i k a s and t h e
S a u t r a n t i k a s i n e l a b o r a t i n g t h e Therav"ad.a a n a l y s i s of
m atter.
8

F i n a l l y , I must t a k e t h i s o p p o r t u n i t y o f r e c o r d i n g
my deep s e n s e o f g r a t i t u d e t o ray aig ary a, Dr* D* F ried m an
u n d e r whose g u i d a n c e t h i s s t u d y was p u r s u e d . H is c o n s t a n t
e n c o u r a g e m e n t , no l e s s t h a n h i s v a l u a b l e s u g g e s t i o n s and
c r i t i c i s m s , h as s u s t a i n e d , me t h r o u g h o u t t h e s e l a b o u r s .
I must a l s o e x p r e s s my g r a t i t u d e t o t h e a u t h o r i t i e s
o f t h e S c h o o l o f O r i e n t a l and A f r i c a n S t u d i e s f o r g r a n t i n g
me a S t u d e n t s h i p , b u t fox* w hich i t would n o t h av e b ee n
p o s s ib le to undertake t h i s s tu d y .
9

TABLE OF CONTENTS
A b s t r a c t ........................................ „ . . „ . ....................... 2-3
P r e f a c e .......................................................... . ............... 4-8
A b b r e v i a t i o n s • • • <>. . . . . ......................• ................. 10-13
B i b l i o g r a p h y .................... .......................................... 14-27
Ch. I : I n t r o d u c t i o n .................. . . . . . . . .............................. 2 8 -61
Rupa as a t e c h n i c a l t e r m ................................. 2 8 -4 4
M a te r ia l a g g re g a te (rupakkhandha) . . . . . . 3l|*
D e f in itio n of m atter ........... . . . . 5 4-59
E l e m e n t s o f m a t t e r ....................... 5 9-6 1
Ch. I I : P r i m a r y E l e m e n t s ..................... ............... 62-97
N o n - r e c o g n i t i o n o f *akasa as a mahabhuta* 6 2 -6 3
The N ik a y a n c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e p r i m a r y
e l e m e n t s ....................................................................... 64-65
The Abliidhammic c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e
p r i m a r y e l e m e n t s ..................... • • • • • • ............... 65
E a r t h - e l e m e n t ( s o l i d i t y and e x t e n s i o n ) . . 6 5 -6 8
W a t e r - e l e m e n t ( v i s c i d i t j r and c o h e s i o n ) . . 6 8 -70
F i r e - e l e m e n t ( t e m p e r a t u r e o f c o l d and
h e a t ) ......................... 7 0 -7 2
A i r - e l e m e n t ( d i s t e n s i o n and m o b i l i t y ) . . . 72-74
D enial of m o t i o n * 7 4 -7 6
F u n d a m e n ta l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e
p r i m a r y e l e m e n t s ....................................... 76-94
E x c l u s i o n o f w a t e r - e l e m e n t fro m t h e
s p h e r e o f t a n g i b l e ............................................... 94-99
P r i m a r y e l e m e n t s as u l t i m a t e d a t a o f
m atter ........... 9 5 -97
Ch. I l l : S e c o n d a r y E l e m e n t s , I ........................................... 9 8 -1 2 4
The p o s i t i o n o f t h e s e c o n d a r y i n r e l a ­
t i o n t o t h e p r i m a r y ............................ 98-107
The l i s t o f s e c o n d a r y e l e m e n t s ................. 107
I t s r e p r e s e n ta tio n in the l i s t of
" a y a t a n a s .............................. ......... 107-109
The c a t e g o r y o f d h a m m a y a ta n a -ru p a s .......... 109-119
The p o s i t i o n o f d h a m m ay atan a -ru p a s i n
r e l a t i o n to th e d e f i n i t i o n ofm a tte r . . . 119-123
T h e r a v a d a l i s t as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f
an e a r l y t r a d i t i o n ........... 1 2 3 -1 2 4
9 A

Ch. XV ’. S e c o n d a r y E l e m e n t s , I I Group A ( N i p p h a n n a ) . . 1 2 5 -1 8 0
S i g n i f i c a n c e o f n i p p h a n n a : r e a l .................... 1 2 5 -1 2 9
S e n s e - o r g a n s .............. . . . . . . ................................... 129-14-1
O b j e c t i v e f i e l d s . . . . . .................... . .. 14-1-154-
F a c u l t i e s of sex ........................................... 154—162
F a c u l t y o f l i f e ( m a t e r i a l ) ................................ 16 2 -1 6 9
N u t r i m e n t ........................................ 1 6 9 -1 7 1
P h y s i c a l b a s i s o f m e n t a l a c t i v i t y ............... 1 7 1 -1 8 0
Ch. V ’. S e c o n d a r y e l e m e n t s , I I I Group B ( N i p p h a n n a ) . 1 81 -2 5 7
S i g n i f i c a n c e of anipphanna: nom inal . . . . . 1 8 1 -1 8 6
Modes o f s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n .................................... 1 8 6 -2 0 4
C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f m a t t e r .................................. 2 0 4 -2 07
Phases of m atter ............................................. . . . . 2 0 8 -2 1 4
Phases of m a tte r as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of
s a n k h a t a - l a k k h a a j a s ................................................... 2 1 4 -22 0
(Theory o f moments ..................................................... 2 2 0 -23 3
Phases of m a tte r according to th e
t h e o r y o f moments ..................................................... 2 3 3 -2 3 8
Space-elernent ....................................................... 2 3 9 -25 7
Ch. VI ’. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n s o f t h e m a t e r i a l e l e m e n t s . . 2 5 8 -3 0 6
C l a s s i f i c a t i o n s i n t o two g r o u p s . . . . . . . . . 2 5 8 -2 6 4
C l a s s i f i c a t i o n s i n t o t h r e e g r o u p s ............... 26 4 -2 6 5
C l a s s i f i c a t i o n s i n t o f o u r g r o u p s ................. 265
More com plex c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s ................... 2 6 6 -2 6 8
C l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n t o u p a d i ^ a and
a n u p a d i p ^ a ............................ 2 6 8 -28 9
C la s s if ic a tio n in to citta-sam u ^ th an a
and n a citta -s a m u * fc th a n a ....................................... 2 89 -29 1
The f o u r g e n e r a t i v e c o n d i t i o n s o f
m a t t e r .................................................... 292
C l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n t o a j j h a t t i k a an d
b a h i r a ............................................................................... 2 93 -2 9 7
F u r t h e r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s on t h e b a s i s
o f a j j h a t t i k a and b a h i r a .................................... 2 9 7 -3 0 6
Ch. V I I I ’. M a t t e r and t h e S y ste m o f C o r r e l a t i o n ............ 3 07 -3 4 0
(The t w e n t y f o u r c o n d i t i o n s ( p a c c a y a )
o f T h e r a v a d a Abhidhamma ....................................... 3 07 -3 0 8
(The f o u r c a u s e s ( h e t u ) and t h e s i x
c o n d itio n s (p ra ty a y a ) of th e sch o o ls of
S a n s k r i t Buddhism ..................................................... 3 0 8 -31 2
Some s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s ........... 3 12 -315
The p o s i t i o n o f m a t e r i a l e l e m e n t s i n
t h e S y ste m o f c o r r e l a t i o n ................................. 3 15 -335
The r e l a t i o n s w h ich do n o t a p p l y t o
m a t e r i a l e l e m e n t s ..................................................... 335-340
9 B

Cli, V I I I t A t o m i s m ................. . . . ................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . c • 341'-394


Th eory o f R u p a k a l a p a s as t h e T h e r a v a d a
form o f a t o m i s m ........... . ........... . . . ............... 341
P a r a l l e l i s m w i t h t h e ato m ic t h e o r i e s o f
t h e s c h o o l s o f S a n s k r i t Buddhism • • • • • ................. 3 4 2 -3 4 4
The V a i b h a s i k a d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e atom
( p a r a m a n u ) ’ and t h e mo1 e c u 1e ( s a n g h a t a -
p a r a m a n u ) ............................................ •••••34
R e c o g n i t i o n o f r u p a k a l a p a as t h e s m a l l e s t
u n i t o f m a t t e r . . . . ................ 346-353
The S a u t r a n t i k a and t h e V i j h a n a v a d a
c r i t i c i s m of the V aib hasika d e f i n i t i o n of
t h e a t o m ......................... . . . . • .................. ................. • • • • • 3 5 5 -3 61
R u p a k a la p a as p o s s e s s i n g s p a t i a l d i m e n s i o n s * . . 36 1-363
N o n - c o n t a c t "between atoms _*................................ 36 3-372
S u d d h a t t h a k a o f t h e T h e r a v a d i n s and t h e
o c t u p l e s a n g h a t a o f t h e V a i b h a s i k a s ...................... 3 7 2 -3 76
D i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f r u p a k a l a p a s ................................. 3 7 6 -3 6 4
C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f t h e r u p a k a l a p a s .......................... 364-367
The p o s i t i o n o f t h e r u p a k a l a p a s i n r e l a t i o n
to R upa-loka .......................... < > . . . • . * • • 367—394
Ch.IX s The e t h i c o - p h i l o s o p h i c a l b a s i s o f t h e B u d d h i s t
( T h e r a v a d a ) a n a l y s i s o f m a t t e r ......................... 39 5 -422
The c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n B u d d h i s t e t h i c s and
t h e B u d d h i s t a n a l y s i s o f m a t t e r ................ 395-4*00
The e t h i c a l and p r a c t i c a l a p p r o a c h * • • • • ............ 4 0 0 -4 0 4
D i f f e r e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s on t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l
b a s i s of B iid d h ism • • • • • .............. 4-04-411
R e a l i s t i c and p l u r a l i s t i c view o f e x i s t e n c e •• 4 11 -419
D e v e lo p m e n ts i n t h e Abhidhamma ................................. 419-421
S ig n if ic a n c e o f th e l i s t of m a t e r i a l elem ents
i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e p r a c t i c a l d o c t r i n e and
d i s c i p l i n e o f B u d d h i s m ....................... 4*21-422
C harts 299-306 & 393-394*
The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s o f t h e m a t e r i a l
e l e m e n t s i n t o two g r o u p s ....................... 299-300
The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s o f t h e m a t e r i a l
e l e m e n t s i n t o t h r e e g ro u p s * 3 0 1-302
The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s o f t h e m a t e r i a l
e l e m e n t s i n t o f o u r g ro u p s 3 03 -30 6
C o m p o s it i o n o f t h e r u p a k a l a p a s ................ 3 9 3 -3 9 4
10

ABBREVIATIONS
A* A nguttaranikaya
AA* A hguttaraniksiya A tth ak attia
Abhd. AbhidharmadTpa ( w i t h V ib h a s la p & a b h a V rtti)
Ab hrnr• * A b h i dha r marnr•t a

Abhvlc*. Abhi dhamma t th a v i k a s inT


Abhv t • Abhi dhamniavat'ara
ABORI* A nn als of t h e B h a n d a r k a r O r i e n t a l R e s e a r c h
I n s t i t u t e , Poona
ADS* A bhidham rnatthasahgaha
ADS S • Ab h i d haririar t ha s amg r a h a - s anna ya
ADSVT * Abhidharnma11hasangaha VibhsTv i n T - t l l t a
AK* L'A bhidharm akoSa de Vasubandhu
AKvy* (Sph'ut'arth’a ) AbhidharmakojS.avygfkhya
AM* A sia M ajor, L eip zig
AMG* A n n a le s du Mus<§.e G u im e t, Pax1i s
AO* A r c h i v O r i e n t a l n i , J o u r n a l o f t h e C z e c h o s lo v a k
O r i e n t a l I n s t i t u t e , P ra g u e
A sl. A tth a s * a lin T (DhammasanganT A t t h a k a t h ’a)
BB* B ib lio th e c a B uddhica, S t* P e te rs b e rg
BEPEO* B u l l e t i n de l ’j f c o l e F r a n g a i s e de I ’E x t r ^ m e -
O r i e n t , Hanoi
BSOAS* B u l l e t i n of the School of O r i e n t a l and Afi^ican
S t u d i e s , London
11

GJS. C e y lo n H o u r n a l o f S c i e n c e , Colombo
Cpd. Compendium o f P h i l o s o p h y
CP •Md h y •1V r t *0 a n d r akTr t i Pi? a s a nna pa d*a Ma dhy a ma leav r 11 i
Dy: DTghanilcaya
Dh p „ Dhamm a pa da
Dhs * Dha mma s a ng a h i
D iv y . D ivyavadana
Dkp> Duka p a t t liana
EKE* E n c y c l o p a e d i a o f R e l i g i o n an d E t h i c s , ¥ o l s .
1 - 1 3 , e d . J . H a s t i n g s ,E d i n b u r g h , 1908-1926
IiJAS. H a r v a r d J o u r n a l o f .A s i a t i c S t u d i e s , C a m b rid g e ,
M ass.
10. Indian C u ltu re , C alcutta
IIIQ. Indian H is to r ic a l Q u a rte rly , C a lcu tta
It. Itiv u tta k a
JA.. Journal A siatig u e, P aris
J0IB • J o u r n a l o f t h e O r i e n t a l I n s t i t u t e , B aroda
JPTS* J o u r n a l of t h e P a l i T ex t S o c i e t y , London
JRAS. J o u r n a l of the Royal A s i a t i c S o c ie ty
KSP. Le T r a i t d de l a D e m o n s t r a t i o n de l fAc t e
(K arm asiddhiprakarana)
Kvu. K ath av atth u
Kv uA. Kat hav a 11 hu p p a k a r a n a
La S i d d h i La S i d d h i de H iu an Tsang
12

M. Ma johimanilcaya
Ma j jhimanilcaya A t t h a k a t h a
M elanges C h i n o i s e t B o u d d h i q u e s P I ' I n s t i t u t
B e ig e des H a u te s E t u d e s C h i n o i s e s ,, B r u x e l l e s
M d h y .V rt. Ma dhyamakavr t t i
Mh*Nd* Mahafniddesa
Mh.'NdA * Ma h*an i d d e s a A 11.
• ♦
ha Rat h*a
Milira dapanha Ki .

Mvn. Mohav i c c he danT


MSP. ReTmarupapariccheda .
MRS„ darn a r u p a s arnas a
PBO. P o l s k i B i u l e t y n O r i e n t a l i s t y c z n y , The P o l i s h
B u l l e t i n o f O r i e n t a l Studies y
P et. Petakopadesa
P I PC. P roceedings of the In d ia n P h ilo s o p h ic a l
C o n g re s s
Psm. Pa t i s arnbhi dermagga
PsmA * Pa t i s amb h i damagg a A t 1 haka t h"a
PIS* P a l i T e x t S o c i e t y 9 Londoix
P I SB. P a l i - E n g l i s h D ic tio n a ry of the P a l i Text
S ociety.
Pugh. P u g g a l a p a n n a t t i AtthalcatLia

O S amy u 11 a n i lea y a

SBB. S a c r e d Books o f t h e B u d d h i s t s
13

SBH* Sacx’e d Books o f t h e Hindus


SBJ* S a c r e d Books o f t h e J a i n a s
Bn. S uttanxpata
SnA. S u tta n ip a ta A tthakatha
SB* Saccasamkhepa
ThTgA* l1h erT g ath * a A t t h a k a t h a

rf k p . T i k a p a t t h a n a ( w i t h commentary)
Tx^im^ • frim&ik'a (Vi j n a p t ima t r a t*a s i del h i )
UCR* U n i v e r s i t y o f C ey lo n R e v ie w 9 Golombo
UdA • Udana A11 ha ka t ha*
Vbh* V ibh ang a
Vb hA. V ib hang a A11haka t h*a
YBQ. Vi&va~Bha 2? a t i ( Q u a r t e r l y , C a l c u t t a
VG. H .K ern5 V e rsp re id e G e s c h r if te n onder a ijn
T o e z ic h t Y eraam eldj V o ls.l~ 1 5 * s ’G ravenhage#
1913-36
Vim&. VimSatiksi ( V i j n a p t i m ' a t r a t a ’s i d d h i )
Vism. V isuddhim agga
Vi smS . Vi£ u d d h im arg as a n n a ya
Vi smT • V is u d d h im a g g a - tT lc a
VS. V a i S e s i k a S u t r a s of Kariada
Yarn. Yamaka
YamA • Yamaka A11haka t h*a
14-

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W . s l l e s e r , H.Kopp. P T S . , 1924-1956
Ab h id h a m m a tth a v ik a is in T . E d ..A .P .B u d d h a d a tta • Colombo, 1961
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15

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Rhys D a v id s , J .E .C a r p e n te r , W .Stede. P T S .,
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16

D ukapatthana. E d. Mrs# Rhys D a v i d s . PTS. , 1906

DhammasanganT. E d .E .M u ller. P T S ., 1865


Dharnmasangani A t t h a k a t l i a c (A t t h a s a l i n T ) . E d .E .M u ller.

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Pharma pa d a . GstndhlfcT. Ed. J . B r o u g h . London, 1962
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SBJ . , 1 1 1 , A l l a h a b a d , 1920
Patisambhidiamagga , 1 - 1 1 . E d.A .O .T aylor. PTS. ,1 9 0 5 -1 9 0 7

P a tis a m b h id a m a g g a A t t h a k a t i i a (S addharam appakasinT ). 1 - 1 1 1 . I -------- J—— "■----— —------------- *im g " 1 ■ rrr v ' " ,:— *

E d .C .V .J o s h i. PI’S . , 1933-1947
P u g g a la p a n n a tti A tth a k a th a .
1 — III mu mfcliil t ^ n iM I II I 1 | . 1 II. I Mi . !■■#.! 11 I >1 | W |I —MU
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D a v i d s . J P T S . , 1914 ( p p . 1 7 0 -2 5 4 )
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Ma,irjhirnanilcaya . 1 - 1 ¥ . E d . V . T r e n c l m e r , R . G h a l m e r s , M rs.R hys


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Maj jh im an ik'aya A t t h a k a t h a (P ap aitcasn d a n T ) , I - V . E d.J.H *

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18

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28

CHAPTER O m
IHTRODUCT ION
On t h e b a s i s o f i t s o c c u r r e n c e i n t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l
t e r m i n o l o g y o f t h e P a l i C an on , a t l e a s t f o u r m eanings o f
ru p a c a n be d i s t i n g u i s h e d : f re q u e n tly i t occurs in the
( g e n e r i c ) s e n s e o f m a t t e r , an d w i t h a l m o s t e q u a l f r e q u e n c y
i n t h e more s p e c i f i c s e n s e o f what i s v i s i b l e , t o be more
p r e c i s e , " th e sphere of v i s i b i l i t y * '• R a re ly i t i s seen
t o f i g u r e a s a s i m p le s u b s t i t u t e f o r t h e more s p e c i f i c
compound, rU p a -d iia tu ( - l o k a ) which s i g n i f i e s t h e s e c o n d o f
th e th r e e planes of e x is te n c e re c o g n iz e d i n B uddhist
cosm ology — what Mrs, Rhys Davids c a l l s " t h e r e a l m o f
a t t e n u a t e d m a t t e r " , a n d w i t h a l m o s t e q u a l r a r i t y , as
r e f e r r in g to fo u r stag es of e c s t a t i c e x p e rie n c e , te c h n ic a lly
an d more s p e c i f i c a l l y known a s ru p a ;jjh a n a * T hese f o u r may
be r e p r e s e n t e d a s t h e g e n e r i c , t h e s p e c i f i c , t h e
c o s m o l o g i c a l an d t h e " p s y c h o l o g i c a l " m eanings o f t h e t e r m ,
Bud d h agh osa a n d Dhammapala - t h e two i l l u s t r i o u s
co m m en tato rs o f Theravlada Buddhism - c o l l a t e a s many a s
n i n e m eanings ( a t t h a ) i n w hich t h e term i n q u e s t i o n i s
d a i d t o o c c u r i n t h e c a n o n i c a l w o r k s , namely
(1 ) ru p a k k h a n d h a - m a t e r i a l a g g r e g a t e
(2 ) s a r T r a ~ t h e p h y s i c a l body o f a l i v i n g b e i n g

(3) vanna - c o lo u r
29
I

(4 ) s a n t h a n a ~ f o r m , f i g u r e , c o n f i g u r a t i o n
(5) k a s i n a - n i m i t t a - th e "m e d ita tio n " - o b je c t
(6) p a c e a y a - c o n d i t i o n , c a u s e
( 7 ) sabliava ~ n a t u r e
The 8 t h a n d 9 t h a r e what we have i n t r o d u c e d a s t h e
c o s m o l o g i c a l a n d t h e " p s y c h o l o g i c a l 11 m e a n in g s . That t h e
number i s n o t e x h a u s t i v e i s r e c o g n i s e d b y t h e a d d i t i o n o f
— 1
t h e w o rd , a d i , ’'etc**1 „
Some o f t h e s e i t e m s c o u l d , h o w ev e r, be b r o u g h t u n d e r
rupa in th e g e n e ric sense of m a tte r .
Rupakkhandha ( n o . l ) i s t h e f i r s t o f t h e f i v e a g g r e g a t e s
i n t o w hich Buddhism a n a l y s e s t h e e m p i r i c i n d i v i d u a l i t y ,
t h e o t h e r f o u r b e i n g vedaria ( f e e l i n g s ) , san na ( p e r c e p t i o n s ) ,
sankhetra ( s y n e r g i e s , form ations) and v i n n a n a ( c o n s c i o u s n e s s ) .
Sometimes i t i s u s e d i n a w id e r s e n s e t o mean t h e t o t a l i t y
o f m a t t e r (sabb^m ruparn). I t may a l s o be n o t e d h e r e t h a t
i n t h e Nilcayas som etim es i t i s u s e d i n a s u b j e c t i v e s e n s e ,
t o o 3 - a meaning which does n o t seem t o have been r e t a i n e d
i n t h e p o s t - f l i k a y a n w o rk s . F o r t h e moment, we may o v e r l o o k
t h i s l a t t e r usage. S a r T r a (H o .2) c a n be c o n s i d e r e d a s

1* See AA*± 21 an d ; 'ThigiU98; s e e a l s o iV b h id lianap pad T p ik a-su ci 0


e d . S a b h u t i (Colombo ,19 3 8 ) ,304 f f .
2 . See e . g . . S . i i 2 5 2 j i i i 6 8 , 80
3 . See b e l o w , 46 f f .
30

r e f e r r i n g to th e m a tte r t h a t e n te r s i n t o th e co m position
of a l i v in g being.
T h a t r u p a som etimes o c c u r s i n th e s e n s e o f v a n n a ,
c o l o u r (No*3) i s s a i d t o be s u p p o r t e d by t h e o f t ~ r e c u r r e n t
c a n o n i c a l s t a t e m e n t : cak kh u n ca pa #t i c c a r u p e ca u p p a g g a t i
*y.\

'I ^

cakkhuvinnanam = b e c a u s e of t h e eye and b e c a u s e of ru p a


(th e v i s i b l e ) t h e r e a r i s e s v i s u a l consciousness* In the
o p i n i o n o f t h e P a l i c o m m e n t a t o r s , r u p a i n t h i s c o n t e x t means
2 _
colour. But a c c o r d i n g t o t h e P a l i Canon, c o l o u r as w e l l a s
s h a p e d , form o r f i g u r e c o n s t i t u t e t h e s p h e r e o f v i s i b i l i t y
3
(ru p ’a y a t a i i a ) • The c o m m e n t a t o r s , h ow ever, o u s t e d t h e
l a t t e r from i t s t r a d i t i o n a l domain on t h e g r o u n d t h a t , i n
an a b s o l u t e s e n s e , i t was n o t v i s i b l e and a s t h e S a u t r a n t i k a s
d i d , e x p l a i n e d i t as a m e n t a l c o n s t r u e t i o n ^ " s u p e r “ imposed
on t h e d i f f e r e n c e o f c o l o r a t i o n ” *5 I t i s i n t h e l i g h t o f
t h i s s u b s e q u e n t d ev elop m en t t h a t we s h o u l d u n d e r s t a n d why
r u p a i n t h e q u o te d s e n t e n c e i s s o u g h t t o be i n t e r p r e t e d
as coloux4*
The m e n t i o n o f s a n t l i a n a , f o r m , f i g u r e ( N o .4) i s
p e r h p a s i n o r d e r t o r e c o g n i z e one of t h e g e n e r a l m eenings o f

1. See e . g . M .i 1 1 1 , 259
2. See A a l . 317
3. See Dhs«I39
4. See A s l .3 1 7
5* S t c h e r b a t s k y , G e n t .C o n e e p . H ; s e e b e l o w , 146
31

rupa# B ut i t s M ention s e p a r a t e from v a n n a , c o l o u r (Ho. 3 )


i s a l s o a l o g i c a l n e c e s s i t y a r i s i n g from t h e a h o v e - m e n t io n e d
developm ent *
F o r t h e moment l e t us c o n f i n e o u r s e l v e s t o t h e P 'a li
Canon and t a k e b o t h i t e m s (Hos. 3 & 4 ) a s b e i n g r e p r e s e n t e d
by r u p a an i t s s p e c i f i c s e n s e o f what i s v i s i b l e . T h i s , as
i n t e r p r e t e d i n B uddhism , c o n s t i t u t e s one o f t h e s u b - d i v i s i o n s
_ 1
of rupa i n th e sense of m a tte r .
Why r u p a i s sometimes u s e d t o r e f e r t o k a s i n a - n i m i t t a ,
t h e “m e d i t a t i o n ” - o b j e c t ( B o . 5 ) i s of c o u r s e n o t f a r t o s e e k .
T h i s i s a name g i v e n t o an o b j e c t which c o u l d be p r o f i t a b l y
u s e d f o r t h e p r a c t i c e of c o n c e n t r a t i o n which has t h e
a t t a i n m e n t o f j h a h a ( A b s o r p t i o n , E c s t a s y ) as i t s e n d .
A c c o rd in g t o t h e c l a s s i c a l a c c o u n t g i v e n i n t h e V is u d d h im a g g a ,
a t t h e i n i t i a l s t a g e o f c o n c e n t r a t i o n th e s e l e c t e d o b j e c t
i s c a l l e d p a r i k a m m a - n i m i t t a , t h e p r e p a r a t o r y image. As t h e
p r o c e s s o f c o n c e n t r a t i o n g a t h e r s more and more i n t e n s i t y
t h e r e comes a tim e when t h e o r i g i n a l s e n s u o u s o b j e c t i s
r e p l a c e d by i t s c o r r e s p o n d i n g m e n t a l image c a l l e d u g g a h a -
n i m i t t a , t h e a c q u i r e d image. With f u r t h e r p r o g r e s s i n
c o n c e n t o a t i o n t h e r e s e t s i n what i s c a l l e d p a t i b l a a g a - n i m i t t a ,
t h e c o u n t e r image which i s s u b t l e r t h a n t h e i m m e d i a t e l y

—WWHJ PI.lW I .... ... I i«.|iilU IM «iiiWi,i i > .

1. See b e l o w , 142 f f .
32

p r e c e d i n g one*
Im age, f i g u r e , s i g n , a p p e a r e n c e - t h e s e a r e some o f
t h e g e n e r a l m eaning s of r u p a . And i f t h e o b j e c t o f
c o n c e n t r a t i o n i s som etimes r e f e r r e d t o b y r u p a , t h e n i t
i s one of t h e s e g e n e r a l m eanings t h a t comes t o ou r mind.
T h a t r u p a i s a t t i m e s u s e d i n t h e s e n s e of p a c c a y a ,
c o n d i t i o n (N o .6) does n o t seem t o be s u p p o r t e d by t h e
example c i t e d - a q u o t a t i o n . , ! r o m t h e iV n g u tta ra n i k a y a ,
w hich r u n s as f o l l o w s : U:SarupSt b h ik k h a v e u p p a j j a n t i papaka
akusal*a dhamma no arup'a1*.. The Commentary n o t e s t h a t r u p a
i n n s a r u p a 5’a n d i t s n e g a t i v e ,tarup'a,r s h o u l d be u n d e r s t o o d
a s synonymous w i t h p a c c a y a . ^
When t h e o r i g i n a l p a s s a g e where t h e s e n t e n c e o c c u r s
i s t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n , c o n s i d e r a b l e d o u b t a r i s e s on
t h e v a l i d i t y of t h i s e x p l a n a t i o n . T h e r e i n we f i n d n i n e
s i m i l a r s e n t e n c e s , e a c h d i f f e r r i n g o n l y i n r e s p e c t of t h e
f i r s t an d t h e l a s t w o rd s . F i v e of them come b e f o r e t h e
sgbove s e n t e n c e ; t h e y b e g i n w i t h ( a ) s a n i m i t t ' a , (b ) s.anid*aria,
( c ) s a h e t u k a , (d-)- sasankhara" an d ( e ) s a p p a c c a y a , and e n d
w ith the r e s p e c tiv e n e g a tiv e s . F ou r of them come a f t e r
it; t h e y b e g i n w i t h (f}~ s e v e d a n a , (g) s a s a n n a , (h ) s a v in n a iia
an d ( i ) s a n k h a ta ra m m a n a , a n d end. w i t h t h e r e s p e c t i v e

1 . Op. c i t . 143 f f .
2 . O p . c i t . , i 83
3 . See A A .i 21 and i i 134
33

n eg a tiv es.
Commenting on them t h e C&ommentator o b s e r v e s t h a t
n i d a i i a , h e t u , s a n k h a r a , paeeay a and r u p a i n ( b ) , ( c ) , ( d ) ,
•H . — ^ O

( e ) a n d s a r u p a 1 a r e a l l synonymous w i t h liar ana , r e a s o n .


I1h a t nidsTna, h e t u a n d p a c cay a a s u s e d i n t h e Petli t e x t s
c a r r y more o r l e s s t h e same s e n s e i s * o f c o u r s e ,
understandable. B u t one f a i l s t o u n d e r s t a n d why san kh a ra.
an d r u p a , t o o , should, be t r e a t e d s i m i l a r l y . F o r one c a n n o t
f a i l t o n o t i c e h e r e t h e names o f t h e f i v e k h a n d h a s i n
s a ru p a , savedana ( f ) , sasanna ( g ) , sasankhara (d )-a n d
siavinnana ( h ) . H0w e v e r , i t s h o u l d be n o t e d ‘(hat i n t h e
p a s s a g e i n q u e s t i o n t h e names o f t h e f i v e k han dh as do n o t
o c c u r i n t h e same o r d e r a s t h e y a r e u s u a l l y e n u m e r a t e d . F o r
t h e s e n t e n c e b e g i n n i n g w i t h sasankhareT does n o t come b e tw e e n
t h e two b e g i n n i n g w i t h s a s a n n a an d s a v i n n a n a .
I t i s t o be n o t e d t h a t i n r e s p e c t of s a v e d a n a ,
s a s a n n a a n d s a v i n n a n a t h e same t r e a t m e n t i s n o t g i v e n . I t
i s s p e c i f i c a l l y s t a t e d t h a t s a v e d a n a means " v e d a n a y a s a t i " ,
i . e . , when t h e r e i s o r b e c u a s e o f v e d a n a . And i t i s a l s o
s t a t e d t h a t t h e o t h e r two te rm s (and sankhataram m ana, ) , t o o ,
3
s h o u l d be u n d e r s t o o d i n t h e same manner.

1 . A . i 82-83 _ _
2 . Tjfidanam h e t u samkhjaro pacoayo r u p a n t i s a h h a n i p i h i
e t a n i k 'arana v ev aca rian * ev a . - A A .i i 154
3• I b i d . l o c . c i t . ,
34

This e x p la n a tio n f i t s i n w e ll w i t h t h e c o n t e x t , And


i t seems to us t h a t sarupei a n d s a s a n k h a r a , t o o , s h o u l d he
a p p r o a c h e d i n t h e same way* T h a t i s to s a y , s a r u p a 1 = when
t h e r e i s o r b e c a u s e of r u p a , and s a s a n k h a r a = when t h e r e
i s o r b e c u a s e of s a n k h a ra * Viewed i n t h i s way, t h e two
t e r m s r u p a a n d s a n k h a r a c a n n o t be u n d e r s t o o d a s synonymous
w ith cause or c o n d it io n . On t h e c o n t r a r y , i t shows t h a t
t h e two a g g r e g a t e s , r u p a a n d s a h k h a r a , a r e c a u s e s o r
c o n d i t i o n s i n r e l a t i o n to som ething* i . e . , t h e a r i s i n g o f
e v i l an d unwholesome s t a t e s of mind (papalca a k u s a i a dhamma).
I t i s o f much s i g n i f i c a n c e t h a t i n t h e l i s t o f m eanings
g i v e n by Dhammapala, r u p a i n t h e s e n s e o f p a c c a y a does n o t
occur. Along w i t h t h i s may be m e n t i o n e d t h a t i n one o f t h e
m a n u s c r i p s c o l l a t e d by t h e PTS* E d i t o r o f t h e A n g u t t a r a -
niicaya A '^ h a k a tI ia 1 1 , t h e s t a t e m e n t t h a t rTTpa an d s a n k h a r a
— 1
a r e synonymous w i t h n i d a n a , h e t u an d p a c c a y a i s m i s s i n g .
Coming t o Mo.7 , t h e example c i t e d t o show t h a t pupa
som etimes means s a b h a v a , n a t u r e , a p p e a r e n c e i s : 1fP i y a r u p e
M _ 2
s a t a r u p e ra o ja ti* * "One d e l i g h t s i n what i s o f p l e a s a n t
n a t u r e , i n what i s o f d e l i g h t f u l n atu re * 1. T his i s re m in is c e n t
o f a p a s s a g e i n t h e Yamaka o f t h e Abhidhamma P i t a k a where
i n t h e form o f q u e s t i o n s a n d answ ers an a t t e m p t i s made

1 . See AA*ii 1 3 4 , n . l
2 . TbogA. 96
35

t o u n f o l d a n d d e l i m i t t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h e t e r m , r u p a :
Q u e s t i o n : Rupam ru p a k k h an d h o t i ? ( I s r u p a ru p a k k h a n d h a ? )
Answer : Piyarupam; s’a ta ru p a m rupam, na r u p a k k h a n d h o ;
rup ak kh and ho r u p a n c ’ eva rup ak k h an d h o ca*
( P i y a r u p a and s*atar*upa a r e r u p a b u t n o t rupa™
k kh and ha; ru p a k k h an d h a i s r u p a a n d i s a l s o
r u pa lckha n dha )
Q u e s t i o n : Na rupakkhandho na r u p a n t i ? (What i s n o t
ru p a k k h an d h a i s a l s o n o t r u p a ? )
Answer : PJyarTTpam s a t a r u p a m na r u p a k k h a n d h o , rupam*
R*upan ca ru p a k k h a n d h a n ca •t h a p e t v a avases*a na
*>. *Sv

e ’ eva rupam na ca rupakkhandho* (X^iyarupa an d


sla ta ru p a a r e n o t r u p a k k h a n d h a , b u t r u p a . A p a r t
from r u p a a n d r u p a k k h a n d h a , t h e r e s t a r e
- .... 1
n e i t h e r rupa m r rupakkhandha) *
T his c a te ch ism i s r a t h e r e n ig m a tic . At f i r s t s i g h t
i t seems t o s u g g e s t t h a t t h e Yamaka h as r e c o g n i s e d c e r t a i n
k i n d s of m a t t e r ( r u p a ) which i t e c l u d e s from th e a g g r e g a t e
A
of m a tte r (rupakkhandha).
Shwe Zan Aung, w h i l e a g r e e i n g t h a t r u p a i s o f t e n u s e d
i n t h e s e n s e o f m a t t e r , r e f e r s t o t h i s c a t e c h i s m t o show

1* Yam.i 16 f f .
36

t h a t som etim es t h e term i s u s e d t o e x p r e s s s t a t e s o f m ind.


He t r a n s l a t e s an d u n d e r s t a n d s i t a s f o l l o w s :
"Does [ e v e r y t h i n g t h a t i s c a l l e d ] r u p a Jbelong to]
t h e " m a t e r i a l g r o u p 11? [~The e i g h t y one w o r d l y c l a s s e s o f
c o n s c i o u s n e s s an d t h e i r c o n c o m i t a n t s c a l l e d ] r u p a t h a t i s
'a ttr a c tiv e * and ' p l e a s a n t 1 a r e c a l l e d r u p a , b u t t h e y do.
no b e l o n g t o t h e ' m a t e i r a l group* , The tv^enty e i g h t m a t e r i a l
q u alitie s (...) t h a t go t o make up t h e m a t e r i a l group*
a r e d e s i g n a t e d r u p a and t h e y b e l o n g a l s o t o th e ' m a t e r i a l
group* *
[Again] i s a n y t h i n g t h a t does n o t b e l o n g t o t h e ' m a t e r i a l
group* e v e r c a l l e d r u p a ? [such i s t h e q u e s t i o n ^] T h in g s
a t t r a c t i v e a n d d e s i r b a l e a r e c a l l e d r u p a th o u g h t h e y
do n o t b e l o n g t o t h e m a t e r i a l g r o u p . Those t h i n g s a n d t h a t
g r o u p a p a r t , the. r e m a i n d e r the e ig h t c l a s s e s of
'T
riV '

t r a n s c eA
nLd e n t a l , i . e . , l o k u t t a r a , c o n s c i o u s n e s s and t h e i r
c o n c o m i t a n t s , a n d fllbbahaj a r e n e i t h e r c a l l e d r u p a n o r do.
1
t h e y go t o make up t h e m a t e r i a l g r o u p 1**
I t w i l l be s e e n t h a t t h i s t r a n s l a t i o n , w i t h what i s
g iv e n w ith in the square b r a c k e t s , e x p la in s s a t i s f a c t o r i l y
t h e whole c a t e c h i s m . I t w i l l a l s o be s e e n t h a t t h e whole
t r a n s l a t i o n h as become c o h e r e n t an d m e a n i n g f u l b e c a u s e of

1 . OjDd. ( a p p e n d i x ) 273
57

1
t h e two i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , u n d e r l i n e d , and g i v e n w i t h i n
square brackets*
To r e p e a t :
( i ) " P iy a ru p a m sgftarupam11 i s i n t e r p r e t e d t o mean t h e
e i g h t y one w o r d l y c l a s s e s o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s a n d t h e i r
concom itants.
( i i ) 11na c ’ eva nupam na ca ru p a k k h a n d h o ’* = ’*a w a s e s a 11
( . n e i t h e r inTpa n o r ru p a k k h a n d h a a t h e r e s t ) is in te rp re te d
t o mean t h e e i g h t c l a s s e s of t r a n s c e n d e n t a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s ,
t h e i r c o n c o m i t a n t s , and Nibb*ana.
I t i s i m p l i e d t h a t t h e ite m s i n (1 ) c a n he d e s c r i b e d
as p i y a r u p a a n d s 'a t a r u p a a n d t h a t t h e ite m s i n ( u ) c anno t
be so d e s c r i b e d . .
On t h e b a s i s o f t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i v e t r a n s l a t i o n .one
c o u ld c e r t a i n l y say t h a t in t h i s p a r t i c u l a r passage of th e
Yamaka r u p a i s u s e d n o t o n l y t o r e f e r t o t h e m a t e r i a l
a g g r e g a t e b u t a l s o t o e x p r e s s s t a t e s o f m in d . The same
e x p l a n a t i o n a p p e a r s i n M rs.Rhys D a v i d s ’ I n t r o d u c t i o n t o
2
’kk® Yamaka. And, S u r e n d r a D a s g u p t a , t o o , seems t o have
u n d e r s t o o d t h e p a s s a g e i n t h e same way when he r e f e r s t o
Yamaka. 1 , p . 16 a s an i n s t a n c e where ru p a i s som etim es u s e d

1. u n d e r lin in g i s ours
2 Yam. i XI
38

i n a s u b j e c t i v e sense.**
T h e re a r e , h o w e v e r, c e r t a i n d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t m i l i t a t e
a g a i n s t such a co n clusion* At t h e v e r y o u t s e t i t s h o u l d be
s t a t e d t h a t n e i t h e r i n t h e Yamaka n o r i n t h e Commentary i s
i t e x p l i c i t l y s a i d t h a t !rPiyarlipam s a t a r u p a m 1* a n d n a v a s e s a u
a r e t o be undex^stood i n t h e same way a s t h e y a r e i n t e r p r e t e d
above. C o u ld i t , t h e n , be t a k e n as i m p l i e d i n t h e c a t e c h i s m
a n d demanded by t h e c o n t e x t ?
T h i s , t o o , d o es n o t seem to be p o s s i b l e b e c a u s e of
more p o s i t i v e d i f f i c u l t i e s . I t may be n o t e d h e r e t h a t i n
t h e N ikayas a wide v a r i e t y o f t h i n g s , m e n t a l a s w e l l a s
— — ~ 2
m a t e r i a l , are d e s c r ib e d as piyarupa and s a ta r u p a - a f a c t
p o in tin g to th e g e n e r a lity of t h e i r usage. Coming c l o s e r t o
t h e Yamaka; t h e same s i t u a t i o n o b t a i n s e v e n i n t h e Abhidhamma
P itak a. I n t h e V i b h a n g a « f o r i n s t a n c e , we f i n d s i x t y i t e m s
e n u m e r a t e d as an an sw e r t o t h e q u e s t i o n : What i s p i y a r u p a
an d slat a r u p a ? Among them t e n a r e t h e f i r s t f i v e sense-orgaxus
3
an d t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g o b j e c t i v e f i e l d s . T h ese t e n i t e m s ,
i t may be n o t e d h e r e , a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e ru p a k k h a n d h a .
I t may t h e n be a s k e d t h a t i f some ite m s i n c l u d e d i n t h e
ru p a k k h an d h a a r e d e s c r i b a b l e a s p i y a r u p a a n d s a ' t a r u p a ,

11 wu lift* n il I W IImi n —r

1 . Hjj.st.of I n d . P h i . 1 , 9 4
2.. See e . g . S . f i 1 0 8 - 9 I I t i . l l k ; P s m .i 40
3* O P . c i t . , 101 f f
59

why i s i t t h a t i n t h e Yamaha t h e t h i n g s which a r e p i y a r u p a


a n d s a t a r u p a a r e c o m p l e t e l y e x c l u d e d from t h e r u p a k k h a n d h a .
The q u e s t i o n does n o t- a r i s e i f t h e c a t e c h i s m i s u n d e r s t o o d
i n t h e l i g h t o f c e r t a i n e x e g e t i c a l methods p u r s u e d i n th e
Yamaka. I n u n f o l d i n g t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t e r m s , som etimes
i t l a y s e m p h a s is on what a p p e a r s t o be o b v i o u s and seems
t o make more c o m p l i c a t e d what i s m a n i f e s t l y c l e a r . The
n a t u r e o f t h e work i s sum m arized by N y a n a t i l o k a when he
o b s e r v e s : ”To me i t l o o k s , a s i f t h i s book was composed f o r
ex am in atio n p u rp o s e s , or to g e t v e r s e d i n answ ering s o p h i s t i c a l
it
an d arnbiguo^, o r c a p t i o u s q u e s t i o n s , on a l l t h e m a n i f o l d
d o c tr in e s and t e c h n i c a l term s of B u d d h ist p h ilo so p h y .
The q u e s t i o n s of i d e n t i t y , s u b o r d i n a t i o n and. c o - o r d i n a t i o n
o f c o n c e p t s a r e p l a y i n g a p ro m in e n t p a r t i n our w o rk, which
t r i e s t o g i v e c u l o g i c a l c l e a r i n g up an d d e l i m i t a t i o n o f
1
a l l t h e d o c t r i n a l c o n c e p t s a s t o t h e i r r a n g e an d c o n t e n t s ” .
F o l l o w i n g i s an example o f ho?/ i t a t t e m p t s t o u n f o l d
t h e i m p o r t o f t h e t e r m , gandha*
Q u e s t i o n : I s gan dh a t h e g a n d t i a y a t a n a , t h e s p h e r e of t h e
sm ell?
Answer : s T l a g a n d h a ( f r a g r a n c e o f v i r t u e ) , sam adhigandha
( f r a g r a n c e o f c o n c e n t r a t i o n ) , pannagandha

1 • Guide t h r o u g h t h e A b h . P i fca k a , 3 S.
40

( f r a g r a n c e o f wisdom) a r e gandha h u t n o t
gandhayatana.
The p u rp o s e i s t o show t h a t gandha i n i t s f i g u r a t i v e
usage ( e . g . , p a n n a -g a n d h a ) s h o u l d n o t he c o n f u s e d w i t h
gandha when i t s t a n d s f o r s m e l l , t h e o b j e c t i v e f i e l d
c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e o l f a c t o r y organ*.
To t a k e a n o t h e r example:
Q uestion: I s s o t a t h e s o t 'a y a t a n a ( t h e o r g a n o f h e a r i n g ? )
Answer : (Y e s , h u t n o t a l w a y s , e . g . , ) t a n t i a s o t a ( t h e s t r e a m
2.
o f c r a v i n g ) i s ( a l s o ) s o t a h u t n o t s o t'a y a ta n a *
H e r e , b o t h s o t ' a y a t a n a , t h e o r g a n o f h e a r i n g an d
t a n h a s o t a , the stream of crav in g are c a l l e d " s o t a ” because
i t o c c u r s i n b o t h words - a l t h o u g h o f c o u r s e s o t a i n s o t 'a y a t a n a
i a d i f f e r e n t i n meaning from s o t a i n t a n h n s o t a * In the
fo r m e r i t means " e a r ” a n d i n t h e l a t t e r " s t r e a m " * And, i t
i s p r e c i s e l y in o rd e r to p o in t out t h i s d i f f e r e n c e t h a t the
whole c a t e c h i s m i s s e t f o r t h .
The c a t e c h s i m i n q u e s t i o n , t o o , s h o u l d he u n d e r s t o o d
i n a s i m i l a r way* . I n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r c o n t e x t "P iyaru pa m
ssTtarupam" s h o u l d be t r a n s l a t e d , n o t as " T h i n g s p l e a s a n t
and^dss^iakle" (= Aung) h u t a s " o f p l e a s i n g a n d d e l i g h t f u l
" n a t u r e 1" ( = N y a n a t i l o k a ) * U s u a l l y ( h u t n o t a lw a y s ) when

1* Yam *i 54; a l s o 167


2* I b i d * , i 54; a l s o 168
3# Guide t h r o u g h t h e A h h . P i t a k a * 33
41

PiTli works r e f e r t o t h i n g s p l e a s a n t a n d d e s i r a b l e thfey


use t h e w ords: yarn piyarTipam s*atax,’upam . . . ~ t h a t w h ich i s
p l e a s a n t a n d d e s i r a b l e . . . B ut t h a t i s n o t t h e main arg u m e n t
here. The moment we u n d e r s t a n d i t a s " T h i n g s . . . , we a r e a t
a l o s s t o u n d e r s t a n d why t h e y a r e c o m p l e t e l y e x c l u d e d from
- 2
t h e ru p a k k h a n d h a . F o r , a s o b s e r v e d a b o v e , i n t h e Vibhanga
what i s i n c l u d e d i n t h e r u p a k k h a n d h a , i s a l s o d e s c r i b e d as
p i y a r u p a an d s a t a r u p a . And i t i s v e r y u n l i k e l y t h a t t h e
i
Yamaka has d e v i a t e d from t h i s t r a d . t i o n .
T a k in g a l l t h e s e f a c t s i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n we may t h e n
e x p l a i n the fo u r p o in ts of th e catech ism as fo llo w s :
( i ) " P iy a ru p a m sa”taruparau ( o f p l e a s i n g and d e l i g h t f u l
n a t u r e o r a p p e a r e n c e ) i s c a l l e d r u p a i n t h e same way as
tanhasota is also c a lle d so ta .
( i i ) Rupa ( - P iyarupam slatarupain) i s e x c l u d e d from
ru p a k k h an d h a ( m a t e r i a l a g g r e g a t e ) i n t h e same way a s s o t a
(~ t a n h a s o t a ) e x c l u d e d from s o t ’a y a t a n a . The e x c l u s i o n
o f p i y a r u p a a n d s’a t a r u p a from ru p a k k h a n d h a i s t a n t a m o u n t
t o s a y i n g t h a t t h e meaning o f r u p a i n t h e f i r s t two words
i s d i f f e r e n t from t h e meaning o f r u p a i n t h e compound
ru p a k k h a n d h a . I n t h e f o r m e r i t means ( o f p l e a s a n t and d e l i g h t f u l )
n a tu re or ap pearence; i n the l a t t e r , (a g g reg ate of) m a tte r.

1 . O f. e . g . S . i i 108; P s m . i 40
2 . See a b o v e , 38
42

( i i i ) Rupakkhandha i s c a l l e d rupa as w e l l as
rupakkhandha i n th e same way as s o ta y a ta n a i s c a l l e d
s o t a as w e l l as sot'ayatana-:* Here o n ly one meaniiig o f th e
term i s ta k en i n t o c o n s id e r a tio n *
( i v ) The l a s t s t a t e m e n t ; 11Apart from rupa (= P i y a -
rupara satarupam), and rupakkhandha, th e r e s t ( a v a s e s a ) are
n e i t h e r rupa nor rupakkhandha11, c o u ld he u n d erstoo d i n th e
same way a s : "Apart from c h a ir s and t a b l e s , th e r e s t a re
n e i t h e r c h a i r s nor t a b l e s " . The w ord s, " th e r e s t" ( a ts a s e s a ),
a c c o r d in g t o t h i s e x p l a n a t i o n , cannot be i n t e r p r e t e d as
r e f e r r i n g o n ly to th e e i g h t c l a s s e s o f tr a n s c e n d e n ta l
c o n s c i o u s n e s s , t h e i r c o n c o m ita n ts , and Mibbana. T hey,
t o o , are c e r t a i n l y i n c lu d e d . But "the r e s t " means much m ore,
i * e . , a l l e x c e p t rupa (Piyarupani satarupam) and rupakkhandha*
The e x p la n a tio n .- we have g i v e n here may lo o k s t r a n g e .
But when one c o n s id e r s how th e Yamaka s e e k s to u n fo ld th e
i m p l i c a t i o n s o f gandha and s o t a , s tr a n g e n e s s c e a s e s t o be
a d isq u a lific a tio n * Be i t a l s o r e p e a te d here th a t n e i t h e r
'kk® Yamaka nor i n i t s Commentary i s i t s t a t e d th a t !*Fiya-
ruparp satarupam" and "avasesa" (th e r e s t ) s h o u ld be u n d erstood
in th e same way as th e y are i n t e r p r e t e d i n th e quoted
■j
t r a n s l a t i o n ( u n d e r lin e d and g iv e n w it h in square b r a c k e t s ) .

1 , See above ,36


4-3

M o r e o v e r , t h e p r e s e n t e x p l a n a t i o n does n o t c o n t r a d i c t b u t
f a l l s i n l i n e w i t h t h e s i t u a t i o n which, o b t a i n s i n t h e
V ib h a n g a . The whole p u rp o s e o f t h e c a t e c h i s m i s t o c l a r i f y
t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h e te rm r u p a i n t h e compound ru p a k k h an d h a
and t o a v o i d i t s b e i n g c o n f u s e d w i t h r u p a a s i t o c c u r s i n
p i y a r u p a a n d ssftarupa* I n p o i n t o f f a c t , t h e Commentary
r i g h t l y o b s e r v e s t h a t t h e q u e s t i o n s i n t h i s e a te c h s m a r e
a s k e d f o r t h e s o l e p u rp o se of c l a r i f y i n g t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s
1
o f te rm s - v a c a n a - s o d h a n a t ta m *
We may t h e n c o n c lu d e t h a t ^ a s f a r a s t h i s p a r t i c u l a r
Yamaka c a t e c h i s m i s c o n c e r n e d ; i t i s n o t c o r r e c t t o s a y t h a t
r u p a i s Mised t o expx^ess s t a t e s o f mind*
I n t h e f o r e g o i n g pages we have r e f e r r e d t o many o f
t h e s e n s e s a n d c o n t e x t s i n which t h e temn r u p a o c c u r s i n
the c a n o n ic a l te x ts* Our p u rp o se was n o t so much t o examine
them a l l - a l t h o u g h o f c o u r s e we have had t h e o c c a s i o n t o
examine some - as t o g i v e an i n d i c a t i o n o f how e v e n i n t h e
t e c h n i c a l te rm in o lo g y i t o ccurs i n a p l u r a l i t y of senses*
For we a r e n o t c o n c e r n e d w i t h a l l t h e m e a n i n g s •* o f rTIpa a s

1 . Yang*59
44
- -

1
a t e c h n i c a l terra, l e t a l o n e i t s many m ean in g s a s a g e n e r a l
term* W i t h i n t h e p u rv ie w o f t h i s s t u d y w i l l come an e x a m i n a t i o n
o f r u p a i n what we have c a l l e d i t s g e n e r i c s e n s e , i . e . , i n
t h e semee o f m a t t e r . S t a t e d o t h e r w i s e , o u r s w i l l be a s t u d y
o f ru p a k k h an d h a i n i t s w i d e s t s c o p e , i . e . , a s sabbara rUpaip,
the t o t a l i t y of m a tte r.
Rulpakkha ndha i
C o n c e r n in g t h e meaning of ru p a kk hand ha t h e r e i s , h o w e v e r,
one i m p o r t a n t f a c t t h a t s h o u l d n o t be o v e r l o o k e d .
A c c o r d in g t o t h e Abhidhamma t h e compound d e n o t e s t w e n t y
2 3
s e v e n ( i n some works t w e n t y e i g h t ) i t e m s c a l l e d rupa--dhammas
( m a t e r i a l e l e m e n t s ) c l a s s i f i e d i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s a s
p r i m a r y an d s e c o n d a r y . They a r e o f t e n ' r e f e r r e d tojas sahbam
rupam. T h i s , h o w e v e r, i s n o t t o o v e r l o o k t h a t som etimes t h e
compound i s u s e d i n a " n a r r o w e r ’* s e n s e t o mean t h e rupa-dhmmas
4
t h a t e n t e r i n t o t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f a l i v i n g b & ing.' On t h e

1* On t h e s u b j e c t o f rTipajjhema and r u p a l o l c a , s e e S t c h e r b a t s k y ,
C o n c e p t i o n o f B u d d h i s t M r v a n a . t h e c h . on "Buddhism and
Yoga^; Aung ,Cjgd. 5 3 - f f - j M r s .Rhys D a v id s .B u d . P s y .9 4 f f * *
" Dhyana i n e a r l y Buddhism" . IHQ. V o l . 3 .1927? PPY689--715 );
M.Aneski a n d J V f a k a k u s u , "Dhyana" . E R E ,V o l.2 ( p p . 7 0 2 - 7 0 4 ) ;
$ - J . T h o m a s , " S t a t e o f t h e d e a d ( B u d d h i s t )u , ERE,Vol.2
. PP*§ 2 9 - 8 3 3 ) l Y . N . S i n h a , I n d . P a y . : P e r c e p t i o n . ff*
2 . See Vbh.12 f f . ; D hs.124 f f .
3* The co m m e n ta rie s a d d h a d a y a - v a t t h u a s t h e 2 8 t h , s e e b e l o w , *7/
4 . See Vbh.3
4-5

o t h e r h a n d , t h e s i t u a t i o n i n t h e NikfEyas i s r a t h e r complex*
1 _
F o r as we have a l r e a d y i n d i c a t e d ^ t h e r e i n som etim es r u p a i n
ru p a k k h a n d h a i s s e e n t o o c c u r i n a s u b j e c t i v e s e n s e , too*
l e may f i r s t c l a r i f y i t s p o s i t i o n i n t h e Hilcayas.
As i n t h e Abhidhamma, i n t h e Uikstyas too ru p a k k h an d h a
i s som etim es u sed t o mean t h e m a t t e r t h a t e n t e r s i n t o t h e
2
c o m p o s i t i o n o f a l i v i n g b ein g *
So m etim es, a s i s a l s o t h e c a s e i n t h e Abhidhamma, i t
i s g i v e n a w i d e r s co p e s The f o u r p rim a ry e l e m e n t s (m ahabh uta)
and t h e m a t t e r t h a t i s d e p e n d e n t on them ( upad'ar’upa) a r e
rupa. They a r e e i t h e r i n t e r n a l ( a j j h a t t a m , a j j h a t t i k a ) ,
i . e . , , a s p a r t o f t h e complex t h a t makes a l i v i n g b e i n g ,
o r e x t e r n a l (b ah id d hsf, b a t h i r a ) , i . e . , m a t t e r o t h e r t h a n
t h a t which e n t e r s i n t o t h e compos itiqx of l i v i n g b e i n g s . ^
In com bination b o th r e f e r to the t o t a l i t y of m a t t e r (sabbam
ru p a m ). The o t h e r u s u a l way o f r e f e r r i n g t o a l l m a t t e r i s s
!iw h a t e v e r m a t t e r , w h e t h e r i t i s p a s t , f u t u r e o r p r e s e n t ,
w h e th e r i t i s i n t e r n a l o r e x t e r n a l , w h e t h e r i t i s low o r
d e b o n a iij.,w h e th e r i t i s f a r o r n e a r , ( i n o t h e r words) t h e

1 . See above , 29
2*. See e . g . M .i 299 w w______ ______
3 . Of.gam k i n c i rupam sabbam rupam o a t t a r i mahstohutani c a t u -
n n an c a mahablljut'anam up*ac£aya r u p a n t i — M*
4.- See" M .i 421 f f .
46

T
t o t a l i t y of m a tte r. With n e c e s s a r y a d j u s t m e n t s , t h i s k i n d
o f d e s c r i p t i o n i s e x t e n d e d t o t h e o t h e r k h a n d h a s , too*
Where, how a n d why r u p a ( kkjjandha} i s som etim es u s e d
i n a s u b j e c t i v e s e n s e may now be c o n s i d e r e d . In the
Khandha S am y utta o f t h e Samyu11anikaya one r e a d s :

H uppatX t i kho b h ik k h a v e tasm a r u p a n t i v u c c a t i .

Kena r u p p a t i ? STtena p i r u p p a t i unhena p i r u p p a t i Jigacch*aya


p i r u p p a t i pip'as'ay© p i r u p p a t i dam sam akasavXt1atapa--sirim sapa?..~
Samphassena p i r u p p a t i .
I t w i l l be s e e n t h a t t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t a n d c e n t r a l
word i n t h i s p a s s a g e i s t h e v e r b r u p p a t i , w hich i n t h e
PTSD i s e x p l a i n e d as : t o be v e x e d , o p p r e s s e d , h u r t , molested.*
B u d d h i s t e x e g e s i s , t o o , r e c o g n i z e s t h e same meaning when i t
p a ra p h ra se s i t ass i s disturbed, or e x c i t e d ( k u p p a t i ) , h u r t
3
or im pressed ( p T lT y a ti), broken or d i s i n t e g r a t e d ( b h i j j a t i ) .
I n t h e Abhidharmako&a v e r s i o n o f t h e p a s s a g e (somewhat
d i f f e r e n t ) i t o c c u r s i n t h e S a n s k r i t form a s r u p y a t e a n d
i s commented: § t r e rompu ( r u p y a t e ) s i g n i f i e § t r e endammagg
(badhyate)
There i s , h o w ev e r, t h i s f a c t t o b e n o t e d . A c c o rd in g

r iMTTPTi II i»ii»gn niil^ ^i M in fl.il II— iWKHiWii— t Hi i HW .B iitl ll'iTT— *m \ m iilH i^w i^l— <IW^^<WIWW*ilW>ll

1. yarn^kincI rupam a t T t a n a g a t a p a c c u p p a n n a m a j j h a t t a m Va b a h i -
ddfia v a hTnami va panTtam va* yam d!ure s a n t i k e va sabbam
rupam - S . i i * 2 5 2 | a l s o i i i 4 7 , #6 8 , 80
2 . i i i , *86
3* Bee VbhA*14; Mh.flfc3A. 1 3 S A . i i 290
4* AK.Gh.i 2 4 ; s e e a l s o AKvy.i*34
4-7

t o t h e B u d d h i s t e x e g e s i s r u p p a t i o c c u r s i n two d i f f e r e n t
contexts. In the f i r s t i t r e f e r s to d i s t r e s s , e x c ite m e n t,
1
o r d i s s i p a t i o n a s a s t a t e o f m ind; i n t h e s e c o n d , t o
2
d i s t u r b a n c e , m u t a b i l i t y o r c h a n g e a b l e n e s s of m a t t e r . In
the f i r s t i t i s d i s t u r b a n c e i n a p s y c h o l o g i c a l and s u b j e c t i v e
s e n s e an d i n t h e s e c o n d i t i s d i s t u r b a n c e i n a p h y s i c a l
an d o b j e c t i v e s e n s e .
In th e o p in io n of the s c h o l i a s t s r u p p a ti in th e
quoted passage occurs i n th e l a t t e r c o n t e x t ; t h a t is to
s a y , t h e verb, i m p l i e s d i s t u r b a n c e i n what we have d e s c r i b e d
as the p h y s ic a l sen se. The d i s t u r b a n c e i m p l i e d by t h e
verb r u p p a t i - i t i s su g g e ste d - i s th e d is tu r b a n c e of
t h e p h y s i c a l body o f a p e r s o n . I t is d istu rb ed (ru p p ati)
by c o l d ( s T t a ) , h e a t (unha)*, " h u n g e r 11 ( j i g a c c h a T ) , !!pJ i h i r s t " r
( p i p a s a ) an d by t h e t o u c h o f g n a t s , m o s q u i t o s , w in d , t h e
^ 3
s u n , and r e p t i l e s (d a !s a m a k a s a v a t a t a p a s i r i m & a p a s a m p h a s s a ) .
We a r e g i v e n t o u n d e r s t a n d t h a t " h u n g e r " ( j i g a c c h a )
and " t h i r s t " ( p i p ’a s a ) a s u s e d i n t h e p r e s e n t c o n t e x t do
n o t mean h u n g er and t h i r s t a s a s u b j e c t i v e e x p e r i e n c e o r
as two o r g a n i c s e n s a t i o n s biSbthe p h y s i c a l f a c t o r t h a t

1* See Mh.Hd. i 5 ; VismS.v 51


See ,109 ; Abhvk#245> VismS. v ,51
3 . See VismS.v 51
48

b r i n g s them a b o u t , t h a t i s t o s a y , t h e h e a t i n s i d e t h e
1
b e lly (udaraggisantapa)•
T h i s i n c i d e n t a l l y re m in d s o n e ,* o f t h e V a i b h a#s i k a s
who t o o u s e d t h e two t e r m s , hunger (b u b h u k s a ) and t h i r s t
( pip'asa') i n two d i s t i n c t s e n s e s * I n t h e f i r s t t h e y mean a
v a r i e t y o f s u b j e c t i v e e x p e r i e n c e , a s t a t e o f mind ( j i g h a t s ’a
c a i t a s i k o dharmah • , . evam pip'asa’ p i v a k t a v y a ) * ^ In
t h e s e c o n d t h e y mean t h e p h y s i c a l f a c t o r s w h ich b r i n g
a b o u t t h e two o r g a n i c s e n s a t i o n s i n q u e s t i o n . I f the
p h y sic a l causes are also c a l l e d a f t e r the p sy ch o lo g ical
e f f e c t s , t h i s , i t i s s a i d , s h o u l d be u n d e r s t o o d a s a case;
of h y p a ll a g e , of cause being d e s ig n a te d a f t e r the e f f e c t
- keTrane k’a r y o p a c ’a rad * I t is lik e th e s a y i n g : a p p e a r e n c e
o f t h e Buddhas i s h a p p i n e s s . What, i n p o i n t of f a c t , i s
meant t o s a y i s t h a t t h e a p p e a r e n c e o f Buddhas i s th e
cause of h ap p in ess and n o t hap p in ess i n i t s e l f .
To come b a c k t o t h e p a s s a g e s i t was n o t e d t h a t
a c c o r d i n g t o t h e s c h o l a s t i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n th e term r u p a
which i n t h e p a s s a g e i s d e f i n e d as " t h a t which i s d i s t u r b e d "

l« I b id .lo c ,c it, ,
2,AKvy>j 2.7
3*See AK,ch*i 12 o f , attu m -iec h a jig h a ts 'a c a i t a s i k o
dharmah. tajsya karanam* a n t a r u d a re ltayendr i y e n a yah
s p r i y a t e . sfa j i g h a t a a namopadaya-rllpam. y a t h a buddharxam
s ukham u t p'ada^i ty-'a d i a b h y u d a y a - n i h i r e y a - s a - s ukhak’a r a n a
tveTt buddhotpaidasya s a sukham i t y u c y a t e . t a d v a t . -
&Kvy, i 27
49

( r u p p a t T t i ) means t h e p h y s i c a l body b e c a u s e i t i s
d i s t u r b e d o r a f f e c t e d by t h e f a c t o r s en u m erated * I t is*
however a d m i t t e d t h a t when t h e body i s d i s t u r b e d t h e m ind,
t o o ,i s disturbed* in t h i s sense. When t h e body* t o be
more p r e c i s e * t h e o rg a n of t o u c h which i s s p r e a d a l l ovesr
t h e body* comes i n t o c o n t a c t w ith h e a t* c o l d * e t c # * t h e r e
a rise t a c t i l e sen satio n s. Hunger an d t h i r s t (i.e .* in the
p sy ch o lo g ical sense) are a ls o ex p lain ed as t a c t i l e sensations#
They a r e b r o u g h t a b o u t when **hunger** a n d **t h i r s t 1* ( i . e . *
i n t h e p h y s i c a l s e n s e = u d a r a g g i s a n t a p a ) come i n t o c o n t a c t
w i t h t h e o r g a n o f t o u c h which* a s s t a t e d above* i s s p r e a d
a l l o v e r t h e bo dy . But i t i s n o t a d m i t t e d t h a t t h i s
um e n t a l d i s t u r b a n c e ” ( t a c t i l e s e n s a t i o n s ) i s e i t h e r meant
o r r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e te r m r u p a i n t h e q u o t e d p a s s a g e d
P o r a l l i t s p r e c i s i o n o f s t a t e m e n t one i s t e m p t e d
t o doubt w h e t h e r t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n r e p r e s e n t s t h e
o r i g i n a l meaning o f t h e p a s s a g e . Ihe given i n t e r p r e t a t i o n
seems to be a r e v e r s a l o f what t h e p a s s a g e was meant t o
co n v e y . I f we u n d e r s t o o d t h e ite m s e n u m e r a t e d i n a d i r e c t
way* t h e r e s u l t i n g c o n c l u s i o n would c e r t a i n l y be d i f f e r e n t #
I n t h e Bilcayas th e v e r b r u p p a t i i s m o s t ly * i f n o t
alw ays* u s e d i n a s u b j e c t i v e s e n s e t o mean ” d i s t r e s s e d ,
g rie v e d or pained” • I t s ex ten sio n to r e f e r to the d istu rb a n c e

o r m u t a b i l i t y o f m a t t e r a p p e a r s t o be t h e worlc o f l a t e r

1# See VismS.v* 51 f f •
50

s c h o l a s t i c i s m - a l t h o u g h o f c o u r s e s u c h a use i n p e r f e c t l y
understandable. P r o f . K e r n 1s s t u d y of t h e v e r b a s i t
o c c u r s i n t h e j ’iTtalca a n d t h e C_____
a r i y a p i t^a k a h a s a l s o b r o u g h t
in to r e l i e f i t s im p lica tio n of g r ie f . In understanding
tlhe above p a s s a g e t h e S u tta n ip s T ta g*ath*a s e n t e n c e ,
2
" s a l l g v i d d h o ’v a r u p p a t i " = " i s pained, d i s t r e s s e d or
m o l e s t e d l i k e u n t o one p i e r c e d by an airrow" , i s o f much t
sig n ifican ce• I n p a r a p h r a s i n g t h i s r u p p a t i t h e Kidd.esq.;
3
u s e s , among o t h e r w o r d s , d o m a n a s s ito h o t i = becomes s o r r o w -
strick en . Commenting on t h e S a n s k r i t v e r s i o n o f t h e s e n t e n c e ,
Y a^ o m itra o b s e r v e s t h a t h e r e i n i t i s p r o p e r t h a t r u p y a t e
s h o u l d be u n d e r s t o o d as i n d i c a t i v e o f d i s t u r b a n e i n a
p s y c h o l o g i c a l s e n s e , i . e . , t h e p a i n f u l f e e l i n g (d u h k h a -
v e d a y i t r d v a d , b sT d hy ata).^ I t w i l l t h u s be s e e n t h a t as
re c o g n is e d i n th e B uddhist e x e g e s is i t s e l f r u p p a t i in the
s e n t e n c e r e f er»s, n o t t o t h e p h y s i c a l d i s t u r b a n c e of t h e
body c r e a t e d by t h e p a s s a g e of th e a r r o w , b u t t o t h e m e n t a l
a f f l i c t i o n , t h e p a i n f u l e x p e r i e n c e which r e s u l t s from t h e
la tte r,
R u p p a t i of t h e q u o t e d p a s s a g e , t o o , c o u l d be u n d e r s t o o d

1. V e r s p r e i d e G-e sc h r i f t e n „ i i 261
2. Sn. 151' T v erse^ 7 b 7 T
3. Mh.JM. i 5
4* .AKvy. i 34
51

i n a s i m i l a r ( d i r e c t ) way. ” 8T tena . . . ru p p a ti
j i g a c c h a y a • «* r u p p a t i ” c o u l d w e l l be t a k e n t o mean ” i s
d i s t u r b e d o r a f f e c t e d by c o l d , hunger” . T his is another
way of s a y i n g t h a t one i s e x p e r i e n c i n g t h e d i s t u r b a n c e o r
a f f e c t i o n s , namely o f c o l d and h u n g e r . The o t h e r i t e m s ,
too, c a n be u n d e r s t o o d i n t h e same m anner. When u n d e r s t o o d
i n t h i s way t h e r e s u l t i n g c o n c l u s i o n i s t h a t i n th e q u o t e d
p a s s a g e t h e term ru p a i s u s e d i n a s u b j e c t i v e s e n s e , i . e . ,
1
as r e f e r r i n g to c e r t a i n o rganic a f f e c t i o n s .
T h i s , m o r e o v e r , i s n o t t h e o n l y N ikaya p a s s a g e where
r u p a (k k h a n d h a) i s u s e d i n a s u b j e c t i v e s e n s e * In the
Man:ihimanika.ya, i i , 96 i t seems to r e f e r t o t h e v i s i b l e ,
s o u n d s , s m e l l s , t a s t e s an d t h e t a n g i b l e i n t h e i r a p p e a r e n c e
as s e n s a t i o n s .
From t h i s i t s h o u l d n o t be c o n c lu d e d t h a t i n t h e
Mlcayas r u p a (lckhandha) i s alw ays u s e d i n t h e s e n s e o f , a n d
understood a s , s e n s a tio n s . T h i s i s o n l y one o f t h e s e n s e s

1* See B a s g u p t a , H i s t . I n d . P h i . i 94* The q u o t e d p a s s a g e seems


t o g i v e a n i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e t y p e o f a f f l i c t i o n s which
o f t e n a s s a i l e d t h e monks i n t h e i r s o l i t a r y r e t r e a t s . G o ld ,
h e a t , h u n g e r, t h i r s t , the touch of m o s q u ito s , th e su n ,
w in d a n d r e p t i l e s - t h e s e w ould have o f t e n v i s i t e d t h e
monks who o f t e n b e t o o k t h e m s e l v e s to f o r e s t s and s o l i t a r y
h a u n t s f o r p u r p o s e s o f m e d i t a t i o n . I n f a c t th e s e l f - s a m e
it e m s a r e e n u m e r a t e d e l s e w h e r e ( s e e e . g.M. i i , 8 ) a n d t h e
g o o d monk i s d e s c r i b e d as one who c o u l d p u t up w i t h them
(khstyT).
52

i n which t h e terra i s sometimes used* F o r , as n o te d e a r l i e r ,


more o f t e n t h a n n o t i t i s u s e d i n t h e s e n s e o f m a t t e r
w h e th e r i t i s u n d e r s t o o d as - p a r t o f t h e com plex t h a t
makes a l i v i n g b e i n g ( a j j h a t t a m ) o r o t h e r w i s e ( b a h i d d h a ) •
Some d e g r e e o f e l a s t i c i t y i n t h e use of t e r m s i s more
e v i d e n t i n t h e H ik ay a s t h a n i n t h e p o s t - H i k a y a n w o rk s . Such
a s i t u a t i o n i s u n d e r s t a n d a b l e , f o r a t t h e e a r l i e r phase o f
Buddhism t h e em p h asis seems t o have b e e n more on p r a c t i c e
t h a n on t h e o r y * As y e t , i t was t o a e a r l y f o r t h e n e e d t o
d e m a r c a t e c l e a r l y t h e r a n g e an d use of t h e t e r m s t o be
fe lt. R ig id and s ta n d a r d d e f i n i t i o n s , d e l i m i t a t i o n of th e
i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e d o c t r i n a l c o n c e p t s an d t e r m s , c o i n a g e
£

o f more a n d more t e c h n i c a l term s were more t h e work o f


AbhMhamma s c h o l a s t i c i s m * . A g l a n c e a t t h e works of t h e

Abhidhamma P i t a k a would show, among o t h e r t h i n g s , how and


t o what e x t e n t t h e p r o c e s s of "v a e a n a -s o d h a n a * 1 ( c l a r i f i c a t i o n
p
o f t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t e r m s ) was c a r r i e d o u t . .And we saw
how t h e Yamaka s o u g h t t o c l a r i f y t h e a p p a r e n t l y o b v i o u s
f a c t t h a t t a n h " a - s o t a , t h e s tr e a m of c r a v i n g i s q u i t e
d i f f e r e n t from s o t a y a t a n a , t h e o rg a n of h e a r i n g . S in c e our
im m ediate c o n c e r n i s w i t h t h e term r u p a (kkhandhaj), l e t us
narrow down t h e f i e l d an d s e e ho?/ i t came t o be e x p l a i n e d

1. See a b o v e , 45
2 , See a b o v e , 40
53

a n d d e f i n e d w i t h more a n d more p r e c i s i o n *
I n t h e Abhidhamma P i t a k a t h e r e i s c e r t a i n l y some
u n i f o r m i t y i n t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e term r u p a ( k k h a n d h a ) .
I t was o b s e r v e d t h a t i n t h e R'ikayas a l t h o u g h i t s t o o d a s
% g e n e r a l term f o r m a t t e r a t t i m e s i t was a l s o u s e d t o

e x p r e s s c e r t a i n s u b j e c t i v e phenomena* H e r e i n , on t h e o t h e r
h an d t h e l a t t e r use i s g i v e n up. Rupakkhandha i n c l u d e s a
g r o u p o f t w e n t y s e v e n i t e m s c a l l e d ru p a dhammas, m a t e r i a l
e le m e n ts * However, t h e c o n s t i t u e n t s o f t h e group a r e n o t
a s u n ifo rm a s m ig h t be e x p e c t e d . Some r e p r e s e n t c e r t a i n
e l e m e n t s o f m a t t e r and t h e o t h e r s c e r t a i n f a c t s c o n n e c t e d
— 1
w i t h m a t t e r - a l l p o s t u a l t e d a s rupa-dham m as. Thus a l t h o u g h
th e term i s d e lim ite d as to i t s a p p l i c a t i o n , yet the d i v e r s i t y
in
o f t h e i t e m s d e n o t e d by i t s u g g e s t s th a t / y th e Abhidhamma
P i t a k a , t o o , i t was u s e d w i t h Home d e g r e e o f e l a s t i c i t y .
I n t h e ; p o s t - c a n o n i c a l Abhidhamraic works t h i s s i t u a t i o n ,
too,w as re fo rm e d . On t h e b a s i s of a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a s
n ippharm a an d an ip p h a n n a t h e r e a l e l e m e n t s o f m a t t e r ( n ip p h a n n a )
2
were d i s t i n g u i s h e d from t h e n o m i n a l . A contrib u tio n
more p o s i t i v e t h a n t h i s , t o o , was made. I t is tru e th a t in
t h e DhammasanganT o f t h e Abhidhamma P i t a k a e a c h rupa-dhamma

1 . See D h s . 124 f f .
2 . See V i sm.-381-2; A s l .343 I A b h v t .74
54

i s g i v e n a s h o r t an d l a c o n i c d e f i n i t i o n . I t i s a l s o ti*ue
t h a t on t h e b a s i s o f t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l d e f i n i t i o n s one c o u l d
u n d e r s t a n d how i t i n t e r p r e t e d m a t t e r . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t has
n o t p r o v i d e d us w i t h what m ig h t be c a l l e d a f o r m a l an d
general d e f in itio n of m atter. The l a t e r s c h o l i a s t s t o o k up
th e m a tte r and f u l f i l l e d the need, And t h i s i s th e n e x t
a s p e c t t h a t we p ro p o s e t o c o n s i d e r h e r e .
D e f in itio n of m atters
We have a l r e a d y d i s c u s s e d t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f r u p p a t i
i n t h e q u o t e d SarnyuttanikeTy a p a s s a g e a n d shown t h a t t h e r e i n
_ +
rupa i s -u s e d to r e f e r to c e r t a i n o rganic a f f e c t i o n s . That
e t h i c a l e d i f i c a t i o n wqs one o f t h e r e a s o n s i n u s i n g t h i s
v e r b h e r e an d e l s e w h e r e ( b u t n o t e v e r y w h e r e ) i s f a i r l y
obvious. F o r c o n v e y in g as i t does t h e i d e a of g r i e f , a f f l i c t i o n ,
m o l e s t a t i o n , i s v e r y s u g g e s t i v e of the f a c t o f s u f f e r i n g
( d u k k h a - s a c c a ) w hich i s one o f t h e c a r d i n a l d o c t r i n e s o f
Buddhism» I n t h e corm nentaries and t h e k i n d r e d works t h i s
v e r b a l o n g w i t h i t s noun* r u p p a n a were made u se o f t o
d e v e l o p a d e f i n i t i o n o f r u p a i n t h e s e n s e of m a t t e r . And i n
t h e s e l a t t e r c o n t e x t s t h e y came t o a s s u m e , so t o s a y , a l e s s
r e l i g i o u s and more s c i e n t i f i c tone. This a s s o c i a t i o n of
r u p p a t i w i t h m a t t e r c o u l d c e r t a i n l y be t r a c e d t o t h e S u t t a

..I mill.mi. ■jm.Wn ■ii.iT l » m i f n t w n mrr■ ,n*i.

1. See a b o v e , 46 f f .
V

55

passage. G ould i t t h e n be c o n c lu d e d t h a t i n t h e S u t t a
p a s s a g e , t o o , r u p a was u s e d i n t h e same s e n s e ? Such a
c o n c l u s i o n does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y f o l l o w . We b e l i e v e s u f f i c i e n t
e v i d e n c e was a d d u c e d t o show t h a t t h e r e f e r e n c e i s t o
c e & t a i n s u b j e c t i v e phenomena. What seems t o have happened
is th is . The S u t t a p a s s a g e . p r o v i d e d a d u e l t o d e v e lo p a
d e f i n i t i o n of rupa i n th e sen se of m a t t e r . And once t h i s
was done t h e p a s s a g e i t s e l f was s o u g h t t o be i n t e r p r e t e d
so a s t o f a l l i n l i n e w i t h t h i s d e f i n i t i o n . The a p p a r e n t
c o n n e c t i o n b e tw e e n r u p p a t i an d r u p a ( m a t t e r ) , t o o , seems
t o have e n c o u r a g e d t h e s c h o l i a s t s i n a s s o c i a t i n g t h e f o r m e r
w ith the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the l a t t e r . As a m a t t e r o f f a c t ^
i t i s som etim es s u g g e s t e d t h a t r u p p a t i i s t h e e t y m o l o g i c a l
b ase o f r u p a . Such a t t e m p t s a t p o s t u l a t in g e t y m o l o g i c a l
b a s e s t o s u i t g i v e n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s a r e , i n f a c t , met
w ith i n th e B uddhist e x e g e s is .
I t h a r d l y n e e d s m e n t i o n t h a t t h e v e r b * r u p p a t i and
t h e noun? ru p p a n a when a s s o c i a t e d w i t h th e d e f i n i t i o n of
m a t t e r a r e i n d i c a t i v e of d i s t u r b a n c e i n a p h y s i c a l s e n s e o r
on a p h y s i c a l l e v e l . The c o m m e n t a t o r s 1 s t a t e m e n t , namely
ruppana-lakkharxam rupam , e x p r e s s e s t h e m u t a b i l i t y , c h a h g e a b l e n e s s

frn».wT-fi—t~iri'i t i i mir ■^m^riinii n.i i.a*iH.nMr»~wwiiTpiTfpr lm n i iim m iin rti um m■iiiimnw)

1 . Bee Abhvk. 2 4 5 ; s e e a l s o Ab h id h a n a p p a d T p ik lT -sc h il, 350


56

o r d i s i n t e g r a t i o n o f m a t t e r o r i t s s u s c e p t i b i l i t y and
r e c e p t i v i t y t o b e i n g d i s t u r b e d , o b s t r u c t e d , s c a t t e r e d or
1
dispersed#
**
I n t h e AbhidharraakoSa t h e age n cy o f ru p p a n a
MimMmmi li■ !.......... III V H

2
i s g i v e n a s t h e hand# The i m p l i c a t i o n i s t h a t m a t e r i a l
t h i n g s c o u l d be s u b j e c t e d t o ru p p a n a by o t h e r m a t e r i a l
things# And, t h e f a c t o f ru p p a n a i n m a t t e r i s s a i d t o t a k e
p l a c e by way o f i t s m o d i f i c a t i o n (vipaririaraotpTadana) a n d
3
by way o f i t s s c a t t e r i n g , d i s p e r s a l ( v i k r i y o t p a d a n a ) • In
t h e T h e r a v a d a s o u r c e s t h e phenomenon of ru p p a n a i s o f t e n
i l l u s t r a t e d w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o c o l d ( s T t a ) a n d h e a t (u nha)#
When a p h y s i c a l o b j e c t i s c o n f r o n t e d , w i t h such c o n t r a r y
f o r c e s a s c o l d a n d h e a t , t h e c l i m a t i c d i s t u r b a n c e which i t
4
u n d e r g o e s i s a c a s e o f ru p p a n a i n m a t t e r .
The above d e f i n i t i o n i s c e r t a i n l y n o t v e r y s p e c i f i c #
To s a y t h a t m a t t e r i s t h a t w hich As u b j e c t t o r u p p a n a i s
t o o g e n e r a l a s t a t e m e n t , j u s t as rupam aniccatn ( m a t t e r i s
im p erm anen t)# What i s m o re, a s r e c o g n i z e d i n t h e B u d d h i s t
e x e g e s i s i t s e l f , ru p p a n a c o u l d a l s o mean d i s t u r b a n c e on a

1# Of# UdA#42i VbhA#3-4; VismS.v 51; PsmA• i 79


Q P » c it# , Gh.i 24
3# I b i d . l o c ♦ c i t «, _
4* C f X h p p a t T t i sTtunhadThi v^ilcaram U p a j j a t i ,ap*adiyatT t i
attho# V i k a r a p p a t t i ca sTtadivirodlippaccayasannid.hane
v i s a d u p p a t t i yeva# - Abhvk.245; see a l s o VismS.v 52
57

1
psychological le v e l. I t was p e r h a p s t h e r e c o g n i t i o n of
t h i s g e n e r a l i t y t h a t l e d c e r t a i n Buddhis.ts t o a d v a n c e a n o t h e r
d e f i n i t i o n , more s p e c i f i c t h a n t h e a b o v e . A c c o r d in g t o
t h i s d e f i n i t i o n , g i v e n i n t h e AbhidharmakoiSa a n d i t s
+ ^ M l . H I I .I.'T 'i i i ■u* ■

Vyakhya , ,f p r a t i g h a t a " i s t h e f u n d a m e n t a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c
of m atter.
P r a t i g h a t a i s 111* i m p $ m £ t r a b i l i t y , l e h e a r t oa
r e s i s t a n c e , l f o b s t a c l e qu f un r u $ a oppose & ce que so n l i e u
— 2
s o i t occup$ p a r an a u t r e r u p a " . T his d e f i n i t i o n p o in ts
t o t h e f a c t o f e x t e n s i o n ( o c c u p a t i o n i n s p a c e ) and to th e
f a c t o f r e s i s t a n c e as th e fundam ental c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of
m atter. M a t t e r i s t h a t which i s a a p r a t i g h a , i . e . , th at
w hich c o v e r s o r i s e x t e n d e d i n sp a c e - yad de$am S v r n o t i .
Where t h e r £ i s o n e a a p r a t i g h a o b j e c t t h e r e c a n n o t be ( a t

t h e same t i m e ) a n o t h e r a a p r a t i g h a o b j e c t - y a t r a i k a m

sap ratig h am v a s tu t a t r a dvitT y asy o tp aisfcir na b h a v a t i . ^

Thus t h e d e f i n i t i o n of m a tte r as s a p r a t i g h a brings


in to r e l i e f i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of "covering"(a v aran a -
l a k s a n a ) , i . e . , e x t e n s i o n i n s p a c e and i t s pwwer of r e s i s t a n c e

1 . See abo ve^ 47


2 . A K .C h.i 2 4 -2 5
3* AKvy. i 24
4 . I b i d . , i 56; see a l s o S t c h e r b a t s l c y , O e n t .G o n c e p . i l n . 2
or im p e n e tra b ility ( p ratib an d h an a).
I n t h e T h e ra v a d a Abhidhammic works p a t i g h a i s o f t e n
used as i n d i c a t i v e of the c o n t a c t , a c t u a l or p o t e n t i a l ,
b e tw e e n t h e f i r s t f i v e s e n s e - o r g a n s and t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g
sense-ob;jects* The t e n ih.ems i n q u e s t i o n a r e t h e r e f o r e
** 2
d e s c r i b e d as (rupam) s a p p a t i g h a m . N e v e r th e le s s ,the
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i m p l i e d by t h e above d e f i n i t i o n a r e
r e c o g n i z e d i n t h e TheravacLa, t o o . T h i s i s shown by t h e
c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e f o u r p rim a ry e l e m e n t s o f m a t t e r (maliabhuta)
As we s h a l l s e e i n d e t a i l i n t h e n e x t c h a p t e r , a l t h o u g h
t h e f o u r a r e named p a t h a b T , ITpo, t e j o a n d v a y o , t h e y
a re not u n d ersto o d i n th e popular sense as e a r t h , w a te r,
f i r e , and a i r r e s p e c t i v e l y * The f i r s t r e p r e s e n t s s o l i d i t y
( k a k k h a la tta ) and e x te n s io n ( p a t t h a r a n a ) j th e second
f l u i d i t y (d a v a ts f) an d c o h e s i o n ( b a n d h a n a t t a ) ; t h e t h i r d y ...,1%.s
t h e t e m p e r a t u r e o f c o l d a n d h e a t ( s T t a , u n h a ) j an d t h e f o u r t h
d i s t e n s i o n ( t h a m b h i t a t t a ) a n d m o b i l i t y ( s a m u d T r a n a ) *>, They
a re p o s i t i o n a l l y in s e p a r a b le (padesato av in ib h o g a ) and
n e c e s s a r i l y c o - e x is te n t ( n iy a ta - s a h a ^ a ta ) and are p resen t
in v erying degrees o f i n t e n s i t y (u ssa d a -v a se n a ) in a l l
i n s t a n c e s o f m a t t e r , b e g i n n i n g from t h e s m a l l e s t m a t e r i a l
59

_ _ 1
u n it (ru p a -k a la p a ) to anything b ig g e r th a n th at*
How t h e f a c t t h a t p a t h a v T - d t i a t u , w h ich r e p r e s e n t s
s o l i d i t y a n d e x t e n s i o n * i s s a i d t o be p r e s e n t i n e v e r y
i n s t a n c e o f m a t t e r * i s a n o t h e r way o f s a y i n g t h a t e v e r y
i n s t a n c e o f m a t t e r i s c h a r a c t e r i s e d by s o l i d i t y ( w h a t e v e r be
t h e d e g r e e ) an d e x t e n s i o n ( w h a t e v e r be t h e e x t e n t ) . In the
AbhidharmakoiSa a n d i t s Vyakhya t h e f o u r p r i m a r y e l e m e n t s
a r e d e f i n e d i n more o r l e s s t h e same way. Hence i t i s v e r y
l i k e l y t h a t when t h e y t a k e p r a t i g l i a t a a s t h e f u n d a m e n t a l
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f m a t t e r t h e y have b u i l t up t h i s g e n e r a l
d e f i n i t i o n on t h e same b a s i s .
E le m e n ts o f M a t t e r :
U s e f u l though t h e s e g e n e r a l d e f i n i t i o n s a r e * how
Buddhism i n t e r p r e t e d m a t t e r w ould n o t be q u i t e c l e a r b e f o r e
a s t u d y o f what a r e c a l l e d r u p a - (rr u p in o )» d h a m m a s h as b e e n
made. A c l e a r e r p i c t u r e would emerge o n l y when t h e i n d i v i d u a l

d e f i n i t i o n s g i v e n t o t h e s e i t e m s were ex a m in ed . T his w i l l
be t h e s u b j e c t o f s t u d y i n t h e n e x t f o u r c h a p t e r s . H ow ever,
a few p r e l i m i n a r y o b s e r v a t i o n s on t h e i r g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r
may be made h e r e .
By rupa-dhammas Buddhism means t h e u l t i m a t e i r r e d u c i b l e
f a c t o r s o r d a t a t h a t make up t h e p h y s i c a l w o r l d . Any g iv e n

1. See below* c h . v i i i
60

m a te ria l thing is analy sab le in to these (u ltim a te )


facto rs- A p a r t from th e m , no o t h e r m a t t e r i s r e c o g n i z e d .
That e l u s i v e m e ta p h y s ic a l e n t i t y c a l l e d ^ m atter" i s
e x p l a i n e d away as a n i l l u s i o n .
-A lth o u g h e a c h rupa-dhamma i s p o s t u l a t e d a s i f i t were
a d i s c r e t e e n t i t y , t h i s does n o t im p ly t h a t i t has an
independent ex isten ce* I t i s only f o r th e purposes of
d e s c r i p t i o n , t h a t i t 3s so p o s t u l a t e d . In ac tu a l f a c t, i t
alw a y s e x i s t s i n i n s e p a r a b l e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h a s e t o f o t h e r
rupa-dB-ammas* Even when t h e a n a l y s i s o f m a t t e r u en d e d '1 i n
a to m ism , t h i s t h e o r y o f uc o - o p e r a t e 11 e x i s t e n c e was n o t
abandoned* F or e v e n t h e s o - c a l l e d atom (paramsTnu) i s a g a i n
a c o l l e c t i o n o r g ro u p (k a la 'p a ) o f ru p a -d h a m m a s , one
i n s e p a r a b l e from a not hex*, an d a l l f o r m i n g a u n i t y .
T h e i r i n t e r c o n n e c t i o n i s s o u g h t t o be e x p l a i n e d w i t h
r e f e r e n c e t o laws o f c a u s a t i o n and c o n d i t i o n a l i t y * One
does n o t i n h e r e i n a n o t h e r ; n o r i s one a s u b s t a n c e o f
another* I n b r i e f , no d i s t i n c t i o n b e tw e e n s u b s t a n c e a n d
q u a lity is intro d u ced . A d i s t i n c t i o n i s , h o w e v e r , made
b etw e e n p r i m a r y and s e c o n d a ry * Even h e r e t h e dich otom y i s
s o u g h t t o be e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o c e r t a i n c a u s a l
laws*
F i n a l l y a word may be said , c o n c e r n i n g t h e l i s t o f

t w e n t y s e v e n (so m etim es t w e n t y e i g h t ) rupa-dharamas. Some o f


61

th e item s i n th e l i s t r e p r e s e n t c e r t a i n f a c t s (e .g .,
p h a s e s , m od es, l i m i t a t i o n } c o n n e c t e d w i t h m a t t e r . To
t r a n s l a t e them a s m a t e r i a l e l e m e n t s would, c e r t a i n l y be
a m isnom er. However, t h e r e i s t h i s j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r o u r
d o in g so * B u d d h ists them selves observe t h a t th ey a re no t
t r u e ru p a -d h a m m a s , b u t n o m in a l 11e n t i t i e s ” * Y e t , as a
m a tte r of co n v e n tio n - r u l h i y a - they th em selv es r e f e r to
1
them by t h e same term* Hence i f we, t o o , k e e p on t r a n s l a t i n g
a l l t h e i t e m s a s ^ m a t e r i a l e l e m e n t s ” , t h i s , be i t n o t e d ,
i s done a s a m a t t e r o f ” r u l h i ” .

1* S e e b e l o w , 1 2 7 , 183
62

CHAPTER TWO
THE PRIMARY ELEMENTS
Most o f t h e s c h o o l s o f I n d i a n t h o u g h t , n o t a b l y t h e
Samkhya, • t h e V e d a n ta and t h e m e d i c a l t r a d i t i o n a s r e p r e s e n t e d
by Garaka and, S u S r u t a , r e c o g n i z e f i v e m ahabtiutas ( e l e m e n t a l
s u b s t a n c e s ) , v iz * p r t h i v T ( e a r t h ) , ap ( w a t e r ) , t e j a s (fire),
v’ayu ( a i r ) a n d aka^a (ether).*®- T h at 'alcana i s t h e f i f t h i s
a d m i t t e d by t h e N y a y a - V a i f i e s i k a s , t o o . But i n many r e s p e c t s
i t d i f f e r s from t h e o t h e r f o u r s I t is a non-corporeal
( a m u r ta ) s u b s t a n c e d e v o i d o f t a c t i l i t y ( s p a r d a ) and
c h a r a c t e r i s e d by u b i q u i t y ( v i b h u ) , a b s o l u t e c o n t i n u i t y a n d
i n f i n i t e m agnitude* As s u c h , u n l i k e t h e o t h e r f o u r
s u b s t a n c e s , i t i s n o t , i n t h e u l t i m a t e a n a l y s i s , composed
o f atoms* Thus a l t h o u g h "alcana i s i n t r o d u c e d as a bhTfta,
i n v ie w of i t s p e c u l i a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , i t has t o be
d i s t i n g u i s h e d from t h e o t h e r f o u r a n d i s , i n a way, on a p a r
-w , P
w i t h s u c h i n t a n g i b l e s u b s t a n c e s as k a l a , t i m e . In Jain ism ,
on t h e o t h e r h a n d , i t i s n o t r a n k e d w ith what i s c a l l e d

b h u d a - c a t u k k a , Ht h e e l e m e n t a l te tra d * ' w hich c o n s i s t s o f


p r t h i v T , a p , t e ^ a s , an d vayu. B o th ak'a^a a n d bbTuda-catukka
are brought under th e g e n e ra l h ead in g , a jT v a , n o n - s p i r i t ;
b u t o nly th e l a t t e r i s b r o u g h t u n d e r t h e m ore s p e c i f i c ,

1 . See S e a l : P o s i t i v e S c i e n c e s o f t h e A n c i e n t H in du s . Gh.l*
2 . See B h a d u r i : iMyaya-VaifSesika M e t a p h y s i c s . Oh*111
63

p u g g a l a , mattei**-*-
The p o s i t i o n o f Buddhism i n r e g a r d to t h i s q u e s t i o n
i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t of J a i n i s m * That i s t o s a y , o n l y p a t h a v T ,
a p o , t e j o an d vayo a r e b r o u g h t u nd er t h e h e a d i n g , maiiabhuta*
I t i s o f c o u r s e t r u e t h a t i n t h e Mlcayas som etim es *ak*asa i s
enum erated im m ediately a f t e r , and a p p a r e n t l y as c o - o r d i n a t e
w i t h , t h e above f o u r i t e m s * 2 But t h i s does n o t mean t h a t
"aleas a i s t h e f i f t h mah*abh*uta^ j u s t a s much as v i n n a n a
( c o n s c i o u s n e s s ) , w h i c h , t o o , i s sometimes e n u m e r a t e d a f t e r
the f iv e item s in q u e s tio n , 3 i s n o t t h e s i x t h mah’abhuta*
I t may be n o t e d h e r e t h a t when afcasa a n d v i n n a n a a r e
mentioned, a l o n g w i t h p a t h a v T , a p o , t e j o a n d v*ayo, t h e
( g e n e r a l ) d e s i g n a t i o n u s e d i n r e s p e c t of a l l t h e s i s i t e m s
i s diiatu* On t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e t e r m , maliabh*uta i s alw ays
u s e d i n a more s p e c i f i c s e n s e , i*e* a s r e f e r r i n g o n ly t o
t h e l a s t f o u r item s*
In the l a t e r s c h o l a s t i c i s m , to o , the s i t u a t i o n r e m a in s ’
unchanged* T r u e , on t h e n a t u r e o f *akasa, t h e s c h o l i a s t s
advance more t h a n one i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . ^ B ut on i t s n on ­
r e c o g n i t i o n as a mah*abhuta, t h e y a l l a g r e e *

1* See P a n c a s t i k 'a y a s 'a r a , 79 f f #


2* Of* e • gV i i i 247T" i 421 f f .
3* Of. e .g * M i i i 3 1 ; A i 176
4. See below 7 239
With, t h i s c l a r i f i c a t i o n as t o t h e number o f mahabh*utas,
we may now p r o c e e d t o c o n s i d e r how t h e y a r e u n d e r s t o o d i n
Buddhism* I n t h e NiWayas t h e y a r e d e f i n e d i n s i m p le and
g e n e r a l term s and a re i l l u s t r a t e d m o stly w ith i n f e r e n c e to
t h e c o n s t i t u e n t s o f t h e body; P a t h a v T - d i i a t u i s t h a t which
i s h a r d (k a k k alam ) an d r i g i d ( k h a r i g a t a r a ) e . g ; h a i r o f t h e
head or body, n a i l s , t e e t h , s k i n , f l e s h , etc* np o -d h a 'tu
i s w a t e r J’apo) o r t h a t which i s w a t e r y ( a p o g a t a m ) , e.g*
b i l e , phlegm , p u s , b l o o d , s w e a t , t e a r s , e t c . T ejo-dliatu
i s f i r e o r h e a t ( t e j o ) o r t h a t w hich i s f i e r y ( t e j o g a t m ) ,
eg,; t h e h e a t i n t h e body w hich t r a s m u t e s f o o d a n d d r i n k i n
digestion. Vayo-dharfcu i s a i r (vayo) o r t h a t which i s a i r y
(v ay og atam ) e.g * 11w ind d i s c h a r g e d upwards a n d downwards,
wind i n th e abdomen o r b e l l y , v a p o u r s t h a t t r a v e r s e t h e
s e v e r a l members, i n h a l i n g s and e x h a l i n g s o f b r e a t h . rf^
What one c a n g a t h e r from t h e s e d e f i n i t i o n s i s t h a t
from t h e v e r y b e g i n n i n g Buddhism d i d n o t make a r a d i c a l
d e p a r t u r e from t h e p o p u l a r c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e m a h a b h n t a s .
T here a r e , ho w ev e r, some Mkaiya p a s s a g e s w hich seem t o im ply
t h a t t h e y were u n d e r s t o o d i n a more u a b s t r a c t 1* way, i . e .
as i n t e r p r e t e d i n t h e Abhidhamma. (To t h i s we s h a l l come
65

soon). But w i t h i n t h e B ik a y a s t h e m s e l v e s such i m p l i c a t i o n s


a r e n o t w orked o u t i n t o a c l e a r l y f o r m u l a t e d t h e o r y *
I t i s r e a l l y i n t h e Abhidhamma t h a t we meet w i t h s u c h
a situ atio n . Here we a r e p r e s e n t e d w i t h a d i f f e r e n t c o n c e p t i o n
o f t h e mah*abliutas. Much o f t h e e a r l i e r t e r m i n o l o g y i s
r e t a i n e d , but the e a r l i e r d e f in itio n s are m odified. The
s u b j e c t i s p r e s e n t e d i n g r a t e r d e t a i l an d w i t h more p r e c i s i o n *
Hew t h e o r i e s have b e e n e v o l v e d and new i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s
a d v a n c e d so as t o b r i n g t h e whole s u b j e c t i n l i n e w i t h t h e
o t h e r s u b s e q u e n t d e v e lo p m e n ts o f t h e d o c t r i n e *
F o r t h e Abhidhamma, t o o , lcakkala and k h a r a w hich mean

h a r d a n d r i g i d r e s p e c t i v e l y b r i n g out th e e s s e n t i a l n a t u r e
o f p a t h a v T - d h a t u , t h e e a r t h element.^* The f i r s t i s said, to
represent i t s c h a ra c te ris tic ( l a k k h a n a ) an d t h e s e c o n d i t s
mod.e (ak’a r a . ) * " The q u e s t i o n i s r a i s e d w h e t h e r k a k l c h a l a t t a ,
i . e . h a r d n e s s i s i t s e l f n o t t h e p a th a v T - d h a 'tu . I t is
m a in ta in e d t h a t a lth o u g h t h i s i s the c a s e , y e t f o r th e
c o n v e n ie n c e o f d e f i n i t i o n pathavT-dloatu i s s a i d t o p o s s e s s
th e c h a r a c t e r is t i c of k a k k h a l a t t a * 3
I t w i l l be s e e n t h a t a c c o r d i n g t o t h e Nik*ayan

j i1.1 a i ' nn ■■» n*i i hp^ih *

1. Bee Dhs*177$ Vbh.82


2 . T a t t h a pathamam la k k h a n a -v a c a n a m dutiyam<&Fa ra -v a c a n a rn “Vism .
3* Of.Hanu c a k a k k h a l a t t a m e v a p a t h a v T d i i a t u t i ? Saccametam.
T a t h a p i v i n n a t a v i n n a t a s a d d a t t h a t a v a s e n a a b h in n e p i dhamme
kappariasicLdhena bhedena evarn nid&eso k a t o . Evam h i
: a t t h a v i s e s a v a b o d h o h otT t i . * - VismT. 3 6 2 - 3
66

d e f i n i t i o n what i s (c o m p a ra tiv e ly ) kakkala i s pathavT ,

w h e r e a s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i\b h id h a m m ic d e f i n i t i o n k a k k h a l a t t a

(th e f a c t of hardness) iS i t s e l f . p a t h a v T .

The c o n c e p t i o n o f p a t h a v T - d h a t u i n t h i s way i s n o t
p e c u l i a r t o t h e T herav’ada a l o n e . P a r a l l e l d e f in i t i o n s are
met w i t h i n o t h e r s c h o o l s o f B u d d h i s t t h o u g h t* In i t s chapter
.

on t h e G e n e s i s of t h e W orld, t h e M ahavastu s a y s t h a t when


t h e l i v i n g b e i n g s who l i v e d a t a new e v o l u t i o n o f t h e w orld;,
b e g a n t o e a t whole m o u t h f u l s of t h e e s s e n c e o f t h i s e a r t h
as f o o d , t h e i r b o d i e s came t o p o s s e s s t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s
o f g u r u t v a , , h e a v i n e s s , k h a r a t v a , r o u g h n e s s and k a k k h a t a t v a ,
h a r d n e s s . ’3' The i m p l i c a t i o n i s g i v e n t h a t g u r u t v a , k h a r a t v a
and k a k k a ta tv a r e p r e s e n t the e s s e n t i a l n a tu r e o f pathavT-
diiatu. The .Abhidarmako^a and i t s ¥yak hy a »too „use t h e l a t t e r
two t e r m s i n d e f i n i n g t h e p r t h i v T - d h a t u . 2 I n t h e
A b h i dharma s amuc c a .ya i t
*ni kIMILIWr - HI I IW 1 *V| Mtl I.. If c ll1*1 ■
i s d e f i n e d a s k a t h i n a t s i - 3 a te rm
g 7

vdiich c o u l d be i n t e r p r e t e d as meaning r i g i d i t y o r s o l i d i t y .
A s sue ^ i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s a lm o s t t h e same as t h a t g i v e n by

t h e Therav*adins. Thus t h e r e i s g e n e r a l a g re e m e n t among t h e

1 . Q p . c i t ; i 3 3 9 : e f .Yajfco c a b h i k s a v a s t e s a t v a tarn p r t h i v T
r a s am a 1 o p a k a r akarna h T r am a bn r e n s u h a t h a t e s a m k a y e * g u r u ~
t v am c a k h a r a t v a m c a k a k k h a t a t v a m c a u p a n T p a t e .
2* AK G h . i 22* .AKvyI i 5 7 , 6 6
3* Q p . c i t ; 3
67

B u d d h i s t s c h o l i a s t s i n m a i n t a i n g t h a t what i s c a l l e d
pathavT -dliatu s ta n d s f o r th e phenom enon o f h a r d n e s s ,

r i g i d i t y , s o l i d i t y o r co m p a c tn e s s i n m a t t e r .
P a th a v T - d h e T tu i s a l s o e x p l a i n e d a s t h a t w h i c h e x t e n d s

or spreads out (p a tth a ra tT t i p a t h a v T ) . * 1' E x t e n s i o n i s

o ccup ation in space. "T ridim ensio nal e x te n sio n gives r i s e


t o our i d e a o f a s o l i d b ody. A s no two b o d i e s c a n occupy
t h e same s p a c e a t t h e same tirne^ B uddhists d e riv e t h e i r
idea of h ard n ess ( k a k k h a l a t t a - l a k k h a n a ) from p a th a v T ." ^

Thus t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f p a t h a v T - d t i a t u a s t h e e l e m e n t o f
e x t e n s i o n hidings i n t o r e l i e f a d i f f e r e n t method, o f a p p r o a c h .
I n t h e com m en tarie s we g e t f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n s on t h e
p e c u li a r f u n c ti o n of t h i s elem ent. Buddhaghosa o b s e r v e s
th at i t a c t s as a f o u n d a tio n , a s o r t of fu lc ru m and t h a t i t

m an ifests itse lf as r e c e iv in g (sam paticcana-paccupatth*ana).3

T h i s has b e e n f u r t h e r e x p l a i n e d t o mean t h a t t h e o t h e r t h r e e
primai*y e l e m e n t s a r e e s t a b l i s h e d on i t ( p a •t h a v T - p a t i. t. t h i t ’a *)

and. t h a t t h e r e f o r e i t s e r v e s as a s u p p o r t , a b a s i s
( patitt-h*anam) f o r th era .^ T h a t t h i s v iew i s s h a r e d by t h e
Vaibh*asikas i s shown by t h e i r c o n t e n t i o n t h a t t h e " b e a r i n g - u p "

1. V ism .3 6 4 : ,Abhvt.64e
2 . 0 pa. 1 55 , hTT-----
3* VTsm. see a l s o 4 s l o 3 2 ^ Mvn 58
4 . V i s m . 3 6 8 ; s e e a l s o A s l . 3 3 2 ; Mvn 56,* Abhvk.249
l ii.il urt * ri~iin. niinmnmni^
68

o r s u p p o r t i n g (sarndha'rana) o f s h i p s by w a t e r (~ o c e a n ) i s
a s u f f i c i e n t g r o u n d for* t h e i n f e r e n c e t h a t t h e p r t h i v T - d h a t u
i s p re s e n t in w ater
The above c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e f u n c t i o n o f p a tn av T -d h a’t u
a p p e a r s t o be o n l y a r e f i n e m e n t of t h e p o p u l a r view t h a t
t h e e a r t h as i t i s o r d i n a r i l y u n d e r s t o o d i s a r e c e p t a c l e ,
a s o r t o f dumping g r o u n d f o r a l l t y p e s o f m a t e r i a l t h i n g s *
I t i s , i n f a c t , s i g n i f i c a n t t o n o t e t h a t t h e V ib h a v in T T.lka
o b s e r v e s t h a t ;just as what we c o n v e n t i o n a l l y c a l l e a r t h i s
t h e s u p p o r t o f t r e e s , mountains, e t c * , e v e n so t h e e a r t h
elem ent i s a su p p o rt f o r the o th e r m a t e r i a l e l e m e n t s ,2
ifpo-dhettu r e p r e s e n t s t h e f a c t o f v i s c i d i t y ( s i n e h a )
an d c o h e s i o n o r b i n d i n g t o g e t h e r i n m a t t e r ( r u p a s s a b a n d h a -
n a t t a m ) * ^ B a n d b a n a t t a o r c o h e s i o n r e f e r s more t o i t s f u n c t i o n
"F o r t h e *apo~dhatu b i n d s t o g e t h e r i r o n , e t c * , i n m a s s e s ,m a k e s
them r i g i d . B ecause t h e y a r e so b o u n d , t h e y a r e c a l l e d r i g i d
s i m i l a r l y in the case of s t o n e s , m ountains, palrn-seeds,
e l e p h a n t t u s k s , o x - h o r n s , e t c . . A l l s u c h t h i n g s t h e ’apo-dh’a t u
b i n d s and makes r i g i d ; t h e y a r e r i g i d b e c a u s e o f i t s

1* See Allyy. ± 33 _ ^
2 . Tarupabbat*adTnam p a k a tip ja th a v T v i y a s a h a j a t a r u p ’anam
patitthsmabhav:ena<; p a k k h a y a t i , u p a t t h a t T t i vuttam*
h o t i * - ABSVT.HO
3* See Bhs*177?Vbh. 83
..1 . .....h * + W 1I.I ■»! ■■■*
69

b i n d i n g . 51^* P a g g h a r a n a , f l o w i n g , a n d n i s s a n d a b h a v a , s t a t e
o f s t r e a m i n g , a r e a l s o c i t e d as two o t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s
o f a‘po~dh!atu2 - a v ie w which s u g g e s t s t h e p o p u l a r and common
s e n s e i d e a o f w a t e r . However t h i s does n o t mean t h a t "apo-
d h a t u , as i t came t o be i n t e r p r e t e d i n t h e Abhidhamma, i s
i d e n t i c a l w i t h w a t e r , ifo p rim a ry e l e m e n t c a n e x i s t i n d e p e n d e n t l y
o f , o r i n i s o l a t i o n f r o m , t h e o t h e r t h r e e . 3 Hence a p o - d h a t u
i s p re se n t not only in w ater but a ls o i n a i r , f i r e , e t c .
I n th e s c h o o l s o f S a n s k r i t B uddhism, t o o , t h e a p o - d h a t u
i s d e f i n e d i n a s i m i l a r m anner. I t stands f o r d ra v atv a,
l i q u i d i t y a n d s n e h a t v a , v i s c i d i t y i n m a t e r i a l th in g s .^ * It
may be n o t e d h e r e t h a t t h e ,fa p ^ s u b s t a n c e o f t h e V a i ^ e s i k a s ,
too, h a s t h e same two c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ; apo d r a v a h s n i g d h a h .
B u t , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e V a i ^ e s i k a s , l i q u i d i t y an d v i s c i d i t y a r e
u w
q u a l i t i e s in h e re n t in the ap-substance. Ho s u c h dichotom y
i s re c o g n is e d by the B u d d h is ts , n o tw ith s ta n d in g th e s e m eta-
p h y s i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s , t h e p a r a l l e l i s m goes s t i l l f u r t h e r #
The V a i ^ e s i k a s m a i n t a i n t h a t s a m g ra h a , c o h e s i o n o r a g g l u t i n a t i o n ,

1 . A yap in di-etdT ni h i etpodtiatu a b a n d h i t v a t h a d d h a n i ; I c a r o t i ,


t £ y a 'a b^dclhatta t a n i tha^ddh'ani nama h o n t i . Pa san a p ab b a t a -
ta l a t t h x ^ c h i d a n t a g o £ in g * a d i3 u jpi e s ’ eva n a y o . Sabblani h*
etsfn i si po d h a t u eva "abandhitv’a t h a d d lia n i k a r o t i , aipA dliatuya
'a b a d d h a t t ’a va t h a d d i i a n i h o n t i . - As i . 33 5 ( t r . f r o m E x p o s i t o r ) .
2 . See Vism .365; As i . 3 3 6 ; Abhvk. 2 5 0 1 MVn.5 8
3 . See below^ 78
4 . See AK .C h.i 2 3 , n . 3 ;
5# VS. SS~
70

i s a d i s t i n c t q u a l i t y p r o d u c e d by f l u i d i t y and v i s c i d i t y
o p e r a t i n g t o g e t h e r * ^ The B u d d h i s t s m a i n t a i n t h a t 'a p o - d h 'a t u , w h ic h
s t a n d s f o r t h e f a c t s o f l i q u i d i t y an d v i s c i d i t y , p e r f o r m s
t h e f u n c t i o n o f samgraha* Hence i t i s t h a t a c c o r d i n g to t h e
V a i b h a s i k a s , $he phenomenon o f c o h e r i n g o r n o n - b r o k e n
c o n tin u ity in a blazing f i r e i s due to t h e p r e s e n c e t h e r e i n
o f 'apo-dh’a t u * ^ The same v iew i s x»ecognized by t h e Therav*adins ,
t o o , when t h e y s a y t h a t a'po-dhaitu m a n i f e s t s i t s e l f by i t s
a c t i o n o f c o h e s i o n (a p o d liatu s a n g a h a p a c c u p a t t h ’a n a ) *3
T e j o - d h a t u s i g n i f i e s t h e phenomenon o f h e a t * t h e te rm s
b e i n g u s e d a r e usma an d usuma«^ I n t h e S a n s k r i t s o u r c e s we g e t
u s n a t v a , and i t s c o r r e s p o n d i n g P a l i f o r m , u n h a t t a i s t h e
s t a n d a r d terra u s e d i n t h e P a l i co m m en taries an d th e t T k a s .
One s i g n i f i c a n t f e a t u r e of t h e T h erav ’ada c o n c e p t i o n o f
t e j o - d l i a t u c o n c e r n s t h e q u e s t i o n o f s T t a , c o ld * The
V a i ^ e s i k a s , f o r i n s t a n c e , m a i n t a i n t h a t u s n a , h e a t i s the
p e c u l i a r q u a l i t y of the f i r e - s u b s t a n c e ( t e j a s a > u s n a t a ) and.
t h a t d T t a , c o l d i s t h a t of t h e w a t e r - s u b s t a n c e ( a p s u ^ T t a t ' a ) * 5
S i n c e t h e n a t u r a l t o u c h of w a t e r i s c o l d u o t h e r s u b s t a n c e s
( b o d i e s ) a r e c o l d o n l y i n p r o p o r t i o n t o th e e x t e n t t o which

l . S e e B h a d u r i , H y a y a - V a i ^ e s i k a M e t a p h y s i c s , 126*
“ •'■iin*Ki|imrmm m iT- ‘ *"-*1 * himiiAiI imui jn| mm*mid him h ipimm **^hu llB >| i ton— iiwyji’MlHWTT H il wtn^TTiitin iiin ^■mii'nml »

2*AKvy* i 3 3 .
3 . A s l * 3 3 2 j A b h v t * 65 ; Abhvk*25Q
4*See Dhs. 177; Vbh.83
71

w a t e r e n t e r s i n t o t h e i r c o m p o s i t i o n . 111 That th e
V a i b h a s i k a s , t o o , a s s o c i a t e ^ T ta w i t h 'apo ~dh*atu i s shown
by t h e i r c o n t e n t i o n t h a t t h e to u c h o f c o l d i n wind p o i n t s
| ^^ Q / ^
to th e presence t h e r e i n o f apo-dliatu. S r T l a b h a Ts view :
11Le f e u £ l 6 m e n t a i r e e x i s t e dans l ' e a u , p u is q u e c e l l e - c i e s t
p l u s ou mo i n s f r o i d e ^ iJ3 c a r r i e s t h e i m p l i c a t i o n t h a t h e a t and
c o l d a r e r e p r e s e n t e d by t e j o - d h l a t u and a'po-dhaftu r e s p e c t i v e l y .
The p o s i t i o n t a k e n by t h e Therav’a d i n s i n r e g a r d t o t h i s
question is quite d i f f e r e n t . I n t h e works o f th e Abhidhamma
P i t a k a we do n o t g e t any e x p l i c i t s t a t e m e n t c o n c e r n i n g th e
p o s i t i o n of s T t a , c o l d i n r e l a t i o n to th e p r i m a r y e l e m e n t s .
N e v e r t h e l e s s t h e r e i s no p o s s i b i l i t y o f i t s b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d
as r e p r e s e n t e d by apo-db!atu b e c a u s e t h i s p a r t i c u l a r p r i m a r y
e l e m e n t , as m a i n t a i n e d by t h e T h e r a v a id in s , does n o t come
w i t h i n t h e s p h e r e of t h e t a n g i b l e ( p h o t t h a b b ’a y a t a n a ) . ^ It
i s o n l y i n t h e tTka* l i t e r a t u r e t h a t we a r e p r e s e n t e d w i t h
a c l e a r s t a t e m e n t on t h i s s u b j e c t ; " A lt h o u g h c o l d ( s T t a t ’a)
i s known by t h e s e n s e o f t o u c h , i t i s r e a l l y t . e j o . The
s e n s a t i o n o f c o l d ( s T t a - h u d d h i ) i s o b t a i n e d when t h e h e a t

1• B h a d u ri.j N y a y a - V a i s e s i k a M e t a p h y s i c s , 129*
2. Akvy. i 33
3. A K .C h .i i 146
4. See b e lo w , 94 f f .
72

i s l e s s , f o r t h e r e i s no d i s t i n c t q u a l i t y (g u n a ) c a l l e d
c o l d . , .. * • Hence i t i s t h a t d u r i n g th e summer s e a s o n when
p e o p le h a v in g f i r s t s t a y e d i n t h e sun e n t e r t h e sh ad e t h e y
e x p e r i e n c e t h e s e n s a t i o n o f c o ld * -And when t h e y s t a y t h e r e
f o r a lo n g tim e t h e y e x p e r i e n c e t h e s e n s a t i o n o f h e a t * 1
Thus i n t h e view o f t h e T h e r a v a c t i n s , c o l d i s n o t t h e p e c u l i a r
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f "apo-dtiatu ( a s i s b e l i e v e d by t h e Va i b lias ilea s ) ,
b u t i s t h e r e l a t i v e a b s e n c e o f h e a t* And h e a t i s r e p r e s e n t e d
by t e j o - d K a t u .
The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f u n c t i o n o f t e j o - d h a t u i s p a r i p s i c a n a ,
i * e , ' rip e n in g or m aturing*^ F o r t h i s i s t h e element which
h e a t s , m a t u r e s , s h a r p e n s an d i m p a r t s h e a t t o a l l o t h e r
m a t e r i a l elem ents.-'
V*ayd-dhatu, th e a i r e l e m e n t , as d e f i n e d i n t h e Dhamma-
sanganT, s i g n i f i e s t h a m b h i t a t t a , i n f l a t i o n or d i s t e n s i o n ,
a n d c h a m b h i l t a t t a , . f l u c t u a t i o n o r m o b i l i t y . ^ While t h e o t h e r

1* K i n c a p i h i s T ta t* a p h u s i t v a g a y h a t i ^ s a Pjana t e j o y e v a .
Mande h i u n h a t t e s T t a b u d d f i l , s T t a t a s a h k i i a t ^ s s ^ a k a s s a c i
gunassa a b te v a to . * T a t l i a h i ghammakaile “a t a p e t h a t v a
Chayam p a v i t t l i a n a m s T t a b u d d h i h o t i , t a t t h l e v a c i r a l c a l a m
t h i t a n a m u n f i a b u d d h i . - ADSVT.H i ; s e e a l s o V i s m T . 4 5 9 ;
V i s m S . v 75 f f •
2* See A s l . 3 3 2 _ _ _
3 . G f . T e j e t i p a r i p a c e t i n i s e t v"a t i k k h a b h a v e n a s e s a b h u t a -
t t a y a m u s m a p e t T t i t e j o # - AHSVT* 1 1 0
4 . O p .c i-t. ,1 7 7 ; s e e a l s o V bh.84
m ' wimt ■■■■■n # * m '
73

t h r e e p rim a ry e l e m e n t s s t a n d f o r t h e f a c t s o f s o l i d i t y ,
c o h e s i o n an d h e a t t h i s r e p r e s e n t s t h e more r e s t l e s s and
dynamic a s p e c t o f m a t t e r .
The s t a n d a r d te rm u s e d i n t h e c o m m e n t a r i a l works t o
d e s c r i b e t h e v a y o - d h a t u i s samudTrana which means m o b i l i t y
o r m o tio n # ^ I n t h e S a n s k r i t s o u r c e s samudTranatvam. o c c u r s
i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h l a g h u or l a g h u t ’a ( l i g h t o r l i g h t n e s s ) .
F o r t h e T h e r a v a d i n s , lahut*a r e p r e s e n t s one of t h e s e c o n d a r y
elem ents of ru p a .^ T h i s seems t o be th e r e a s o n why t h e y do
n o t a s s o c i a t e i t w i t h v’a y o - d h a t u which i s one o f th e p rim a ry
e l e m e n t s o f rupa*
*■
The Abhidharmako^a t a k e s n o t e o f a s i m i l a r
r»a..ii g u m i I I I ri H U

p ro b lem . I t obsex^ves t h a t a c c o r d i n g t o a Suftra t h e v’a y o - d h a t u


i s l a g h u t v a a n d t h a t a c c o r d i n g to t h e P r a k a r a n a s l a g h u t v a i s
a secondary ru p a. I t s e e k s t o r e c o n c i l e t h e two v ie w s by
s t a t i n g t h a t irl e dharma q u i a pour n a t u r e l a m o t io n ( T r a n a t m a k a ) ,
c ! e s t l f £l£m en t v e n t : s a n a t u r e ( l £ g e r e t £ ) e s t m a n i f e s t e e
p a r s o n a c t e de m o t io n (T ra n a k a r m a n )1*.^* As t h e T h e r a v a d i n s
c o n c e i v e l a h u t a as a s e c o n d a r y e le m e n t of r u p a , i n t h e i r
o p i n i o n i t i s n o t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h one p a r t i c u l a r p rim a ry
e l e m e n t b u t i s d e p e n d e n t on a l l t h e f o u r . ^

1. See As1 . 3 3 2 ; A bh vk .2 51 .
2. See AK.Ch.i 2 3 , n . 2 ; AKvy. i 33
3. See below., 98 ‘:ff . \
4. AK.Ch.i 2 3 .
5. See below* 204 f f .
74-

These a r e o n l y m inor d i f f e r e n c e s . T here i s g e n e r a l


ag reem en t among t h e s c h o l i a s t s t h a t v’ayo-dh’a t u i s
r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f m o b i l i t y or m otion ( T r a n a , sam udT rana).

W ith th e dev e lo p m en t of t h e t h e o r y of m om entaria'ess


' ( k s a n i k a - v ’a d a ) t h e above d e f i n i t i o n o f v'ayo-dh'atu c o u l d
no t be r e t a i n e d w i t h o u t m o d i f i c a t i o n . We s h a l l d i s c u s s t h i s
th eo ry in a l a t e r c h a p te r. S u f f i c e i t to n o t e h e r e t h a t
a c c o r d i n g t o i t , a l l e l e m e n t s of e x i s t e n c e , m e n t a l as w e l l
as m a t e r i a l , a r e of momentary d u r a t i o n ; t h e y a r e momentary
a p p e a r e n c e s o r momentary f l a s h i n g s . , C l o s e l y co nn ected , w i t h
t h i s t h e o r y i s t h e d e n i a l o f m o t io n . As t h e Ah h i d ha rrn ako £ a
o b .serv e s: ” Le c o n d i t i o n n £ n ' e x i s t e pas au delfe de 1 f a c q u i s i t i o n
de s o n < H re ; i l p £ r i t h l a p l a c e oh i l e s t n S ; i l ne p e u t de
c e t t e p l a c e a l l e r a une a u t r e I f v’ay o-d h’a t u is .
r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f m o b i l i t y or m o t i o n , how i s t h i s s t a t e m e n t
t o be r e c o n c i l e d w i t h t h e d e n i a l of m o tio n ?
I n k e e p in g w i t h t h e t h e o r y o f m o m e n t a r i n e s s m o t io n
to o i s g i v e n a d i f f e r e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n : “Par. ^ n o tio n , on
e n t e n d ce qui f a i t que l a s £ r i e d* <§tats q u i c o n s t i t u e n t une
ch o se va se r e p r o d u ^ i s a n t dans des l l e u x d i f f b r e n t s ; de mSme
qu*on p a r l e de l a m o t i o n d*u n e f l a m m e . “ 3 A ccordingly,

1. Bee below*, 220 f f .


2 . O p . c i t . , C h . i v 4 -5
3 . AK.C'h.i 2 2 - 2 3 .
75

m o t io n has t o he u n d e r s t o o d , n o t as t h e movements , o f an
e l e m e n t from one l o c u s i n s p ac e t o a n o t h e r ( d e S a n t a r a g a m a n a ) P
b u t as t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f d i f f e r e n t e l e m e n t s i n a d j a c e n t
l o c a t i o n s ( d e & a n t a r o t p a t t i ) * ■** For i n t h e c a s e of momentary
th e re
elem ents wherever appearance ta k e s p l a c e d /i t s e l f ta k e s place
d i s a p p e a r a n c e : y a t r a i v o t p a t t i h t a t r a i v a v in a s 'a h ? The c l a s s i c
example g i v e n i n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n i s t h e l i g h t o f t h e lamp*
The s o - c a l l e d l i g h t o f t h e lam p, i t i s c o n t e n d e d , i s n o t h i n g
b u t a common d e s i g n a t i o n g i v e n t o an u n i n t e r r u p t e d p r o d u c t i o n
of a s e r i e s of fla s h in g p o in ts . When t h e p r o d u c t i o n chang es
p l a c e r one s a y s t h a t t h e l i g h t has c h a n g e d . But i n r e a l i t y
o t h e r f la m e s have a p p e a r e d i n a n o t h e r p l a c e . ^
I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to n o te t h a t t h i s new d e f i n i t i o n o f
m o tio n has somehow o r o t h e r fo u n d i t s way t o Therav'ada
s c h o l a s t i c i s m t h a t f l o u r i s h e d a f t e r t h e tim e o f B uddhaghosa.
I n t h e e a r l i e r P"ali c o m m en tarie s va’yo-dh'atu i s u n d e r s t o o d
a s i n d i c a t i v e o f m o tio ns b u t t h e r e i n m o t i o n i s n o t d e n i e d .
I n t h e l a t e r w o r k s , n o t a b l y t h e tTlcas , m o t io n i s d e n i e d ;
t h a t i s t o s a y , i t i s i n t e r p r e t e d as d e s a n t a r u p p a t t i , th e

1 . Alcvy.i 33 * s e e a l s o KSP: MCB.iv 2 1 9 -2 0


2 . /VKyy.i 33
3 * . S e e , S t c h e r b a t s k y , B u d d h i s t L o g i c , i 99
76

a p p e a r a n c e o f momentary e l e m e n t s i n a d j a c e n t l o c a t i o n s . ^ *
T h i s new development h as n e c e s s i t a t e d a m o d i f i c a t i o n i n t h e
e a r l i e r d e f i n i t i o n of v ay o -d lo a tu . Hence i t i s t h a t t h e
s c h o l i a s t s s e e k t o d e f i n e v'ayo-dliatu a s t h e c a u s e o f ^ m o tio n ”
d e s a n ta ru p p a tti). I t i s t h a t w hich c a u s e s or b r i n g s a b o u t
t h e a r i s i n g of momentary e l e m e n t s i n a d j a c e n t l o c a t i o n s
( d e s a n t a i * u p p a t t i - h e t u - b h a v e n a # • • g a m e tT t i ) . ^ The r e c o g n i t i o n ,
on t h e p a r t of t h e T herav ’a d i n s , o f t h i s new d e f i n i t i o n o f
m o t io n i s no m a t t e r f o r s u r p r i s e f o r , a s we s h a l l s e e i n a
3
l a t e r c h a p t e r , t h e y t o o developed, a t h e o r y o f m o m e n t a r i n e s s
w h ic h , e x c e p t f o r minor d e t a l k ^ p r e s e n t s a c l o s e p a r a l l e l i s m
t o t h a t o f t h e s c h o o l s o f S a n s k r i t Buddhism.
From t h e f o r e g o i n g d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e foui? maha’bh’u t a s
i t w o uld a p p e a r t h a t , as i n t e r p r e t e d by t h e J b h i d h a m m ik a s ,
p ath av T s t a n d s f o r s o l i d i t y an d e x t e n s i o n , "apo f o r v i s c i d i t y
a n d c o h e s i o n , t e j o f o r h e a t a n d m a t u r i n g a n d vayo f o r
m o t io n o r ( a c c o r d i n g t o t h e l a t e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ) t h e c a u s e
o f m otion. The f o u r a r e n o t t h e q u a l i t i e s o r a t t r i b u t e s of
what i s c a l l e d b h * u ta -r u p a , t h e p r i m a r y m a t t e r ; on t h e c o n t r a r y ,
they are i t s c o n s t i t u e n t s . In t h i s r e s p e c t , th ey are lik e th e

1. See Vism T.359; ADSVT.UO; A b h y k .2 4 9 ,251


2. VismfT3 5 9 “
3. S ee^ b elo w ^ 223 ff*
77

t h r e e g u n as o f Seimkhya,. w hich form t h e c o n s t i t u e n t s o f


p r a k r t i , t h e u l t i m a t e c a u s a l nexus o f t h e w o r l d o f n o n s e l f *
The f o u r maliabhntas a r e c o - o r d i n a t e and r e p r e s e n t f o u r
d i s t i n c t f o r c e s or phenomena i n t h e r e a l m o f m a t t e r * The
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( l a k k h a n a ) , f u n c t i o n s ( r a s a ) , an d m a n i f e s t a t i o n
( p a c c u p a t t h ’a n a ) o f one a r e d i f f e r e n t from t h o s e o f a n o t h e r
The n o n - a l t e r a t i o n o f t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i s c o n s t a n t l y
a l l u d e d to* However much one mahabhuta i s i n f l u e n c e d by
t h e o t h e r s 9 i t n e v e r abandons i t s e s s e n t i a l n a t u r e . In
t h i s co n n ectio n the A tth a s a lin x r e f e r s to a S u tta passage
where i t i s s t a t e d t h a t t h e f o u r maLiabhutas m ig h t a l t e r
t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s so'oner t h a n i t were p o s s i b l e fox1 t h e
A r i y a n d i s c i p l e endowed w i t h a s s u r e d f a i t h i n th e Buddha
o
to a l t e r . The i m p l i c a t i o n i s t h a t b o t h a r e i m p o s s i b i l i t i e s .
What a l l t h i s amounts t o i s t h a t t h e f o u r maha'bh’u t a s w hich
s t a n d f o r f o u r d i s t i n c t u l t i m a t e d a t a o f a l l m a t e r i a l phenomena
a r e n e i t h e r t r a n s m u t a b l e i n t o one a n o t h e r n o r r e d u c i b l e t o
a common gi’ound*
T h e r e i s , how ever, a way i n which t h e y g r o u p t h e m s e l v e s
i n t o two p a i r s , e a c h h a v i n g one common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c .

1 .... s a b b a ’sarn p i dliafunam s a l a k k h a n a d i t o n a n a t t a m . Annan*


eva h i p ath av T d h atu y a la k k h a n a r a s a p a c c u p a ttii a n a n i, arm ani
’a p o d h a t u - a ’dTnam. - V i s m . 366
2 . 0 p *c i t . , 3 3 6 .
78

Buddhaghosa n o t e s t h a t pattoavT-dh*atu and a p o - d h a t n . a r e


s i m i l a r i n h e a v i n e s s ( g a r u l c a t t ’a s a b h a g a ) a n d t h a t t e j o - d h a t u
an d v ^ y o - d ti a t u a r e s i m i l a r i n l i g h t n e s s ( l a h u k a t t ' a sabh'ag’a ) *^
T h i s t h e o r y seems t o have b e e n d e v e lo p e d fro m t h e o b s e r v a t i o n
o f some of t h e f e a t u r e s o f t h e rnahabiiutas as u n d e r - s t o o d i n
the popular or l i t e r a l sen se. I t i s a ls o re m in iscen t of the
c o n t e n t i o n o f t h e VaisSesikas , namely t h a t w e i g h t i s p o s s e s s e d
by o n l y two e l e m e n t a l s u b s t a n c e s - e a r t h a n d w a t e r
A n o th e r f u n d a m e n ta l f e a t u r e o f t h e rnahabiiutas i s t h a t
t h e y always e x i s t t o g e t h e r ( s a h a j a t a , sahabh*u) . No maiiabliuta
can e x i s t in d ep en d en tly of the o th e r t h r e e . 3 The n a s c e n c e $
s u b s i s t a n c e an d t h e e v a n e s c a n c e ^ o f one do always s y n c h r o n i s e
w ith th o se of the o t h e r s . I t isprecisely fo r t h i s reason
th a t t h e i r r e l a t i o n i s described as one o f recip ro cal
c o n a s c e n c e (annam* a n n a - s aha j*ata) * ^ T h at i s t o s a y , s i n c e no
rnababliuta c a n come i n t o b e i n g i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f t h e o t h e r s ,
i n t h i s s e n s e , e a c h i s p o s t u l a t e d as a c o n d i t i o n by way o f
co-nascence (annam *anna-sahajata-paccaya) i n r e l a t i o n to
f.
the o th er t h r e e *

1. See iVism. i~i 368 »


-*1-1-'-mi— t
2. See N y a y a - V a i s e g ik a M e t a p h y s i c s 9 123*
3. See T lcp.3, 1 4 , 3 8 f f . ; A K . C h .i i 248
4. See below., 223 f f *
5. Tlcp.3 ^14
6. Ib id .lo c .c it• ;
r T^-MMi.niiiri-1 I'VAniKaM
79

The co m m entato rs s e e k t o e x p l a i n t h e m u tu a l c o n d i t i o n a l i t y
o f t h e ma h a b h u ta s un d er a l l p o s s i b l e c o m b i n a t i o n s and
p e r m u t a t i o n s ; T a k in g e a c h one b e g i n n i n g w i t h 11e a r t h 11 t h e r e
a r e t h r e e o t h e r s whose o c c u r r e n c e i s due t o t h a t o n e , t h u s
w i t h t h r e e due t o o n e , t h e i r o c c u r r e n c e t a k e s p l a c e i n f o u r
ways. L i k e w i s e e a c h one b e g i n n i n g w i t h “ e a r t h 11, o c c u r s i n
dependence on t h e o t h e r t h r e e , t h u s w i t h one due t o t h r e e ,
theix* o c c u r r e n c e t a k e s p l a c e i n f o u r ways* But w i t h t h e l a s t
two d e p e n d e n t on t h e f i r s t tw o , w i t h t h e f i r s t two dep e n d en t
on t h e l a s t tw o , w i t h t h e s e c o n d and f o u r t h d e p e n d e n t
on t h e f i r s t and t h i r d , w i t h t h e f i r s t an d t h i r d d ep e n d en t
on t h e s e c o n d and f o u r t h , w i t h t h e f i r s t a n d f o u r t h d epe n den t
on t h e s e c o n d a n d t h i r d , w i t h t h e s e c o n d a n d t h i r d d ep e n d e n t
on t h e f i r s t and f o u r t h , t h e y o c c u r i n s i x ways w i t h two
e l e m e n t s due t o t w o T h e fundam ental p r i n c i p l e in v o lv ed
i n t h e r e l a t i o n by way o f r e c i p r o c a l c o - n a s c e n c e i s t h a t ,
when one e l e m e n t a r i s e s , t h e o t h e r t h r e e t o o must a r i s e
sim ultaneously. With t h i s as t h e b a s i s , t h e com m en tators
have shown how e a c h o f t h e rnahabiiutas b ec o m e s, a t one and
t h e same t i m e , t h e c o n d i t i o n as w e l l as t h e c o n d i t i o n e d i n
r e l a t i o n t o t h e o t h e r s , u n der d i f f e r e n t c o m b i n a t i o n s and
perm utations.

1. P a t h o f P u r i f i c a t i o n t 405 (Vism. 570)


80

C lo se ly connected w ith t h i s is the i n s e p a r a b i l i t y of


t h e mahabhTitas*Thby e x i s t i n i n s e p a r a b l e ( a v i n i b h o g a )
a s s o c i a t i o n : t h e y a r e n o t p o s i t i o n a l l y r e s o l v a b l e ; one
rflaiiabliuta c a n n o t be s e p a r a t e d from t h e i>est*^ Buddhaghosa
ex p la in s t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of i n s e p a r a b i li t y in a r a th e r
m y s t e r i o u s way: uAnd j u s t a s , whomsoever t h e g r e a t c r e a t u r e s
mich as t h e s p i r i t s g r a s p h o l d of ( p o s s e s ) , t h e y have no
s t a n d i n g p l a c e e i t h e r i n s i d e him o r o u t s i d e him a n d y e t t h e y
have no s t a n d i n g i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f him , so too t h e s e e l e m e n t s
are not found to s ta n d e i t h e r in sid e or o u ts id e each o th e r ,
y e t t h e y have no s t a n d i n g i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f one a n o t h e r . ^
What i s a t t e m p t e d t o show i s t h a t t h e y have no t h i n k a b l e
s ta n d in g place r e l a t i v e to each o th e r .
T his e x p la n a tio n as to th e r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n of th e
rnahabiiutas i s s o u g h t t o be j u s t i f i e d on t h e f o l l o w i n g g r o u n d s :
I f t h e y were t o e x i s t i n s i d e e a c h o t h e r , t h e n t h e y would
n o t p e rfo rm t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e f u n c t i o n s . I f t h e y were t o
e x i s t o u t s i d e e a ch o t h e r , t h e n t h e y would be r e s o l v a b l e and
i n such a case th e th e o r y of i n s e p a r a b i l i t y ( a v in i b b h u t t a v * a d a )

1 . See Vism . ^6 8
2 * ffatfo o f ^ P u r i f i c a t i o n . 4 0 1 ; (Vism.367 :Y ath a ca yakkhsT&Tni
m n h a b h u ta n i yam g a n h a n t i n ! eva nesam t a s s a a n t o na b a h i
thanam u p a l a b b h a n t i , na ca tarn n i s s a y a na t i t t h a n t i , evam1
eva j e t a n i p i n ’ eva annam1a n n a s s a a n t o na bahx t h i t a n i
h u tv a u p a l a b b h a n t i * I!a ca ahnamf annam n i s s a y a na t i t t h a n t T
ti)
81

would have no v a l i d i t y * T herefore t h e i r s ta n d in g place


c a n n o t be shown* ^
E a c h mahsTbhTTta a s s i s t s t h e r e m a i n i n g t h r e e by p e r f o r m in g
its p ecu liar fu n ctio n : The e a r t h e le m e n t w hich i s h e l d
t o g e t h e r by w a t e r , m a i n t a i n e d by f i r e and d i s t e n d e d by a i r
i s a c o n d i t i o n f o r t h e o t h e r t h r e e g r e a t p r i m a r i e s by a c t i n g
as t h e i r foundation* The w a t e r e le m e n t which i s f o u n d e d on
e a r t h , m a i n t a i n e d by f i r e an d d i s t e n d e d b y a i r i s a c o n d i t i o n
f o r t h e o t h e r t h r e e p r i m a r i e s by a c t i n g as t h e i r c o h e s i o n .
The f i r e e l e m e n t w hich i s fo u n d e d on e a r t h , h e l d t o g e t h e r
by w a t e r an d d i s t e n d e d by a i r i s a c o n d i t i o n f o r t h e o t h e r
t h r e e p r i m a r i e s by a c t i n g as t h e i r m a i n t a i n i n g . The a i r
e le m e n t which i s f o u n d e d on e a r t h , h e l d t o g e t h e r by w a t e r ,
an d m a i n t a i n e d by f i r e i s a c o n d i t i o n f o r t h e o t h e r t h r e e
p
p r i m a r i e s b y a c t i n g as t h e i r d i s t e n s i o n . Thus e a c h raahabhuta
depends o n , a n d i s d epend ed on by,, t h e o t h e r t h r e e . T heirs
i s a c a s e o f m u tu a l c o - o p e r a t i o n , a r e m a r k a b l e p o l i c y o f g i v e
and t a k e .
S in c e t h e f o u r mahnbliutas e x i s t alw ays t o g e t h e . r , and
s i n c e t h e y a r e n o t s e p a r a b l e , one from a n o t h e r , t h e p o s i t i o n
t a k e n by t h e B u d d h i s t s i n r e s p e c t of t h e q u e s t i o n how t h e y

1 . Yadi h i ima d h atu y o annamTa n n a s s a a n to thiteT na s a k i c c a ­


lcars* s i yum . i\th a b a h i t t h a v i n i b b h u t t ' a siyum . T a t t i a j s a t i
a v in ib b h u tta v * ad o tiayeyya! Tasrna na n i d d i s i t ' j a b b a t t b a n ^ .
- VisrnT. 3 6 4 ; s e e a l s o i\bhvk«248
2. P u r i f i c a t i o n , 4 o ^ (V is m . 368-9)
82

e n t e r i n t o th e co m p o sitio n of d i f f e r e n t m a t e r i a l a g g re g a te s

is quite c l e a r ; In every in s ta n c e of m a tte r a l l the fo u r


mahsfchTItas a r e n e c e s s a r i l y p r e s e n t * On t h i s v ie w t h e r e i s
g e n e r a l a g r e e m e n t among t h e B u d d h i s t s c h o o l s * The V a i b h a s i k a s ,
f o r i n s t a n c e , m a i n t a i n t h a t t h e p r e s e n c e o f J a l a , t e j a s , and
vayu i n an e a r t h y s u b s t a n c e ( p r t h i v T d r a v y e ) i s i n f e r r e d from
i t s c o h e s i o n , m a t u r i n g and e x p a n s i o n r e s p e c t ! ' v e l y ; t h e p r e s e n c e
o f p r t h i v T , t e j a s an d v"ayu i n water* i s shown by i t s s u p p o r t
o f s h i p s , i t s h e a t an d m o tio n ; t h e p r e s e n c e o f p r t h i v T ,
udaka and vayu i n a b i a s i n g f i r e i s shown by i t s s o l i d i t y
( s t h a i r y a ) , c o h e s i o n o r u n bro ke n c o n t i n u i t y a n d m o b i l i t y ;
and t h e p r e s e n c e o f p r t h i v T , ap and t e j a s i n t h e a i r i s
shown by i t s a c t i o n o f h o l d i n g u p , i t s t o u c h o f c o l d and
i t s t o u c h o f h eat.^ -
A ccordingly a l l m a t e r i a l th in g s or a g g re g a te s are
n e c e s s a r i l y ,rt e t r a - b h a u t i c " , With t h i s may be c o n t r a s t e d
t h e V e d a n t i c v iew a c c o r d i n g t o which t h e r e c a n be 11mono-
b h a u t i c ” s u b s t a n c e s as e a r t h y , w a t e r y , e t c . | But t h i s
s t a t e m e n t needs q u a l i f i c a t i o n , 2 F or i n t h e vie^v o f t h e

1, p r t h i v i - d r a v y e s amg r a h a ~ p a k t i - v yti ha na - da r £ a ha c chesanam


J a l a - t e JO“V*ayunam a s t i tv am anumTyate, apsu nau-samdh*ar-
ano s n a t e r a na - k a r ma - da r £ a na k. p r t h i v T t e J o-v’ay’unam a s t i t v a m ,
a g n i- jv a l* a yam s t h a i r y a - s a m t>nda na -c a l a na - da r &a na t pr t (j i v y »
udaka “V'ay’unam a s t i t v a m * vayau s amd h a r a na - s i t o s na - s ptrr sa »
d a r fia n a t p rtfa iv y ~ a p ~ te Jasam a s t i t i v a m i t i V a i b h n s i k a h , ~
AKvy, i 33*
2* See S e a l ; P o s i t i v e Sc i e n c e s o f t h e A n c i e n t I i i n d u a sQ h » l ,
83

Vedarifcins’i t h e r e a r e f i v e sTiksma-bhutas ( s u b t l e ) c o r r e s p o n d i n g
t o t h e f i v e rnaliabloutas ( g r o s s ) . And a c c o r d i n g t o t h e theox^y
o f p a n c i k a r a n a , q u i n t u p l i c a t i o n , fft h e f i v e s'uksma-bh’u t a s a r e
p r e s e n t a s i n g r e d i e n t s , th o u g h i n d i f f e r e n t p r o p o r t i o n s , i n
*1

e a c h rnah‘a b h u t a . ,t-1* Hence from th e s t a n d p o i n t o f t h e suksrna-


b h n t a s e a c h a n d e v e r y m a t e r i a l o b j e c t t u r n s o u t t o be
up e n ta-b h au tic .u
I t i s i n f a c t t h e v iew of t h e V a i S e s i k a s t h a t s t a n d s
in c o n t r a s t t o the Buddhist t h e o r y . The d i f f e r e n c e s b etw een
t h e B u d d h i s t s a n d t h e VaiiSesikas i n r e g a r d t o t h i s q u e s t i o n
w i l l be c l e a r i f we c o n s i d e r how t h e y e x p l a i n t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n
o f t h e human body. A c c o rd in g t o t h e f o r m e r i t i s composed
o f a l l t h e f o u r ma hab h u t as ( c a t umma hab liu t i k o ! y am k a y o ) .
A ccording t o th e l a t t e r i t i s e s s e n t i a l l y e a r t h y . The o t h e r
s u b s t a n c e s do n o t e n t e r i t a s i t s s u b s t a n t a t i v e o r m a t e r i a l
causes.
The V a i ^ e s i k a theox^y i s b a s e d on t h e f o l l o w i n g a r g u m e n ts :
The c o n j u n c t i o n o f t h i n g s p e r c e p t i b l e and. i m p e r c e p t i b l e i s
i t s e l f im perceptible* H ence, s i n c e akla^a a n d vayu m m
a r e i m p e r c e p t i b l e , t o m a i n t a i n t h a t t h e human body i s a

1. Ib id .lo c.c i t * -
84

c o n j u n c t i o n o f t h e f i v e b liu ta s i s t a n t a m o u n t t o s a y i n g t h a t
i t i s i t s e l f i m p e r c e p t i b l e S e c o n d l y , i t i s one o f t h e
th e s e s o f the V a i^ e s ik a s t h a t th e q u a l i t y i n the e f f e c t i s
o
p r e c e d e d by t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g q u a l i t y i n t h e ca u s e # It is
a l s o m a i n t a i n e d t h a t no e f f e c t c a n t a k e p l a c e e x c e p t t h r o u g h
t h e c o m b i n a t i o n of two component e l e m e n t s . T herefore i f
e a r t h u n i t e s w i t h w a t e r t o form a compound, t h e compound
w i l l be d e v o i d of o d o u r , f o r odour i s p r e s e n t o n l y i n e a r t h .
S i m i l a r l y a compound o f e a r t h a n d f i r e w i l l have no^o do ur
an d t a s t e , f o r t h e y a r e p o s s e s s e d o n l y by e a r t h . Likew ise
a compound o f e a r t h a n d a i r w i l l be o d o u r l e s s , t a s t e l e s s a n d
c o l o u r l e s s , f o r o d o u r , t a s t e and c o l o u r b e l o n g t o e a r t h and
not to air* Wow a l l t h e f o r e g o i n g q u a l i t i e s a r e p r e s e n t i n
t h e human b ody. T h e r e f o r e i t i s t o be c o n l u d e d t h a t i t i s
~7
not a com bination of a l l the f iv e b h u ta s .^
The above argument., of t h e V a i S e s i k a s i s p a r t l y based
on th e c o n t e n t i o n t h a t a i r p o s s e s s e s o n l y t o u c h , f i r e p o s s e s s e s
c o l o u r a n d t o u c h , w a t e r p o s s e s s e s t a s t e , c o l o u r an d t o u c h
an d th a t e a rth possesses s m e l l and a l l t h e f o r e g o i n g q u a l i t i e s .
For th e B u d dhists s m e ll, t a s t e , co lo u r, e t c . , are n o t the
q u a l i t i e s o f t h e mahabbHtas; t h e y a r e a s e t o f s e c o n d a r y

1. B h a d u r i , ilyjaya-Vaifiejsika M e t a p h y s i c s , 152
2. l S r a n a g u n a p j a r v a k a h ^ k a r y a g n ^ c ^ s t a h 7 7 ~ VS. 74-
3o Bha du r i , *Ky a y a - Va i $ e s’i k a M e t a p h y s i c s , 151 f t •
85

e l e m e n t s d e p e n d e n t on t h e l a t t e r . In point of f a c t , a
t h e o r y s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f t h e V a i ^ e s i k a s i s c i t e d by
Buddhaghosa o n l y to be r e f u t e d as u n s a t i s f a c t o r y . The
m ain theme o f h i s argument., rnay be s t a t e d as f o l l o w s : If
s m e l l were th e s p e c i a l q u a l i t y o f e a r t h , t h e n t h e s m e l l o f
c o t t o n w h ich has an e x c e s s o f e a r t h i n i t s h o u l d be g r e a t e r
t h a n t h a t o f f e r m e n t e d l i q u o r which has an e x c e s s of w a t e r
in i t . A g a i n , i f c o l o u r were t h e s p e c i a l q u a l i t y o f f i r e ,
t h e n t h e c o l o u r of h o t w a t e r which has an e x c e s s o f f i r e in
i t s h o u l d be b r i g h t e r t h a n t h a t of c o l d w a t e r , n e i t h e r of
these th in g s is tru e . T herefore the th eo ry in ..q u estio n should
be a b a n d o n e d . ^ I t i s a l s o o b s e r v e d t h a t o f t h e rnahabiiutas
w h ich a r e n o t s e p a r a b l e , one from a n o t h e r , one c a n n o t s a y
t h a t t h i s i s a q u a l i t y o f t h a t one o r t h a t i s a q u a l i t y o f
t h i s one.^
The f a c t t h a t Buddhism does n o t c o n c e i v e t h e m ahabhutas
as e t e r n a l and e v e r - p e r d u r i n g s u b s t a n c e s h as a l s o some
r e l e v a n c e t o i t s a t t i t u d e to w a r d s t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f m a t e r i a l
aggregates. A p i e c e o f i c e , a c c o r d i n g t o Buddhism , i s

1. G f.Te v a t t a b b a : iccheyyama y n d i ‘apa’d .hikassa a b a v a s s a


g a n d h a to p a t h a v T - a d h i k e k a p p a s e gdndho a d h i k a t a r o s i y a ,
t e j ' a d h i k a s s a ca u n h o d a k a ssa v a n n a t o s T t u d a k a s s a vanno
p a r i h a y e t h a . Yasma p a n f etam ubhayam p i n a t t h i , tasma
p a h a y e t h 1 etam p 'e t e s a m nissayabh'ut'anam v i s e s a k a p p a n a m .
Vism•444
2. A v i n i b b h o g a v u t t T s u h i b h n t e s u , ayam im a s s a guno ayam
im assa guno t i na l a b b h a v a t t u n t i . « i b i d . l o c . c i t . ..
86

composed o f a l l t h e four* maha'bhu'tas. I t s s o l i d i t y , co h esio n ,


e t c . , p o i n t t o their* p r e s e n c e t h e r e i n . For the V a i^ e s ik a s ,
i c e i s e s s e n t i a l l y a w a t e r y (a p ) substance. I n , t h e i r v ie w ,
a l l m a tte r i s u l t i m a t e l y r e d u c ib le to the fo u r kinds of
e t e r n a l l y e x i s t i n g a t o m s , n a m e ly , t h e e a r t h y , t h e ? / a t e r y ,
t h e f i e r y and t h e a i r y . S in c e no s u b s t a n c e i s d e s t r o y a b l e ,
d e c o m p o s tio n o f a compound means i t s r e v e r s a l t o t h e o r i g i n a l
p o sitio n . Hence when i c e i s melt i t becomes w a t e r a n d w a t e r
i s u l t i m a t e l y composed o f w a t e r y ato m s .^ From t h e B u d d h i s t
s t a n d p o i n t w h e t h e r i c e r e m a in s a s i t i s , o r w h e th e r i t becomes
w a t e r when m e l t , o r v a p o u r when e x c e s s i v e l y h e a t e d , i n a l l
t h e s e d i f f e r e n t s t a t e s t h e f o u r mah'abhutas a r e p r e s e n t .
A lt h o u g h a l l t h e f o u r mah’abhu'tas a r e p r e s e n t i n e v e r y
i n s t a n c e o f m a t t e r , y e t t h e r e i s no ' q u a n t i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e
b e tw e e n them . In o th e r w ords, they e n te r i n t o th e com position
of m a te ria l th in g s in equal p ro p o rtio n .^ T here i s as^muph
"apo-dliatu i n a b l a z i n g f i r e as t h e r e i s i n wood o r w a t e r .
I t i s a r g u e d t h a t i f t h e r e were t o be a q u a n t i t a t i v e
d i f f e r e n c e b e tw e e n t h e mah'abhutas t h a t e n t e r i n t o t h e
com position of m a t e r i a l o b j e c t s , th e n th e t h e s i s t h a t they

1. See B h a d u r i , h y a y a - V a i £ e s i k a s M e t a p h y s i c s « C h .v i
2. See VismT.4 50 f f . ; Abh.vk.273 ££•*""*
87

a r e i n s e p a r a b l e w ould n o t be l o g i c a l (na y u j j e y y a ) . ^ This


t h e o r y i s n o t c o n f i n e d t o t h e Theravlada a l o n e . T h i s i s what
t h e s c h o o l s o f S a n s k r i t Buddhism c a l l *'t u l y a - b h u ’t a - s a d - b h a v a . 1' 2
I f t h e mah'abh'utas a r e p r e s e n t i n e q u a l p r o p o r t i o n i n
e a c h and e v e r y m a t e r i a l t h i n g , what e x p l a i n s t h e d i v e r s i t y
of the l a t t e r ? F o r i t i s a m a t t e r o f common e x p e r i e n c e t h a t ,
i n many r e s p e c t s , a c o m p a r a t i v e l y h a r d s t o n e i s d i f f e r e n t from
w a t e r a n d b o t h from a b i a s i n g f i r e . Or t o put i t d i f f e r e n t l y :
Bow t h e The refAa d i n s s a y t h a t t h e mah'abh'utas w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n
o f a p o - d ii a t u a r e t a n g i b l e s ( p h o t t h a b b a y a t a n a ) w h i l e t h e
s c h o o l s o f S a n s k r i t Buddhism s a y t h a t a l l t h e f o u r a r e
t a n g i b l e s ( s p r a s t a v y a y a t a n a ) .3 Such, b e i n g t h e c a s e , what
a cco u n ts f o r the d i v e r s i t y i n t a c t i l e s e n s a t i o n s ? For i t
i s a m a t t e r o f common e x p e r i e n c e t h a t one does n o t g e t t h e
one
same s e n s a t i o n w h e n ^ t o u c h e s , s a y , a f l o w e r a n d a b i a s i n g
fire •
The d i v e r s i t y , i t i s m a i n t a i n e d , i s n o t due t o a
d i f f e r e n c e i n q u a n t i t y (pam'ana) b u t due t o a d i f f e r e n c e i n
c a p a b i l i t y (sITm atthiya) o r e x t r u s i o n ( u s s a d a ) * ^ T h at i s t o
s a y , i n a g i v e n m a t e r i a l o b j e c t one mahabhuta. i s more i n t e n s e
th an the o t h e r s . For i n s t a n c e , i n a c o m p a r a t i v e l y s o l i d

*** " l*1,n ti1if 11


m ^ i ■n.i

1. j\n n ath ‘a h i a v i n i b b h o g a v u t t i t a na y u j j e y y a . - VismT . 4 5 1 ;


s e e a l s o i\bhvk.273 f f «
2. See AKvy. i 124
3fi See below,* 94- f f *
4. See Vism T.451; Abhvlc.273
88

t h i n g , s a y , i n a s t o n e , a l t h o u g h a l l t h e m ^ h S h h u t a s ;:.are
p r e s e n t i n e q u a l p r o p o r t i o n , y e t t h e p a t h a v T - d ii a t u i s more
i n t e n s e or more e x t r u d e d t h a n t h e o t h e r s . So i s a p o - d ti a t u
i n w a t e r , t e j o ~ d h a ‘t u i n f i r e and v’a y o - d h a t u i n a i r .
I n t h e A t t h a s a >l i n T we g e t more d e t a i l s on t h i s s u b j e c t .
I t s a y s t h a t t h e mah'abh'utas ( e x c e p t sTpo^dliatu) r e a c h th e
avenue of t h e s e n s e o f t o u c h s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . A lt h o u g h t h e y
s t r i k e t h e s e n t i e n t body s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , y e t b o d i l y c o g n i t i o n
o f them does n o t a r i s e a t o n c e . For t h e o b j e c t o f to u g h i s
d e t e r m i n e d by one of two a l t e r n a t i v e f a c t o r s , n a m e ly ,
d e l i b e r a t e a t t e n t i o n ( a b h u n ji t a - v a s e n a ) and e x t r u s i o n (u s s a d a -
vasena) . ^
The f i r s t a l t e r n a t i v e i s i l l u s t r a t e d as f o l l o w s : when
t h e bowl i s f i l l e d w i t h f o o d an d b r o u g h t , one who t a k e s up
a lump and. exam ines w h e t h e r i t is hard or s o f t i s c o n sid e rin g
o n l y t h e e l e m e n t of e x t e n s i o n , th o u g h t h e r e may be h e a t and
m o b ility p resen t. One who i n v e s t i g a t e s by p u t t i n g t h e 1h a n d
i n h o t w a t e r i s c o n s i d e r i n g o n l y t h e e le n m t o f h e a t * th o u g h

1. Kim pana e t ’a n i t T n i mah'abh’utsTni ek ap pah aren * eva 'apartham


a g a c c h a n t i udahu no t i ? A g a c c h a n t i . Ev am a’g a t ’a n i lea yap pa
ssi dam g h a t t e n t l t i ? G - h a t t e n t i . Ekappaharen* eva t a n i an am-
manam lcatvja kayavinnanam u p p a j j a t i n ’ u p p a j j a t i t i ? E 1uppaj
j a £ i . Kasma? A b h u n j i t a v a s e n a va h i u s s a d a v a s e n a va airam-
manakaranam h o t i . - A s l . 333
89

e x t e n s i o n an d m o b i l i t y a r e p r e s e n t • One who lets t h e wind


b e a t upon t h e body by o p e n i n g . t h e window i n t h e h o t s e a s o n ,
i s c o n s i d e r i n g w h ile t h e wind b e a t s g e n t l y a n d s o f t l y , o n l y
t h e e l e m e n t o f m o b i l i t y , t h o u g h e x t e n s i o n and h e a t a r e p r e s e n t . ^
The o t h e r a l t e r n a t i v e , v/here t h e e l e m e n t o f d e l i b e r a t e
a t t e n t i o n i s a b s e n t, i s ex plained w ith re fe re n c e to ussada,
i # e ; e x t r u s i v e n e s s o f one element i n r e l a t i o n to th eio b h ers:
"But he who s l i p s o r kn ock s h i s head a g a i n s t a t r e e , o r i n
e a t i n g b i t e s on a s t o n e t a k e s a s h i s m e n t a l o b j e c t o n l y t h e
e l e m e n t o f e x t e n s i o n on a c c o u n t o f i t s e x t r u s i v e n e s s , t h o u g h
where he s l i p p e d , e t c . , h e a t and m o b i l i t y were p r e s e n t . One
t r e a d i n g on f i r e makes o n l y t h e element o f h e a t h i s o b j e c t
owdxig t o i t s e x t r u s i v e n e s s , a l t h o u g h e x t e n s i o n a n d m o b i l i t y
are present th e r e in . When a s t r o n g wind blows s t r i k i n g t h e
e a r a s i f t o make one d e a f , a l t h o u g h e x t e n s i o n a n d h e a t a r e
p r e s e n t t h e r e i n , t h e e l e m e n t o f m o b i l i t y a l o n e i s made t h e
o b j e c t owing t o i t s e x t r u s i v e n e s s . 2
I t i s v e r y d o u b t f u l t h a t t h e P a l i co m m e n ta to rs had
d e v e l o p e d t h i s t h e o r y o f u s s a d a by t h e m s e l v e s . That i n t e n s i t y
d e t e r m i n e s a s t o w h ic h e le m e n t s h o u l d become t h e o b j e c t o f
t o u c h i s r e c o g n i s e d b y many o f t h e s c h o o l s o f S a n s k r i t Buddhism

1. E x p o s i t o r , i i 434 (i \ s l . 3 3 3 - 4 )
E x p o s i t o r i i 434 ( t r . S l i g h t l y c h a n g e d ) ; A s l .334
90

too* The Ab.hidharmalcoiSa 9 t o o , po ses t h e q u e s t i o n a s t o


why a l l t h e e l e m e n t s do n o t become th e o b j e c t o f t o u c h
sim u ltan eo u sly . .And t h e answer i s a lm o s t t h e same as t h a t
which we m e n t i o n e d u n d er t h e s e c o n d a l t e r n a t i v e : “ On p e r g o i t
dans un aggrjSgat donn£ c e l l e des s u b s t a n c e s ( d r a v y a , t e r r e
dl£ m entaire, e t c .) qui s ! y tro u v e la plus v iv e (p atu tam a,
s p h u t a t a m a ) , e t non pas l e s a u t r e s . Be mSme, l o r s q u ' o n
to u c h e un f a i s c e a u de b r i n s v£g;£aux e t d 1 a i g u i l l e s
A
(suTcTtlulTkalapa), on p e r ^ o i t l e s a i g u i l l e s ; l o r s q u ' o n mange
de l a b o u i l l i e s a l e e , on p e r j o i t l a s a v e u r du s e l . ^
From t h e Abhidharmalco^a one g a t h e r s t h a t t h e s c h o l i a s t s
T— ti li r r Miriurt- ' i ir-n rii .iw i n t ~ i f t i i n n i i i t" T lifi|

had a d v a n c e d more t h a n one e x p l a n a t i o n i n r e s p e c t o f t h i s


su b ject. In the f i r s t p l a c e , th e r e i s th e o p in io n of B hadanta
§ rT l a b ha a c c o r d i n g t o whom ltl e s a g g r d g a t s c o m p o r t e n t l e s
q u a t r e g r a n d s £ l £ m e n t s , p u i s q u e , £ t a n t donnSe 1 ! a c t i o n de
c e r t a i n e s c a u s e s , le s choses s o l id e s deviennent l i q u i d e s ,
e tc ._ Le f e u £ l d m e n t a i r e e x i s t e dans l ' e a u , p u is q u e c e l l e - c i
e s t p l u s ou moins f r o i d . e , ce qui s ' e x p l i q u e par l a p r e s e n c e ,
en q u a n t i t y p l u s ou moins g r a d e , du f e u ^ l ^ m e n t a i r e 1!^
This view a tte m p ts to e x p la in th e d i f f e r e n c e s in th e o b je c ts

1* 4 K . G h . i i 146*
2* 4 K . C h . i i 146
91

o f t o u c h a s b e i n g due t o a ^ q u a n t i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e o f t h e
maLiabhutas• Thus t h e d e g r e e o f h o t n e s s i n w a t e r i s d e p e n d e n t
on t h e q u a n t i t y o f t e j o - d b a t u w i t h which i t i s m ixed (m idrTbhava 9
vyatibheda) • ^ The Theravefdins a n d th e V a i b h 'a s i k a s r e f u s e t o
b e lie v e in a q u a n t i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e ; such a c o n c e p tio n ,
s a y s t h e tTlca t o t h e V isu d dh im ag g a , does n o t accord, w e l l w i t h
t h e t h e o r y o f t h e i n s e p a r a b i l i t y o f t h e mah'abh'utas*2 S rT iabha!s
i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s c r i t i c i s e d i n t h e Abhidharmakoda i t s e l f .
I t s a y s t h a t t h e v a r i a b i l i t y , s a y , o f c o l d i s due t o t h e v
v a r i a b i l i t y of t h e i n t e n s i t y o f th e a b - d h 'a t u , a n d n o t due
t o t h e f a c t t h a t i t g e t s m ixed w i t h i t s o p p o s i t e , i 0e f h e a t ,
w hich i s r e p r e s e n t e d b y t e j o - d h a ’t u.-^
S t i l l more d i f f e r e n t i s t h e e x p l a n a t i o n g i v e n by t h e
S a u t r a n t i k a s : Hl e s g r a n d s d ld m e n ts qui ne s o n t pas perg us
dans un a g g r d g a t donnd y e x i s t e n t & I f d t a t de semence
( b T j a t a s , d a k t i t a s , s a i m a r t h y a t a s ) 9 non pas en a c t e , non pas
en s o i ( s v a r u p a t a s ) . C’ e s t a i n s i que B h a g a v a t a pu d i r e :
‘ Bans ce morceau de b o i s , i l y a beaucoup de d h a t u s ou
su b sta n c e s rninerales.* B h a g a v a t e n t e n d que ce b o i s c o n t i e n t
des s e m e n c e s , des p o t e n t ! e l i t e s ( d a k t i ) de nombreux d i i a t u s ;

1. Ib id .lo c .c it. ,
.11 — pi -*

2. O p.c i t . , 451
3* O R * c it. 5 G h . i i 146
92

c a r l ! o r , 1*a r g e n t , e t c . , n 1e x i s t e n t pas a c t u e l l e m e n t
dans l e b o i s . 11^ T h i s t h e o r y o f th e Sau t r i h i t i k a s a p p e a r s
t o be a n a lo g a o u s t o t h a t o f t h e T h eraV ad in s a n d t h e
V aibliasikas• T h ere i s , h o w ev e r, t h i s f u n d a m e n t a l d i f f e r e n c e
t o be h o t e d ; F o r t h e l a t t e r e x c e s s ( a d h i k a t 'a ) o f one e le m e n t
means t h a t i t i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by more i n t e n s i t y o r c a p a b i l i t y *
They do n o t s a y t h a t t h e o t h e r e l e m e n t s a r e i n an !*&tat
de sem en c e." A l l what t h e y say. i s t h a t i n a g i v e n o b j e c t
o f t o u c h a l l t h e e l e m e n t s a r e p r e s e n t and t h a t t h o s e e l e m e n t s
which a r e c o m p a r a t i v e l y i n t e n s e become t h e o b j e c t o f t o u c h .
C l o s e l y c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h i s p r i n c i p l e of i n t e n s i t y
( u s s a d a ) i s a n o t h e r s e n s e i n which t h e names o f t h e mahabtiutas
are used. A c c o r d i n g t o t h e Abhidhammic i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f
t h e maliabhlatas one c a n n o t s p e a k o f m a t e r i a l t h i n g s a s p a t h a v T ,
’a p o , t e j o and v l y o . For i n e a c h and e v e r y i n s t a n c e of m a t t e r
a l l t h e mahahhSrfcas a r e p r e s e n t . Hxwever t h e r e i s a s e n s e
i n which t h e Abhidhammilcas s p e a k o f m a t e r i a l s e g re g a te s named
a f t e r t h e maiiabHuta.s. T h i s has been e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h r e f e r e n c e
to th e above-m entioned p r i n c i p l e of i n t e n s i t y . I f in a given

m a t e r i a l a g g r e g a t e t h e p a t h a v T - d h a t u i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a
co m p a rativ e ly high degree of i n t e n s i t y (u ssad a ) or c a p a b i l i t y

1. i U i . C h . i i 147
93

( s a m a t t h i y a ) , t h e n ( a s a m a t t e r of c o n v e n t i o n ) t h a t
m a t e r i a l a g g r e g a t e i s a l s o c a l l e d p a th a v T . I n such
i n s t a n c e s t h e term i s som etim es f o l l o w e d by a d h i k a ,
ife x c e s s i v e " ( i n i n t e n s i t y or c a p a b i l i t y ) , e . g . , p a t h a v T -
adhika. S i m i l a r l y a r e u s e d t h e names o f t h e o t h e r t h r e e
m ahTbhutas.^
T h i s k i n d o f d e s c r i p t i o n i s , i n a way, an a t t e m p t t o
accom odate t h e Niliayan c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e maliSbhutas a c c o r d i n g
t o which h a i r , n a i l s , t e e t h e t c . , a r e p a t h a v T , b l o o d , mucus;,
e t c . , a r e Tpo an d so o n . ^ However, as i n t e r p r e t e d i n t h e
l a t e r s c h o l a s t i c i s m , s t r i c t l y s p e a k i n g , no faahTblouta i s
v isib le . The a t t r i b u t i o n o f v i s i b i l i t y , as t h e A bhidh arm ako &a
s a y s , i s from t h e p o i n t o f v iew o f t h e common u s a g e : "Dans
l * u s a g e commun, ce q u 'o n d ^ s i g n e par l e mot H e r r e * , c ! e s t
de l a c o u l e u r e t de l a ; f i g u r e *1 - p r t h i v T varnasamsth'anam
ucyate lokasam jnaya.3 A c c o r d i n g t o t h e K a t h a v a t t h u an d i t s
com m entary^the Andhakas o b j e c t t o t h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e
maliabhuitas as n o t v i s i b l e : "B ut do we n o t s e e e a r t h , a s t o n e ,
a m o u n t a i n , w a t e r , f i r e . b l a z i n g , t r e e s waving i n t h e wind
... ?,fi5 T h i s o b j e c t i o n , i t n eed s h a r d l y any m e n t i o n , has
h a r d l y any r e l e v a n c e t o t h e Abhidharnmic i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f

1. Vism .a and. A b h v k . 274


2 . See a b o v e .,6 4
3 . A K .C h.i 23
4. Kvu.331 and Kvu A «93
3* P o i n t s o f C o n t r o v e r s y . IQJl
IIKW lI IIT| I IIW1I.* I. M . 11 ■H II l > H'CJ f 9
94

t h e mahefbhutas. I t i s only re m in isc e n t of t h e i r e a r l i e r


conception®
The i n c l u s i o n o f t h e rnahabiiutas i n p h o t t h a b b i t y a t a n a
shows t h a t a l t h o u g h n o t v i s i b l e t h e y a r e t a n g i b l e * They c a n
be known by t h e s e n s e o f t o u c h . From t h e p o i n t o f view o f
t h e T heravaidins t h i s s t a t e m e n t n eed s q u a l i f i c a t i o n . For as
we have a l r e a d y i n d i c a t e d i n t h e i r o p i n i o n o n l y t h r e e mah'abhutas ,
n a m e ly , p a t h a v i , t e g o and vayo come u n d e r p h o t t a b b a y a t a n a *
I n c o n t r a s t , t h e s c h o o l s o f S a n s k r i t Buddhism i n c l u d e a l l
p
the fo u r in the sphere of th e t a n g i b l e .
Why t h e T h e ra v a ’d i n s have e x c l u d e d HpO-dh’a t u from t h e
sphei^e o f t h e t a n g i b l e i s p a r t l y e x p l a i n e d by what we have
o b s e r v e d a b o u t t h e p o s i t i o n of s T t a , c o l d i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e
rn a h a b iiu ta s .^ U n lik e , f o r in s ta n c e th e V aibhatsikae, th e
T h e r a v a d i n s do n o t a s s o c i a t e c o l d w i t h t h e ‘apo^dh'atu. F o r
the l a t t e r , c o l d - is not a fo rc e d i s t i n c t from , b u t i s o n ly
th e r e l a t i v e a b s e n c e o f , h e a t ( ~ t e 3 0 - d h e t t u ) . As s u c h , i n

t h e v ie w o f t h e T h erav aclin s b o t h c o l d ( s T t a ) an d h e a t ( u n h a ) ,
i n o t h e r w o rd s , a l l d e g r e e s o f t e m p e r a t u r e a r e r e p r e s e n t e d
b y , a n d t h e r e f o r e t e s t i f y t o th e p r e s e n c e o f , t e j o - d b a t u * ^

1. See Dhs.143 * 179; Vbh.72


2* See -AK.Gh.i 18 f f .
3® See a b o v e , 7 1 -2 ^ ^
4. Cf.Kimidam pho tthab bam riama? PathavT~ t e j o~v s’yo- diiatu11ayam.
Kasma p a i v e t t h a a p o d h a tu a g g a h i t a ? inarm s i t a t a p h u s i t v a
g a y h a t i ? Saccam g a y h a t i * ha pana s"a ‘apodh’a t u . K i n c a r a t i i
t i . T e j o d h a t u e v a . Aiande h i unhabbave s i t a b u d d h i . no h i
sTtarn nama k o c i guno a t t h i . - Vism'S 4 39; s e e a l s o ABSVf
95
t
4
Apo-dheTt u , as s t a t e d a b o v e $ i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f
b a n d h a n a tta 9 th e f a c t of ” b in d in g t o g e t h e r ” o r co h esio n and
davat*a? f l u i d i t y . But t h e s e * a c c o r d i n g t o B u d d h i s t s * a r e
n o t f e l t by t h e s e n s e o f t o u c h . ^ The p o i n t i s i l l u s t r a t e d
by Aung when he s a y s s 11when one p u ts h i s h and i n t o c o l d
w a t e r * t h e s o f t n e s s o f w a t e r f e l t i s n o t apo* b u t p a t h a v T *2
t h e c o l d f e l t i s n o t *apo* b u t t e j o ; t h e p r e s s u r e f e l t i s
n o t "apo* b u t v'ayo*11-* I t s c o h e s i o n and f l u i d i t y * w h a t e v e r be
t h e i r d e g r e e o f i n t e n s i t y o r c a p a b i l i t y * a r e n o t f e l t by
th e sense of touch. Hence a“p o - d h a tu i s e x c l u d e d from
photthabbeiyatana and i s i n c l u d e d i n dham m ayatana.^ That
i s t o say., i t c a n n o t be known by any o f t h e s e n s e s o t h e r t h a n
t h e mind (mano) • I t i s known by a p r o c e s s o f i n f e r e n c e .
The g e n e r a l p o s i t i o n a s s i g n e d t o t h e m ahab hu tas may
now be c o n s i d e r e d .. I f one were t o examine how th e mahThhutas
a r e i n t e r p r e t e d , i n o t h e r sy stem s of I n d i a n t h o u g h t one would
n o t i c e t h a t i n Buddhism t h e y were a s s i g n e d a c o m p a r a t i v e l y
prim ary post io n . What t h e SsTmkhya c o n s i d e r s a s mah*abh*utas
are not th e u ltim a te ir r e d u c ib le c o n s t i t u e n t s of m atter*
f o r t h e y a r e e v o l v e d i m m e d ia t e l y from t h e t a n m a t r a s and

1. See ADSVT-i- H i ; VismS.v 7 5 f f • ^


2. b e c a u s e s o f t n e s s i s r e l a t i v e a b s e n c e o f h a r d n e s s = p a th a v T .
3. Gpd. 1 5 5 «n.6
4. See B h s .179
96

u l t i m a t e l y from t h e p r a k r t i , i . e . , t h e u n c a u s e d f i r s t
cause of th e w orld of n o n -self* ^ A c c o rd in g t o t h e V e d a n t i n s
t h e rnahabiiutas a r e p ro d u c e d from t h e sTTksmabiiutas• The
form er are a s p e c ie s of g ro s s m a tte r and th e l a t t e r a s p e c ie s
of s u b tle m a tte r.^ .For t h e J a im a s t h e u l t i m a t e c o n s t i t u e n t s
of p u g g a l a , m a t t e r a r e n o t t h e f o u r e l e m e n t s ( d h a d u - c a t u k k a )
b u t t h e homogeneous atoms ( param anu)• The l a t t e r a r e
■7

r e c o g n i z e d .a s t h e e s s e n t i a l c a u s e s o f t h e f o r m e r . - 5 The
N y ay a -V ai& esik as p o s t u l a t e f o u r k i n d s o f atoms c o r r e s p o n d i n g
t o t h e f o u r e l e m e n t a l s u b s t a n c e s , n a m ely , e a r t h , w a t e r , f i r e
and a i r . ^ T h i s may be d e s c r i b e d a s an a t t e m p t t o r e c o n c i l e
t h e o l d e r t h e o r y of th e rnahabiiutas w i t h t h e l a t e r atom ic
th eo ry . B eca u se o f t h i s f a c t t h e f o u r s u b s t a n c e s i n q u e s t i o n
a r e n o t r e d u c e d t o a s e c o n d a r y p o sitio n .
I n B uddhism , u n l i k e i n many o t h e r s y s t e m s of I n d i a n
t h o u g h t , t h e rnahabiiutas a r e a s s i g n e d a p r i m a r y positio n i n
th e sense t h a t th e y are re c o g n iz e d as th e u ltim a te i r r e d u c i b l e
data of m a tt e r . I t is of course tru e t h a t a g iven in s ta n c e

1. See S e a l , P o s i t i v e S c i e n c e s o f t h e .Ancient H i n d u s . G h . l
2. I b i d . , G h . l _ ~ _
3* 0 f . Ade s ama 1 t amu t 1 o d h a d u c a t u k k a s s a karanam qo d u /
so neo paramanu parinarnaguno s a y a m a s a d d o / / - P a n c a s t i -
Ira y as'a ra,
4 . See B h a d u r i , B y ^ y a - V a i j e s i k a M e t a p h y s i c s , Oh*111
97

o f m a t t e r o n s i s t s o f n o t o n l y t h e f o u r mah’abh’u t a s b u t
a l s o o f a s e t o f upacta-rupas s u c h as c o l o u r * s m e l l , e t c . .
But t h e s e s o - c a l l e d u p a d l a - r u p a s , a s c o n c e i v e d by t h e B u d d h i s t s ,
a?re alw ays d e p e n d e n t o n , and. thex^efore s e c o n d a r y t o , t h e
ha. t« a i
m a lia b h n ta s . Even t h e dev e lo p m en t of t h e t h e o r y o f r u p a -
k a i a p a s , i e * , t h e T h erav ad a form of a t o m i s m , 2 d i d n o t , i n
any way, r e d u c e t h e mahabliutas t o a s e c o n d a r y p o s t i o n . For
i n e v e r y inxpakalaipa, t h e s m a l l e s t u n i t o f m a t t e r , a l l t h e
foui? mah'abh'utas a r e px^esent.-^ A lthough th e y are p o s t u l a t e d
a s t h e u l t i m a t e ( p r i m a r y ) e l e m e n t s of m a t t e r , t h e matiabhuftas
a r e n o t t o be u n d e r s t o o d as u n c a u s e d o r a s e v e r - p e r d u r i n g
e n titie s. They t o o come u n d e r t h e laws o f 11phenomenal’*
(sankhata) e x is te n c e . As Buddhaghosa s a y s , t h e y a r e a n i c c a
i n t h e s e n s e o f l i a b i l i t y t o d e s t i n a t i o n ( k h a y a t t h e n a anicca-^ ,
dukkha i n t h e s e n s e of c a u s i n g t e r r o r ( b h a y a t t h e n a d u k k iia)
and a n a t t a i n t h e se n s e o f h a v in g no e v e r - p e r d u r i n g e s s e n c e
(' a s a r a t* t• h e n a a n a t t a )* . ^

1. See b e l o w ^ l O l
2• See below*, c h . v i i i
fV N N W , 1 1 1 1 . Km
3„ o f. Annamarmen*upatthaddha s e s a r u p a s s a n x s s a y a
O a t u d h f evamf k a l a p e s u maha'bhuta p a v a t t a r e - KRP.34
4. See Vism^ 368
98

CHAPTER THREE
SECONDARY ELEMENTS,!
The d i s t i n c t i o n b e tw e e n t h e mah’abh’u t a s - t h e four*
p r i m a r y e l e m e n t s - on t h e one h a n d , a n d t h e upadaXya) r u p a s ~
th o se t h a t ta k e h o ld o f , c lin g t o , i n o th e r w ords, th o se
t h a t depend o n , t h e mahiabhntas - on t h e o t h e x ^ i s a l l u d e d t o
i n t h e jtfikayas th e m s e l v e s * ^ .However, t h e r e i n no a t t e m p t i s
made t o e x p l a i n how an d why t h e l a t t e r a r e d e p e n d e n t o n , and
t h e r e f o r e s e c o n d a r y t o , t h e formex'1. As f a r as t h i s p a r t i c u l a r
q u e s t i o n i s c o n c e r n e d e v e n t h e DhammasanganT. where we g e t
t h e most e x h a u s t i v e c a n o n i c a l a n a l y s i s o f m a t t e r , does n o t
go bey on d t h e k i k 'a y a f . Some d a t a on t h e r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n
o f t h e two g r o u p s c o u l d , ho w ever, be e l i c i t e d from t h e
P a t t h a n a o f t h e Abhidhamma P i t a k a , which s e e k s t o e x p l a i n

th e c a u s a l r e l a t i o n o f a l l elem ents o f e x i s t e n c e i n t h e i r
t e m p o r a l s e q u e n c e as w e l l ' a s i n t h e i r s p a t i a l co n c o m itan ce*
The f o u r faah!abhtft a s , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e Pa11h*ana ,
c o n s t i t u t e c o n d i t i o n s ( p a c c a y a ) by way o f c o - n a s c e n c e (s aha . f a t a ) ,
s u p p o r t o r f o u n d a t i o n ( n i s s a y a ) , p r e s e n c e ( a t t h i ) an d
n o n -a b e y a n c e ( a v i g a t a ) i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e u p l T d l f r u p a s . 2 The
i m p l i c a t i o n t h a t c o u l d be drawn from t h e f i r s t i s t h a t t h e
up a*da r u p a s , whenever t h e y a r i s e , a r i s e s i m u l t a n e o u s l y w i t h

1. See e . g . , M .i 53 9 185
2. See Tfcj).3,?.6,7
99

t h e a r i s i n g o f t h e mab!abhutas. As a r u l e t h e i r g e n e s i s

i s n e c e s s a r i l y c o n c o m i t a n t w i t h t h a t o f t h e mah’a b h u 't a s ;
t h e y c a n n o t come i n t o b e i n g i n d e p e n d e n t l y of t h e l a t t e r .
A l l rupa-dliammas w h e th e r p r i m a r y o r s e c o n d a r y w i t h t h e

e x c e p t i o n of c e r t a i n ones o f t h e l a t t e r group** e x i s t f o r
t h e same l e n g t h of t i m e . Hence we m ig h t as w e l l s a y t h a t ;
s i n c e t h e upad's r u p a s a r i s e c o n c u r r e n t l y w i t h t h e a r i s i n g
o f t h e mshsTbhutasj t h e e x i s t e n c e as w e l l as t h e c e s s a t i o n
of the m a j o r i t y of the form er c o in c id e w ith th e e x is te n c e
and c e s s a t io n of the l a t t e r .

W ith t h i s may be compared t h e view o f t h e V a i b h a s i k a s ,


nam ely t h a t t h e mah’a b h u t a s a r e a j a n a n a - o r j a n m a - h e t u
wc a u s e g £ n e r a t f i c e " o f t h e b h a u t i k a s (= up'ada r u p a s ) * 2

F o l l o w i n g , as p o i n t e d o u t b y Be l a V a l i n e P o u s s in , 3 Ql

d e f i n i t i o n g i v e n i n t h e V ibh aV a. t h e jjbhidharm ako^a i l l u s t r a t e s


t h i s f u r t h e r by s a y i n g t h a t 11l e s b h a u t i k a s n a i s s e n t d 1eux
corame l f e n f a n t de s e s p a r e n t s . T h i s illu stra tio n , it .
seems t o u s , s h o u l d n o t be c o n s t r u e d t o mean t h a t t h e
mahabtiutas a r i s e f i r s t and t h a t th e b h a u t i k a s a r i s e
s u b s e q u e n t l y as i s r e a l l y t h e c a s e i n t h e r e l a t i o n betw e en

1. C f . t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e of a n i p p h a n n a - r u p a s ; d i s c u s s e d i n
Gh.V
2* Bee A K .G h .ii 3 1 4 ; AKvy.i 239
3* AK.Gh.’i i 3 1 4 , n . 3
4. I b i d . , G h . i i 314
100
&

t h e p a r e n t s and t h e c h i l d * For e l s e w h e r e i n t h e same work


i t i s s t a t e d t h a t i n t h e view o f t h e V a i b h a s i k a s ( S a r v a s t i v * a d i n s )
t h e b h a u t i k a s do wlways a r i s e s i m u l t a n e o u s l y w i t h t h e
a r i s i n g of t h e m a h a b h u t a s • ^ In t h i s p a r t i c u l a r context,
t h e r e f o r e , i t i s a c a s e o f t h e p a r e n t s and t h e c h i l d b e i n g
b o r n a t one a n d t h e same time*
A c l u e a s t o why one g ro u p i s compared t o t h e p a r e n t s

and t h e o t h e r t o t h e i r 1 c h i l d a l t h o u g h b o t h a r e c o - n a s c e n t
may be h a d from t h e V a i b h s i k a i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of sahabhUhetu*
When two o r more c o - e x i s t e n t (s a h a b h u ) t h i n g s a r e d e p e n d e n t ,
one on t h e o t h e r , t h e y a r e s a i d to be sahabhTThetus i n
r e l a t i o n t o one a n o th e r * The r e l a t i o n b e tw e e n t h e f o u r
m ahabhutas i s one o f t h i s kind* However, a l l c o - e x i s t e n t
t h i n g s a r e n o t r e c o g n i s e d as s a h a b h u - h e t u s i n r e l a t i o n t o
one a n o t h e r *
The mah'abhutas and t h e b h a u t i k a s a r e c i t e d
9 * « Km
as a c a s e m p o i n t . The T h e r a V a d m s , t o o , a r e of t h e same
opinions T h a t t h e up’ada r u p a s a r e c o - n a s c e n t ( s a h a j a t a )
w i t h t h e mah'abhutas i s a d m i t t e d ; t h a t t h e two g ro u p s a r e
r e l a t e d by way o f r e c i p r o c a l c o - n a s c e n c e ( a n n a m a n n a - s a h a j 'a t a )
i s , h o w ev e r, d e n i e d . 3

1* See iVK.Ch. i i 252; t h i s i s i m p l i e d i n t h e V a i h l i a s i k a


a to m ic t h e o r y , t o o , s e e AK.Oh* i i 143 f f .
2*. I b i d * , Gh*i 253
• ■■n.rfuiari um m ii w

3* See Tkp*3 s!4 g36 f f *


101

What b o t h s c h o o l s a t t e m p t t o show by t h i s d e v i c e i s
t h e n e c e s s a r y dependence o f t h e a pa*da - r u pas ( b h a u t i k a s ) on
t h e m ahabhutas * A lthough th e upada-rupas a r i s e t o g e t h e r
w i t h t h e a r i s i n g o f t h e mah’abhu'tas t h e i r a r i s i n g i s n o t a
n ec e ssa ry c o n d i ti o n f o r the a r i s i n g of the l a t t e r . But t h e
reverse is tru e : The a r i s i n g o f t h e m ahabhntas i s a
n e c e ssa ry c o n d itio n f o r the a r i s i n g of th e u p a - r u p a s .
Hence t h e c o m p a r is o n of t h e f o r m e r t o t h e p a r e n t s an d t h e
l a t t e r to t h e i r c h i l d i s not w ithout s i g n i f i c a n c e a lth o u g h
b o t h g ro u p s a r e s a i d t o be c o - n a s c e t i t *
The m a h n b iiu ta s , as s t a t e d above 9 a r e a l s o a n i s s a y a
f o r t h e up’ad'a rU p a s , T h i s o n l y means t h a t t h e fo rm e r a r e
a b a s i s , a su p p o rt or a f o u n d a tio n of th e la tte r.* * ’ This
a s p e c t o f t h e r e l a t i o n betw een t h e two g r o u p s i s e x p l a i n e d
i n more d e t a i l by t h e V a i b h a s i k a s . The mahlfbhu’t a s w i e l d
i n f l u e n c e on t h e b h a u t i k a s l i k e an a c a r y a on h i s p u p i l
. . . a
( n i s r a y a - h e t u ) ; s u p p o r t them l i k e a w a l l Ap a i n t i n g ( p r a t i s t h a -
h e t u ) ; m a i n t a i n them i n u n i n t e r r u p t e d c o n t i n u i t y (upasthambha-
h e t u ) ; and c o n s t i t u t e a c o n d it io n f o r t h e i r i g ro w th ,a n d
d ev e lo p m en t ( v r d d h i - o r u p a b r m h a n a -h e tu )
# The r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e mah'abh'utas as a t t h i - and
n a t t h i - p a c c a y a s ^ i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e upladaT-rupas means t h a t

1* See below^ 321


2. See AKeC h . i i 3 14; AKvy.i 239 f f .
3* See a b o v e , 98
102

t h a t t h e p r e s e n c e and n o n - a b e y a n c e of t h e l a t t e r i s due
t o t h e p r e s e n c e and n o n -a b e y a n c e of t h e former* I1h i s o n l y
amounts t o a g e n e r a l s t a t e m e n t o f what has b e e n s t a t e d so
f a r a b o u t t h e r e l a t i o n b e tw e e n t h e two grou ps*
Thus what a r e c a l l e d up’ad'a r u p a s a r e t h o s e m a t e r i a l
e l e m e n t s which a r e alw ays c o - e x i s t e n t w i t h , a r e n e c e s s a r i l y
dependent on, and are th u s secondary t o , th e m ahabhulas• ^
The mahabhlatas , t o o , a r e d e p e n d e n t , one on t h e o t h e r an d
a r e alw ays c o - e x i s t e n t * But t h e r e i s t h i s f u n d a m e n t a l
d i f f e r e n c e t o be n o t e d : While t h e up's da r u p a s a r e
d e p e n d e n t on t h e maliabhntas t h e maliabliutas a r e n o t d e p e n d e n t
on t h e up*adaT ru p a s* The d i f f e r e n c e i s summed, up by t h e
V ibliavinT TTlsia when i t s a y s s HT hat which c l i n g s t o th e
maha’bh.'utas an d i s a l s o c l u n g t o by o t h e r s i s n o t up’ada
r t i p a ; b u t t h a t which c l i n g s t o t h e rnaliabh*utas and i s n o t
c l u n g t o by a n o t h e r i s up’ada rupa.*'^
However, i n c e r t a i n c a s e s t h e f u n d a m e n t a l d i f f e r e n c e
b e tw e e n t h e two g r o u p s t e n d s t o g e t o b l i t e r a t e d * The
r e l a t i o n b e tw e e n ‘ah’a r a ( n u t r i m e n t ) which i s one o f t h e

1* C f•A tthas’a l in T (300) d e f i n i t i o n : C a t t a r i mahabh’u t a n i


........ 1^ " *•*■****> ii ii i pngm ii *

upadaya n i s s a y a a m u n c itv a p a v a t t a r u p a n t i a t t h o .
2* Yam h i mahahtiute u p s t d i y a t i sa y a n ca a n n e h i u p a 'd i y a t i
na^tam upada-ruTpam^yam pana u p a d i y a t e v a na kena c i
u p a d i y a t i t a d e v a upadaya rTTpan t i . - ADSVT.11Q in ^ r n . f i in it
103

upadsi r u p a s an d t h e f o u r m ahabhutas i s a 'case i n p o i n t .


The f o r m e r , i t may be n o t e d h e r e , i s r e c o g n i s e d as a
rU p a - s a m u tth e m A - p a c c a y a , i . e . , a g e n e r a t i v e c o n d i t i o n o f
m a t t e r , p r i m a r y as as w e l l as s econ d ary *^ Prom t h i s i t
f o l l o w s t h a t t h o s e m ahabhutas , b r o u g h t a b o u t by ’a liar a , a r e
d e p e n d e n t on an up'ad’a r u p a . T h e r e f o r e i n so f a r as t h i s
p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n i s co n cern ed , th e u su a l argument : t h a t
t h e m ah abh u tas a r e n o t d e p e n d e n t on t h e upstdeT r u p a s n eed s
q u alificatio n .
More i m p o r t a n t t h a n t h i s a r e t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s a r i s i n g
from what i s c a l l e d a v i n i b h o g a - r u p a • A ccording to the
T h e r a v a ’d i n s t h e c a t e g o r y i n q u e s t i o n i n c l u d e s t h e f o u r
m ahabhutas an d f o u r o f t h e up’ada’ r u p a s , n a m e ly , r u p a ( t h e
v i s i b l y ) , r a s a ( t a s t e ) , gandha ( s m e l l ) a n d a b u r a ( n u t r i m e n t ) * 2
A c c o r d i n g t o t h e Vaibhsfsifcas i t ( a v i n i r b hag a - r u p a ) i n c l u d e s
t h e same i t e m s b u t f o r t h i s d i f f e r e n c e ; i n p l a c e of a tia ra
i s i n c l u d e d b h a u t i k a - s p r a s t a v y a ( t h e s e c o n d a ry t a n g i b l e ) . - *
The r e a s o n s f o r t h i s d i f f e r e n c e w i l l be e x p l a i n e d i n a
l a t e r c h a p t e r * ^ 4 .S u ffic e i t t o n o t e h e r e t h a t a c c o r d i n g t o
b o t h s c h o o l s t h e e i g h t i t e m s a r e n o t s e p a r a b l e , one from
a n o t h e r ( a v i n i b h o g a , a v i n i r b h a g a j y A s :;a r u l e , t h e y always

1. See Vis m , 369


2. See ADS*28; VismS. v 58
3* See A K .G h .ii 145 f f * | AKvy. i 123 f f
4* See b e l o w , 3 7 2 -3
104

a r i s e to g e th e r ( s a h a j a t a , n iy a ta -s a h o tp a n n a ). Hone of them
can a r i s e in d e p e n d e n tly of th e o th e r seven.
Prom t h i s i t f o l l o w s t h a t j u s t as much as t h o s e s e c o n d a r y
elem ents cannot a r i s e in d ep e n d e n tly of th e f o u r prim ary
e l e m e n t s , e v e n so t h e f o u r prim ary e le m e n ts c a n n o t a r i s e
in d e p e n d e n tly of those secondary elem en ts. B o th g ro u p s
a r e e q u a l l y d e p e n d e n t on each o t h e r . Hence so f a r as t h o s e
secondary elem ents are concerned th e independent g e n e s is
of th e p rim ary elem ents i s q u e s tio n a b le . F or none o f t h e
e i g h t item s in q u e s tio n can a r i s e in d e p e n d e n tly . I n view of
t h i s s i t u a t i o n i t i s u n d e r s t a n a b l e why t h e S a u t r a n t i k a s s h o u l d
have c r i t i c i z e d , t h e V a i b h a s i k a (S a rv a ’s t i v ' a d a ) i n t e r p r e t a t i o n
o f sah ab hU -hetu.- T h e i r c r i t i c i s m i m p l i e s t h a t e v e n c e r t a i n
b h a u t i k a s s h o u l d be r e c o g n i z e d as c o n s t i t u t i n g s a h a b h u - h e t u
i n r e l a t i o n to th e m ahabhutas• ^
A t t e n t i o n may a l s o be drawn h e r e to t h e o b s e r v a t i o n
o f P r o f . S t c h e r b a t s k y , namely t h a t t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f t h e
m a t e r i a l e l e m e n t s i n t o p rim a ry and s e c o n d a r y , as t h a t o f t h e
m ental elem ents in to fundam ental ( c i t t a ) and d e r i v a t i v e
( c a i t t a ) , a p p r o a c h e s v e r y n e a r l y t h e r e l a t i o n b etw e en s u b s t a n c e
p
and q u a l i t y . A lth o u g h t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n i s made w i t h

1. Cf.^AK.Ch.ii 254
2 . See* G e n t . C o n c e p . 5 5 / 6
105

r e f e r e n c e t o t h e SarvefstivsTda , I t a p p l i e s e q u a l l y t o t h e
T heravadal I t i s of course t r u e t h a t th e m a t e r i a l e le m e n ts ,
p rim a ry as w e l l as s e c o n d a r y , a r e d e s c r i b e d a s d i s c r e t e
e n titie s. I t i s a l s o t r u e t h a t t h e c o n n e c t i o n betw e en them
i s s o u g h t t o be e x p l a i n e d by t h e p o s t u l a t i o n of c a u s a l
re la tio n s, n e v e r t h e l e s s , as has b e e n observed, s i n c e t h e
s e c o n d a r i e s a r e alw ays s u p p o r t e d by t h e p r i m a r i e s an d s i n c e
t h i s c o n n e c t i o n i s s a i d t o be i n s e p a r a b l e , t h e r e l a t i o n
b e tw e e n t h e two g r o u p s i s n o t much d i f f e r e n t from t h e r e l a t i o n
b e tw e e n s u b s t a n c e an d q u a l i t y .
I t i s not w ith o u t s i g n i f i c a n c e t h a t the d i v i s i o n of
m a t t e r i n t o p rim ary a n d s e c o n d a ry was n o t a c c e p t e d by a l l
the s c h o l i a s t s . B u d d h ad ev a , one o f t h e c e l e b r i t i e s o f t h e
S a u t r a n t i k a s c h o o l , o b j e c t s t o t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f any s u ch
d istin c tio n . H is o b j e c t i o n i s l i k e w i s e dix^ected t o t h e
d i s t i n c t i o n drawn betw een c i t t a ( c o n s c i o u s n e s s ) and c a i t t a
(consciousness-concoraitants). In h is o p in io n th e te n "ayatanas,
i . e . , t h e f i r s t f i v e s e n s e - o r g a n s and t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g s e n s e -
o b j e c t s a r e made up o f o n l y t h e m a h a b h u ta s . And- a p a r t from
t h e m ahab hu tas t h e r e i s no d i s t i n c t c a t e g o r y c a l l e d b h a u t i k a
rupa. L i k e w i s e a p a r t from c i t t a t h e r e i s no d i s t i n c t c a t e g o r y
1
ca lled c a itta .
B u d d h a d e v a 's a t t e m p t i s t o d i s c a r d a l l d i s t i n c t i o n s

1. See iU i.C h .l 64 and n . 2


106

i n t e r m s o f p rim a ry and s e c o n d a r y n o t o n l y from t h e s p h e r e


o f m e n t a l phenomena h u t a l s o from t h e domain o f m a t t e r , and
t h e r e b y t o a s s i g n e q u a l s t a t u s t o each and e v e r y e le m e n t o f
e x i s t e n c e (dharnrna). T his attem p t d id n o t a p p e al to th e
m a j o r i t y of t h e B u d d h i s ts * The a u t h o r o f t h e Abhldharmako&a
o b j e c t s t o i t on t h e g r o u n d t h a t i t i s c o n t r a d i c t e d by a
S t l t r a p a s s a g e where t h e d i s t i n c t i o n i n q u e s t i o n i s u p h e l d .
Buddha dev a , t o o , in v o k e s t h e a u t h o r i t y o f a S u t r a t o
su b sta n tia te his th e s is ; A c c o r d i n g to t h e G a r b h a v a k r a n t i
s U t r a man c o n s i s t s o f s i x e l e m e n t s ( s a d d t i a t u r ayani bhilcso
p u r u g a h ) , namely t h e f o u r m a h a b h u t a s , afca£a ( s p a c e j and
vijnnana (co n scio u sn ess) . ^ The coux iter-ob j e c t i o n i s t h a t
t h i s s U t r a , in t h i s p a r t i c u l a r c o n t e x t , p u rp o rts to d e s c rib e
t h e e s s e n c e o f a l i v i n g b e i n g ( m t f l a s a t t v a d r a v y a ) and t h e r e f o r e
t h a t i t does n o t amount t o an e x h a u s t i v e d e f i n i t i o n * ^
These o b j e c t i o n s and c o u n t e r - o b j e c t i o n s show t h a t
a l t h o u g h t h e d i v i s i o n of m a t t e r i n t o p rim a ry and s e c o n d a r y
was one of t h e w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d , t e n e t s o f t h e B u d d h i s t

1. R e f e r e n c e s as t h e s e i n t h e B u d d h i s t works to s i x dh*atus
a r e ^ i n _the v iew o f S t . S c h a y e r , t r a c e s of a p r e - c a n o n i c a l
v i j h a n a v s t d a . F o r f u r t h e r d e t a i l s on t h i s t h e o r y , s e e h i s
a r t i c l e ; F r e - c a n o n i c a l Buddhism * A rc h iv O x*ientalni . V o l . v i i .
121 f f . ~
2. See AK.O h.l 64 f f
107

s c h o o l s , i t was n o t u n c h a l l e n g e d by t h e B u d d h i s t s
them selves•
A c c o r d i n g t o t h e hbhidharnrna P i t a k a t h e c a t e g o r y o f
s e c o n d a r y m a t t e r (upad'a r u p a ) c o n s i s t s o f t w e n t y t h r e e
i t e m s , namely t h e f i r s t f i v e s e n s e - o r g a n s - (1 ) c a k k h u ,
(2) s o t a , (3 ) g l i a n a , (4 ) j i v h a and (5 ) ka*ya; t h e f i r s t f o u r
s e n s e ~ o b j e c t s - (6 ) r u p a , (7) s a d d a , .(8) gan d ha and (9) r a s a
t h r e e f a c u l t i e s - (10) i t t h i n d r i y a , (X I) p u r i s i n d r i y a and
(1 2) jTv i t i n d r i y a ; two modes of s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n - ( 1 3 )
#K*t , N N / i \ *K'1* ** ~
k & y a v i n n a t t i an d (14} v a c i v m n a t t i ; t h r e e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s
o f m a t t e r - (1 3 ) lahutsT, (16) mudut'a an d (1 7) kammannata;
f o u r p h a s e s o f m a t t e r - (1 8 ) u p a c a y a , (19) s a n t a t i ,
(20) 3 arat*a an d (21) a n i c e a t a ; (22) 'a i c a s a - d h a tu ; and
£ 3) IcabalTicara-ahaVa. ^ To t h i s l i s t t h e co m m entators ad d
a n o t h e r , n a m e ly , (24) h a d a y a - v a t t h u . 2 Thus, ac co rd in g to
t h e T h erav 'a d in s t h e r e a r e i n a l l tw e n ty f o u r upacfa ru p a s *
These t w e n t y f o u r ups’da r u p a s and th e f o u r rn&babloutas
a r e r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e c l a s s i c a l l i s t o f "ay atan as as f o l l o w s
The f i r s t f i v e upad'a :cupas ( b o s . 1 -5 ) c o n s t i t u t e t h e
f i r s t f i v e a j j h a t t i k a a y a t a n a s : c a k k h a y a t a n a ( r« o .l)
s o t a y a n t a n a ( f i o . 2 . ) , g h aria y atan a ( b o . 3 )* Jiv h!ayatan a

n 1— " h u t " ------------------------------ n -in n rT O W fiiii> '" n i i '‘w ^

1. Bee Vbh. 1 f f . ; Dhs. 123 f f »


2 . See V is m .334 ; A b h v t . 6 9 ;Abhvk. 270
108

(n o . 4) a n d Icayayatana ( n o . 5 ) . (The s i x t h a j j h a t t i l c a
’a y a t a n a , i . e . , m an ayatan a i s m e n t a l ) • The n e x t f o u r upad’s
xuxpas ( n o s . 6 - 9 ) c o n s t i t u t e t h e f i r s t f o u r bath ira *ayatanas:
rupefyatana ( n o *6), s a d d a y a t a n a (±to * 7 ) $ gandhsTyatana ( n o . 8 }
an d r a s a y a t a n a ( n o . 9 ) * The mablabhutas e x c e p t sTpo-dhatu
c o n s t i t u t e p h o t t h a b b ’a y a t a n a , i . e . , t h e f i f t h b’a h i r a TTyatana
TTpo-diiatu a n d a l l t h e r e m a i n i n g up"ada r u p a s ( n o s . 1 0 -2 4 )
c o ns t i t u t e a pax*t o f dhamnia y a t ana , i . e . , t he s i x t h b’a h i r a
’a y a t a n a . For t h e sco p e o f dhammayatana i s v e r y w id e : i t
in c lu d e s a l l t h i n g s , m ental or p h y s ic a l, p a s t , p re se n t or
f u t u r e , r e a l ox* im a g in a ry which become t h e o b j e c t s
c o r r e s p o n d i n g 'to mano ( t h e m e n t a l o r g a n ) .

A 3j h a t t i k a Baihira
0 alckha y a t a na = no . 1 Blip's y a t ana no* 6
Sot’s y a t ana = no. 2 S a d d J a y a ta n a No. 7
Glia nJTyat ana = No. 3 Gandha ya t a na no. 8
J'ivha* y a t a na = No. 4 Ras’a y a t a n a No . 9 ^
Ka y ajya t a na ~ No • 3 Pho 1 t ha b b’a y a t a n a j?a t ha v7+1 e j o+va y o
(M anayatana) p a rt* o f Dhamma y a t a na apo+Nos.lQ to 2 4

I t w i l l be s e e n t h a t a l t o g e t h e r s i x t e e n ru p a -d h am m as,
one p r i m a r y an d f i f t e e n s e c o n d a r y a r e i n c l u d e d i n dhamniayatana.
These s i x t e e n i t e m s a r e c o l l e c t i v e l y known as *f dhammayatana-
. • ’“I | A j *

p ariy ap an n a-ru p a." They a r e c o g n i z e d o n l y by t h e mind (m ano;;

1 . See D h s .1 7 9 ; V b h . l 4 s 72
109

t h e i r e x i s t e n c e i s Imovm by s p i'o c e s s o f i n f e r e n c e . In
t h i s c o n n e c t i o n i t must be m e n tio n e d h e r e t h a t as
i n t e r p r e t e d . i n t h e hh h i d ha mma t h e f i r s t f i v e s e n s e - o r g a n s ,
( n o s • 1 - 5 )3 t o o , a r e o f t h i s n a t u r e * T hat i s t o s a y , t h e y ,
t o o , ax^e c o g n i z e d o n ly by. t h e mind (m ano).' Hence, s t r i c t l y
s p e a k i n g , t h e y s h o u l d a l s o be i n c l u d e d i n t h e dhammayatana*
However, s i n c e t h e y a r e a l r e a d y r e p r e s e n t e d by f i v e s e p a r a t e
U y a t a n a s , t h e y a r e n o t d e s i g n a t e d as dhammayatana-rupa*
We s h a l l be u s i n g t h e term d h a m m a y a ta n a -ru p a (s ) t o mean o n ly
t h o s e s i x t e e n ite m s w h i c h , i n t h e hbhidham m a, a r e so
designated.
T h e re i s g e n e r a l a g reem en t among t h e B u d d h i s t s c h o o l s
t h a t t h e f i r s t f i v e a ; j 3 h a t t i k a « and t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g f i v e
b 'a h i r a - ’a y a t a n a s a r e ru p a * From t h e p o i n t of view o f t h e
n i k ' a y a s , t o o , t h i s i s so*
I t i s i n r e g a r d t o t h e c a t e g o r y o f dham m ayatana-rupa
t h a t the op in io n d i f f e r s , n s we have s e e n , a c c o r d i n g to t h e
T heravadins i t c o n s i s t s of s i x t e e n ite m s . For t h e V a i b K a• s i k a s *
*

on t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e r e i s o n l y one d h a r m a y a t a n a - r u p a ,

1* B ecau se t h e y a r e ^ a v a r i e t y o f v e r y s u b t l e and d e l i c a t e
m a t t e r ( p a s a & a - r u p a ) , s e e below , / 3 / —&
110

n a m e ly , a v i j n a p t i - r u p a . ^ However, s e v e n of t h e i t e m s w hich
t h e Therav’a d i n s have i n c l u d e d i n th e c a t e g o r y o f dhamnia ya t a n a -
r u p a a r e r e c o g n i z e d by t h e V a i b t i a s i k a s , t o o , b u t n o t as
dh arm a y atan a-rU p a# Of t h e s e v e n , s i x , i . e . , n o s . 1 0, 1 1 , 1 3 ,
1 4 , 22 and 'apo-dhgiitu ai*e c o n s i d e r e d as p a r t s o r s u b - d i v i s i o n s
o f o t h e r s t y a t a n a s , and t h e r e m a i n i n g o n e , i . e . , n o . 23 a s a
» * o
com bination of th r e e layatanas. Such a d i f f e r e n c e as t o t h e
p o s i t i o n of t h e s e i t e m s i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e l i s t o f gfyatanas
presupposes a d if f e r e n c e in t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . But t h i s
n e e d n o t c o n c e r n us h e r e . The 3Jherav*adins do n ot r e c o g n i z e
under any g u i s e t h e a v i j n a p t i - r u p a . w h i c h , f o r t h e V aibha’s i k a s ,
i s t h e one a n d o n ly d h a r m a y a t a n a - r u p a . The S a u t r a n t i k a s
t a k e s t r o n g e x c e p t i o n t o i t s r e c o g n i t i o n , on t h e p a r t of
t h e V a i b h s i k a s , as a r e a l dharm a.^ What i s m o re , t h e y do
n o t seem t o have i n c l u d e d any item o f r u p a i n t h e d h a r m a y a t a n a .
The 3jarst* antik as a r e r e c o r d e d t o have c h a l l e n g e d t h e v e r y
co n cep tio n .^ T h a t t h i s had b e e n a s u b j e c t o f c o n t r o v e r s y
among t h e B u d d h i s t s c h o l i a s t s i s s u g g e s t e d by a VibhsTsa
p a s s a g e a c c o r d i n g t o which t h e Abhidharma d e f i n i t i o n o f

1. G f.katarao r u p a s k a n d h a h / sarvam c a tu m a h a b h n ta k rta m


d v a d a s a y a t a n e s u vyapahaya manayatanam s a r v a n y a n y a n y a y a t a n a n i
d h a r riia y a t a n a s a r a g r h T t a m a v i j n a p t i r u p a m * c e t i r* up ask an dh ah//
" 8 1 s e e a l s o AK.Ch.i~ 14; AKvy* i 29
•2 . Bee AkTchs• 1 , 1 1 ,1V
3 . Bee A K .C h .IV .14 f f *
4 . See A K . ( I n t r o d u c t i o n , e t c . , ) l i v
I ll

r u p a s Itandha as c o n s i s t i n g of t h e t e n r u p a - a y a t a n a s
( = t h e f i r s t f i v e a j ^ h a t t i k a arjL(i t h e f i r s t f i v e b’a h i r a )
an d t h e r u p a t h a t i s i n c l u d e d i n t h e d h arm a y a ta n a , was
meant t o r e f u t e t h e D a r+s «t ' a a t i k a s who had d e n i e d t h e
d harm's y a t a na - r u ’pa * ^
Two f a c t s emerge from t h e f o r e - g o i n g o b s e r v a t i o n s *
One i s t h a t a l l s c h o o l s of Buddhism do n o t r e c o g n i z e a
c a t e g o r y c a l l e d dhamnia y a t ana - r u p a . The o t h e r i s t h a t two
o f t h e l e a d i n g s c h o o l s who have r e c o g n i z e d s u c h a c a t e g o r y
a r e t o t a l l y d i s a g r e e d on what i t s h o u l d c o n s t i t u t e * B o th
s u g g e s t t h a t t h e i n c l u s i o n of c e r t a i n i t e m s of r u p a i n t h e
dhammayatana i s an hbhidhammic i n n o v a t i o n or a t l e a s t t h a t
i t d i d n o t have a p l a c e i n e a r l y B u d d h i s t t h o u g h t .
The o n l y s i g n i f i c a n t ' e v i d e n c e t h a t c o u l d be ad du ced
i n s u p p o r t o f su ch a c a t e g o r y i s a p a s s a g e from t h e S a n g T ti
S u t t a o f t h e Dig ha n i k a y a * T herein i t i s s t a t e d , but w ithout
any a t t e n d a n t e x p l a n a t i o n , t h a t ru p a i s of t h r e e k i n d s ,
n a m e ly , ( i ) s a n i d a s s a n a - s a p p a t i g h a , ( i i ) a n i d a s s a n a - s a p p a t i g h a
and ( i i i ) a n i d a s s a n a - a p p a t i g h a . ^
The two p o s i t i v e te rm s and t h e i r n e g a t i v e s a r e u s e d
i n t h e iVbhidharnma i n a t e c h n i c a l sense* S a n i d a s s a n a w hich

1* See A K* ( I n t o r d u c t i o n , e t c , , ) li
2 . D * i i i 217
112

may be r e n d e r e d as " v i s i b l e 11 i s u s e d as an e x c l u s i v e
a d j e c t i v e of rTTpayatana b e c u a s e of t h e s i m p le r e a s o n t h a t
t h i s p a r t i c u l a r styatana s t a n d s f o r what i s v i s i b l e , th e
" f a c t of v i s i b i l i t y * " -All t h e o t h e r rupa-dhammas a r e a n i d a s s a n a ,
1
in v isib le . P a t i g h a i s used i n more t h a n one s e n s e . But
as i t o c c u r s i n t h i s p^ a r t i c u lia r c o n t e x t i t i s u n d e r s t o o d as
i n d i c a t i v e o f t h e c o n t a e t , a c t u a l o r p o t e n t i a l , b e tw e e n t h e
f i r s t f i v e s e n s e - o r g a n s and, t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g s e n s e - o b j e c t s •
The c o n t a c t b e tw e e n m anayatana and dhammayatana i s n o t
covered, by t h e t e r m . , H e n c e t h e f i r s t f i v e s e n s e - o r g a n s and
th e co rre sp o n d in g s e n s e - o b je o ts are d e s c rib e d as sa p p a tig h a
and, a l l t h e o t h e r rupa-dhamrnas as a p p a t i g h a , ^
T h u s , as e x p l a i n e d i n t h e Abhidhamina, ( i ) rU p a y a ta n a
i s s a n id a s s a n a - s a p p a tig h a , ( i i ) cakkhT yatana, so tT y a ta n a ,
gh'an'ayatana , jiv L ia y a ta n a , k a y a y a t a n a , s a d d a 'y atan a ,
g a n d h a y a t a n a , r a s a y a t a n a and p h o t t h a b b a ’y a t a n a a r e
a n i d a s s a n a - s a p p a t i g h a , and ( i i i ) t h e s i x t e e n rupa-dhammas
i n c l u d e d i n t h e dhamrnayatana a r e a n i d a s s a n a - a p p a t i g h a .
S in c e i t i s c l a i m e d t h a t t h e p h r a s e ‘I rupam a n id a s s a n a m
ap patigh am " o f t h e S a n g T t i S u t t a d e n o t e s t h e dhammayatana-
r u p a s g i v e n i n t h e Abhidhamma, l e t us s e e , as b r i e f l y as
113

p o s s i b l e , w h e t h e r t h e s e ite m s a r e known t o t h e i i i k a y a s ,
and i f known, how t h e y a r e c o n c e i v e d t h e r e i n * C onsidering
t h e i r p o s i t i o n i n r e l a t i o n t h e r i a k a y a s , we c a n a r r a n g e
them i n t o two m ain groups*
■fhe f i r s t g ro u p i n c l u d e s t h i r t e e n i t e m s , n a m e ly ,
i i o s . 1 0 -2 2 . Some of th e m , e.g* , i t t h i n d r i y a (n o .lQ ),
p u r i s i n d r i y a (no* 1 1 ) , alcasa-clliatu (h o . 2 2 ) , e t c * , f i g u r e
in the N ikayas.^ But none of thern a p p e a r t o have b e e n
b r o u g h t u n d e r r u p a , l e t a lo n e t h e i r b e in g c o n c e i v e d as
s e p a r a t e rupadhammas fo rm in g a p a r t o f t h e dhammayatana.
The s e c o n d g ro u p i n c l u d e s two i t e m s , 2 n am ely ,
ka b a i T k a r a -"ahar a ( h o . 23) and a'po-dhntu ( o n e of t h e ma ha b b a t as *}
I t i s t r u e t h a t a c c o r d i n g t o th e Mikefyas as w e l l as t h e
nbhidhaamia, b o t h come u n d e r rupa* But what s h o u l d n o t be
overlooked i s t h a t in the fo rm e r, u n lik e i n th e la tter,
t h e y a r e n o t i n t e r p r e t e d i n s u c h a way as t o j u s t i f y t h e i r
i n c l u s i o n i n t h e dhammayatana, i . e . , as two i t e m s o f r u p a
which c a n be c o g n i z e d o n ly by t h e mind (m ano).
Thus none of t h e above item s a p p e a r i n t h e h i k a y a s
as dhamnia ya t a n a - r u p a s * Bor do th e M k a y a s g i v e any
i n d i c a t i o n o f some o t h e r item o r ite m s o f r u p a b e i n g i n c l u d e d

1. See e . g . S . v 204; 57 (= i t t h i n d r i y a , p u r i s i n d r i y a ) ;
D . i i i 2 4 7 ; M .i 421 (-etkasa-dhaVb)
2* We have n ot b r o u g h t h a d a y a - v a t t h p (i\io. 24) u n d e r e i t h e r
of t h e s e g r o u p s ; i t s i n c l u s i o n i n t h e l i s t o f rupa-dhammas
i s t h e work o f t h e co m m e n ta to rs .
114 -

i n t h e dhamm*ayatana. On t h e o t h e r hand., i t is scarcely


p o s s i b l e t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e p h r a s e , ,fr*upam a n id a s s a n a m a p p a tig h a m '1
o f t h § S a n g T ti S u t t a i n a way d i f f e r e n t from th e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n
g i v e n t o i t i n t h e Abhidhamina. The s i t u a t i o n t h a t o b t a i n s
h e r e i s r a t h e r s t r a n g e : Although, t h e above Nik*aya p h r a s e
p r e s u p p o s e s one o r more dharmnayatana-rTfpas, y e t t h e r e i s
no e v i d e n c e t o s u g g e s t t h a t t h e nilcayas have i n c l u d e d any
it e m o f rupa i n t h e dhaimnayatana.
As p ointed out by many s c h o l a r s , t h e S a n g T t i S ptta
a p p r o a c h e s t h e Abhidharnma n o t o n l y i n m eth o d o lo g y b u t a l s o
A
in c o n te n ts. T h i s i s i n d i c a t i v e of t h e f a c t t h a t as a
c o m p i l a t i o n i t i s of c o m p a r a t i v e l y l a t e o r i g i n . Its
r e s e m b la n c e t o t h e S a n g T t i p a r y a y a . th e f i r s t o f t h e s i x
p a d a - s u p p l e m e n t s to t h e J na na p r a s t liana of t h e S a r v a s t iva*da
J P—Wf »■ I ■■■ — I I ■■ 1.1- ■

O
A b hidh arm a, p o i n t s , a t l e a s t i n d i r e c t l y , t o t h e same
conclusion. What i s m o re , i t s a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e s u b j e c t
m a t t e r i s so m e c h a n i c a l t h a t new c o n t e n t s c o u l d e a s i l y be
o
in terp o lated ,
I t seems v e r y p r o b a b l e t h e r e f o r e t h a t when t h e
S a n g T t i S u t t a was c o m p i l e d t h e T h erav T d in s had a l r e a d y
r e c o g n i z e d one o r more of t h e dhamniayatana-r*upas which

1. See Thornas,His t . o f B u d.T ho '^g h tsl 6 0 1 Wint e m i t s ,


H i s t . o f I n d . L i t . ,//^ j alsc / 6 8
2, Bee Talcalcusu ,The Abhidharma L i t e r a t u r e of t h e S a r v a s t i ~
va d i n s , j F f £, 1 9 0 4 -5
ti « ■ . o . r i 'n m aim »
115

f i n d m e n t i o n i n t h e Abhidharnma. 0r e l s e P t h e s e c t i o n
r e f e r r i n g to th e t h r e e hinds of rupa may he c o n s i d e r e d
as a s u b s e q u e n t i n t e r p o l a t i o n . E ith e r of these (a lte r n a tiv e )
s u g g e s t i o n s e x p l a i n s s a t i s f a c t o r i l y t h e s i t u a t i o n t o which
we have drawn a t t e n t i o n *
A n o t h e r c o n n e c t i o n which t h e Abhidhaimnikas s e e k t o
e s t a b l i s h b e tw e e n t h e n i k a y a s and t h e d ham m ay atana-rup as
i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e two p a i r s o f t e r m s , n am ely , ( a )
s a n t i k e an d dure , (b ) o l a r i k a and sukhuma. These te rm s a r e
u s e d i n t h e Abhidharnma t o d i s t i n g u i s h t h e dhammayatana^
«*. p
r u p a s from t h e x^est .
As u s e d i n t h i s c o n t e x t s a n t i k e and d u re do n o t
s i g n i f y s p a t i a l proxim ity or d istan ce* The f i r s t f i v e
s e n s e - o r g a n s an d t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g s e n s e - o b ^ e c t s a r e
c a lle d san tik e (proxim ate) because the g h a t t a n a , th e
c o n t a c t b e tw e e n them , (w hich r e s u l t s i n caklchu-vinnana o r
v is u a l co n sc io u sn e ss, e t c . , )w itn e sse s to t h e i r very presence.
I n o t h e r w o r d s , b e c a u s e o f t h e i r b e i n g t h u s e a s i l y known
(gahanassa su k a ra tt'a ) th ey are s t y l e d s a n tik e (p ro x im a te ).
For t h i s s e l f - s a m e r e a s o n t h e y a r e a l s o c a l l e d o l a r i k a *gross.
The dham m ayatana-rup as c a n n o t be known t h r o u g h t h e medium

1. See a b o v e ,111
2 . See p h s »148
116

o f an y o f t h e f i r s t f i v e s e n s e - o r g a n s ; t h e i r e x i s t e n c e
i s known by a p r o c e s s o f i n f e r e n c e . In th is.^sen se th ey
a r e n o t e a s i l y known ( d u p p a r i n n e y y a ) . Hence t h e y a r e
d e s c r i b e d as cfiTre ( f a r ) . For t h i s s e l f - s a m e r e a s o n t h e y
a r e a l s o c a l l e d sukhuma ( s u b t l e ) .
Q u i t e d i f f e r e n t i s t h e s e n s e i n which t h e V aib h s ts ik a s
use a n tik a m ( s a n t i k e ) an d duram (d*ure): A g i v e n ru p a c o u l d

be a n tik a m o r duram a c c o r d i n g t p , o r d e p e n d in g o n , t h e tim e


of i t s e x isten ce * The ru p a t h a t e x i s t s ( p r e s e n t ) i s antikam ;
t h e r u p a t h a t was ( p a s t ) o r t h e r u p a t h a t w i l l be ( f u t u r e )
i s duram .^ On t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e V a i b l i a s i k a s , t o o , use
a u d a r i k a ( o l a r i k a ) and sTTicsma (sukhuma) t o d i s t i n g u i s h t h e
d h a r r n a y a t a n a - r u p a (= a v i j n a p t i - r u p a ) from t h e r e s t : Audarika
i s a p p l i e d t o t h e l a t t e r and sliksma t o t h e f o r m e r . H owever,
as an a l t e r n a t i v e e x p l a n a t i o n , i t i s s a i d t h a t t h e two term s
a r e not e x p r e s s i v e of a n a b s o l u t e d i v i s i o n , b u t a r e of
r e l a t i v e a p p l i c a t i o n (’apeksikarn) T hat i s t o s a y , what
i s suksma ( s u b t l e ) i n r e l a t i o n t o s o m e th in g c o u l d be
a u d a r i k a ( g r o s s ) i n r e l a t i o n t o s o m ething e l s e . ^

1. See A s l . 3 3 7 ? ADSVT.116; Abhvk.294


2* See AK.G h.i 3ST^AKvy«i 44
3. See AK.Gh.i 3 6 and AKvy.i 43
4. G f . a p e k s a y a va a u d a n k a rn suksmam ca b h a v a t i . t a c l - y a t h a
l i k s a m a p e k s y a a u d a r i k ? yuka. yukam ap e k s y a suksma
l i k s e t i . - AKvy. 1 43 *
117

The above m e n t i o n e d two pai&s o f t e rm s o c c u r i n a


s t o c k f o r m u l a o f t h e k'ik’ay a s * where ru p a i s r e f e r r e d t o i n
i t s t o t a l i t y ; " - * * yaiji k i n c i rupam atT ta'n ag ’a tapaccu pp ann am
a j j h a t t a m v*a b ah id d iia Va olTTrilcam va sukhumam va hZnam v*a
parritam va yam d!ure s a n t i k e va% sabbam rupam, »• *"^

I f t h e u n d e r l i n e d words were i n t e r p r e t e d a c c o r d i n g
t o t h e i r Ab h i d ha maiic u sage* t h e n su ch an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n
would p r e s u p p o s e d h a m m a y a ta n a -ru p a s * But t h e g e n e r a l t o n e
o f t h e f o r m u l a does n o t s u g g e s t t h a t h e r e i n t h e y a r e u s e d
i n s u c h a t e c h n i c a l o r , so t o say* academ ic* s e n s e . They
c o u l d w e l l be u n d e r s t o o d i n a d i r e c t a n d l i t e r a l s e n s e as
" w h e t h e r g r o s s o r s u b t l e " and " w h e t h e r f a r o r n e a r " . A ll
what t h e f o r m u l a s e e k s t o do i s t o l a y s t r e s s on t h e t o t a l i t y
o f r u p a (sabbam rupam) - f i r s t w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o tim e
(a tT t'a ria g a ta p a c c u p p a n n a m ), s e c o n d l y w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o a
g i v e n i n d i v i d u a l ( a j j h a t t a m va bahiddiia v’a ) * t h i r d l y w i t h
r e f e r e n c e t o a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of r u p a ( o l ’ar/tikarn va sukhumam
v a ) s f o u r t h l y w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e v a l u e o f r u p a (hTnam
va panTtam v*a) $ and f i n a l l y w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o d i s t a n c e
( d u r e va s a u t i k e v'a) . With t h e n e c e s s a r y a d j u s t m e n t t h i s

1. S . i v 3 62; s e e a l s o S . i i i k f i | . iii 16
118

same f o r m u l a i s a p p l i e d t o t h e o t h e r f o u r khandhas , t o o ,
q u i t e a p p a r e n t l y , w i t h a view t o l a y i n g s t r e s s on th e i d e a ,
*fa l l H o r lfa l l k i n d s o f . ' 1 T h is i s p e r f e c t l y u n d e r s t a n d a b l e ,
f o r t h i s k i n d of d e s c r i p t i o n i s o f t e n made i n o r d e r t o
a d v o c a t e a m o ral i n j u n c t i o n , e . g . , one s h o u l d n o t have any
c r a v i n g f o r , o r a t t a c h m e n t t o , any k i n d o f r u p a , v e d a n a ,

e tc .r
The k i k a y a meaning of d*ure and s a n t i k e i s , i n f a c t ,
-i
r e t a i n e d i n t h e Vibhanga as an a l t e r n a t i v e e x p l a n a t i o n .
I t a ls o fin d s e x p re ssio n in the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a t t r i b u t e d
to B hadanta: A ll rupas t h a t e x i s t in a v i s i b l e l o c a l i t y
( d r ^ y a - d e s a ) a r e a n t i k a m j t h o s e t h a t e x i s t i n an i n v i s i b l e
l o c a l i t y ( a d r £ y a ~ d e s a ) a r e dnram.^ The c r i t e r i o n i s n o t
w h e t h e r t h e r u p a s a r e v i s i b l e or n o t - f o r s u c h an
e x p l a n a t i o n would b r i n g rllp*ayatana un der one h e a d in g a n d
a l l t h e r e m a i n i n g i t e m s o f rUpa u n d er t h e o t h e r - but
w hether th e l o c a l i t y i s v i s i b l e or n o t , i . e . , near o r f a r .
T h i s e x p l a n a t i o n t a l l i e s w e l l w i t h t h e c o n t e x t of t h e fJikaya
f o r m u l a , and, as s u c h does n ot p r e s u p p o s e t h e f a c t t h a t any
item of r u p a was in c lu d e d , i n t h e dhamniayatana•
From what has b e e n o b s e r v e d so f a r , i t s h o u l d become
c l e a r t h a t t h e i n c l u s i o n o f c e r t a i n rupa-dhammas i n t h e

i . ^ y a m va p a n 1annam p i a t t h i ..rupam a n a s an n e a n u p a k a t t h e
d n re a s m i t i k e : ^idam v u c c a t i rupam d u r e .
..y a m v'a p a n 1annam* p i a t t h i rupsupu asanne u p a k k a t t h e
a v i d u r e s a n t i k e s i d a m v u c c a t i rupam s a n t i k e - o p t c i t . , 2 - 3
2 . See AK.Gh.i 3 6 - 7 an d AiCvy. i 44-5*
119

dhammayatana i s of c o m p a r a t i v e l y l a t e o r i g i n * Most of
t h e s e i t e m s , i t may be n o t e d h e r e , do n o t p r o p e r l y answer
t o th e d e f i n i t i o n of r u p a a s g i v e n t y t h e B u d d h i s t s t h e m s e l v e s .
The a v i d ' S a p t i - r u p a which t h e Y ai'bliasikas have i n c l u d e d i n
t h e d h a rm a y a ta n a i s a c a s e i n p o i n t .
What i s c a l l e d a v i j n a p t i - r u p a i s c l o s e l y c o n n e c t e d
w i t h t h e V a i b h a s i k a t h e o r y o f karma. Buddhism , as i s w e l l
known, r e c o g n i s e s t h r e e k i n d s o f k arm a, n a m e ly , mano-karma
( m e n t a l a c t i o n ) , lcaya-karma ( b o d i l y a c t i o n ) an d vakkarma
(vocal a c tio n ) . The Therava"dins and t h e S a u t r a n t i k a s t a k e
t h e view t h a t t h e s e t h r e e t y p e s a r e e s s e n t i a l l y t h e same*
P u re v o l i t i o n ( c e t a n a } i s mano“karma; when i t i s m a n i f e s t e d ,
by b o d i l y m o t io n i t i s c a l l e d k a y a - k a r m a ; when by v o i c e
i t i s c a l l e d v akkarma * Karma, a l t ho ugh i t i s s poke n o f as
t h r e e - f o l d , i s nothing but c e ta n a , v o l i t i o n . ^
I n c o n t r a s t , t h e V a i b h a s i k a s b e l i e v e t h a t o n ly mano-
karrna i s c e t a n a { c e t a n a manas am
* k a r m a *) . What r e s u l t from
mano-karma o r c e t a n a a r e c a l l e d kaya-karraa a n d vakkarrna
( t a j j e v'akkayakarrriani). The l a t t e r tw o , i t i s s a i d , a r e
q u i t e d i s t i n c t from t h e f o r m e r . They a r e m a n i f e s t e d , by a
p e c u l i a r d i s p o s i t i o n o f t h e body and. by way o f v o i c e . Hence

1. See A s l . 8 4 f f . ; AK.Oh.iv 12
120

t h e y x^eceive t h e name v i j n a p t i , t h e “m a n ife s te d ." " ^ These


two t y p e s o f v i j n a p t i “ c r e a t e a t h i n g o f a p a r t i c u l a r n a t u r e ,
s e r a i - m a t e r i a l ( r u p a ) an d s e m i - s p i r i t u a l , " ^ d e s i g n a t e d as
a v i j n a p t i , the “ unm anifested." "Once p r o d u c e d . . . the
a v i j n a p t i e x i s t s an d d e v e lo p s o f i t s own a c c o r d , w i t h o u t
t h e agency of t h o u g h t , w h e th e r a man i s w a k i n g , s l e e p i n g
o r a b s o r b e d i n c o n t e m p l a t i o n . "3 The a v i j n a p t i - r u p a i s s a i d
t o d epend on t h e m ahabhutas (lviah*abhu"tany ^up'sdaya). Hence
i t i s b r o u g h t under r u p a an d i s r e c o g n i z e d as a b h a u t i k a
r u p a - d h a r m a *^
A l t h o u g h t h e V a i b l r a s ik a s b r i n g a v i j n a p t i - r u p a u nd er
x*upa, t h e y ad m it t h a t i t i s exempt from r u p p a n a ( t h e f a c t
o f b e i n g “ h u r t " , d i s t u r b e d ) and p r a t i g l o a t a ( r e s i s t a n c e *
i m p e n e t r a b i l i t y ) which a r e c o n s i d e r e d as two f u n d a m e n ta l
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f rupa.*^ T h i s seems to be t h e r e a s o n why
liar iv arm an* s S a t y a s i d d h l i n s i s t s t h a t i t s h o u l d be a s s i g n e d
a p l a c e i n t h e c a t e g o r y of c i t t a - v i p r a y u k t a - s a m s k a r a s ,
r
i . e . , m i s c e l l a n e o u s dharmas n e i t h e r m e n t a l nor p h y s i c a l .

1. Bee AK .C h.i 20 f f . ; O h .iv 14 f f .


2 . Be l a V a l l e e P o u s s i n , The Way t o n i r v a n a . 71
I b i d . l o c *c i t . ,
4. For more d e t a i l s on t h e s u b j e c t o f a v i j n a p t i , s e e S ogen,
Bystems o f B u d .T h o u g h t , 149 f f • jMc Goverri, Manual o f Bud.
P h i * i 128 f f ; Takakusu .E s s e n ! i a l s o f B u d . l % i . . 67 f f . ;
Bt c h e r ba t sky ,Qe n t . 0 o no e p . , 99 f f . "
5 . See AK .C h.i 25 f f , O h .iv 14 f f . ; AKv,y. i 35
6. See kc G o v e rn , Manual of B u d . P h i . i 129
121

The S a u t r a n t i k a s c o n t e n d t h a t s i n c e i t does n o t q u i t e
p r o p e r l y answ er t o t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f r u p a i t s h o u l d n o t
be r e c o g n i z e d as ru p a T h i s i s n o t t o say t h a t t h e y were
d i s s a t i s f i e d o n ly w i t h t h e p o s i t i o n a s s i g n e d t o i t * On t h e
c o n t r a r y , t h e y v e h e m e n tly d e n i e d i t s r e a l i t y , ^ f o r t h e y had
b e e n v e r y s u s p i c i o u s of t h e wisdom o f p o s t u l a t i n g new
en titie s, n o r i s I t . c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t t h e c o n c e p t i o n of
a v i j n a p t i - r u p a was known t o e a r l y Buddhism.
I t i s t r u e t h a t t h e T h e r avef d i n s do n o t r e c o g n i z e t h e
a v i j n a p t i - r u p a u n d er any g u i s e . However, a m a j o r i t y of t h e
rupa-dhammas which t h e y have i n c l u d e d i n t h e dhammayatana
pose s i m i l a r p r o b l e m s . These ite m s w i l l be exam ined i n
d e t a i l i n t h e c o u r s e o f t h e n e x t two c h a p t e r s . S uffice i t
t o note here t h a t the l i s t i n q u e s tio n i s a " s tr a n g e m is c e lla n y ”
of i t e m s , some o f which a r e n o t h i n g b u t cex^tain " q u a l i t i e s ”
o r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , modes o r a s p e c t s and p h a se s o f m a t t e r ,
a l l r a i s e d t o t h e s t a t u s o f rupa-dhamma. S i d e by s i d e w i t h
t h e " r e a l " rupa~dhamrnas a r e e n u m erated t h e " n o m i n a l " . The
i l l o g i c a l i t y of t h e e n u m e r a t i o n would n o t a r i s e had n ot t h e
Xbhidhammikas made a s p e c i a l a t t e m p t t o r e c o g n i z e s u c h t h i n g s
as p h a s e s o f m a t t e r by p o s t u l a t i n g dhammas c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o

1. See AK.Gh.i 25 f f *
2* See i b i d . , C h .i v 14
122

them* Such a s i t u a t i o n i s n o t met w i t h i n t h e i i i k a y a s .


V'/hat i s m o re , some o f t h e B u d d h i s t s c h o o l s , n o t a b l y t h e
S a u tra n tik a s , to o , recognised c e r ta in c h a r a c t e r is t i c s
common t o b o t h m e n t a l and m a t e r i a l dhammasj b u t r a t h e r
t h a n p o s t u l a t i n g them as dhammas t h e y r e l e g a t e d them t o
1
t h e domain o f p r a j n a p t i s , mere d e s i g n a t i o n s . ,as f a r as
t h i s s i t u a t i o n i s c o n c e r n e d t h e Abhidhamma P i t a k a i s more
#

ak in to th e V aib h asik a system , . a t t e n t i o n may be drawn


h e r e t o t h e f a c t t h a t i n r e c o g n i z i n g t h e sfc h a r a c t e r i s t i c s
o f t h a t which i s c o n d i t i o n e d 11 ( s a m s k r t a - l a k s a n a s ) « t h e
VaibhsTsikas went so f a r as t o p o s t u l a t e them as e n t i t i e s ,
as r e a l as t h e t h i n g s w h ich t h e y c h a r a c t e r i z e . 2
I f we were to f o l l o w t h e g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d meaning
o f dharnma, t h e n we had t o u n d e r s t a n d a l l t h e ite m s i n t h e
T h e ra v a ’da l i s t as r e a l and d i s c r e t e e n t i t i e s . However, i t
i s e x t r e m e l y d o u b t f u l w h e t h e r s u c h an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n c o u l d
be j u s t i f i e d . For t h e names and e x p l a n a t i o n s g i v e n t o some
i t e m s show t h a t a l l were n o t c o n c e i v e d as h a v in g e q u a l
s t a t u s a l t h o u g h t h e y a l l were d e s i g n a t e d a s rupa-dham m as.
I t seems v e r y l i k e l y t h a t i t was t h e avowed a n t i p a t h y of
t h e B u d d h i s t s to w ard s i n t r o d u c i n g t h e d i s t i n c t i o n b e tw e e n
s u b s t a n c e and q u a l i t y t h a t im pelled, t h e Abhidhammikas t o

1* See below , 2 2 1 -2
2 , See below , 221
123

ta k e such a s t e p . I f t h i s was t h e r e a s o n t h e n i t i s
v e r y d o u b t f u l w h e t h e r t h i s d e v i c e had i t s d esired e ffe c t.
I h e f a c t t h a t t h e P a l i com m en tators deemed i t n e c e s s a r y t o
b r i n g a b o u t a r a d i c a l change i n t h e p o s i t i o n of some of t h e
d.hamma y atan a-r* up as - t o t h i s we s h a l l corne i n t h e next
c h a p t e r ~ shows t h a t t h e T h e r a v a d i n s t h e m s e l v e s came to
r e a l i z e t h e i n a d e q u a n c y of t h i s a r r a n g e m e n t .
I1he a p p a r e n t want o f c o n s i s t e n c y i n t h e T h e ra v a d a
l i s t o f ru p a -d h am m as, as s u g g e s t e d by Me G overn,^ seems t o
sug'gest t h a t i t r e p r e s e n t s a c o m p a r a t i v e l y e a r l y t r a d i t i o n .
I t seems v e r y p r o b a b l e t h a t w i t h t h e g r a d u a l d evelopm ent
o f B u d d h i s t s c h o l a s t i c i s m , some of t h e i t e m s i n t h e 31st
"w h ich were i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h a more l o g i c a l , s y s t e m a t i c
2
an d s c i e n t i f i c view of t h e u n i v e r s e " were e i t h e r e l i m i n a t e d
o r p l a c e d un d er more a p p r o p r i a t e p l a c e s .
A g l a n c e a t t h e p o s i t i o n s a s s i g n e d t o some o f t h e

i t e m s o f t h e T h e ra v a d a l i s t by t h e V a i b i i a s i k a s and t h e
S a u t r a n t ileas s h o u l d show t h a t such a p o s s i b i l i t y c a n n o t
be e n t i r e l y r u l e d o u t . For in s t a n c e , the t h r e e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s
and t h e f o u r p h a s e s o f m a t t e r ( jwos. 1 5 - 2 1 } do n o t f i g u r e i n

1. Manual o f B u d . P h i . i 117
........ .. II.IIW *

2* l b i d . 3 l o c . c i t .
124

i n t h e l i s t s of rupa~dhammas s u p p l i e d by t h e s e two
schools. ,An&, we have a l r e a d y n o t i c e d t h a t s e v e n of
t h e dharn'fflayatana-rupas of t h e lire r avia d i n s f i g u r e i n t h e
Vaibtiasilca l i s t as s u b - d i v i s i o n s or c o m b i n a t i o n s o f o t h e r
‘a y a t a n a s * \U?he d evelop m en t o f a n o v e l c a t e g o r y c a l l e d
cittaviprayulcba^sam skaras ^ t o o , seems t o have f a c i l i t a t e d
t h i s p r o c e s s of s y s t e m a t i z a t i o n . !f h u s by . a s s i g n i n g a p l a c e
t o jTvi-feen-clriya i n t h e above c a t e g o r y t h e Vaibh’a s i k a s
e l i m i n a t e d t h e n e c e s s i t y of p o s t u l a t i n g - as was done by
t h e I h e r a v ’a d i n s - two j i v i t i n d r i y a s , one m e n t a l and t h e
7
othex* m a t e r i a l . ^ liar i v a r man *s i n s i s t e n c e on r e l e g a t i n g t h e
a v i ^ n a p t i (w hich t h e V a i b t i a s i k a s have b ro u g h t u n d e r r u p a )
i n t o t h e same c a t e g o r y s i g n i f i e s a n o t h e r s t e p i n t h i s
process of s y s te m a tiz a tio n .

1 . See above , 110


2. On t h e o r i g i n a n d developm ent of t h i s c a t e g o r y , s e e
J a i n i , B S Q A S , V o l . X X l l , P t . 3 (1959) *531 f f *
3* See below ,1 6 4
4» See above , 120
125

CHAPTER FOUR
SECONDARY EIEMERTS I I : GROUP A ( im'IPPHARM )
I t was o b s e r v e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r t h a t some of
t h e upacfa r u p a s , t h e s e c o n d a r y e l e m e n t s , th o u g h e l e v a t e d
t o t h e s t a t u s o f r u p a dhamma, a r e n o t h i n g b u t c e r t a i n p h a s e s ,
q u a l i t i e s , m odes, e t c . , o f m a t t e r . I t i s t h e r e f o r e no m a t t e r
f o r s u r p r i s e t h a t w ith th e passage of tim e th e Theravadins
them selves r e a l i z e d the u n s a t i s f a c t o r i n e s s of t h i s arrangem ent.
The a u t h o r s o f t h e Abhidhammic c o m m en tarie s and t h e k i n d r e d
works s e e k t o remedy t h e s i t u a t i o n by c l a s s i f y i n g a l l t h e
m a t e r i a l e l e m e n t s , p r i m a r y as w e l l as s e c o n d a r y , in to two
g r o u p s c a l l e d , n ip p h a n n a and an ipphanna* *
The p o s i t i v e t e r m , n i p p h a n n a , w i t h t h e i n t e n s i v e p r e f i x
p a ri (= parinipphanna) occurs i n th r e e of th e K ath av atth u
c o n t r o v e r s i e s , i n a more or l e s s t e c h n i c a l s e n s e . ^ V/hen
s o m e th in g i s q u a l i f i e d a s p a r i n i p p h a n n a , t h e f o l l o w i n g
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e i m p l i e d : i t i s im permanent ( a n i c c a ) ,
c o n d itio n e d ( s a n k h a t a ) , c a u s a l l y dependent (paticca-sam uppanna)
s u b j e c t t o decay (khaya-dham m a), s u b j e c t t o waning away
(vaya-dhamma) c a p a b l e o f p ro d u c in g d i s p a s s i o n (v ira g a -d h a m m a ) ,
s u b j e c t t o c e s s a t i o n (nirodha-dham m a) and t o chang e ( v i p a r i n a m a
dhamma)•
From t h i s i t f o l l o w s t h a t t h e te rm p a r i n i p p h a n n a , ,

1 . See Vism 3 8 1 - 2 ; A s l.3 4 3 ;Abhvt 7 4 ; ABB 27; RkP, 3 3 ; SS 4


2 . p j s . j s i t . , 4 5 9 -6 2 ; 626-27 "* *****
126

l i k e s a n k h a t a , & p p l i e s \ = t o a l l m e n t a l and m a t e r i a l e l e m e n t s
t h a t make up t h e t o t a l i t y of c o n t i n g e n t e x i s t e n c e , f o r t h e y
s h a r e a l l t h e above c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s * h a r r o w i n g down t h e
f i e l d we may s a y t h a t a l l inlpa-dhammas a r e n e c e s s a r i l y
p arin ip p h an n a. What i s n o t so s h o u l d be e i t h e r a s a n k h a t a
( l i k e N ib b a n a ) o r p a n n a t t ^ mere d e s i g n a t i o n s w i t h no
corresponding o b je c tiv e r e a l i t y . i ■
I f t h e c o m m e n t a t o r s , t o o , use t h e term n ip p h a n n a w i t h
t h e same i m p l i c a t i o n s , t h e n i t f o l l o w s t h a t o n l y t h o s e
i t e m s w hich t h e y q u a l i f y by t h a t term c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d
as t r u e rupa-dham m as. The f a c t t h a t t h e . .A tt.has'al i n T
p
sometimes u s e s p a r i n i p p h a n n a i n s t e a d o f n i p p h a n n a s u g g e s t s
t h a t t h e co m m en tato rs made no d i s t i n c t i o n i n meaning betw een
t h e s im p le te rm an d t h a t w i t h t h e i n t e n s i v e p r e f i x , p a r i .
And, t h a t t h e term i s u s e d w i t h t h e same i m p l i c a t i o n s i s
a l s o shown by t h e g i v e n e x p l a n a t i o n s .
Buddhagosa o b s e r v e s t h a t n ip p h an n a r u p a s a r e so c a l l e d
b e c a u s e t h e y c a n be s e i s e d i n t h e i r i n t r i n s i c n a t u r e
(sab tiav en eva p a r i g g a h e t a b b a t o ) . The r e s t a r e c o n t r a r y
t he r e t o ( t a bb i pa r T t a ) . S uma rig a 1 a s a y s t ha t o n l y n i p p ha nna
rlapas a r e b r o u g h t a b o u t by t h e f o u r g e n e r a t i v e c o n d i t i o n s o f
m a t t e r , n a m e ly , c i t t a , kamma, u t u a n d ‘a h 'a r a . ^ This i s an o th e r

1. See b e l o w , 1 8 1 -2
2. .0£.c_it. , 343
3 *• yisrn 361 ^ _
4* O f. • • • a t t a n o s a b h a v e n e v a kammadThi p a c o a y e h i n i p p h a n n a t t a ’
n ip ph ann arup am ha ma - ADSVT 1 1 2 1 s e e a l s o Abhvk 291
127

way of s a y l a g t h a t t h e y a l o n e a r e t r u e r u p a dhammas ,
fore no pupa dhamma c o u l d corne i n t o e x i s t e n c e w i t h o u t x^eference
t o cex*tain c o n d i t i o n s .
T h i s i s f u r t h e r shown by t h e use o f t h e p e c u l i a r compound,
r u p a - r u p a 5 t o d e s c r i b e t h e same c a t e g o r y . ^ I n a lm o s t
i d e n t i c a l w o r d s , Dhanrmap'ala and Sumangala o b s e r v e t h a t o n l y
n ip p h a n n a r u p a s a r e c a l l e d ru’pa-xuipa b e c a u s e t h e y a l o n e a r e
0 |v t/JL CO-Or^CKCjJZ- tAXJL C0fnfi&ton>cLj *
s u b j e c t t o r u p p a n a # ^ T h is te rm r u p a , as a m a t t e r o f c o n v e n t i o n ,
has b e e n u s e d t o i n d i c a t e t h i n g s which a r e d e v o i d o f t h e
n a tu re of rupa ( m a tte r ) . Thexie f o r e t h e t e r m i s q u a l i f i e d
by a n o t h e r r u p a , J T h i s i s t o adm it t h,, t i n t h e nb h i dhamma
P i t a k a c e r t a i n i t e m s which do n o t answer to t h e d e f i n i t i o n
o f ru p a a r e a l s o b ro u g h t u n d er i t a n d t h a t t h e r e b y i t s meaning
has become u n d u ly u s t r >e t c h e d u . Hence a r i s e s t h e n e c e s s i t y
to r e d u p lic a te the term .^
Anuruddha adds t h r e e more term s t o d i s t i n g u i s h t h e
n ip p h a n n a r u p a s from t h e r e s x ? nam ely , sab ha v a ~r upa,,
salaklchana ru p a , and. s a m m asan a -ru p a. ^ The f i r s t i s meant
t o show t h a t t h e n ip p h a n n a r u p a s a l o n e have t h e i r own i n t r i n s i c
n a t u r e ( a t t a n o s a b h a v en a s i d d h a m ) . ^ The second, i n d i c a t e s t h a t

1. Vism 362 ;ADS 27; VismT 4 5 9 - 6 0 ; ADSVT 113; iVbhvlc 291


2 . VismT 459; ADSVT 113 _
3 . Sva’yam rupa-dkddo r u lh iy a atamsabliave p i p a v a tta tT t i aparena
■**» • , , • »m , , • *=» , . - r ) , , i „ r \
rupa-saddena v i s e s e t v a virctam rupa-rupan t i - VismT 459-oQ ;
a ls o ADSVT 113 * _
4 . C f.h e tu - h e tu ; dukkha-duldcha; dhatu-dh'atu
5 . ADS. 27
6 . ADSVT 112
. . •
128

th e y alone are endowed w ith the t h r e e s a l i e n t f e a t u r e s , viz*


an icca (impermanence), dukkha (th e f a c t of being a source of
s u f f e r i n g ) and a n a t t a (th e absence of any a b id in g e s s e n c e ) ;
a l t e r n a t i v e l y t h a t they alone are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by th e t h r e e
s a n k h a ta - l a k k h a n a s , viz* uppefda ( o r i g i n a t i o n ) , t h i t i - j a r a t s T
( s u b s i s t e n c e - d e c a y ) and bhanga ( c e s s a t i o n ) • ^ The t h i r d i s
i n d i c a t i v e of th e f a c t t h a t , s in c e th e anipphanna rupas have
t h e i r own i n t r i n s i c n a t u r e , one co u ld a t t r i b u t e to them th e
t h r e e s a l i e n t f e a t u r e s of anicca e t c . , and thu s could make
use of them as proper o b j e c t s of m e d i t a t i o n . 2
A l l th e se d i f f e r e n t terms combine to show t h a t on ly
those e l e m e n ts , d e s c r ib e d as nipphanna, are t r u e rupa dhammas*
Of th e twenty f o u r up’ada r u p a s , only f o u r t e e n are brought
under t h i s c a te g o r y . They a r e ; the f i r s t f i v e s e n s e - o r g a n s ,
the f i r s t f o u r o b j e c t i v e f i e l d s , i t t h i n d r i y a , p u r i s i n d r i y a ,
awrii k Mm* trm u w***?

O x v i t m d n y a ; k a b a l i l c a r a - a h a r a , and hadaya-vatthu-. The f o u r


mahabbntas - of which thi*ee c o n s t i t u t e photthabbayatana and t/ j

th e o th e r comes under dhammayatana - are a l s o brought under


th e same c a t e g o r y . Thus t h e r e a re i n a l l e i g h te e n nipphanna
rupa dhammas , fo u r being primary and f o u r t e e n secondary.
Thus i t w i l l be seen t h a t the commentators have re c o g n iz e d

1* I b i d . * l o c . c i t . s c f . a l s o s a c e rupam a p a r i n ip p h a n n a m na
rtf.,, f K M S B UfcmiM # *" ** £

a n i c c a d i - s a b h a v a m s i y a - KvuA 198-9
On t h e ^ t h r e e s a n k h a t a - l a k k ' h a n a s , s e e b e lo w , 221 f f .
. * • sabhaveneva upalabbhanato 1akkhana11aylaro pa ne na
sammasitum a r a h a t t a sammasana-rupam - i b i d . , 113
129

o n l y f i v e dhammayatana upaxfa r u p a s as t r u e r u p a dhammas.


The f i f t h , had’a y a v a t t h u , i s one o f t h e i r own a d d i t i o n s *
Had t h e y drawn t h e l i n e i n su ch a way so t h a t even t h e s e
f i v e i t e m s would have f a l l e n u n d er t h e o p p o s i t e h e a d i n g ,
i . e . , a n i p p h a n n a , t h e n t h e r e would r e m a i n o n l y t h e t e n ( r u p a )
“a y a t a n a s p l u s one dhaimnayatana r u p a , i . e . , / a p o - d h a t u . And,
a t t h e same t i m e , i f t h e apo-dheTtu , t o o , had been i n c l u d e d i n
t h e phot thabbsTya t a n a , as was a c t u a l l y done by t h e V a i b h a s i k a s
and t h e S a u t r a h t i k a s , t h e n a l l t h e t r u e r u p a dhammas would
be r e p r e s e n t e d by t e n a y a t a n a s o n l y . As f a r a s t h e number
o f r u p a dhammas i s c o n c e r n e d one c o u l d n o t i c e h e r e where
t h e T h e r a v a d i n s have d i f f e r e d from t h e V a i b h a s i k a s an d t h e
S autrantikas. I t may be r e c a l l e d h e re t h a t w h i l e t h e
V a i b l i a s i k a s have r e c o g n i s e d one dh arm a y atan a r u p a t h e
S a u t r ’a n t i ka s ha v e no n e «
L e t us now examine t h e f o u r t e e n e l e m e n t s b r o u g h t
u n d e r t h e g e n e r a l h e a d in g Unipphanna~up’ada;s? an d s e e what
t h e i r more s p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e .
Sense-organs
The f i r s t f i v e s e n s e - o r g a n s , which a r e c o n c e i v e d as
f i v e s e c o n d a r y m a t e r i a l e l e m e n t s , a r e c a k k h u , s o t a , gLiana,
Oivha an d k a y a , i . e . , t h e o rg a n s of s i g h t , h e a r i n g , s m e l l ,
t a s t e and touch re sp ectiv ely ®
130

On t h e i n n a t u r e a s a s p e c i e s o f m a t t e r , t h e L'ikayas
are l e s s inform ative* T r u e , t h e y f i g u r e o f t an d a g a i n i n
many a s u t t a * However, t h e p u rp o se i s n o t so much t o e x p l a i n
t h e i r n a t u r e as a v a r i e t y o f m a t t e r * Sometimes t h e y o c c u r
i n s t o c k fo r m u l a e where t h e c a u s a l i t y o f s e n s e p e r c e p t i o n
i s e x p lain ed ;"^ o f t e n e r t h a n n o t t h e y o c c u r i n what may be
d e s c r i b e d a s h o r t a t i v e d i s c o u r s e s where t h e Buddha i s
e x h o r t i n g t h e d i s c i p l e s n o t t o become v i c t i m s t o s e n s u a l ,
p le a s u r e s l e s t they sh o u ld f a l l s h o rt of th e h ig h e s t i d e a l * 2
I n t h e .Abhidhamma p i t a k a , t h e y came t o be d e s c r i b e d
as p a s a d a *3 L i t e r a l l y i t means c l e a r n e s s , b r i g h t n e s s ,
serenity, or f a i t h * But a s a d e s c r i p t i v e te rm of t h e s e n s e -
o r g a n s , i t had n o t b e e n u sed i n t h e e a r l i e r P*ali t e x t s *
“Taken c a u s a t i v e l y s! , o b s e r v e s Mrs. Rhys D a v i d s , !f i t may
c o n c e i v a b l y have meant e i t h e r t h a t which makes c l e a r - a.
r e v e a l e r a s i t were - o r t h a t which g r a t i f i e s o r s a t i s f i e s ,
** * I t i s i n f a c t s u g g e s t i v e of b o t h m e a n i n g s , f o r t h e
f i r s t i n d i c a t e s t h e r e c e p t i v e and r e a c t i n g n a t u r e o f t h e
s e n s e - o r g a n s and t h e s e c o n d b r i n g s i n t o r e l i e f t h e p a r t t h e y
p l a y i n t h e g r a t i f i c a t i o n of s e n s u a l p l e a s u r e s *
I n t h e S a n s k r i t s o u r c e s , to o ,t h e s e n s e - o r g a n s a r e

1* O f . e . g . , M*i 111—2 , 2 3 9 - 6 0 , 190; S . i v 3 9 - 4 0 , 67 f f *


2* C f . e . g * , S* i v 2 2 5 | M .i 92 f f . , i i 2 2 o , i i i 62 f f . ; A i i 16 f f *
3* Dhs. 134 f f .
4* B u d . P s y . E t h i c s « 159 n . 2
131

d e s c r ib e d as pras'ada* C onsidering th e c o n t e x ts i n which


i t occurs^ i t c o u ld a l s o be s a i d t h a t i n using t h i s term
th e B uddhists are i n t e n t to show t h a t th e s en se-o rg an s a re
of a v e ry s u b t l e and d e l i c a t e m a tte r . T his i s borne out by
th e f a c t t h a t according to th e Dhammasangarii th e y cannot be
— i p m ' fu i ii -^ n i i ■n ii'in u b ib h t t h ^

known by any of the senses o th e r th a n th e mind (mano).^


The V aib h asik a s too conceive them in a s i m i l a r way. They
a r e s u p r a - s e n s i b l e ( a t T n d r i y a ) ^ 5 and t r a n s l u c e n t ( a c c h a ) . ^
Because of t h i s t r a n s l u c e n c e , l i k e th e lu m in o s ity of a gem
■*** r~
(m aniprab hav at) , th e y cannot be b u rn t or w e i g h e d . N o r can
they be cu t in t o two. For example, when a p a r t of th e body
i s chopped o f f , th e r e b y the h o d y - s e n s i b i l i t y (k'aya-pras'ada)
does not m u l t i p l y i t s e l f . For th e p a r t t h a t i s cu t o f f i s
devoid- o f b o d y - s e n s i b i l i t y ; t h i s i s i n f e r r e d from t h e f a c t
t h a t on th e b a s i s of th e p a r t t h a t i s s e p a r a t e d , t h e r e does
not a r i s e t a c t i l e s e n s a t i o n . 6
On t h i s p o in t Yasomitra makes t h i s i n t e r e s t i n g o b s e r v a ti o n ;
"How th e n c o u ld t h e r e a r i s e t a c t i l e s e n s a t i o n w ith r e f e r e n c e

1. Of. e . g . , AK .C h.i 15; AKvy.i 24


w » l i i—i w * mui. m,i ■gprn

2 . O p . c i t . , 178
3. A K . C h . i , 1 5 ; AKvy 1 . 2 4 . Here i n d r i y a i s u s e d w i t h r e f e r e n c e
to the 1 s t . 5 sen se -o rg a n s o nly.
4 . A K .C h.1,67
5 * I b i d . lo c.c_ it. . ^ _
6 . na l i T n d r i y a n i dvi-dh*a b h a v a n t i ch in n a s y a m g a s y a k ay a d
a p a g a t a s y a n i r i n d r i y a t v a t . idam a p i katham g a m y a te .
n i r i n d r i y a m tad. amgam yac chinnam Icayad apagatam i t i ^
yasmat t a t * p r a t T t y a s p r a s t a v y t’adikam ca ka y 1*ad i -v i 3 na na nupacattfn
■AKv.y 1 . 6 8 * *
132

t o t h e t i p o f t h e nose when i t i s c u t b u t n o t s e p a r a t e d
from t h e n o s e ? S in c e i t i s c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e nose t h e
b o d y - s e n s i b i l i t y ( k a y e n d r i y a ) a r i s e s ag a in * Hence t h e r e i s
no c o n t r a d i c t i o n * But how i s i t . t h a t when t h e t a i l s of
house l i z a r d s , etc* , a r e chopped, o f f , t h e y b e g i n t o v i b r a t e
i f t h e y a r e d e v o id o f b o d y - s e n s i b i l i t y ? 0?his i s due t o t h e
a l t e r a t i o n ( v i l c a r a ) o f t h e a i r e l e m e n t . 11^
S i n c e t h e s e n s e - o r g a n s a r e c o n c e i v e d as a s p e c i e s o f
extrem ely s u b tle m a t t e r , i t is e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e d t h a t they
s h o u l d n o t be u n d e r s t o o d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r p o p u l a r
con cep tio n . The AbhidharmakoiSa s a y s t h a t what i n common
p a r l a n c e a r e known a s e y e , e a r e t c . , a r e t h e adhisth&na.* .
th e s u p p o r t , of th e r e a l s e n s e - o r g a n s .2 The same d i s t i n c t i o n
i s u p h e l d i n t h e T h erav ad a . t o o .

The A t t h a s ' a l i n T rem arks
iifn ti i .if iT i vl^iir~~TTt n~iTTunriM ~*^J< tin 1 n id

t h a t t h e v e r y p u rpo se o f u s i n g t h e term pas’ad.a i s t o d i s m i s s


t h e i r p o p u lar conception* E ach s e n s e - o r g a n ( i . e . in a broad
a n d g e n e r a l s e n s e ) c o n s i s t s o f two p a r t s ; t h e compound o r
p e r i p h e r a l o r g a n ( s a s a m b h a r a ) an d t h e s e n t i e n t o r g a n (passida),
The f i r s t i s what we o r d i n a r i l y mean by e y e , e a r , e t c . The
second is th e r e a l se n s e -o rg a n , and has t h e f i r s t a s its
&s ( v a t t h u ) . 3

1. katham t a r h i c h i n n e n a p u n ar l a g n e n a r i a s i k a *g r e n a k a y a -
v i ^ n a n o t p a t t i h . n a s ik a - m u la - s a m b a n d h e n a punah k a y e n d r i y o t p a t
t e h adosah* katham i h a ^ g r h a g o d h i k *]adinarn j?ucch*ani c h i n r i a n i
s p a n d a n t e y a d l t a t r a k ayendriyam n a s t i • v a y u - d l i a t o r e s a
v i k a r o . - AKvy 1 . 1 1 3 ; s e e a l s o I t o h e r b a t s k y , Cen.Goncep*/P
2 * Qp»c i t . , Oh. 1 , 5 6 , 6 5 ; a l s o AKvy lT~24
3* Op . c i t * s 3 0 6 -7
153

I n p u r s u a n c e o f t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n , t h e VIsuddhimagga
and t h e A t t h a s ailirii g i v e , i n a lm o s t i d e n t i a l words , a lo n g
d i s q u i s i t i o n on t h e n a t u r e and c o n s t i t u t i o n o f tlie s e n s e -
organs; The s a s a m b h a ra -c a k k h u o r t h e compound eye i s w h i t e
from t h e abundance of phlegm, b l a c k from t h a t of b i l e , r e d
from t h a t o f b l o o d , r i g i d from t h a t of t h e e l e m e n t o f
e x t e n s i o n , f l u i d from t h a t o f c o h e s i o n , h o t from t h a t o f
h e a t an d o s c i l l a t i n g from t h a t o f m o b i l i t y * The p*as*ada-cakkhu
o r t h e s e n t i e n t <ye i s s i t u a t e d i n t h e c e n t r e o f t h e compound
eye* I t p e r m e a te s t h e o c u l a r membranes as s p r i n k l e d o i l
p e r m e a te s s e v e n c o t t o n wicks* I t i s s e r v e d by t h e f o u r
e l e m e n t s d o in g t h e f u n c t i o n s o f s u s t a i n i n g , b i n d i n g ,
m a t u r i n g an d v i b r a t i n g , J u s t as a p r i n c e l y boy i s t e n d e d by
f o u r n u r s e s d o in g t h e f u n c t i o n s o f h o l d i n g , b a t h i n g d r e s s i n g
an d f a n n i n g him. I t i s n o t b i g g e r i n s i z e t h a n t h e h ead o f
a louse* The o r g a n o f h e a r i n g i s s i t u a t e d i n t h e i n t e r i o r
of t h e compound o r g a n , a t a s p o t s h a p e d l i k e a f i n g e r r i n g
and f r i n g e d by t e n d e r h a i r s and. i s t e n d e d by t h e f o u r
p r i m a r y e le m e n ts * The o r g a n o f s m e l l i s i n t h e i n t e r i o r o f
t h e compound o r g a n a t a s p o t sh ap e d l i k e a g o a t ’ s hoof* The
o r g a n o f t a s t e i s above t h e m id d le of t h e compound o r g a n
a$ a s p o t s h a p e d l i k e t h e up per p a r t o f a t o r n l o t u s l e a f *
The o rg a n o f t o u c h i s t o be fo u n d e v e ry w h ere i n t h i s p h y s i c a l
134 *

A
body l i k e a l i q u i d t h a t s o a k s a l a y e r o f c o t t o n *
A l t h o u g h t h e o r g a n of t o u c h i s s a i d t o be c o - e x t e n s i v e
w i t h t h e whole body* y e t t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f c o n f u s i o n
( s a n k a r a ) b e tw e e n t h e s e n s e - o r g a n s a s t o t h e i r f u n c t i o n s ,
i s r e p e a t e d l y r u l e d out* The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c (lakkhana),
f u n c t i o n ( r a s a ) , inanif e s t a t i o n ( p a c c u p a t t i i a n a ) o f one s e n s e -
o r g a n a r e d i f f e r e n t from t h o s e o f a n o t h e r . For i n s t a n c e ,
t h e o r g a n o f s i g h t has t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f b e i n g s e n s i t i v e
o n l y t o t h e s p h e r e o f v i s i b i l i t y , b u t n ot t o s o u n d s , t a s t e s ,
e t c * , i t s f u n c t i o n i s to draw a t t e n t i o n t o i t s r e s p e c t i v e
o b j e c t i v e f i e l d o n l y ; a n d , i t m a n i f e s t s i t s e l f as t h e p h y s i c a l
b a s i s of v i s u a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s , b u t n o t as t h e b a s i s o f a u d i t o r y
2
o r any o t h e r k i n d o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s .
P ro f. S tc h e rb a ts k y observes t h a t th e B uddhist c o n c e p tio n
o f t h e s e n s e - o r g a n s as composed of m a t t e r s u b t l e r t h a n t h e
t h i n g s t h a t become t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g o b j e c t s , i s r e m i n i s c e n t
o f t h e Sa’mkhya v i e w , n am ely , t h a t m a t t e r d e v e l o p e d a l o n g two
d i f f e r e n t l i n e s , t h e one w i t h predom inance o f t h e t r a n s l u c e n t
i n t e l l i g e n c e - s t u f f ( s a t t v a ) , t h e o t h e r w i t h predom inance o f
dead m a tte r (ta m a s), r e s u l t i n g in s e n s e - o b je c ts in t h e i r
s u b t l e ( t a n - m a t r a ) and g r o s s (mahsfbhHta) f o r m s . But t h e
f u n d a m e n t a l d i f f e r e n c e t o w hich P r o f . S t c h e r b a t s k y h i m s e l f

1* T r a n s l a t i o n m a i n l y b a s e d on k a n a m o l i ' s P a t h o f P u r i f i c a t i o n
(Vism 4 4 5 - 6 ; Asl* 307 f f ) ""
2 . See A s l . 3 1 2 ; V is m .444
135

draws a t t e n t i o n i s t h a t , u n l i k e i n t h e s’aml^hya , i n Buddhism


t h e two gi'oups a r e n o t c o n c e i v e d ” as m o d i f i c a t i o n s ox*
a p p u r t a n a n c e s o f an e t e r n a l s u b s t a n c e * ”
M oreover t h e f o r c e o f t h i s p a r a l l e l i s m t e n d s t o f a d e
away b e c a u s e o f t h e cii*cum stance t h a t i n most o f t h e
s y s te m s o f I n d i a n t h o u g h t t h e s e n s e - o r g a n s a r e c o n c e i v e d
i n a more o r l e s s s i m i l a r manner* The J a i n a s s p e a k o f two
kinds of s e n s e - o r g a n s ; ..dravyendriya, th e p h y s ic a l s e n s e -
^ p$"y<zhiocLZ
o r g a n , a n d b h a v e n d r i y a , their^pfe^e-ie-gri c o r r e l a t e s . The
f o r m e r i n t u r n c o n s i s t s o f two p a r t s ; n i v r t t i , t h e o r g a n
i t s e l f , and up alca ran a, t h e s u p p o r t i n g e n v iro n m en t* a c c o r d i n g
t o Oaraka t h e s e n s e - o r g a n s are d i s t i n c t from t h e i r p e r i p h e r a l
seats* The MTmamsalcas m a i n t a i n t h a t u t h e s e n s e - o r g a n s c o n s i s t
i n t h e f a c u l t y o f p o te n c y (iS ak ti) a b i d i n g i n th e s o c k e t s " .
The S n k a r i t e V ed an ta i s of t h e v i e w t h a t t h e o r g a n s o f s i g h t
A
h e a r i n g , s m e l l , t a s t e and to u ch a r e composed o f t h e s a t t v i e
p a r t s o f l i g h t , e t h e r , e a r t h , w a t e r and a i r r e s p e c t i v e l y * 2
I t i s o f c o u r s e v e r y l i k e l y t h a t t h i s somewhat common
t r a d i t i o n i s due t o t h e i n f l u e n c e of t h e Samkhya on t h e
o t h e r s y s te m s o f I n d i a n th o u g h t* I t i s also s i g n i f i c a n t to
n o t i c e t h a t a s i m i l a r v iew seems t o have b e e n h e l d by -AJita
KesakambalT who, as we g a t h e r from t h e s u t t a s , was
c o n te m p o ra n e o u s w i t h Buddha. I n t h e S a m a n n a - p h a la -s u tta

1 . S t c h e r b a t s k y g. C e n t . C o n c e p *12
2* See S i n h a , I n d * P s y * C h .l
? * Util I * p n fT * .» « f n ^ n ,1
136

he i s r e c o r d e d t o have t o l d King A j a t a s a t t u t h a t man i s


composed o f f o u r mahabliutas , v iz * p a t h a v T , *apo, t e j o and
v a y o , a n d t h a t a f t e r h i s d e a t h w h ile t h e f o u r mahetohuftas
j o i n w i t h t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e g r o u p s ( i n t h e e x t e r n a l w o rld )
h i s i n d r i y a s j o i n t h e alcasa ( e t h e r ) O n the b a s is of i t s
g e n e r a l u s a g e , i f i n d r i y a i s u n d e r s t o o d as r e f e r r i n g t o t h e
s e n s e - o r g a n s , th e n th e f a c t t h a t th ey a re s a i d to j o i n the
aketsa s u g g e s t s t h a t i n A j i t a K e s ^ k a m b a l i 1s v iew t h e y a r e a
very d e l i c a t e v a r i e t y of m atter*
The a s s o c i a t i o n o f s u ch c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as s u b t l e t y ,
t r a n s p a r e n c e , tra n s lu c e n c e w ith the se n se -o rg a n s i s
u n d e r s t a n d a b l e , f o r t h i s i s an a t t e m p t t o e x p l a i n t h e b i g
problem as t o why t h e y a r e s e n s i t i v e t o e x t e r n a l phenomena..
Once t h e s e n s e - o r g a n s were d i s t i n g u i s h e d from t h e othex1
upada r u p a s by t h e i r b e i n g d e s c r i b e d as p a s a d a - r u p a , t h e
n e x t problem t h a t r e quizzed an e x p l a n a t i o n was why t h e y were
d i f f e r e n t , one from t h e o t h e r .
T h ere was th e w ell-kn o w n t h e o r y of t h e t i y a y a - V a i ^ e s i k a s ;
The d i f f e r e n c e i s due t o t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e t h a t t h e o r g a n s
o f s i g h t , h e a r i n g , s m e l l , t a s t e and t o u c h a r e composed, o f
l i g h t , e t h e r , e a r t h , w ater and a i r r e s p e c t i v e l y . Each o r g a n
i s s e n s i t i v e t o t h a t phenomenon which i s t h e p a r t i c u l a r

1 b Gatummanhsibiiutiko
Mvi. ayamft p u r i s o , yada lea
STjutlam
ft inttk a r o t i p athavT
ft
p a t h a v i - k a y a m a n u p e t i a n u p a g a c c h a t i , apo apa-fcayara a n u p e t i
a n u p a g a c c h a t i , t e j o teg.a-k’ayam a n u p e t i ^ a n u p a g a c c h a t i ,
v a y o va’ya-k’ayam a n u p e t i a n u p a g a c c h a t i , a’k'asam i n d r i y a n i
s am k am an ti. - D . i 55
137

q u a l i t y ( v i £ e s a ~ g u n a ) of t h e s u b s t a n c e t h a t e n t e r s i n t o i t s
c o m p o s i t io n * C o l o u r , s o u n d , s m e l l , t a s t e and t o u c h a r e t h e
r e s p e c t i v e q u a l i t i e s o f l i g h t , e t h e r , eax»th, w a t e r and a i r .
As s u c h t h e y become t h e o b j e c t s c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e o rg a n s
o f s i g h t , h e a r i n g , s m e l l , t a s t e and t o u c h r e s p e c t i v e l y . T here
i s t h u s a community o f i n t e r e s t b etw e en t h e s e n s e - o r g a n and
t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g o b j e c t i v e f i e l d .^
T h a t t h i s llyaya-V aijSesika t h e o r y , i n a m o d i f i e d fo rm ,
was a c c e p t e d by c e r t a i n B u d d h i s t s i s shown by some comments
made by Buddhaghosa on two s i m i l a r t h e o r i e s . A c c o rd in g t o
t h e f i r s t , among t h e p rim a ry e l e m e n t s t h a t s u p p o r t t h e o r g a n
of s i g h t , h eat i s i n e x c e s s ; l i k e w i s e , i n the case of the
o r g a n s o f h e a r i n g , s m e l l and. t a s t e a i r , e a r t h and w a t e r a r e
in excess. And, a s , f o r th e o r g a n o f t o u c h t h e r e i s no
d i f f e r e n c e betw e en t h e s u p p o r t i n g p rim a ry e l e m e n t s . A c c o r d in g
to the second, the f iv e sense-organs ( in th e o rd er they are
m e n t i o n e d above) have r e s p e c t i v e l y h e a t , e t h e r ? ( v i v a r a ) ,
p
a i r 9 w a t e r and e a r t h i n e x c e s s .

1 . See B h a d u r i , S t u d i e s i n n ya y a ~Va i £ e s i k a M e t a p h y s i c s ,152 f f «


2 . K e c i pana t e j'adhilcanam. bhutanam pasado c a k k h u , v a y u - p a t h a v i -
fcr. £ VKMfe 9 Bax. pm ll*<Ml 9
apadhikanam bhut^ianam pasado s o t a - g h a n a - j i v h a ; kayo s a b b e s a n
t^i v a d a n t i ^ Ap a r e t e j a d h i k a n a m pasado c a k k h u , v i v a r a - v a y u -
'a p a - p a t h a v a d h i k ’anam s o t a - g h a n a - j i v h ^ - k a “ya t i v a d a n t i . -
Vi s m . 3 ^ 6 ; s e e a l s o * A s l . 3 1 2 - 3 ; o u r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of u b h u 'ta -
nam^as <camong t h e suppoluting p r i m a r y e l e m e n t s 1' i s s u p p o r t e d
by t h e r e s t o f t h e p a s s a g e i n t h e Vism. an d by t h e VismS.v
56 -7
The two views are c i t e d only to be re f u te d * That they
were advocated by c e r t a i n B uddhists i s c l e a r from Buddhaghosa1s
c o n t e n t i o n , namely t h a t th o se who put fo rw ard them sh o uld be
p r e s s e d to quote a s u t t a i n fav our of t h e i r argument - an
attem p t * says Buddhaghosa, i n which they would be disappointed®
I n the t i k ’a to the Visuddhimagga th e f i r s t i s a t t r i b u t e d , to
c e r t a i n Maha"sanghikas and i s s a i d to have been advocated by
9 *«
one Vasudhamma* And. i n the S in h alese sanne to th e same
work th e second i s a t t r i b u t e d to th e .A b h a y a g iriv a sin s , the
r i v a l s e c t o f th e Malaavihara
Buddhaghosafs argument i s as fo llo w s ; But some giv e as
t h e i r reason th a t i t i s because th e s e ( s e v e r a l s e n s i t i v i t i e s
= s e n s e - o r g a n s ) are ( r e s p e c t i v e l y ) a id e d by v i s i b l e d a t a ,
e t c , , as q u a l i t i e s of f i r e and so.on.They should be asked,
,fBut who has s a i d t h a t v i s i b l e d a t a , e t c * , a r e q u a l i t i e s of
f i r e and so on? For i t i s not p o s s i b l e to say of primary
elements which remain always i n s e p a r a b l e , t h a t "That i s a
q u a l i t y of t h i s one, t h a t i s a q u a l i t y of t h a t one” . Then
they may s a y , " J u s t as you assume, from excess i n such and
such m a t e r i a l t h i n g s , th e ( r e s p e c t i v e ) f u n c t i o n s of upholding
(sandliarana) e t c * , f o r e a r t h , e t c * , so from f i n d i n g v i s i b i l i t y ,
139

etc* ( r e s p e c t i v e l y ) i n a s t a t e of e x c e s s i n m a t e r i a l t i l i n g s
t h a t have f i r e i n e x c e s s * one may assume t h a t v i s i b l e d a t a *
e t c . * a r e ( r e s p e c t i v e l y ) q u a l i t i e s o f t h e s e . uT.hey s h o u l d
be t o l d * "We m ight assume i t i f t h e r e were more od our i n
c o t t o n which has e a r t h i n e x c e s s t h a n i n f e r m e n t e d l i q u o r
which has waiter i n e x c e s s * an d i f t h e c o l o u r o f c o l d w a t e r
were weaker t h a n t h e c o l o u r o f h o t w a t e r w hich has h e a t i n
excess. But s i n c e n e i t h e r o f t h e s e i s a f a c t you s h o u l d
t h e r e f o r e g i v e Ac o n ;)e c tu n in g t h e d i f f e r e n c e t o be i n t h e
s u p p o r t i n g p rim a ry e le m e n ts * ^
B uddhaghosa*s g e n e r a l r e f u t a t i o n of t h e two t h e o r i e s
is u nderstandable. For* as r e p r e s e n t e d by him* t h e i r
u n d e r l y i n g a s s u m p t i o n i s t h a t c o l o u r * s m e ll* e t c . * a r e t h e
q u a l i t i e s o f t h e p rim a ry e l e m e n t s - a view t o which Buddhism
in g e n e ra l took stron g ex c ep tio n . H is own e x p l a n a t i o n -
r e p e a t e d by h i s s u c c e s s o r s ^ t o o - as t o t h e d i f f e r e n c e b etw e en
t h e s e n s e - o r g a n s i s b a s e d on an e a r l i e r t r a d i t i o n * namely
t h a t t h e y come i n t o b e i n g t h r o u g h t h e a c t i o n o f kamma
(kammasamutthsma) The d i f f e r e n c e b e tw e e n t h e sense-oi*gans *
i t i s s a i d w i t h much em ph asis* i s due t o t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n

1* Neuaamoli * P a t h o f P u r i f i c a t i o n * 491-2 (Vism • 4 4 4 - 5 ) ;


a l s o Ab I . 31 2-3
2 . See b e l o w , 2?7 f f .
140

A
t h e kamma o f which t h e y a r e t h e r e s u l t s .
However, a s p o i n t e d o u t by Dr. S a r a t h c h a n d r a , a l t h o u g h
t h e B u d d h i s t s r e j e c t e d t h e D 'y aya-V ai^esik a t h e o r y as r e g a r d s
t h e a f f i n i t y b etw e en a g i v e n s e n s e - o r g a n a n d t h e c o 2?repp on d in g
s e n s e - o b j e c t , y e t t h e y seem t o have b e e n i n f l u e n c e d by i t i n
p o s t u l a t i n g t h e media i n w hich t h e s e n s o r y s t i m u l i t r a v e l l e d *
The media f o r t h e o r g a n s o f s i g h t , h e a r i n g , s m e l l , t a s t e and
t o u c h w e r e , r e s p e v t i v e l y , l i g h t (euLolca), s p a c e o r e t h e r
( a k a s a ) , a i r ( v a y o ) , w a t e r (sipo) and e a r t h ( p a th a v T ) * ^
B e f o r e we e n d t h i s s e c t i o n we n e e d examine why the. s e n s e
organs are c a l l e d i n d r i y a . B u d d h i s t s i n t e r p r e t t h e te rm as
e x p r e s s i v e o f power, dominance o r s u z e r e i g n t y ( a c l h i p a c c a ,
i s s a r i y a ) .^ t h e b a s e s o r s u p p o r t s ( v a t t h u , n i s e a y a ) of
vinhana) th e se n se -o rg a n s a r e s a i d to
w i e l d a d o m in a tin g i n f l u e n c e on t h e f o r m e r S i n c e
co n sc io u sn e ss cannot a r i s e w ithout r e f e r e n c e to a g iv en
s e n s e - o r g a n an d t h e cox^responding o b j e c t , t h e q u e s t i o n i s
r a i s e d a s t o why t h e f o r m e r a l o n e i s c a l l e d i n d r i y a * The
an&wer i s t h a t t h e i n t e n s i t y o f t h e c o n s c i o u s n e s s i s r e l a t i v e
to th e s t r e n g t h of the se n s e -o rg a n . I f th e l a t t e r i s ” s h a rp ”
s t r o n g ( t i k k h a ) , t h e f o r m e r , t o o , becom es " s h a r p ” ,

1 . Vism. 4 4 5 j a l s o As 1 .3 1 3
2 * B ud.P sy.of P e r c e p *40
3* See V“i s m .4 9 1 f f
<k-— ft1<* nwt

4 . See V is m .4 9 3 j
141

s t r o n g ; l i k e w i s e i f t h e l a t t e r i s weak (manda) t h e f o r m e r
t o o becomes weak#-*
Ob j e c t i v e F i e l d s
The Hiksiyan d e s c r i p t i o n s of r u p a ( t h e v i s i b l e ) , sad d a
( s o u n d ) j gandha ( s m e l l ) , r a s a ( t a s t e ) a n d p h o t t h a b b a ( t h e
t a n g i b l e ) t a k e a g e n e r a l form d e t e r m i n e d m o s t l y by e t h i c a l
and p r a c t i c a l c o n s id e r a tio n s * They a r e n o t perm anent
( a n i c c a ) a n d have n o . a b i d i n g e s s e n c e ( a s a r a ) , A tta c h m e n t
t o them c a n n o t t h e r e f o r e be made t h e b a s i s o f t r u e h a p p i n e s s .
I t o n l y n o u r i s h e s an d p r o l o n g s " s a s a r i c 11 e x i s t e n c e . For t h e
r e a l i s a t i o n of th e h ig h e st i d e a l a l l s e n su a l p le a s u re s
s h o u l d be eschewed* B ut r u p a , s a d d a , e t c . , a r e t h e f i v e
s t r a n d s o f s e n s u a l p l e a s u r e s (p an ca k*ama«guna). Hence i t
i s t h a t t h e y a r e s o u g h t t o be d e s c r i b e d i n s u c h a way as t o
b r i n g home t h e p e r i l s ("adlnava) t h a t r e s u l t from a t t a c h m e n t
t o them a n d t h e r e b y t o e m p h a s is e t h e n e e d t o eschew a l l k i n d s !
o f c r a v i n g i n r e s p e c t o f them ( n i s s a r a n a ) .
T h i s , i n b r i e f o u t l i n e , i s how t h e e a r l i e r t e x t s '
approach th e s u b je c t under c o n s i d e r a t io n . In the p o st-
N ik ayan works t h e y have become t h e s u b j e c t o f a more d e t a i l e d
study. C e r t a i n l y th e e t h i c a l approach p r e v a i l s , but th e

1 . See V is m .4 9 3 ; s e e A K .C h .i i 107-8 a n d A k v y . i 96 where


a s im ila r e x p la n a tio n i s given.
2 . O f . e . g . , D . i 2 3 3 , M .i 503, i i i 14 3, 2 33; S . i 1 4 4 , i i i 1 0 7 ,
139
142

em p h asis i s n o t as p ro n o u n c e d a s i n t h e n i k * a y a s ^ T heir
t r e a t m e n t i n t h e Abhidhamma P i t a k a i s v e r y l a c o n i c ; t h e
l o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s a r e not d i s c u s s e d * However, t h e
c o m m e n ta rie s an d t h e s o u r c e s o f S a n s k r i t Buddhism h e l p
us t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e d e s c r i p t i o n s i n a w id e r p e r s p e c t i v e *
L et us t a k e ru'p’a y a t a n a , t h e s p h e r e o f t h e v i s i b l e ,
first, * I n t h e Dhamma sang a nT u nd er r u p a y a t a n a a r e
eraumerated f i r s t some examples of c o l o u r - b l u e , y e l l o w , r e d ,
w hite, e tc * , a n d t h e n some e x a p l e s of f i g u r e « c i r c u l a r ,
o v a l, s q u a re , hexagonal, e t c . .as f a r a s t h e i n c l u s i o n o f
b o th item s under ru p ay atan a i s co n cern ed , t h i s e x p la n a tio n
i s f u n d a m e n t a l l y t h e same as t h a t o f th e Vaibha“s i k a s «
They t o o m a i n t a i n e d t h a t I t c o n s i s t e d o f c o l o u r ( v a r n a )
as w e l l as f i g u r e ( s a m s t h n n a )« The v i s i b l e c a n be colour*
w i t h o u t b e i n g f i g u r e ( s a m s t h a 'n a - n i r a p e k s a m ) ; e . g . , b l u e ,
r e d yellow , w h ite , shade, s u n -lig h t ( a t a p a ) , l i g h t ( a lo k a ) ,
darkness (tam as). I t c a n be f i g u r e w i t h o u t b e i n g c o l o u r
( v a rn a -n ira p e k s a m ); e . g . , t h a t p a r t of lo n g , s h o r t , e t c . ,
which c o n s t i t u t e s t h e k ' a y a - v i j n a p t i , b o d i l y e x p r e s s i o n . 2
Or e l s e , i t c a n be a t one a n d t h e same tim e b o t h c o l o u r
an d f i g u r e , i . e . , a l l o t h e r v a r i e t i e s o f t h e v i s i b l e . 3
The S a u t r a n t i k a s , i n whose sy stem o f t h o u g h t one c o u l d

1. Op . G i t . ,139
2 . See b e l o w , 1 8 9 -9 0
3 . See AK.Oh.i 16; AKvy. i 2 5 -2 6
143

d e t e c t t h e b u r d e n o f e m p h a s is s h i f t i n g from t h e o u t e r t o
t h e i n n e r , d e c l a r e d t h a t c o l o u r ( v a r n a ) a l o n e was r e a l ,
t h a t i t a l o n e c o n s t i t u t e d t h e v i s i b l e , an d t h a t f i g u r e
( s a m s t h a n a ) was o n l y a m e n t a l c o n s t r u c t i o n (ma'nasam) w i t h
no c o r r e s p o n d i n g o b j e c t i v e r e a l i t y ( p r a j n a p t i s a t ) • ^
T h e i r t h e s i s i s s o u g h t t o be e s t a b l i s h e d by t h r e e
main / a r g u m e n t s . 0n e c a n o b t a i n t h e n o t i o n o f l o n g , s h o r t ,
e t c . , by s e e i n g o r by t o u c h i n g s o m e t h i n g . T h e r e f o r e i f th e
f i g u r e were a r e a l e n t i t y , t h e n one s h o u l d ad m it t h a t i t
c o u l d be p e r c e i v e d by t w o - s e n s e - o r g a n s - a v iew which go es
a g a in s t the c a n o n ic a l d e f i n i t i o n of ru p ayatana according
t o w hich i t i s th e o b je c tiv e f i e l d co rresp o n d in g o nly to
one s e n s e - o r g a n , n a m e ly , t h e o r g a n o f s i g h t .
The Vaibh’a s i k a s c o n t e n d t h a t when we o b t a i n t h e i d e a
o f , ssiy, l o n g a f t e r h a v in g t o u c h e d s o m e t h i n g , i t i s n o t
t h a t we a c t u a l l y p e r c e i v e i t by t h e ox^gan of t o u c h b u t t h a t
we a r e r e m i n d e d o f t h e f i g u r e ( l o n g ) b e c a u s e i t i s a s s o c i a t e d
w ith the t a n g i b l e . I t i s j u s t as when we s e e t h e c o l o u r
( v i s i b l e ) o f f i r e we a r e reminded, of i t s h e a t ( t a n g i b l e ) ;
o r ?/hen we s m e l l t h e od our o f a f l o w e r we a r e re m in d e d o f

1 . See AK.Gh.i 1 6 - 1 7 , C h . i v 6 f f ; KSPsMGB iv 209 f f *


s e e a l s o S t c h e r b a t s k y 90 e n . 0 o n e e p «~13 '";c f «Y a s o m i t r a j s
comment: na h i caksusain e t a t s a m s tlia n a -g ra h a n a m . ma'nasam
t v etajfc p a r i k a l p i t a m . ^ v a r n a - s a m n i v e ^ a - v i s e s a eva h i
samsthanain* na samsthlniam nama*dravyam k i m c i d a s t i .
v a r n a g r a h a n e sam sthsina-grahanabh'av'at - A Kv ,yi. i 26
144

i t s colour. The S a u t r a n t i k a s p o i n t o u t t h a t t h i s a n a lo g y
i s n o t of u n i v e r s a l v a l i d i t y . C o n c e rn in g t h e two exam ples
c i t e d ; c o l o u r r e m i n d s us o f t h e t a n g i b l e and t h e o do ur
r e m i n d s us o f t h e c o l o u r b e c a u s e t h e r e i s a n i n v a r i a b l e
a s s o c i a t i o n ( a v y a b h i c a r a ) b etw e en t h e two t h i n g s g i v e n i n
e a c h exam ple. But e v e r y t a n g i b l e i s n o t a s s o c i a t e d w ith a
p articu lar fig u re . Hence i t i s n o t c o r r e c t t o s a y t h a t t h e
p e rc e p tio n o f a g iv en in sta n c e of ta n g ib le should n e c e s s a r ily
and. alw ays r e m i n d us o f i t s f i g u r e . I f i t were o t h e r w i s e ,
r u n s t h e a r g u m e n t , t h e n e v e r y tim e we t o u c h e d s o m eth in g
we s h o u l d a l s o know t h e c o l o u r a s s o c i a t e d w ith i t .
S e c o n d l y , i f f i g u r e i s a r e a l r u p a t h e n i t has t o be
c o n c e d e d t h a t t h e r e could, be a p l u r a l i t y o f r u p a s i n one
and t h e same l o c u s ( e k a d e ^ a ) . In a v a rie g a te d c a rp e t, fo r
i n s t a n c e , t h e r e a r e a l a r g e number o f f i g u r e s . If figure is
a r e a l e n t i t y , th e n a f i g u r e t h a t i s a p a r t of a long l i n e
c a n n o t a t t h e same tim e be a p a r t o f a s h o r t l i n e .
T h i r d l y , c o lo u r i s a c o n s t i t u e n t elem ent of th e
s m a l l e s t u n i t o f matter** b u t t h e same c a n n o t be p r e d i c a t e d
of f i g u r e .
The V a i b h a s i k a s r e t o r t t h a t i f f i g u r e i s n o t h i n g b u t
a c e r t a i n d i s p o s i t i o n of c o lo u r th en the f i g u r e can never

1 . See Oh. on n tom ism .


145

change i f t h e c o l o u r i s t h e same* The S a u t r a n t i k a s meet


t h i s o b j e c t i o n by s a y i n g t h a t one c a l l s s o m e th in g lo n g e t c . *
when-a number of r e a l dharmas ( e l e m e n t s ) a r e p l a c e d i n a
A
c e r t a i n manner o r d i s p o s i t i o n .
The S t r o n g o p p o s i t i o n of t h e V a i b h a s i k a s t o
i n t e r p r e t i n g sarnstliana as a m e n t a l c o n s t r u c t i o n w i t h no
corresponding o b je c tiv e r e a l i t y i s , in a l l p ro b a b ility ,
m o tiv a te d , by t h e i r d e s i r e t o e s t a b l i s h t h e r e a l i t y of k a y a -
v ijn ap ti. They a r e o f t h e view t h a t i t i s a c e r t a i n f i g u r e
of t h e body ( o f a l i v i n g b e i n g ) , known as an o b j e c t of
v i s u a l consciousness* U nlike the S a u t r a n t i k a s , they co u ld
not d ep riv e k a y a - v i j n a p t i of i t s r e a l i t y because along w ith
v a g - v ijn a p ti i t is c lo s e ly a sso c ia te d w ith a v i j n a p t i - r u p a .3
The f o r e g o i n g S a u t r a n t i k a arg u m e n ts a g a i n s t t h e
c o n c e p t i o n o f sa m s th a h a as a r e a l e n t i t y c a n n o t be o v e r l o o k e d
i f we a r e t o u n d e r s t a n d i n a b r o a d p e r s p e c t i v e how t h e
co m m entato rs i n t e r p r e t e d t h e DhammasanganT a c c o u n t of pii u-iTn* ».-f t Tit. ii Hi ^ u;h iii i>

rupayatana. I t was n o t e d e a r l i e r ^ t h a t i n t h i s manual


some e x a m p le s o f f i g u r e t o o a r e b r o u g h t u n d e r r u p a y a t a n a .
But i n t h e A t t h s a l i n i t h e y a r e i n t e r p r e t e d i n s u c h a way
th a t i t p re se n ts a clo se p a r a lle lis m to the S a u tra n tik a
theory.
Commenting on t h e examples o f f i g u r e c i t e d i n t h e

■ ■■ .nr i^ imi^ i i.it ih


ii n i l i> in miniim ■.r m n miJ *11

1. See AK.Ch.iv 8 - 1 2 ; AKvy. i i 348 f f . ; KSP: MOB iv 209 f f *


2* See below ,1 8 9 -9 0 ~
3* See a b o v e ,119-20
4. See a b o v e , 142
146

Dhammas a n g a n i , t h e At t h e s ail i n i s a y s : ... t h e t e r m s 1lo n g *


e t c . , a r e a c c o m p l i s h e d hy m u t a l r e f e r e n c e (annam'annam
upanidhaya)• The t e r m s ' c i r c u l a r * e t c . , are accom plished
by j u x t a p o s i t i o n ( s a n n i v e s e n a ) . Among them w i t h r e f e r e n c e
t o what i s s h o r t ' l o n g 1 i s so c a i l e d as b e i n g h i g h e r ( u c c a t a r a )
than t h a t ; 'sh o rt* i s so c a l l e d as b e i n g lo w e r ( n T c a t a r a )
th an 'lo n g * . With r e f e r e n c e t o what i s b i g , a t h i n g s m a l l e r
th an th a t is ' l i t t l e , * w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o which a g r e a t t h i n g
,1
i s ' b i. g .
Then i t g o es on t o s a y : Among t h e s e e x p r e s s i o n s
b e c a u s e i t i s p o s s i b l e t o know 'lo n g * e t c . , a l s o by t o u c h ,
b u t not 'b lu e -g re e n * e t c . , , th e re fo re in r e a l i t y 'lo n g * i s
not d i r e c t l y (n ip p a riy a y e n a ) a v i s i b l e o b j e c t , n e i t h e r i s
o
's h o rt* and s i m il a r term s.
T h a t " 'l o n g * i s n o t d i r e c t l y a v i s i b l e o b j e c t 1' c l e a r l y
shows t h a t s t r i c t l y s p e a k i n g f i g u r e ( s a n t h a n a ) i s n o t a
p a r t of r u p 'a y a t a n a . E x p l a i n i n g why i n t h e e a r l i e r a c c o u n t
some exam ples o f f i g u r e a r e e n u m e r a t e d u n d e r r u p a y a t a n a ,
A t t h a s a l i n T re m a rk s t h a t ifthis has b e e n done as a c o n c e s i o n
t o p o p u l a r u sage ( v o h a r a t o • ) ^ No s u c h i m p l i c a t i o n c o u l d be
drawn from t h e o r i g i n a l a c c o u n t .

1 v D l g h a d i n i -hi - annam^annam u p a n i d h a y a s i d d h a n i , v a t t a d l n i
s a n n i v e s e n a . T a t t h a r a s s a m u p a n i d h a y a t a t o u c c a t a r a m d lg h am ,
tam u p a n i d h a y a t a t o n i c a t a r a m r a s s a m , t h u l a m u p a n i d h a y a t a t o
k h u d d a k a t a r a m anukam ,tam u p a n i d h a y a t a t o mah a n t a t a r am
t h u l a m — o p ! c i t . 317 ( t r . f r o m E x p o s i t o r )
2 . T a t t h a yasma d l g h a d . i n i p h u s i t v a p i s a k k a j a n i t u m , n i l a d i n i
pah-3eva n a s a k k a t a s m a n a n i p p a r i y a y e n a digham r u p a y a t a n a m .
T atha r a s s a d i n i . — i b i d l o c . c i t . ( t r .f r o m E x p o sito r)
3 .Ib id l o c . c i t .
147

One c a n n o t o v e r l o o k t h e f a c t t h a t among t h e
S a u t r a n t i k a s t h e r e was a s t r o n g te n d e n c y t o i n t e r p r e t as
n o m inal ( p r a j n a p t i s a t ) some o f t h e dharmas which i n t h e
V a i b h a s i k a a n d t h e T h e ra v a d a were p o s t u l a t e d a s r e a l
(d rav y atas, saccik atth a-p aram atth en a). T h e ir advocacy
o f t h e t h e o r y o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e p e r c e p t i o n (b’ahyanumeyav'ada)
a n d t h e i r n o n r e c o g n i t i o n o f any of th e d h a r n i a y a t a n a - r u p a s
such as th e a v ijn a p ti- ~ r u p a , a re i n d i c a t i v e of t h e i r
s u b j e c t i v i s t ten d en c ie s.^ I t is very l i k e l y , th e r e f o r e , th a t
among B u d d h i s t s i t was t h e y who f i r s t advocated th e th e o r y
i n q u e s t i o n b e f o r e i t fo u n d e x p r e s s i o n i n T h e ra v a d a
s c h o l a s t i c ism ,
Whether i t was an i n t r o d u c t i o n from an o u t s i d e s o u r c e
o r one o f t h e i r own c r e a t i o n s t h e Therav’a d i n s c o u l d e a s i l y
accom odate i t i n t o t h e i r s y s t e m . For u n l i k e t h e V a i b h a s i k a s
they d id not i n t e r p r e t k a y a - v i n n a t t i as a f i g u r e (santhaha)
o f t h e b o d y .^ Nor d i d t h e y r e c o g n i z e a v i j n a p t i - r u p a . Hence
t h e y c o u l d c o n v e n i e n t l y r e l e g a t e santh'ana to t h e domain o f
p a n n a t t i s w i t h o u t t h e r e b y u n d e r m in in g t h e b a s i s o f any o t h e r
established, d o c trin e .
.And, i t i s as a l o g i c a l r e s u l t of t h i s new

M riiiH JW )i^ L > » ri^ i* - i ■ . iLi*n rt.T xn. l u t i u U n ' i t . i m i . u < n > m iin |i< i,riM H i.m

3-® See M u r t i , O e n . P h i . o f Biiddhism 81 f f


2 . See b e l o w , 187 f f -
148

i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t h a t i n t h e M u latx k a t h e o l d e r te rm
xnJpayatana i s som etim es s u b s t i t u t e d by t b e more s p e c i f i c
v a n n a y a t a n a s i . e . , ,ft h e s p h e r e o f c o l o u r ” . -*
As f o r s a d d a , sounds t h e a c c o u n t g i v e n i n t h e
Bhammasangani i s . i n t h e m a i n , an e n u m e r a t i o n o f d i f f e r e n t
k i n d s of s o u n d s ; of drum s, o f t a b o r s , o f c o n c i r - s h e l l s , o f
to m - t o m s , o f s i n g i n g , o f m u s i c , e t c . , ^ In th e post
c a n o n i c a l s c h o l a s t i c i s m we a r e p r e s e n t e d w i t h two
d i f f e r e n t t h e o r i e s ; - on t h e s u b j e c t . K a r l i e r i s t h e one
g i v e n i n t h e ( s T h a l a ) A tthakatha*. A l t h o u g h t h e work i s
n o t e x t a n t now, a r e f e r e n c e t o one o f i t s v ie w s i s made
i n t h e A11 ha s'a 1 i nT . 3
A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s r e f e r e n c e , sound t r a v e l s i n an
e l e m e n t a l s e r i e s - bhTataparampara ■• Of much i n t e r e s t i s
t h e example g i v e n i n s u p p o r t o f t h i s v ie w : rJ?he b o d i l y
washerm en
movements o f men f e l l i n g t r e e s of^washing c l o t h e s are
seen (q u ic k ly ) a lth o u g h they a re a t a g r e a t d is ta n c e . On
t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e s o u n d t h e y make i s r e l a t i v e l y slow o f
a s c e r t a i n m e n t ( v a v a t t h a n a ) b e c u a s e i t comes i n an e l e m e n t a l
s e r i e s (d lia t u p a r a m p a r a y a ) and s t r i k e s t h e a u d i t o r y organ.^*

1* Q p . c i t •,1 0 4 ,1 0 6 e tc .
2. O p . c i t . , 140
3. O p . c i t . , 313
4. Bure rukkham £ h i n da n t sfnam p i r a j a k ’anan ca v a t t h a m
dhovant*anam d u r a t o va k a y a v i k a r o p a n n a y a t i . Saddo pana
d liatu p aram p a ray a s o t am g h attetv sT san ik am v a v a tt h a n a m
g a c c h atT t i vuttam - A s l.3 l3
149

The iitth ak a th a* v i e w , a s n o t e d by D r . E . P . S a r a t h c h a n d r a
i s on a p a r a l l e l w i t h t h e one advanced by t h e N yaya-V ai,€esikas
c o n c e r n i n g t h i s s u b j e c t ; " E i t h e r sounds r e a c h t h e e a r i n
c o n c e n t r i c c i r c l e s of waves l i k e t h e waves of w a t e r , o r
th e y shoot out in a l l d i r e c ti o n s l i k e the fila m e n ts of a
Kadamba*"^
The A t t h a s 'a l i n T has a l l u d e d t o t h e A t t h a k a t h s T t h e o r y
o f sound o n l y t o d i s m i s s i t as unsound,, The main o b j e c t i o n
r a i s e d i s t h a t s u ch a t h e o r y c a n n o t a d e q u a t e l y a c c o u n t f o r
o u r knowledge o f t h e d i r e c t i o n o f sound; I f sound comes
s l o w l y h a v i n g a r i s e n a t a d i s t a n c e t h e n i t w i l l be
a p p r e h e n d e d a f t e r some t i m e . Coming i n a n e l e m e n t a l s e r i e s
an d i m p in g i n g on t h e s e n s i t i v e p o r t i o n o f t h e e a r , t h e
d i r e c t i o n i t comes from m igh t n o t be e v i d e n t F o r when one
h e a r s a s o u n d /o n e c a n ( f a i r l y a c c u r a t e l y ) say w h e th e r i t i s
a d i s t a n t sound, or a near sound, or w h e t h e r i t i s a sou n d
from t h e f a r t h e r bank o r from t h e h i t h e r b a n k . ^
F o l l o w i n g t h e i i t t h a s ’a l i n T a r g u m e n t , Dhammap’a l a to o
o b s e r v e s t h a t i f sound t r a v e l s to w a r d s t h e e a r t h e n t h e r e

1. Bud.Psyvof P e r c e p«34
2* S i n h a , In d « P sy«22 ^ ^
3* Saddo p i s a c e sanikam ‘agiaccheyya dure uppanno c i r e n a
suyeyya £ a r amjpar ag ha 11 a n'aga^c a 'a g an tv a s o t am g h a t t e n t o
a s u k a d i s a y a nama t i na pannayeyya* - As 1*31^
4* I b i d . , 314
150

c a n n o t be t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f i t s l o c a l i t y a n d d i r e c t i o n
( desa’d e s a - v a v a t t h l a n a ) * He f u r t h e r n o t e s t h a t when s o u n d i s
a p p r e h e n d e d i t r e m a in s where i t has a r i s e n , As t o how an
echo a r i s e s i t i s s a i d t h a t t h e sound* a l t h o u g h i t r e m a in s
a t a d i s t a n c e * becomes a c o n d i t i o n ( p a c c a y a ) f o r t h e a r i s i n g
of an echo e l s e w h e r e e v e n as a magnet ( a y o - k a n t a ) f o r t h e
movement o f i r o n . Then t h e r e i s t h e o b s e r v a t i o n o f
Sum angala; t h e f a c t t h a t one h e a r s t h e sound o f t h u n d e r w h ich
a r i s e s a t a d i s t a n c e o r t h e so u n d g e n e r a t e d w i t h i n t h e body
which i s c o v e r e d by t h e s k i n shows t h a t f o r i t s a p p r e h e n s i o n
so u n d n e e d n o t t r a v e l t o w a r d s t h e e a r a n d s t r i k e i t s
p
se n sitiv e portion.
I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t o n o t i c e t h a t t h i s t h e o r y w hich
has b e e n i n t r o d u c e d i n p l a c e of t h e e a r l i e r * i s s i m i l a r t o
t h e one a c c e p t e d by some of th e s c h o o l s o f S a n s k r i t Buddhism*
a c c o r d i n g t o w hich sound i s c h a r a c t e r i s e d by u a p r a v ' a h a v a r t i v a H *
i.e .* i t does n o t e x i s t i n a s e r i e s . - ^

1. See Vism'J . 44-6-7


2 • See ADSVT. 114
3« See AK c h . i 6 7 1 AKv.y i 6 9 . The r e j e c t i o n * on t h e p a r t o f
t h e F a l i co m m en tators* o f t h e e a r l i e r v ie w i s n e c e s s i t a t e d
by t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f a new t h e o r y c o n c e r n i n g th e p o s i t i o n
o f t h e s e n s e - o r g a n s ^ i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e objects*.
A c c o r d in g t o t h e (S T h a la jjA tth a k a tiia ( s e e A s l . 3 1 3 ) t h e
s e n s e - o r g a n s a r e u s a r a p a t t a - g o c a r a u i . e . * 't h e y a p p r e h e n d
t h e i r o b j e c t s when t h e l a t t e r come i n t o a c t u a l c o n t a c t
w i t h them. Buddhaghosa and h i s s u c c e s s o r s m o d i f i e d t h i s
t o t h e e f f e c t t h a t i n t h e c a s e of cakkhu and s o t a * t h e y
are not s a m p a tta - g o c a r a * i . e . * they apprehend t h e i r o b j e c t s
a t a d i s t a n c e ; s e e V i ^ s m . 4 4 5 ^ s l . 3 1 3 ;ABS« 2 7 ;Ahh.vt.6 7 I
Abhvk.2 6 2 .T h e same ide*a i s e x p r e s s e d ’*"in A K .C h .i 87 f f and
G o n t 1d * ............ ..
151

-J
With t h e dev elo pm ent o f atomism, an i m p o r t a n t problem
c r o p p e d up c o n c e r n i n g t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f s o u n d , As we s h a l l
s e e i n a l a t e r c h a p t e r , ^ t h e V a i b h a s i k a s deny t h e p o s s i b i l i t y
o f atoms coming i n t o im m ediate c o n t 'a c t w i t h one a n o t h e r . How ,
t h e n , i s t h e phenomenon o f sound t o be e x p l a i n e d ?
The V a i b h n s i k a s o f Ka^nf^’r had t h e answer r e a d y : ,fs i
l e s atom es se t o u c h a i e n t , l a main en c o l l i s i o n ( a b h y a h a t a )
p
avec l a main s f y f o n d r a i t , l a p i e r r e en c o l l i s i o n avec l a
p i e r r e s*y f o n d r a i t , comme de l a gomme se fond dans de l a
gomrae. Ht l e son ne se p r o d u i r a i t p a s . 11^

C o n t i n u a t i o n fx^om l a s t page1. *. •
ARvy«i 83* C o n s u l t Bud*Psy*of P e r c e p o 2 f f . & C p d .l 6 u » n . 2 . f o r
d e t a i l s , .a l t h o u g h i\sl« d e n i e s t h a t cakkhu and s o t a a r e s a m p a t t a
EraasMTCii»E^ *“

gocax^a, som etimes i t u s e s t h e term s a m p a t t a i n r e s p e c t o f t h e


c o r r e s p o n d i n g o b j e c t s , e . g . , v a n n o . . .c a k k h u s a m p a t t o (314) I t
seems t h a t s a m p a t t a i s u sed n o $ * o n ly as r e f e r r i n g t o t h e
p h y s i c a l c o n t a c t b e tw e e n t h e o r g a n a n d t h e o b j e c t ? b u t sometimes
as r e f e r r i n g t o t h e a p p r e h e n s i o n of t h e o b j e c t by t h e s e n s e -
o r g a n . Bee AIC.oCh.lo87 n . l where de l a V a l i n e P o u s s i n c i t e s
•***> re to rt *' * ^

a ViJlhasa p a s s a g e , a c c o r d i n g t o which p r a p t a which i n t h i s


c o n t e x t "’c o r r e s ponds t o P a l i s a m p a t t a o c c u r s i n t h e same two
senses.
1 . See b e l o w , c h . v i i i
2 . B e c a u s e , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e V a i b h a s i k a s , t h e atom i s p a r t l e s s
and hence n o n - r e s i s t i n g ( a p r a t i g h a ) , s e e b e l o w , 356, 363 f f *
3 . AK.Ch.i 89
152

Thus i t i s t h e v e r y f a c t t h a t atoms do n o t t o u c h one


a n o t h e r t h a t makes p o s s i b l e th e p r o d u c t i o n o f sound* The
f a c t t h a t s o u n d a r i s e s i s i t s e l f t a k e n as p r o o f i n s u p p o r t
of t h e t h e o r y o f ato m ic n o n - c o n t a c t *
With t h e dev elo pm ent o f t h e t h e o r y o f r u p a - k a i a p a s ,
t h e T h e r a v a d i n s , t o o , h a d t o answer a s i m i l a r q u e s t i o n * For
i n t h e i r v i e w , t o o , t h e r l l p a - k a l ’a p a s , t h e u l t i m a t e u n i t s of
m a t t e r , do n o t come i n t o im m ediate c o n t a c t If th is th esis
was t o be m a i n t a i n e d , t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f s o u n d could, n o t be
a t t r i b u t e d t o an a c t u a l c o n c u s s i o n o f t h e r u p a - k a l a p a s *
Hence i t i s t h a t t h e tT ka t o t h e V i s u d d h i m a g g a , h a v in g
o b s e r v e d t h a t sound, r e s u l t s from t h e g h a t t a n a , s t r i k i n g
t o g e t h e r , o f t h e r u p a - k a i a p a s , g o es on t o d e f i n e what t h i s
g h a t t a n a i s s " i t i s t h e a r i s i n g of r u p a - k a l a p a s i n p r o x i m i t y
t o one a n o t h e r due t o c o n d i t i o n s ^ The w o rd s : " a r i s i n g »**
i n p r o d i m i t y 11 a r e meant t o r u l e o u t t h e i r a c t u a l c o n t a c t as
w e l l a s t h e i r movement* For t h e t h e o r y t h a t m o tio n i s an
i l l u s i o n c r e a t e d , by t h e g e n e s i s of momentary e l e m e n t s i n
a d ja c e n t l o c a t i o n s ( d e d a n t a r o t p a t t i ) , i s put forw ard in th e
l a t e works o f t h e T h e r a v a d i n s , t o o * ^

1* See b e l o w , 566 f f .
2. 0 p * c i t *452
3* s e e a b o v e , 7 5 - 6
153

On t h e s u b j e c t o f g a n d h a , o d o u r , and r a s a , s a v o u r ,
th e tre a tm e n t i s m ainly a m a tte r of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s .
DhammasahganT does n o t commit i t s e l f t o a d e f i n i t e
number a s r e g a r d s t h e t y p e s o f o d o u r . ’*' The A t t h a s a l i n T
^ m m . Hl t r iM .lllB H HI B l I<1■III■—>— BlUtf J«

makes a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f a l l v a r i e t i e s i n t o two b r o a d g r o u p s
( a ) sugandha o r i t t h a g a n d h a , i . e . , a g r e e a b l e o d o u r ;
(b ) duggandha ox* anitth .ag and .h a , i . e . , d i s a g r e e a b l e o d o u r . ^
I n t h e V a i b h a s i k a e a c h g ro u p i s a g a i n c o n s i d e r e d a s u t k a t a ,
ex cessiv e or a n u tk a ta , n o n -ex cessiv e.^ Some B u d d h i s t s
r e c o g n i z e a v a r i e t y c a l l e d s a m a - g a n d h a , odour which i s
n e i t h e r a g re e a b le nor d is a g r e e a b le .^
A s t o r a s a , s a v o u r , t h e T h eravada s o u r c e s do n o t l a y

down a d e f i n i t e number of t y p e s . The Dh amma s a hg a nT


d e s c r i p t i o n i s an e n u m e r a t i o n o f d i f f e r e n t t y p e s , e . g . ,
b i t t e r , pungent, s a l i n e , a l k a l i n e , a c r id , a s t r i n g e n t ,
f o l l o w e d by t h e w o rd s : ,ro r whatevez^ o t h e r s a v o u r t h e r e i s n . 5
The V aibh aT sikas, on t h e o t h e r h a n d , r e c o g n i z e s i x f u n d a m e n ta l
v arie ties ( s a n - m u l a - j a t i ) , v i z , sw ee t, s o u r , s a l t y , pungent,
b i t t e r , an d a s t r i n g e n t , a n d adm it t h a t t h e i r m i x t u r e s c o u l d
g i v e r i s e t o a wide v a r i e t y . 6

1» OP.C i t . 14 1
q

2. Op. c i t . , 3 2 0
3. See AK .C h.i 18
4. AKvy.i 27
5® Op. c i t . , 1 4 2
6. AKvy . i 27
154 -

As f o r th e t a n g i b l e , the o b je c tiv e f i e l d co rresp o n d in g

t o t h e o rg a n o f to u c h * i t was a l r e a d y o b s e r v e d t h a t , a c c o r d i n g
t o t h e T h e r a v a d a , i t c o n s i s t s o f t h r e e o f t h e f o u r p rim a ry
e le m e n ts * T h i s s u b j e c t was d i s c u s s e d i n t h e c o u r s e o f our
c h a p t e r on t h e p r i m a r y e l e m e n t s . ^
F a c u l t i e s of sex
By f a c u l t i e s of s e x we mean i t t h i n d r i y a ( f a c u l t y of fem i­
n in ity ), and p u r i s i n d r i y a ( f a c u l t y of m a s c u l i n i t y ) *
A c c o rd in g t o t h e Dhammasangarii d e f i n i t i o n * t h e fo rm e r means
t h e p h y s i c a l a p p e a r a n c e , marics , t r a i t s a n d d e p o r tm e n t p e c u l i a r
t o a f e m a le o r t h e s t a t e o r c o n d i t i o n o f f e m i n i n i t y - i t t h a t t a ,
itthibha'va* L i k e w i s e , t h e l a t t e r means p h y s i c a l a p p e a r a n c e ,
e t c * , p e c u l i a r to a m ale, or the s t a t e or c o n d itio n of
m a s c u lin ity - p u r i s a t t a , purisabhavaJ^
Two p a s s a g e s i n t h e A n g u t t a r a n il c a y a show t h a t t h e
3
e a r l i e r t e x t s t o o have u n d e r s t o o d them i n t h e same sense*
But nov/here i n t h e hilcayas a r e t h e y b r o u g h t u n d e r r u p a , l e t
a l o n e t h e i r b e in g p o s t u l a t e d as two rupa-dham m as. The
in
co m m en tato rs seem t o have b ee n r i g h t l y aware t h a t AtJbe a b s t r a c t
s e n s e o f f e m i n i n i t y and m a s c u l i n i t y t h e two i t e m s c o u l d h ot
be i n c l u d e d i n t h e c a t e g o r y o f n i p p h a n n a - r U p a . A pparently,
t h e one an d o n l y a l t e r n a t i v e i s t o b r i n g them u n d e r t h e

1* See a b o v e , 8 8 - 9 , 9 4 - 5
2* Op , c i t * *142; s e e a l s o Vbh*122-3
3• O p . c i t . , iv 37
nn* i.i w
155

o p p o site head ing, i . e . , anipphanna-rupa• Bat in s te a d


o f d o in g t h i s t h e y m o d i f i e d t h e i r 1 e a r l i e r d e f i n i t i o n so
as t o j u s t i f y t h e i r i n c l u s i o n in. t h e p r e s e n t c a t e g o r y .
Hence i t i s t h a t a c c o r d i n g t o th e A t t h a s & l i h T , t h e
p h y s i c a l a p p e a r a n c e a n d o t h e r f e a t u r e s w hich a r e p e c u l i a r
t o a fe m a le a r e n o t e x p r e s s e d by i t t h i n d r i y a * They a r e what
a r i s e b e c a u s e of i t . J u s t a s , b e c a u s e of a s e e d a t r e e grows
r e p l e t e w i t h t w i g s and b r a n c h e s , even so b e c a u s e o f
i t t h i n d r i y a t h e r e come i n t o b e i n g s u c h p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s , e t c ® ,
as a r e p e c u l i a r t o a f e m a l e . With t h e n e c e s s a r y a d j u s t m e n t s ,
t h e same o b s e r v a t i o n a p p l i e s t o p u r i s i n d r i y a , t o o * ^
Thus t h e " t h a t " (yam)2 o f t h e Dhammasangarii i s i n t h e
Commentary u n d e r s t o o d as " t h a t t h r o u g h w h ic h 1' ( y e n s ) *3 This
c o m rn e n ta ria l e x p l a n a t i o n f a l l s i n l i n e w i t h t h e one g i v e n
by t h e V a i b r i a s i k a s . F o r , i n t h e i r o p i n i o n , t o o , t h e two
f a c u l t i e s of s e x d e t e r m i n e t h o s e d i f f e r e n c e s b etw e en t h e
male and t h e fe m a le as r e g a r d s t h e i r p h y s i c a l form ( s a m s t h a r ia ) 9
t o n e o f v o i c e ( s v a r a ) , d i s p o s i t i o n s ( a b h i p r a y a ) , manner o f
b e i n g ( a c a r a ) , demeanour ( c e s t a ) , e t c . / 1'
T h ere i s however t h i s f u n d a m e n t a l d i f f e r e n c e ; The

1 . . . . i t t h i l i n g a d i pana na i t t h i n d r i y a n j , . . . y a t h a b Tje s a t i
bTjam p a t i c c a rukkho v a d d h i t v ’a s a k h a v it a p a s a m p a n n o aliasam
p u r e t v a t i t t h a t i . E v a m eva i t . t h i b t i a v a s a n k h a t e i t t h i n d r i y e
s a t i i t t h i l i n g a d T n i honti.BTjj.am v i y a h i i t t h i n d r l y a m . -
o p . c i t ® ,321
.ini » . *u>. \

2 . I b i d . 3 2 1 ( . . . y a n t i karanav ac an am .Y en a k a r a n e n a . . . )
3»See B hs.143
4 . See A K .C h . i i 1 0 4 ,1 0 8 ; ivK vy.ii 9 4 ,9 7
* 1 * 1 ** naewwwTrEVMti *
156

T h e ra v 'a d in s b e l i e v e t h a t i t t h i n d r i y a / p u r i s i n d r i y a i s spread-
a l l o v e x v t h e body ( s a k a l a - s a r T r a - b y a p a k a ) as k siy en d riya
(th e organ of touch) i s . ^ On t h e i r r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n Buddhaghosa
observes th a t i t i s n o t c o r r e c t to say t h a t i t t h i n d r i y a /
p u r i s i n d r i y a i s e i t h e r ” l o c a t e d i n t h e s p a c e where t h e o r g a n
of t o u c h i s l o c a t e d ” o r ” l o c a t e d i n t h e s p a c e where t h a t i s
n o t l o c a t e d ” .^ What i s a t t e m p t e d t o show i s t h a t ^ a l t h o u g h
b o t h a r e s p r e a d a l l over t h e body* y e t t h e one i s n o t an
asp ect or a p art of th e o th e r. Those p rim a ry e l e m e n t s which
s u p p o r t t h e o r g a n o f t o u c h a,re d i f f e r e n t from t h o s e t h a t
s u p p o r t t h e f a c u l t y o f sex* ( b h i n n a - n i s s a y a t a * )
On t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e V a i b h a s i k a s m a i n t a i n t h a t
s t r T n d r i y a / p u r u s e n d r i y a i s n o t d i s t i n c t from k a y e n d r i y a *
UA p a r t dans l 1organ© a p p e l £ k e f y e n d riy a , o r g a n e du t a c t , l e s

deux o r g a n e s s e x u e l s . Ges deux o r g a n e s ne s o n t pas d i s t i n c t s


d.u k a y e n d r i y a 1' . ^ T h i s i s p r e c i s e l y why t h e Vaibha’s i k a s do
n o t c o u n t them as two s e p a r a t e r u p a dharmas*^
B u d d h a g h o s a 1s com m en tato r seems t o have had t h e
V a i b h a s i k a t h e o r y i n mind when he s a y s t h a t some e n t e r t a i n

1. Bee V is m .3 7 8 ; Abhvk.269; AD8VT. I l l r ~ ' P MQ jT l i T I T '^m

2 . na ca k a y a p p a s a d e n a t h i t o k a s e t h i t a n t i va a t t h i t o k a s e
t h i t a n t i va* v a t t a b b a t a m a p a ^ j a t i * - Vism «37 &\
3 . Bee VismT 4 4 8 ; c f . n a c a t a s s a ka'yappasadena s a n k a r o
l a k k h a n a b h e d a t o n i s s a y a b h e d a t o v a . - Abhvk.269
4® AK*Gh»ii 108; s e e a l s o AKvy.i 97
5 * S e & ah 6Ve , 110
157

t h e wrong b e l i e f t h a t t h e f a c u l t y of s e x i s o n l y ajpart o f t h e
body ( s a r T r e k a d e s a v u t t i ) . .Add he g o es on t o r e m a r k t h a t i t i s
p a r t l y w i t h a view t o r e f u t i n g t h i s b e l i e f t h a t i n t h e
V isuddhim agga i t i s d e s c r i b e d a s p e r v a d i n g t h e whole body*
I n co n s o n a n c e w i t h t h e i r view* namely t h a t t h e two
f a c u l t i e s o f s e x 11ne s e n t pas d i s t i n c t s du ka’y e n d r i y a , n
t h e V a ib h la s ik a s a l s o m a i n t a i n t h a t l,i l s c o n n a i s s e n t l e
2 _
t a n g i b l e . 11 T h a t t h e f h e r a v a d i n s do n o t s u b s c r i b e t o s u c h
a v iew i s shown from t h e f a c t t h a t t h e two i t e m s a r e n o t
i n c l u d e d i n t h e c a t e g o r y o f " rru p am s a p p a t i g h a m . 5'^
S in c e i n d r i y a i s u n d e r s t o o d a s t h a t which e x e r c i s e s a
dominant i n f l u e n c e , i n w hich s e n s e and o v e r what do th e y
w ield, t h e i r i n f l u e n c e ? The Vai'bh’a s i k a s e x p l a i n t h i s i n two
ways: F i r s t l y , they are th e d eterm in an t f a c t o r of th e
d i s t r i b u t i o n o f l i v i n g b e i n g s i n t o two g r o u p s a s male an d
f e m a le ( s a t t v a - b h e d a ) • S econdly, they determ ine th e
d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of li v in g beings ( s a t t v a - v ik a lp a - b h e d a ) ;
i t i s b e c a u s e o f them t h a t t h e r e a r e d i f f e r e n c e s b e tw e e n
t h e two s e x e s a s r e g a r d s t h e p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s , e t c . #
From what has b e e n o b s e r v e d so f a r , i t s h o u l d become
c l e a r t h a t t h e T h e r avia da answer t o t h e q u e s t i o n amounts t o

1* VismT*448
2s.AK.Qh.ii 108
3* See above, 58, 112
158

t o t h e same*
We m igh t n o t e i n p a s s i n g some i n t e r e s t i n g comments
made i n t h e >\tthasa~linT on some d i f f e r e n c e s betw een t h e two
sexes;
The shap e o f a woman*s h a n d s , f e e t , n e c k , b r e a s t , e t c . ,
i s n o t l i k e t h a t o f a man’ s . The fe m a le lo w e r body i s b r o a d ,
t h e u p p e r body i s l e s s b r o a d . The hands an d f e e t a r e s m a l l ,
t h e mouth i s s m a l l . The fe m a le b r e a s t i s p r o m i n e n t . The
f a c e i s w i t h o u t b e a r d o r m o u s ta c h e . The d r e s s i n g o f t h e
h a i r , t h e weaving o f c l o t h e s a r e a l s o u n l i k e t h o s e of a man’ s .
The m a s c u l i n e f e a t u r e s a r e j u s t t h e o p p o s i t e * F o r t h e sh ap e
of t h e h a n d s , f e e t , n e c k , b r e a s t , e t c * , o f a man i s u n l i k e
t h e shap e o f t h o s e of a woman. For a man’ s u p p e r body i s
b r o a d , t h e lo w er body i s l e s s b r o a d , h i s hands and. f e e t a r e
l a r g e , th e fa c e i s l a r g e , the b r e a s t f l e s h i s l e s s f u l l ;
beard, and m o u s ta c h e grow*
Then t h e r e a r e d i f f e r e n c e s as t o h a b i t s a n d ' d ep o rtm en t s
Thus i n y o u th women p l a y w i t h t i n y s h a l l o w b a s k e t s , p e s t l e s
an d m o r t a r s , v a r i e g a t e d d o l l s , an d weave s t r i n g w i t h c l a y -
fib re. T h ere i s a want o f a s s e r t i o n i n women’ s w a l k i n g ,
s t a n d i n g , 1 y i ng d.own, s i 11 i ng , e a t i n g , s wa 11 o wi ng * I n de ed

1 . Of* *.* i t t h i n d r i y a n ca p u r i s i n d r i y a n ca s a t t a p a n n a y a
p a d a tth a n a m . - P e t . l O l
h A A A A
159

when a man o f t h a t d e s c r i p t i o n i s s e e n , f o l k s a y : He w alks


s t a n d s ? e t c . , l i k e a woman* I n t h e c a s e o f men t h e r e i s a
m arked d i f f e r e n c e , I n y o u t h t h e y p la y w i t h c h a r i o t s and p lo u g h s
e t c . , make s a n d - b a n k s and d i g p o n d s . T h ere i s a s s e r t i o n i n
t h e i r w alking, e t c . . When a woman i s s e e n - t a k i n g lo n g s t r i d e s
e t c , , f o l k say* 11she w alks l i k e a man11, ^
Coming c l o s e r t o o u r s u b j e c t , we may n o t e h e r e a problem
t h a t has b e e n c r e a t e d by t h e k t t h a s ' a l i n i a c c o u n t o f t h e two
f a c u l t i e s of sex . The view t h a t t h e y a r e th e d e t e r m i n a n t
f a c t o r o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e s b etw e en t h e male and t h e f e m a l e
as r e g a r d s t h e i r p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s , e t c . , does n o t a c c o r d
w i t h t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f i n d r i y a ~ p a c c a y a as g i v e n i n t h e
P a tJHiana o f t h e .ab h i dh amnia P i ta k a * I n t h i s work w i t h t h e

s o l e e x c e p t i o n o f i t t h i n d r i y a and p u r i s i n d r i y a a l l t h e
i n d r i y a s a r e p o s t u a i t e d as i n d r i y a - p a c c a y a , " c o n d i t i o n by
2
way o f f a c u l t y 1' . The o b v i o u s i m p l i c a t i o n seems t o be t h a t
t h e two i t e m s a r e n o t i n t e r p r e t e d as i n d r i y a s a l t h o u g h t h e y
a r e so d e s i g n a t e d . The s i t u a t i o n i s p e r f e c t l y u n d e r s t a n d a b l e
f o r , as we have s e e n ,5 according to th e e a r l i e r t e x t s they
mean f e m i n i n i t y ( i t t h a t t a ) an d m a s c u l i n i t y ( p u r i s a t t a ) and
n o t , a s i n t e r p r e t e d i n t h e n t t h a s s f l i r i T , what a r e r e s p o n s i b l e

1 . T r . f r o m E x p o s i t o r i i 419 f f • ; a r r a n g e m e n t i s c h a n g e d
( A B l .321-2}
2 0 s e e b e l o w , 551 f f .
3® s e e a b o v e ,1 5 4
160

fo r th em .*
In a l l p r o b a b i l i t y , i t was t h i s s i t u a t i o n t h a t
prompted the a u th o rs of th e l a t e r works to modify th e
AtthaseTlinT
w m i ,"ujU ruU n t i l >
view on th e s u b j e c t .
v
I t i s p o in te d out t h a t , *

as a m a tte r of f a c t , feminine f e a t u r e s , e t c . , are due to


th e p a st karnma. B u t, s in c e they a r i s e mostly i n a
c o n t i n u i t y endowed w ith th e i t t h i n d r i y a , i t t h i n d r i y a i s to
be reco g n ized as t h e i r lear a n a , " r e a s o n " , i . e . , a s o r t of
p
supplem entary cau se. The same i s t r u e of p u r i s i n d r i y a .

1 . A c c o rd in g t o t h e Vibheis’a , an a c a r y a named Sahghavasu


c o n t e n d e d t h a t o.nly t h e i s t . 5 s e n s e - o r g a n s & t h e f a c u l t y
o f l i f e ( s e e 162 f f ) were i n d r i y a s i n t h e r e a l s e n s e of
t h e term - AK ( I n t r o d u c t i o n ) , X L I I I . I n t h e o p i n i o n o f
some a c a r y a s , o n l y t h e 6 s e n s e - o r g a n s ( t h e 6 t h . i s manas
= t h e m e n t a l o r g a n ) form what i s c a l l e d " n i u l a s a t t v a d r a v y a
i . e . , t h e f u n d a m e n t a l c o n s t i t u e n t s of a l i v i n g b e i n g -
AK.Ch. i i ,111 , n . 1 & 2; .Allyy. i 98® As f a r as t h e p o s i t i o n
of t h e two i n d r i y a s i n q u e s t i o n i s c o n c e r n e d , b o t h t h e s e
t r a d i t i o n s a c c o r d w e l l w i t h t h e above s i t u a t i o n which
o b t a i n s i n t h e Abhidhamma P i t4a k a .
2 . See VismT 448; VismS . v 62 ; c f . K i n c a p i i t t h i l i n g a ’dTni
yatbnsakam kammadina p ac cay ena s a n i u t t a h a n t i yebhuyyena
pans i 1 1 h l n d r i ya s a h i t e y e v a s a n t ane * t a m - t a d a k a r a '. h u t v a
s a r n b h a v a n t i , i t a r a t t h a na b h a v a n tT t i tesam t a b b h s iv a b h a v i-
I t ^ >■ii| p A

oam upadaya m d r i y a m p a t i c c a n a y a n t i t i v u t t a n i . Abhvk.


jr* 4 4 WMWMh.fl>wTill.U

2oo
161

That th e two f a c u l t i e s of sex come i n t o being through


th e a c t i o n of kamma (kamma-samut Jhsina), i s a view r e f e r r e d
-j
to b o th i n the e a r l i e r and th e l a t e r works. When t h i s view
and th e above m o d i f i c a t i o n a r e tak en i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n , th e
f o llo w in g s i t u a t i o n r e s u l t s ;
Kamma. i s the c a u s e , not only of the two f a c u l t i e s of
s e x , b u t a ls o of th o se d i f f e r e n c e s which th e two sexes e x h i b i t
as r e g a r d s t h e i r p h y s ic a l appearances* e t c .
This red uces th e fundamental d i f f e r e n c e between th e two
f a c u l t i e s of sex on th e one hand and fem inine and masculine
f e a t u r e s , etc., on th e o t h e r . The r e c o g n i t i o n of the former
as a leap ana of the l a t t e r , seems to be only a f li m s y device
to save th e s i t u a t i o n . I t w i l l a l s o be seen t h a t , i n th e s e
c i r c u m s t a n c e s 5 the p o s i t ion of i t t h i n d r i y a and p u r i s i n d r i y a
comes very c l o s e to t h a t assigned, to them i n th e Abhidhamma
P itaka. I t seems more proper t h a t th e two items were
excluded from the c a te g o ry of nipphanna-ruipa. Such a s t e p
does not n e c e s s i t a t e a m o d i f i c a t i o n of th e Dha mma s a hg a nx
d e f i n i t i o n ; nor does i t g iv e r i s e to the p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n
t o which we have drawn a t t e n t i o n .
Before we c l o s e t h i s s e c t i o n we may r e f e r here t o th e
f a c t t h a t i n th e view of the A t t h a s a l i n T p u r i s i n d r i y a i s

1. see below ,277 ff*


162

s u p e rio r to i t t h i n d r i y a ; The f o r m e r i s b r o u g h t a b o u t by
h i g h e r m o r a l i t y (m ahantena k u s a l e n a ) and t h e l a t t e r by weak
m o r a l i t y (mandena k u s a l e n a ) . ^ Mrs. Rhys D avids o b s e r v e s t h a t
i n a s s i g n i n g a s u p e r i o r p o s i t i o n to t h e former* , t h e a u t h o r
o f th e ktthassT linT i s m i n d f u l " t o a p p r e c i a t e th e s e x t o
w hich he b e l o n g s . ” 2 This i s not u n lik e ly * However , thei^e
has b e e n an e a r l i e r t r a d i t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o w h ich manhood i s
s u p e r i o r t o womanhood.
^ ie y i b h a n g a „ f o r i n s t a n c e , s a y s t h a t t h e r e i s no
p o s s i b i l i t y of a f e m a le b e i n g t h e Oakka, t h e M'ara o r t h e
B rah m a.-3 k n i n t e r e s t i n g view re c o rd e d , i n t h e kb h i d ha rma ko £ a
is t h a t , a l t h o u g h t h e two f a c u l t i e s of s e x do n o t o b t a i n i n
t h e R lu p a -lo k a , y e t t h e l i v i n g b e i n g s t h e r e a r e m ales f o r t h i s
r e a s o n ; ^ I l s poss&dent c e f t e a u t r e m a s c u l i n i t y ( p u ru s a b h a V a )
q u ! on v o i t chea l e s m&les du Kamadhatu, form e d.u c o r p s , son
de l a v o i x , e t c . Here t o o one c a n n o t f a i l t o n o t i c e t h e
a t t e m p t t o b o o s t up m a s c u l i n i t y .

I t i s f a i r l y c e r t a i n t h a t t h e r e c o g n i t i o n of two
j T v i t i n d r i y a s , f a c u l t i e s o f l i f e , i s a d o c t r i n a l developm ent
c o n f i n e d o n l y t o t h e TheravUda.

1. u p . c i t . , 3 2 2 ; s e e a l s o a b h v t « 6 8 : k b h v k . 267 -8
2* 17 5 #n . 1
3* O p . c i t . ? 336
k . fTi7ttc v u . , o h . i i 130
163

The f i r s t , c a l l e d arH p anflS zltin driya ( m e n t a l ) i s one


of t h e f i f t y two c e t a s i k a s ( c o n s c i o u s n e s s - c o n c o r n i t a n t s ; ,
and as s u c h i s i n c l u d e d i n t h e sank hlarakkhandha. ^ I t i s
t h e f a c t o r t h a t s t a b i l i s e s a n d s u s t a i n s e v e r y type of c i t t a
( c o n s c i o u s n e s s ) as w e l l as t h o s e c e t a s i k a s which a r e
c o - n a s c e n t an d c o n t e r m i n o u s w i t h i t .2 it is therefore
c o u n t e d as one o f th e s e v e n " u n i v e r s a l c o n c o m i t a n t s o f
consciousness" ( s a b ' b a - c i t t a - s ' a d h a r n a c e t a s i k a ) .3
The s e c o n d , c a l l e d r u p a - j T v i t i n d r i y a ( m a t e r i a l ) i s
an upada r u p a a n d as su ch i s i n c l u d e d i n t h e ru p a k k h a n d h a .
I t i s t h e f a c t o r t h a t s t a b i l i z e s an d s u s t a i n s t h e kamma-
sara utt li a n a - r u p a (matter* t h a t comes i n t o b e i n g as a r e s u l t
o f kamma) , ^ narne 1 y , t h e f i r s t f i v e s e ns e - o r g a n s , t h e two
f a c u l t i e s o f s e x , t h e p h y s i c a l b a s i s of mind,*5 an d a l l
o t h e r m a t e r i a l e l e m e n t s i n s e p a r a b l y a s s o c i a t e d w ith t h e m . 6
Hence i t i s th a t acco rd in g to th e th eo ry of r u p a - k a l a p a ,
i t e n t e r s i n t o t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f a l l kamma-saniutthana
. •

r u p a ~ k a i a p a s j u s t as a r u p a - j T v i t i n d r i y a i s c o n c o m i t a n t

1. Dee Dhs. 2 4 , 3 4 e t c . ,
2. See n s l * 1 2 3 - 4 ; Vi sin. 464 ?493 ; nbhyk .120
3* See A DS ,6 ™ ^
4. I n Vis m .3 7 8 t h e kamma-saniutthana-r*upa i s r e f e r r e d t o a s
t h a t " r u p a which i s " s a h a j a 5*1 w i t h j T v i t i n d r i y a , b e c a u s e
t h e y come i n t o b e in g s i m u l t a n e o u s l y - s e e b e l o w , . 2 1 1 -see
a l s o A b h v k .2 7 0 ; ADSVT.112
5* i . e * , h a d a y a - v a t t h u , t h e l a t e s t a d d i t i o n - s e e below , 1 7 1 f f
6. D i s c u s s e d i n 277 f f ; r u p a - j T v i t i n d r i y a t o o i s kamma-
s a m u t t h a n a - s e e below , 1 6 7 - 8
7 . see below ,3 87
164 -

w i t Ii e v e r y k i n d o f c i t t a .
The V a i b h a s i k a s , f o r i n s t a n c e , t o o k an e n t i r e l y
d iffe re n t p o sitio n : T h e re i s o n ly one j T v i t e n d r i y a . I t
i s c e r t a i n l y not of the n a tu re of ru p a . Bor i s i t e x c l u s i v e l y
a ca itsik a ( m e n t a l ) clha pma , a l t h o u g h i t r e s e m b l e s t h e l a t t e r .
Fo r u n l i k e t h e c a i t t a s •( c o n s c i o u s n e s s - c o n c o m i t a n t s ) i t is
not a s s o c i a t e d (sam prayukta) w ith c i t t a . Hence i t i s
a s s ig n e d a place in the c a te g o ry of c i t t a - v i p r a y u k t a -
s a m s k tira s . T h i s i s t o show t h a t i t a p p l i e s , n ot o n l y t o
nama- dharrnas ( m e n t a l ) b u t a l s o t o ru p a -d h a rr n a s ( m a t e r i a l ) .

. . . .
In t h i s r e s p e c t , i t i s lik e the fo u r sam sk rta-la k san as^
*

w hich, becuase they apply to bo th g ro u p s , are in c lu d ed in


t h e same c a t e g o r y .
D r . P . S . J a i n i has shown t h a t t h e r e a s o n f o r t h e
d ev elop m en t o f two s u c h t r a d i t i o n s (T herava’da and V a i b h a s i k a )
i s t r a c e a b l e t o t h e a c c o u n t of ayu g i v e ,, i n t h e Maloavedalla
S u t t a o f t h e Ha&y him anikaya and t o t h e p rob lem s a r i s i n g
from t h e r e c o g n i t i o n , on t h e p a r t of B u d d h i s t s , o f th e two
p l a n e s o f e x i s t e n c e , v i s . a s a n n ab h av a an d a r u p a l o k a .
a c c o r d i n g t o t h e d u t t a i n q u e s t i o n , what s t a b i l i s e s
th e fiv e s e n s e -o rg a n s i s ayu. Ayu depends on usma ( h e a t ) ,
a n d usma i n t u r n on 'ayu. T h e i r i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e i s compared
t o t h a t b etw e e n t h e fla m e and t h e l i g h t of t h e lamp. Just

! • See 178-9*214 » hkv y . i 105* 188 f f .


2 . Bee b e l o w ,22 1
165

as the l i g h t i s v i s i b l e because of the f la m e , even so th e


flame i s v i s i b l e because of the l i g h t .
TTyu i s not i d e n t i c a l with vedana ( f e e l i n g s ) because
i f i t w e re , th e n a person e x p e rie n c in g th e tr a n c e c a l l e d
s a n n a - v e d a y i ta - n ir o d h a (th e c e s s a t i o n of p e rc e p t ions and
f e e l i n g s ) would not be a b le to r i s e a g a in from t h a t t r a n c e .
Since th e fo u r namakkhandhas - vedana ( f e l l i n g s ) , sanna
( p e r c e p t i o n , )sankhara ( fo rm a tio n s ) and vinnana (c o n s c io u s n e s s )
- ax^e n e c e s s a r i l y c o - e x i s t e n t , sarrn a -v e d a y ita -n iro d h a i s
th e hirodh a ( c e s s a t i o n ) of a l l th e f o u r . Hence for the
s elf-sam e r e a s o n ayu co uld not be i d e n t i f i e d , w ith any of
th e s e fo u r khandhas.
nor co uld i t be in c lu d e d i n the r*upakkhand.ha. Rupa
does not o b t a i n in the arupalolca. Consequently to in c lu d e
i t i n th e rupakkhandha i s to exclude i t from the arupalolca.
But th e p r i n c i p l e of l i f e should be r e c o g n i s e d i n t h i s plane
of e x i s t e n c e to o .
Hence i t i s t h a t the I’heravadins have r e c o g n is e d two
3'Tv i t i n d r i y a s each having i t s province w e ll demarcated;
whereas th e V aib hasikas have recognised, only o ne, which,
alth o u g h common to b o th rfama and r u p a , i s not i d e n t i c a l w ith
e i t h e r of them.

1 . J a i n i , The developm ent o f t h e t h e o r y of t h e v i p r a y u k t a -


s a m s k a r a s s BSOAS, 1959 V o l . x x i i P t . 3 ; s e e a l s o , B uddha1s
pr o l o n g a t i o n o f l i f e . I b i d . , 1956 V o l . x x i P t . 2
166

T h a t t h i s was t h e l’e a s o u t h a t l e d t o t h e s e two


p a r a l l e l d e v e l o p m e n t s , i s f a r t h e r c o n f i r m e d by a K a t h a v a t t h u
c o n t r o v e r s y where t h e p o i n t a t i s s u e i s w h e th e r t h e r e a r e
two j r v i t i n d r i y a s o r not* The T h e r a v 'a d in 1s ( S a k a v a a i n ’ s )
c l a i m t o t h e d e s i r a b i l i t y o f r e c o g n i s i n g two j T v i t i n d r i y a s
i s b a s e d on two m ain g r o u n d s : The f i r s t is t h a t i t explains
t h e f a c t t h a t the a t t a i n m e n t o f n i r o d h a - s a m a ' p a t t i i s n o t
i d e n t i c a l w ith d e a th . The s e c o n d i s t h a t t h e d e n i a l o f nama
i n a s a n n ab h av a does n o t amount t o th e d e n i a l o f j T v i t i n d r i y a ,
fo r th e re in there is ru p a-jT v itin d riy a*
The o b j e c t i o n s o f t h e opp on ent ( t h e P u b b a s e l i y a s a n d
Cl -j
t h e S m m i t i y a s , a c c o r d i n g t b e th e Commentary) are s tro n g ly
r e m i n i s c e n t o f t h e V aib lo asika p o s i t i o n . The op ponent
c o n t e n d s t h a t t h e r e i s o n l y one j T v i t i n d r i y a , t h a t i t i s
common t o b o t h riama a n d r u p a , a n d t h a t i t i s a r u p a . I t s
d e s c r i p t i o n a s a r u p a s u g g e s t s o n l y i t s e x c l u s i o n from
rupaklchandha and n o t i t s i d e n t i t y w i t h any o f t h e c e t a s i k a s .
F o r , a l t h o u g h he a d m i t s i t s in c lu s io n in the sankiiara-
kkhandha (s a n k h a ’r a lc k h a n d h a - p a r i y a p a n r i a ) , y e t he d e n i e s t h a t
sankharas o b ta i n i n the n iro d h a - s a rn a p a tti.^ The o p p o n e n t ’ s
v i e w , t h e r e f o r e , seems t o be t h a t a l t h o u g h j T v i t i n d r i y a
c o u l d be a s s i g n e d a p l a c e i n t h e s a n k l i a r a k k h a n d a , i t is
c e r t a i n l y n o t a pure c e t a s i k a r d h a m m a . I t may be r e c a l l e d

1 . Kvun.112
2 . iivur394 f f .
167

here th a t the V aibhasikas include i t i n t h e c a t e g o r y of


c i t t a - v i p r a y u k t a - s a g a k a r a s , b u t make i t d i s t i n c t from t h e

ca itasik as. I n p o i n t o f f a c t t h e Commentary o b s e r v e s t h a t


in th e o p in io n of th e o p p o n en t, j T v i t i n d r i y a i s a c i t t a -
v i p payut t a - a r u p a - dhamrn a . ^
T h e r e i s t h u s a c l o s e ' p a r a l l e l i s m b e tw e e n t h e t h e o r y
o f t h e V a i b l i a s i k a s and t h a t which t h e K a t h a v a t t h u p r o p o s e s
to r e f u t e , iuid, t h e c o n t r o v e r s y c o u l d therefox*e be t a k e n
a s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of a c o n f l i c t betw e en two d i f f e r e n t
s o l u t i o n s t o a common problem - t h e problem o f e x p l a i n i n g t h e
p o s i t i o n of .!j l v i t i n d r i y a i n r e l a t i o n t o a s a n n a b h a v a an d
arupaloka.
However, when t h e f u n c t i o n a s s i g n e d t o r*u pa - 3*1v i t i n d r i ya
i s ta k e n i n t o c o ix sid e ra tio n , the case f o r i t s r e c o g n i ti o n
a p p e a r s t o be wealc. I t s c h a ra c te r is tic fu n c tio n , i t is
s a i d , i s t o s t a b i l i s e a^d. s u s t a i n t h e kaim riaja-ru pa, i . e . ,
t h e m a t e r i a l e l e m e n t s v/hich a r i s e as a r e s u l t of kamrna* 2
I t i s a r g u e d t h a t * a l t h o u g h what a r e c a l l e d kammaQn-rupas
a r e t h e r e s u l t of Icamma , t h e i r s t a b i l i t y and u n i n t e r r u p t e d
c o n t i n u i t y c a n n o t be a c c o u n t e d f o r w i t h o u t t h e r u p a - j T v i t i n d r i y a ^
But r u p a - jTv i t i n d r i y a i s i t s e l f kamma j a . ^

1. KvuA.112
2 . S e e " V is m .447; ADSV‘T .1 1 2 ; n b h v k .2 7 0
mus*

3 . I b i d . , 1o c . c i t . , c f •Ka h i kammajanarn kammam1eva t h i t i h e t u


b h a v itu m s a k k o t i . - Abhvlc.270
4 • As l r. 3 42
168

Thus h e r e we have a s i t u a t i o n where one kammaj a-r up a i s


s t a b i l i s i n g and s u s t a i n i n g the o th e r kammaja-rupas. adopting
a S a u t r a n t i k a argument^ one may c o n t e n d t h a t i f t h e s t a b i l i t y
and u n i n t e r r u p t e d c o n t i n u i t y of t h e kam ma ja -r up a s c a n n o t be
a c c o u n t e d f o r w i t h o u t a r l l p a - j T v i t i n d r i y a , t h e n t h i s rupa-*
j T v i t i n d r i y a which i s a l s o a Icammaja-rupa s h o u l d r e q u i r e
a n o t h e r r u p a - j T v i t i n d r i y a i n o r d e r t o a c c ou n t f o r i t s own
s t a b i l i t y and u n i n t e r r u p t e d c o n t i n u i ty , n n d t h i s woul d
r e s u l t i n what t h e B u d d h i s t s ( a n d o t h e r I n d i a n s c h o o l s [)
c a l l Ha n a v a s t i i a u , t h e f a l l a c y o f i n f i n i t e r e g r e s s .
'X'he s i t u a t i o n becomes a l l t h e more c l e a r when one
c o n s i d e r s how t h e S a u t r a n t i k a s r e a c t e d a g a i n s t t h e r e c o g n i t i o n ,
on t h e p a r t o f t h e V a i b h a s i k a s , of j T v i t e n d r i y a a s a r e a l
e n tity (dravyatas). T h e i r argument i s t h a t karma a l o n e i s
s u f f i c i e n t a nd e f f i c i e n t enough t o s u s t a i n what a r i s e s a s
a ' r e s u l t o f karma. The s o - c a l l e d j T v i t e n d r i y a , t h e y c o n t e n d ,
fv . ^

i s a p r a j n a p t i ( d e s i g n a t i o n ) w i t h no o b j e c t i v e r e a l i t y .
" J u s t as t h e d e s t i n y o f an a r r o w and t h e t i m e i t w i l l t a k e
to reach i t s d e s t i n a t i o n a r e determined, a t t h e moment o f
i t s s h o o t i n g , s i m i l a r l y t h e karma of an i n d i v i d u a l , a t t h e
moment o f r e b i r t h , fixe-s t h e d e s t i n y ( n i ka y a - s a b iiag a ) and
the d u r a t i o n o f t h e sant*ana of t h e f i v e s kand.has. w3

1. See A K . G h . i i 45 f f -
2 . See S k . C h . i i 214 f f .
3 - J a i n i j B S O A S ,1959 V o l . x x i i P t . 3
169

The p o s t u l a t i o n o f j i v i t e n d r i y a i s n o t o n l y s u p e r f l u o u s ,
b u t g i v e s r i s e t o , and l e a v e s u n e x p l a i n e d , t h e q u e s t i o n o f
a c c o u n t i n g for* i t s own s t a b i l i t y and c o n t i n u i t y . ^
V ie we d i n t he l i g h t o f t h i s Sa u t r a n t i ka a r g urne n 1 ,
t h e r e a s o n s a d d u c e d by t h e T h e r a v a d i n s fox1 r e c o g n z i n g t h e
rupa j T v i t i n d r i y a are r a t h e r f a r - f e t c h e d . As t h e y have
o f t e n d o n e , had t h e T h e r a v a d i n s f o l l o w e d t h e S a u t r l a n t i k a
l i n e o f r e a s o n i n g , t h e y w ould have r e a d i l y e x c l u d e d i t from
t h e c a t e g o r y o f n i p p h a r m a -ru p a .
nutrim ent
KabalTlcara-^aiiara, l i t e r a l l y , means u f o o d made i n t o a
b a l l ” o r !,m o r s e l - m a d e - f o o d u . I n t h e hilsfayan t e r m i n o l o g y ,
i t means s o l i d m a t e r i a l f o o d as a g a i n s t c i t t a (co n scio u sn ess),
ce ta ria ( v o l i t i o n } , and p h a s s a ( s e n s o r y an d m e n t a l i m p r e s s i o n )
which ax»e a l s o c a l l e d f o o d ( a l o a r a ) , f o r t h e y a l l n o u r i s h ,
s u s t a i n a n d kee p g o i n g t h e e m p i r i c i n d i v i d u a l i t y ^ - a
p r o c e s s of a l i m e n t a t i o n .
v/hile t h e e a r l i e r t e x t s u n d e r s t o o d k a h a lT lc a ra -'a h a r a
¥

i n t h e g e n e r a l s e n s e of f o o d w hich a l l l i v i n g b e i n g s talce
f o r t h e i r s u s t e na nc e a nd g r owt h , t he nb h i dharnma i n t e r pr e t e d
i t i n a more a b s t r a c t s e n s e t o mean t h e n u t r i t i v e aspect
o f m a t t e r , t h e *' q u a l i t y ” o f n u t r i t i o n . I t i s of c o u r s e t r u e

g . w n n iji.«i<rrrtTiiiiiiHiiMTiiilT i n nr iI I -Tallin —n

1. See A K . C h . i i 4-5 I f .
2 . C f . e . g . , D . i i i 228; 276; M.i 48; S . i i 11; 98
170

t h a t the PhammasahganT d e f in e s i t by c i t i n g some examples


of food such as b o i l e d r i c e * sour g ru el* f l o u r * f i s h * f le s h *
milk* curds* b u t t e r * cheese* e t c . , ' But as the Commentator
observes t h i s i s a d e f i n i t i o n given i n terms of i t s embodiment
p
~ vatthu-vasena. The cormnentarial o b s e r v a t i o n i s ad m is sib le
f o r i t i s su p p o rte d by the f a c t t h a t ImbalTltara-’aiiara i s one
of the dhammayatana ru n a s . I t cannot be khown by any of the
%
s e n s e s o t h e r t h a n t h e mind (m ano), i.e .* i t i s known by a
process of i n f e r e n c e , n e v e r t h e l e s s t h i s d e f i n i t i o n by way
o f fV a t t h u u i s r e m i n i s c e n t o f i t s e a r l i e r m ean in g .
Quite i n c o n t r a s t i s th e V aibhasika
» d e f i n i t i o n of
*04 *-mti m - S I . K*i >4
k a v a d ik a r a - a r ia r a ; I t c o n s i s t s of th r e e ayatanas* v i s .
gan&hayatana (odour)* r a s a y a ta n a (savour) and sp rastav y ay ataiia
(th e t a n g i b l e ) . Rupayatana (th e v i s i b l e ) i s excluded on the
ground t h a t i t does not c o n t r i b u t e to the f u n c t i o n of
alim en tatio n .^
For the moment i f we overlook the e x c l u s i o n of
rupayatana th e n t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n does not amount to a
r a d i c a l d e p a r tu re from the e a r l i e r c o n c e p tio n . For* i t
may be noted here* the t h r e e ay a tan as which make up

1. O p . c i t . , 144
2 . A s l .330
3 . See a b o v e , 108“ 9
4 *0f • kavadTk'ara’h 'arasya t r T s u g a n d h a r a s a s p r a s t a v y a y a t a n e s u
s a m g r a h a h / kasmad r i i p a y a t a n e na s a m g r a h a h / yasrnaccaksur-
d a r ^ a n a h a r e n a s attv av x ik ’ayasya mahabh*ut ana m n o p a e a y a s «
t a s m a t / / - hbhm r.k O ; s e e a l s o iUU-GLi.iii 1&0 f f .
171

lcavadTlcara*aloaisa a l o n g with, r u p a y a t a n a r e p r e s e n t t h o s e
m a t e r i a l e l e m e n t s which a r e q u a l i f i e d as a v i n i r b h a g a ^ i
( i n s e p a r a b l e ) a n d which a r e s a i d t o e n t e r i n t o t h e c o m p o s i t i o n
i
of a l l matei’i a l t h i n g s * H en c e, i f what i n t h e H ikay as was
c o n s i d e r e d as k a b a lT lm ra - 'a lia r a ( f o o d i n i t s g e n e r a l s e n s e )
was s o u g h t t o be e x p l a i n e d as composed of t h e s e f o u r
' a y a t a n a s , t h e n t h i s r e a l l y amounts t o a c a s e o f a p p r o a c h i n g
t h e s u b j e c t from t h e s t a n d - p o i n t o f ‘a y a ta n a *
As r e g a r d s t h i s s u b j e c t t h e f u n d a m e n t a l d i f f e r e n c e
b e tw e e n t h e two s c h o o l s i s t h i s : For t h e Therav*adins
k a b a l T l i a r a - a i i a r a i s a s e p a r a t e rupa-dhamma w h ereas f o r t h e
V a i b h i f a k a s i t i s a compound o f ru p a -d h a rm a s *
The phy s i c a l b a s i s o f m e n t a l a c t i v i t y
t inia'n- tf ! ! ■ in* if « i* naTi|-* i i M'V n i * i II T f r i i I *n n m m I f i i ^ H i w n i * i»n nM * i .i^ i i i i i n * n m i>i mi ■i*|nmL l±r m u i * l m>mwi

The e n u m e r a t i o n o f h a & a y a - v a t t h u ( t h e h e a r t - b a s i s )
as a s e c o n d a r y m a t e r i a l e le m e n t and i t s r e c o g n i t i o n as t h e
p h y s i c a l b a s i s of mano-dliatu (mind) and m a n o - v i n n a n a - d l ia t u
( m i n d - c o n s e i o u s n e s s ) i s a p o s t - c a n o n i c a l d ev e lo p m e n t which
f i n d s m e n t i o n i n t h e Theravstda works c o m p i l e d d u r i n g and
a f t e r t h e tim e B u dd hag ho sa. The h i k a y a s a r e s i l e n t on
the s u b je c t. Even i n t h e Dhamma s a ng a n T . where we g e t t h e
most e x h a u s t i v e a n a l y s i s o f m a t t e r as f a r a s t h e P a l i Canon
i s c o n c e r n e d , no a l l u s i o n i s made to su ch a t h e o r y . The

h h m it »>w n ii*n m> .iii*j ii*iin iii . . i ii i t M m » « iiiiii* imi a>iii m ^ in i* * n i n »in

1. Bee a b o v e , 103-4-; b e l o w , 372 f f .


1?2

f i r s t c a n o n i c a l r e f e r e n c e t o a p h y s i c a l b a s i s of m e n t a l
a c t i v i t y i s met w i t h i n t h e g a t t l i a n a of t h e nbhidhamma

P i t a k a , b u t s t r a n g e l y enough t h e manual does n o t s p e c i f y


A
what i t is ,1
W ith t h e i r a c c e p t a n c e o f th e c a r d i a c t h e o r y of t h e
s e a t o f m e n t a l a c t i v i t y , one q u e s t i o n t h e com m entators had
t o answer was why h a d a y a - v a t t h u was o m i t t e d i n t h e
DhammasanganT . I n t h e i r o p i n i o n t h e o m i s s i o n was n o t
a c c i d e n t a l , b u t was due t o t h e n e c e s s i t y of m a i n t a i n i n g
c o n s i s t e n c y i n t h e m ethod o f e x p o s i t i o n . The e x p l a n a t i o n
i s as fo llo w s ;
I n t h e V a t t h u - d u k a s e c t i o n fo t h e Dhamma s a hg a n T , t h e
e x p o s i t i o n i s made w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e b a s i s o f t h e f i r s t
f i v e k i n d s o f v i n n a n a , e . g . , "T h e re i s pupa t h a t i s th e
b a s i s o f ca k k h u - vxnnana j t h e r e i s r u p a t h a t i s n o t t he
b a s i s of c a k k h u - v i n n a n a * ^ I f t h e dyads were s t a t e d w i t h
r e f e r e n c e t o m an o -v in n an a t o o , as "T h e re i s pupa t h a t i s
t h e b a s i s o f m ano-vinnana^ t h e r e i s r u p a t h a t i s n o t t h e
b a s i s o f m a n o - v i n n a n a " , t h e n t h e V a t t h u - d u k a s e c t i o n would
n o t f a l l i n l i n e w i t h t h e iframraana-duka s e c t i o n (where t h e
dyads a r e s t a t e d w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e o b j e c t s of t h e f i r s t
f i v e kinds of vinnana)*^ For i t i s not p o s s ib le to e s t a b l i s h
a dyad l i k e " T h e re i s ru p a t h a t i s th e o b j e c t o f m ano-vinn n an a

1 . s e e b e l o w , 174
2. Dhs.125.149
3 • I ' b i d . i L12'6 1,4’9 f f *
173

t h e r e i s r u p a t h a t i s n o t t h e o b j e c t of m ano~vinhanaH
( b e c a u s e a l l t h e rupa-dhammas become t h e o b j e c t s of mano-
v innana} .^ I f t h e r e were t o be i n c o n s i s t e n c y b e tw e e n t h e
two s e c t i o n s i n q u e s t i o n , t h e n t h e r e would n o t be u n i f o r m i t y
i n t h e method o f e x p o s i t i o n . H e r e i n t h e T e a c h e r ’ s i n t e n t i o n
was t o d e v e lo p t h e e x p o s i t i o n i n a form t h a t has u n i t y
(eka-rasa)* Hence t h e o m i s s i o n o f ha da y&fv a 11 hu which i s

t h e b a s i s o f mano an d m an o-v in n an a Y/as u n a v o i d a b l e .


A T h at t h i s i s a h i g h l y i n g e n i o u s e x p l a n a t i o n , i s q u i t e
obvious. I t i s of c o u r s e t r u e t h a t much o f t h e s u b j e c t - m a t t e r
o f t h e Dhammasanga nT i s c a s t i n a s y m m e t r i c a l fo rm . But i t
i s e x t r e m e l y u n l i k e l y t h a t t h e a u t h o r s o f t h e Abhi&hamrna
P i t a k a s h o u l d d e l i b e r a t e l y a v o i d m e n t i o n i n g an i m p o r t a n t
e le m e n t o f xnipa j u s t f o r th e sak e o f r e t a i n i n g symmetry i n
t h e m ethod o f e x p o s i t i o n .
Dr. S .Z .n u n g to o s u g g e s t s , b u t f o r e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t
r e a s o n s , t h a t th e om ission of h ad a y a -v a tth u i n the
Dhamma sang a nT i s n o t a c c i d e n t a l ; u I n view of t h e p o p u l a r
i d e a , i . e . , o f t h e c a r d i a c t h e o r y of t h e s e a t o f m e n t a l
a c t i v i t y p r e v a i l i n g i n h i s t i m e , t h e Buddha p r e f e r r e d t o
be s i l e n t on t h e p o i n t , tie d i d n o t a c c e p t t h e t h e o r y ,
b u t I f he h a d expounded h i s own t h e o r y I t w ou ld n o t have

1 . Bee i b i d . , 178
2 . See VismT 4 4 9 - 5 0 ; s e e a l s o hbhvlc.2 71 ,AD8S 15 4-5 &
VismS* v i " 6 4 - 5 s where t h e same e x p l a n a t i o n i s r e p e a te d *
174

been a c c e p t a b l e t o h i s h e a r e r s . u i
T h i s e x p l a n a t i o n to o i s e q u a l l y u n s a t i s f a c t o r y an d
eq u ally fa r-fe tc h e d . To s u g g e s t t h a t Buddhism w i t h h e l d
c e r t a i n i d e a s f o r t h e s i m p le r e a s o n t h a t t h e y w ould n o t
"go down** w i t h t h e age i s t o o v e r l o o k t h e e l e m e n t of
r a d ic a lis m in B uddhist th o u g h t.
Why h a d a y a - v a t t h u i s n o t m e n tio n e d i n t h e Dhammasanganx
a l t h o u g h i t f i n d s m e n tio n i n t h e co m m e n ta rie s a n d i n t h e
k i n d r e d l i t e r a t u r e , does n o t seem t o be a v e r y r e l e v a n t
q u e s t i o n | f o r what we e n c o u n t e r i n t h e l a t e r t e x t s n e e d
not n e c e s s a r i l y f i n d e x p r e s s io n in the e a r l i e r . If there
i s a d i f f e r e n c e betw e en t h e e a r l i e r and t h e l a t e r works as
r e g a r d s d o c t r i n a l t e n e t s , t h i s d i f f e r e n c e c a n be put down
t o a h i s t o r i c a l p r o c e s s a t work.
Of much s i g n i f i c a n c e , how ever, i s t h e p a s s a g e i n t h e
P a tth a 'n a w h ich a l l u d e s t o a p h y s i c a l b a s i s of m e n t a l

a c t i v i t y w i t h o u t s p e c i f y i n g what i t i s . The i n t e r e s t i n g
t h i n g t o n o t e i s t h e way i t makes t h i s a l l u s i o n . F irst i t
s p e c i f i c a l l y s t a t e s thosfccakkhu i s a c o n d i t i o n by way o f
b a s i s (n is s a y a - p a c c a y a ) f o r cakkhu-vinnana ( v i s u a l c o n s c io u s n e s s)
L i k e w i s e , s o t a , gliana , j i v lo a , and kaya a r e i n s t a n c e d , as
b a s is -c o n d itio n s fo r sota-vinnana (a u d ito ry co n sc io u sn e ss),
gh*ana-vinnana ( o l f a c t o r y c o n s c i o u s n e s s ) , ^ iv lia -v in iia n a

1 . Cpd.277~8
175

* V *'*'•< t* ^

( g u s t a t o r y c o n s c i o u s n e s s ; a n d icaya~vinnana ( t a c t i l e
c o n sc io u sn e ss) respectively®
But when i t comes to refer* t o t h a t -which form s a
b a s i s - c o n & i t i o n f o r rnano ■ an d mano™vinnana , t h e l a n g u a g e
becomes l e s s s p e c i f i c : " Yarn rupam n i s s ’aya manodhatu ca
mano v in n an ad lia t u ca v a t t a n t i , tarn rupam rnanodhatuya ca
ma n ov i nna n a clha t u y a ca tam sampayuttalcanam ca dhammanam
n i s s a y a p a c c a y e n a paccgryo" . ^ (= " T h a t m a t e r i a l t h i n g ., b a s e d
on w hich t h e m in d -e le n ie n t and t h e m i n d - c b n s c i o d s n e . s $ “- e le m e n t
o c c u r — t h a t m a t e r i a l t h i n g i s a c o n d i t i o n b y way o f
b a s i s f o r t h e ra in d -elen ien t and t h e m i n d - c o n s c i o u s n e s s - e l e m e n t
r

and what a r e a s s o c i a t e d t h e r e w i t h . " ) ^


I t w i l l be s e e n t h a t i n t h e quoted s e n t e n c e , t h e
p h y s i c a l b a s i s of niano a n d m ano-vinnana i s n o t s p e c i f i e d .
I t i s r e f e r r e d t o i n a c i r c u i t o u s way as "yam rupam . . .
tam r u p a m .11 Lirs. Rhys D a v i d s 1 o b s e r v a t i o n , namely t h a t t h e
"7

te rm i s " g u a r d e d " and t h a t " t h e e v a s i o n i s q u i t e marked,"*"*


is c e r t a i n l y to the p o in t. And as a l r e a d y o b s e r v e d by Aung,
i f i t was t h o u g h t t h a t h e a r t was t h e p h y s i c a l b a s i s o f
m e n t a l a c t i v i t y , t h e n t h e P a t t h a n a would have u s e d t h e w o rd ,

" h a d a y a - ( v a t t h u ) " i n s t e a d o f "yam rupam . . . tarn rUpam."


However, we c a n n o t a g r e e w i t h t h e s u g g e s t i o n made, n a m e ly ,

1. l k p .4
2 . "What a r e a s s o c i a t e d th e re w ith ." means t h o s e c e t a s i k a s
which a r i s e a l o n g w i t h mano-vnnana*
3. Bud.Psy.71
176

t h a t t h i s n o n - s p e c i f i c a t i o n was due to the f a c t t h a t ^


altho ugh Buddhism gave some s o r t of con ce ss io n to the
popular b e l i e f (see p . 173 )$ yet i t was not prepare d to go
so f a r as to commit i t s e l f to the c a r d i a c the ory of the
s e a t of mental a c t i v i t y . 1
In view of the ’‘marked ev a s io n 11 , i t seems more
probable t h a t the author or au th ors of the Pattliana was/were

not q u it e c e r t a i n as to what e x a c t l y c o n s t i t u t e d th e s e a t of
mental a c t i v i t y ; hence he or they p r e f e r r e d to observe what
may be c a l l e d a noble s i l e n c e on the q u e s t i o n . This i s only
a t e n t a t i v e s u g g e s t i o n , f o r the nature of th e s i t u a t i o n i s
such t h a t no c a t e g o r i c a l statement could be made*
The c omme nt a t o r s 5 i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of u yarn ru pam • • •
tam rupam1’* as ha&aya-vatthu could n e i t h e r be s u p p o r te d nor
refuted, with r e f e r e n c e to the Pattliana passage. For i t i s
an answer to a q u e s t i o n l e f t unanswered,
An i n t e r e s t i n g argument i n support of t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n
i s found i n the sub-commentaries. The f i r s t pa r t of
t h i s argument i s an attempt to f i n d out whether i t i s
p o s s i b l e to id e n t i f y t he 1*yam ru pam * • • tam rnpamtf of t he
Pattliana with any of th e twenty seven rupa-dhammas mentioned

i n th e Dhammasan^ganT.
A t t e n t i o n i s f i r s t drawn to the f a c t t h a t calclchu,
s o t a , e t c . , which are the p h ys ic al bas&s of the f i v e kinds

I —« | II I. m u mi. !■■■ 11 T fliH

1. Gpa.278
177

o f v i n n a n a s named a f t e r them a r e a v a r i e t y o f n i p p h a n n a -
u p a 'd a -ru p a . T h e r e f o r e - so r u n s t h e arg u m e n t - t h e p h y s i c a l
b a s i s o f mano a n d m an o -v in nan a to o s h o u ld be a rupa-dhamma
which i s n ip p h a n n a a s w e l l as upUdst. T his e lim in a te s th e
fo u r prim ary elem ents because , a lth o u g h n ip p h a n n a , they are
n o t u p ada. I t a l s o e l i m i n a t e s t h e t e n i t e m s which we s h a l l
examine i n t h e n e x t c h a p t e r b e c a u s e , a l t h o u g h up*ad*a,they a r e
n o t nip ph ann a* C o n s e q u e n t l y t h e f i e l d i s n a r r o w e d down t o
the^fru-r t e e n n i p p h a n n a - u p a 'd a - r u p a s which we have exam ined
in t h i s chapter*
Among th e m , none of t h e f i r s t f i v e s e n s e - o r g a n s c a n
be s e l e c t e d b e c a u s e t h e y a r e t h e p h y s i c a l basfis o f t h e f i v e
k i n d s o f v i n n a n a s named a f t e r them. The f o u r o b j e c t i v e
f i e l d s and t h e elem ent o f n u t r i t i o n ( k a b a l T k a r a - a l o a r a ) e x i s t
n o t o n l y i n t h e body o f a l i v i n g b e i n g b u t a l s o o u t s i d e of
it; hence t h e y to o have t o be e l i m i n a t e d . S in c e mano and
m ano -vinn ana o b t a i n even i n t h o s e l i v i n g b e i n g s who do n o t
p o s s e s s t h e f a c u l t y of s e x , t h e two f a c u l t i e s o f s e x ,to o ,
have t o be e l i m i n a t e d . The f a c u l t y of l i f e has i t s own
f u n c ti o n to perform ; to a t t r i b u t e a n o th e r i s not q u ite
a
r i g h t ; hence i t s h o u l d a l s o be e l i m i n a t e d . 1
Bo f a r i t has b e e n a c a s e of e l i m i n a t i o n . And, so

1 . See VismT 4 4 9 - 5 0 ;VismS.V'-vi 6 4 -6 5 ; A b h v k .2 7 0 -2 7 1 ;


178

f a r two t h i n g s have been e s t a b l i s h e d ; t h e f i r s t i s t h a t


what i s x*efez^red t o as "yarn rupam . tam rupam*1 s h o u l d
be a n i p p h a n n a - u p l a d a - r u p a ; t h e s e c o n d i s t h a t i t c a n n o t be
i d e n t i f i e d w i t h , and s h o u l d t h e r e f o r e be d i s t i n c t f r o m , any
o f t h e ( a l r e a d y known) t h i r t e e n n i p p h a n n a - u p 'a d 'a - r u p a s . The
m ain p u r p o s e i s t o show t h a t t h e p o s t u l a t i o n of a s e p a r a t e
rupa-dhamma a s t h e p h y s i c a l b a s i s o f m e n t a l a c t i v i t y i s
ju stifia b le .
The n e x t problem i s t o find, o u t where i t i s l o c a t e d .
I t i s s a i d t h a t when someone t h i n k s o f a n y t h i n g b r i n g i n g
i t ,t o mind i n t e n t l y an d d i r e c t i n g h i s whole m in d t o i t ,
he e x p e r i e n c e s e x h a u s t i o n ( k h f j . j a n a ) i n h i s h e a r t . T herefore
it i s t o be i n f e r r e d t h a t t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e s e a t o f m e n t a l
a c t i v i t y i s i n s i d e th e h e a rt (ha& ayabbhantare) , ^
What i s c a l l e d h a & a y a - v a t t h u i s n o t a b s o l u t e l y
i d e n t i c a l w i t h h e a r t as s u c h . L ik e t h e s e n s e - o r g a n s , i t
i s a v e r y s u b t l e a n d d e l i c a t e s p e c i e s o f m a t t e r , and i s
lo c a te d in sid e the h e a rt. Like t h e s e n s e - o r g a n s , i t a l s o
comes i n t o b e i n g t h r o u g h t h e a c t i o n o f kamma.^ But u n l i k e
"7

t h e f o r m e r , ' 5 i t i s n o t an i n d r i y a . B eca u se o f t h i s r e a s o n

1. . . . a t t h i k a t v a m a n a s i k a t v a s abb am cetasa* samannaharitvsT


k in e i c in te n ta s s ji hadayappadessssa k h i j ja n a t o tatthedam
t i t t h a t T t i v i n n a y a t i . - n b h v k .2 7 1
2 . See*V_ismT. 4 - 5 0 '”
3 . See above, 140
179

a l though, mano and man o- vi n na na have h a d a y a - v a t t h u as t h e i r


b a s i s , t h e y a r e n ot c o n t r o l l e d by i t i n t h e s e n s e t h a t t h e
r e l a t i v e s t r e n g t h o r weakness of t h e l a t t e r does n o t i n f l u e n c e
the former. S i n c e m e n t a l c u l t u r e i s a c e n t r a l theme i n
B ud dh i s m, t h e s c h o l i a s t s seem t o have t a l i e n t h e view t h a t
i t i s n o t p r o p e r t o c o n c e i v e mano a n d man o-v i nn an a a s
c o n t r o l l e d by t h e h a d a y a - v a t t h u a l t h o u g h t h e l a t t e r i s
I’ecogniiaed a s t h e p h y s i c a l b a s i s o f t h e f o r m e r .
I n r e c o g n i s i n g h a d a y a - v a t t h u as t h e s e a t o f m e n t a l
a c t i v i t y t h e Ther ava' dins have f o l l o w e d an o l d I n d i a n
tradition. I n a px^ayer i n t h e nthax*va~veda one r e a d s ;
"0 k i t r a and Varuna t a k e away t h e t h i n k i n g po?/er ( c i t t a )
•p
from t h e h e a r t ( h r d ; o f t h i s w o m a n . O a r a k a and
S u ^ r u t a jt o o j h a v e re c o g n is e d the c a rd rac th e o r y of th e
s e a t o f m e n t a l a c t i v i t y . 3 The q u e s t i o n i s n o t r a i s e d i n t h e
hiliayas. However, as k r s , khys Davids n o t e s j t h e term
hadaya " f i n d s a p l a c e i n B u d d h i s t p o p u l a r p s y c h o l o g y , b u t i n
t h e s e n s e o f *i n m o s t * , *inwar dness* a n d a l s o o f *thorough*
Thus we have 11hadaya-sukham" ( i n w a r d p l e a s u r e ) , ■ " hadayangama"
( g o i n g deep i n t o t h e bosom o f t h e h e a r t ) . I t also occurs in
p o e t i c d i c t i o n as i n u dhamma s s a ha da yarn" ( t h e h e a r t of the

1. See Vi smT.450 ; nbhvk.271


II I ■ I I ■ II .III I.H M M I > * «JWW.Liw>n I■ i

2. Das G u p t a , H i s t . I n d . P h i . i i 292
3• See S i n h a , I n d . P s y .1
4. Bu d . P s y .34
180

doctrine)* a t t e n t i o n has b e e n drawn t o a J a t a lc a where a


man’ s t h i n k i n g i s r e f e r r e d t o h i s h e a r t ’ s f l e s h (hadayarnamsa) . ^
I n t h e Abhidhamrna P i t a k a t h e term hadaya i s sometimes u s e d
as synonymous w i t h mano a n d ina no ~v i n n l na • ^ R eferences as
t h es e^ too^may have e n c o u r a g e d t h e comm en t at o rs i n a r r i v i n g
a t t h e i r conclusion*

1* Ibid_* , 278
2* See V b h . 8 7 , 8 8 , 144

“9
181

CHAPTER FIVE

SECOXmDARY EESMERTSjlll : GROUP B (AHIPlEA.ui.A)


We have a l r e a d y . shown^that o n l y t h o s e i t e m s , q u a l i f i e d
by t h e p o s i t i v e t e r m , ( p a r i ) n i p p h a n n a , a r e t r u e rupa-dhammaa:
They a r e r e a l and d i s c r e t e e n t i t i e s h a v i n g t h e i r own n a t u r e
( s a b ha ’v a ) . A l t h o u g h r e a l t h e y a r e not e t e r n a l 5 no t o n l y
a r e t h e y d ep e nd ent on c o n d i t i o n s ( p a c c a y a ^ , b u t a r e a l s o
c h a r a c t e r i s e d by t h e t h r e e s a n k h a t a - l a k k h a n a s , t h a t i s t o
s a y , t h e y come i n t o b e i n g ( u p p a d a ; , e x i s t f o r some t i me
o
( t h . i t i ) a nd p e r i s h c o m p l e t e l y ( bhaiiga) . ^ They a r e t h e r e f o r e
sahkhata-dhammas* What t h e n a r e Aa( p a r i ) n i p phamia r u p a s ?
A c c o r d i n g t o t h e Xl at hava tt hu , what i s n o t p a r i n i p p h a n n a
i s a l s o not sa h k h a ta .3 S i n c e t h e c ommen tat or s t o o , as we
have shown,^ use t h e term w i t h t h e same i m p l i c a t i o n s , i t
f o l l o w s t h a t what a r e c a l l e d a n i p p h a n n a - r u p a c a n n o t be
saiikhata. But as i s r e c o g n i s e d i n t h e c om me n t a r i e s t h e m s e l v e s
what i s n o t s a h k b a t a n e e d n o t ' n e c e s s a r i l y be a s a h k h a t a ,
i . e . , something t h a t e x i s t s permanently tra n s c e n d i n g a l l
laws o f " c o n d i t i o n e d " (sahkhata) e x iste n c e . I t could

1 . s e e above, 128
2 . i . e . , accordin g to th e l a t e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of sa n k h a ta -
l a k k h a n a s ; 011 v a r i o u s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s on t h e s u b j e c t , se e
bel ow * 2 1 5 f f .
3* O p . c i t . , 62 6 - 7
4 . s e e above, 126
3. Gf.RvuA.92
182

as well be a nominal dhamma , a pa ana11 i . Under which of


the se c a t e g o r i e s do anipphanna-rupaa f a l l ?
The a u t h o rs of the A 11hasa'linT'.and th e Abkidhamma-
vatqra seem t o have been p e r f e c t l y aware of these
implications. F or , immediately a f t e r having s t a t e d t h a t
c e r t a i n items are a nipphanna,, i n almost i d e n t i c a l words ,
t he y r a i s e t he qu e s t ion uI f t he y were a ni ppha ana , wo u1d no t
t he y become a s a nlcha t a ?n ^
The q u e s t i o n i s r a i s e d only to answer ' i t i n the
negative. The answer, when i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s are developed.,
amounts to t h i s : V/hat are c a l l e d anipphanna-rUpas s i g n i f y
c e r t a i n p o s i t i o n s , phases, c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , e t c . , of the
nipphanna-rupa. As such they should not be i n t e r p r e t e d as
r e a l and e t e r n a l e n t i t i e s t r an s ce n di n g a l l laws of
uconditioned” existence. In o th e r words, they a r e ■c e r t a i n l y
o
not a s a nlcha t a .
The d e n i a l , namely, t h a t they are not asahkhata does
not mean t h a t they are s a nlcha t a e i t h e r . F o r , as we have
a l r e a d y s ee n , one of toe two purposes of d e s c r i b i n g the
nipphanna-rupa as salaklchana-rupa i s to show t h a t the t h re e

1. Yadi h o n t i a n i p p h a n n a bhaveyyum t e a s a h k h a t a ? - A b h v t . 7 4
s e e a l s o Ajsl.343
2. I b i d . l o c . c i t o 9 c f • Bumangala1s comment i n n b hv k . 2 9 1
3 . s e e above , 1.2 7 - 8
183

s'a hkh a t a ™1 a kkha h a b a p p l y o n l y to them.


The r e s u l t i n g c o n c l u s i o n i s c l e a r . The a n i p p h a r m a -
r u p a s do n o t r e p r e s e n t a s e t of rupa-dhammas which a r e
d i s t i n c t frovn * and a s r e a l as s t h e n i p p h a i m a - r u p a s . For
the former merely s i g n i f y c e r t a i n f a c t s ( p o s i t i o n s * p h as es*
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ) c o n n e c t e d w i t h the l a t t e r , n p a r t from t h e
n i p p h a n n a - r u p a s * t h e r e a r e no d i s t i n c t and s e p a r a t e m a t e r i a l
elements c a l l e d anipphanna-rupas. I n j t h e r words* t h e
a i r i p p h a n n a - r u p a s a r e n o m i n a l . dhammas w i t h no autonomous
objective counterparts, ns such*once i t i s re co g n ized
t h a t the nipphanna-rupas are s a h k h a t a * the q u e s t i o n as t o
whether th e anipphanna-rupas are sahkhata or asahkhata
does n o t a r i s e . Then why we.re t h e y p o s t u a l t e d a s rHpa-dhamrnas
( m a t e r i a l e l e m e n t s )?
Bhammap*ala a n s w e r s ; They s t a n d f o r t h e f a c t of
l i m i t a t i o n * c e r t a i n p o s i t i o n s * and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e
n i pp h an na- r *u pa ; i n t h i s s e n s e t h e y !ff o l l o w w i t h t h e l a t t e r "
(taggarika). Hence ( a s a m a t t e r of c o n v e n t i o n ) t h e y a r e
a l s o d e s i g n a t e d as r u p a - ( dhammas) . ^ That i s t o s a y * sinc_e
t h e y have a c l o s e and i n t i m a t e c o n n e c t i o n w i t h what r e a l l y
amounts t o r u p a * t h e y a r e a l s o g i v e n t he same designation.
But t h i s d e s i g n a t i o n does n o t c a rry . wi t h i t t h e i m p l i c a t i o n

1. i s i p p h a n n a r u p a s s a p a r i c c h e d a v i k a r a l a k k h a n a b h a v a t o
t a g g a t i k a m e v ’a t i r u p a n t v e v a v u c c ^ t i . - ^ i s m T .459*60
184

That t h e y a r e r ITp a - d ha mma s i n t h e same s e n s e as t h e


nipphanna-ruEJas a r e . For* i t may be r e c a l l e d here* when
Bhammap'ala a n d Sumangala o b s e r v e t h a t t h e t e rm rllpa has*
a s a m a t t e r o f c o n v e n t i o n * b een e x t e n d e d t o d e n o t e t h i n g s
which do n o t s a t i s f y i t s d e f i n i t i o n * t h e y mean t h e
a n i p p hanna ~r upa s .
Why t h e f o u r g e n e r a t i v e c o n d i t i o n s o f rupa- ( r u p a -
s a m u t t h a u a - p a c e a y a ) * v i z . c i t t a * kamma * u t u and "alia r a a r e
s a i d t o a p p l y o n l y t o t h e n i p p h a n n a - r u p a s ^ s h o u l d become
c 1 e a r e r now. . S i n c e t h e y a r e s a n k h a t a * and s i n c e no
sahkhata-dhamma c a n a r i s e w i t h o u t r e f e r e n c e t o c e r t a i n
c o n d i t i o n s ( p a c c a y a ) * i t i s n e c e s s a r y t h a t t h e i r coming
i n t o e x i s t e n c e s h o u l d be a c c o u n t e d f o r by the a s s i g n m e n t of
conditions. But* b e c a u s e of what has so f a r b e e n ob serv ed ^
s i m i l a r l y c a n n o t be t r e a t e d t h e a n i p p h a n n a - r u p a s . I f they*
t o o j w e r e a s s i g n e d c o n d i t i o n s s e p a r a t e l y * t h e n t h i s would
amount t o s a y i n g t h a t t h e y w e r e s o me t h i n g d i s t i n c t from
t h e n i p p h a n u a - r u p a s - which i s n o t t h e c a s e .
T h er e i s however t h i s s i t u a t i o n t o be noted* . al t hou gh
we a r e t o l d t h a t t h e f o u r f a c t o r s i n q u e s t i o n do not a p p l y
t o t h e a n i p p b a n n a - r u p a s * y e t t h e y a r e o f t e n d e s c r i b e d as
c i t t a - s a m u t t h ’ana * kamma - s amu 11 ha na a n d so 011. ^
• • * * •

1* s e e above, 1 2 7
2 . s e e above, 126
3 . s e e e . g . * As i . 3 40; Vi sin 4 5 1 - 2 ;
185

T h i s does n o t mean t h a t t h e s c h o l i a s t s have o v e r l o o k e d


t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s of what t h e y have e x p l i c i t l y , stated.
That t h a t wejs done from a c o n v e n t i o n a l p o i n t o f v i e w , i s
c l e a r l y shown from what t h e n t th as * al i ri T o b s e r v e s i n
r e s p e c t o f t h e two v i n n a t t i - r u p a s . Although i t d esc rib e s
them as c i t t a - s a n i u t t t i a n a , when i t comes t o d e f i n e them i t
s p e c i f i c a l l y s t a t e s t h a t i n an a b s o l u t e s e n s e ( p a r a m a t t h a t o )
t h i s is not so. This i s because the v i i m a t t i - r u p a (as
we s h a l l s e e i n d e t a i l l a t e r ) ^ r e p r e s e n t s , n o t a s e p a r a t e
m a t e r i a l e l e m e n t s* b u t anumber o f c i t t a - s a m u t•t•h a n a
n i p p h a n n a ~ r u p a s when t h e y a r e i n a p a r t i c u l a r p o s i t i o n *
He nc e , once t h e s e n i p p h a n n a - r u p a s a r e d e s c r i b e d a s c i t t a -
s a m u t t h a n a , i t i s n o t n e c e s s a r y t o make t h e same d e s c r i p t i o n
in r e s p e c t of the v i n n a t t i - r u p a , to o , because the l a t t e r i s
a name g i v e n t o t h e f o r m e r when t h e y a r e i n a p a r t i c u l a r
position. And i f t h e l a t t e r , t o o fli s d e s c r i b e d as c i t t a -
s arout thana - t h i s , as i s r e c o g n i z e d b y e t h e s c h o l i a s t s
t h e m s e l v e s , i s a d e s c r i p t i o n made a c c o r d i n g t o t h e
u i n d i r e c t method’1 ( p a r i y a y e n a ) a n d as s u c h i s n o t valid:.:
i n an a b s o l u t e s e n s e ( p a r a m a t t h a t o *
T h i s n e e d s much e m p h a s i s , f o r h e r e one c a n s e e one

1. o p . c i t * , 337
2. s e e b el ow ^
3* Of^lahutadTriam pi lci 11 a jfa d i b h a v a s s a pariylayeneva i c c h i t a *
t t S : > i p p a r i y a y e n a a t t h a r a s e v a n i p p h a n n a r u p a n i kammadi-
s a m u t t h s m a n i t i -- Abhvk.290
186

of t h e main- p o i n t s on which t h e Abhidhammic c om me n t a r i e s


a n d t h e k i n d r e d works d i f f e r from t h e kbhidhamma P i t a k a .
The Dhamma s a hg a n i 5^ f o r i n s t a n c e p b r i n g s u n d er t h e h e a d i n g s
. o
c i t t a - s a n m t t h a n a and " kamma-sarnuttliana $ many o f t h e i t e m s
which <, i n t h e l a t e r works a r e b r o u g h t u n d e r t h e heading,,
anipphanna. Beeu as e o f t h i s s i t u a t i o n t h o s e i t e m s seem
to appear as s e p a r a te (and r e a l ) e n t i t i e s . By m a i n t a i n i n g
t h a t t h i s s i t u a t i o n i s not t r u e i n an a b s o l u t e s e n s e s the
a u t h o r s o f t h e l a t e r works have done away w i t h t h e f l i m s y
c l a i m t h o s e i t e m s had t o s t a n d as r e a l rllpa-d.harniiias.
V/ith t h e s e genex^al o b s e r v a t i o n s i n m i n d , l e t us now
examine t h e t e n upacfi -r u“pas which i n t h e l a t e r nbhidhammic
works came t o be i n t e r p r e t e d as a n i p p h a n n a .
Modes o f s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n
The two v i n n a t t i - r u p a s P namely 9 k a y a v i n n a t t i an d
v a c i v i n n a t t i P s i g n i f y b o d i l y movements ( g e s t u r e ) a n d
a r t i c u l a t e v o c a l s o u n d ( s p e e c h ) a s two modes o f s e l f -
e x p r e s s i o n o r as two media f o r t h e c om m u n i c at i o n of o n e ' s
thought to another. T h i s 5 be i t n o t e d 9 i s o n l y a g e n e r a l
s t a t e m e n t o f t h e B u d d h i s t c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e two v i n n a t t i s .
Although i t ten d s to co in cid e w ith the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n

1 . G p . c i t . , 147
187

g i v e n by t h e Sammitiya and t h e V a t s T p u t r T y a $ it does not


do f u l l j u s t i c e t o t h e e x a c t p o s i t i o n t a k e n by t h e o t h e r
schools i n c l u d i n g th e Theravada i t s e l f . The two v i n n a t t i s
a r e one o f t h o s e s u b j e c t s on which t h e s c h o l i a s t s have
a d v a n c e d a wide v a r i e t y o f o p i n i o n s . The i n i t i a l s t a t e m e n t
s h o u l d t h e r e f o r e be u n d e r s t o o d i n a g e n e r a l s e n s e .
The d e f i n i t i o n g i v e n i n t h e DhammasahganT3 .though
i t i s t h e most e x h a u s t i v e as f a r as t h e e a r l i e r . t e x t s a r e
concernedp i s not very c l e a r . For,, a l t h o u g h i t g i v e s some
f u n d a m e n t a l f a c t s on t h e s u b j e c t , i t does n o t g i v e a
c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n of t h e i r . mutual r e l a t i o n .
The f i r s t , i . e . ? fc *ay av i nnat t i, i s d e f i n e d a s t h e s t a t e
o f b o d i l y t e n s i o n o r e x c i t e m e n t ( k a y a s s a thambhaha
sant hambhana s a n t h a m b h i t a t t a m ) , 11on t h e p a r t o f a p e r s o n who
a d v a n c e s or r e c e d e s o r f i x e s t h e ga&e o r g l a n c e s a r o u n d
o
o r . r e t o a c t s an arm ox* s t r e t c h e s i t f o r t h . I t is s a i d to
r e s u l t i n r e s p o n s e t o a t h o u g h t w h e t h e r wholesome ( k u s a l a ) ,
unwholesome ( a k u s a l a ) , or m o r a l l y i n d e r e r r a i n a t e ( a v y a k a t a . ) ^
F o r t h i s r e a s o n i t i s a l s o d e s c r i b e d as i n v a r i a b l y c i t t a -
s a m u t t h a n a p i . e . , s e t up o r g i v e n . ri se t o by c o n s c i o u s n e s s . ^
I t i s c a l l e d k a y a v i m a t t i b e c a u s e i t i s t h e bod-Ily

1. s e e bel ow , 188
2• Bud* P a y . F t h i e s 5176
3. Dhs.143
4. I b i d . , 147
188

expression or the b o dily in tim a tio n of th a t morally


q u a l i f i a b l e t h o u g h t i n r e s p o n s e t o wh ich i t a r i s e s . I t makes
t h a t t h o u g h t known - v i n n a p a n a ; i t i s t h e s t a t e of h a v i n g
made t h a t t h o u g h t known - v i n n a p i t a t t a . ^
what i s q u i t e c l e a r from t h i s b r i e f a c c o u n t i s t h a t
l c a y a v i n n a t t i i s n o t i d e n t i c a l w i t h t h e movements o f t h e
body. I t means t h e b o d i l y t e n s i o n * t h e b o d i l y e x c i t e m e n t *
on t h e p a r t o f a p e r s o n who moves h i s body or l i m b s .
The sTmmitTyas and t h e V a t s T p u t r T y a s a d o p t a more
d i r e c t approach; uL f i n f o m r a t i o n c o r p o r e l l e ( i c a y a v i j a p t i )
e s t an mouvement ( g a t i ) i s s u e d*une pens^e . . . qui v e u t ce
m ouvem ent(tadvisayalambakacittader utpanna)*u2 The
movement i s t h a t o f t h e body ( k a y a ) . had* i t is th is
movement t h a t i s x^ecognised h e r e as t h e v i j n a p t i * b ec a u s e
i t makes m a n i f e s t or e x p r e s s e s t h a t t h o u g h t i n r e s p o n s e t o
whi ch i t a r i s e s . I t i s included in the r u p a y a t a n a * the sphere
of t h e v i s i b l e * b e c a u s e i t i s t h e movement of t h e body* o f
matter thatis v i s i b le . Hence* it is theopinion of the
SammitTyas an d t h e V a t s T p u t r T y a s t h a t k l F y a v i j n a p t i i s
apprehended, by t h e o r g a n o f s i g h t

1. Dhs.143
2* MQfi i v . 2 1 2 - 1 3 ; s e e ^ a l s o 2 1 2 * n . 2 1 . I n t h e AK. G h . i v *4
t h e t h e o r y t h a t k t x y a v i j n a p t i = movement* i s a t t r i b u t e d t o
t h e V a t s T p u t r T y a s ; w h er eas i n La S i d d h i * 4 8 i t i s a t t r i b u t e d
t o t h e Summitiyas
3 . See KSP: SlOB iv*213* n . 2 2
i i■i^'^i j Tirm * w
189

The V a i b h a s i k a s o b j e c t t o t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n on t h e
g r o u n d t h a t t h e r e i s no movement i n an u l t i m a t e s e n s e . All
elemeivbs o f e x i s t e n c e a r e momentary ( k s a n i k a ) . Wherever
t h e y come i n t o e x i s t e n c e , t h e r e i t s e l f t h e y c e a s e t o e x i s t . 2
M ot ion i s n o t s om et h in g t h a t e x i s t s i n r e a l i t y (dravyatas),
b u t i s a name g i v e n t o t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f momentary e l e m e n t s
i n a d j a c e n t l o c a t i o n s (de jS an t ar ot p a t t i ) .3 i f somebody
i * e t r a c t e d h i s arm or s t r e t c h e d , i t f o r t h , i n an u l t i m a t e
s e n s e , i t i s i n c om ^e c t t o s a y t h a t h i s arm h ad moved. What
a c t u a l l y h a p p e n e d was t h a t t h e s e r i e s o f momentary e l e m e n t s
t h a t c o n s t i t u t e d what was c a l l e d t h e arm a r o s e i n a d j a c e n t
locations in a c e rta in d irec tio n . Only t h e p l a c e o f t h e
a r i s i n g o f e l e m e n t s h ad changed., n o t a s i n g l e e l e m e n t had
moved.
Hence t o i d e n t i f y I c a y a v i j n a p t i w i t h b o d i l y movements
i s t o d e p r i v e i t of i t s p o s i t i o n as a r e a l dharma. To
d e p r i v e i t o f i t s p o s i t i o n a s a r e a l dharma i s t o
undermine t h e v e r y f o u n d a t i o n o f t h e a v i j n a p t i ~ r u p a i n
d e f e n c e o f whi ch t h e V a i bh a ' si k as , t i me a n d a g a i n , j o i n e d i s s u e
w i t h t he S a u t r a n t i k a s .
Hence i t i s t h a t a c c o r d i n g t o t h e V a i b h l T s i k a s ,
Icayavi j n a p t i i s n o t t h e movements of t h e b o d y , b u t i s s u c h

1. See below, 221 ^


2. y a t r a i v o t p a t t i h t a t r a i v a v i n a s a h . - AKvy. i 33
3. See AK.Ch.iv 4 - 8
4. s e e above, 119 f f *
190

an d such, f i g u r e o r d i s p o s i t i o n ~ s am st han a - o f t h e b o d y ,
\

g i v e n r i s e t o * o r c o n d i t i o n e d , by a v o l i t i o n a l t h o u g h t
(cetaria). fi h i s leayav i j n a p t i - samstha*na i s s o m e t h i n g t h a t
i s visible**1 I t c a n be a p p r e h e n d e d i n d e p e n d e n t l y of t h e
co lo u r (of the body); "Icayavijnapti-grahanam t u v a r n a -
Q
nirapelcsam*"
T h u s , a l t h o u g h t h e Vat s Tp u tr Ty a -S am mi t Ty as and t h e
V a i b l i a s i k a s d i f f e r i n a n s w e r i n g what e x a c t l y c o n s t i t u t e s
I c a y a v i i p n p t i ? b o t h agi>ee o’xx t h i s p o i n t : Icayavi j n a p t i comes
u n d e r r u play a t a n a , i t c a n be a p p r e h e n d e d by t h e o r g a n of
sight •

Viewed a g a i n s t t h i s b a c k g r o u n d , t h e k a y a v i n n a t t i of
t h e DhammasahganT r a i s e s one i m p o r t a n t problem* We saw
t h a t i t c o u l d n o t be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h b o d i l y movements. Kor
ca n i t be t a k e n as s o m e t h i n g t h a t i s a p p r e h e n d e d by t h e
organ of s i g h t . F o r i t s i n c l u s i o n u nder t h e h e a d i n g ,
M I ^

" dh ammayat ana-pari yapanna" -^ dhows t h a t i t c a n n o t be known


by any o f t h e s e n s e s o t h e r t h a n t h e mind (mano). I t is
knoY/n t h r o u g h a p r o c e s s o f i n f e r e n c e * In ayh i eh way, t h e n ,
does i t a c t as a mode o f s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n ? O r, t o be more
p r e c i s e , how does i t e x p r e s s o r make known t h a t m o r a l l y
q u a l i f i a b l e t h o u g h t i n r e s p o n s e t o which i t a r i s e s ?

1. See AK.Ch.iv 4 - 1 2 ; RSP:


t fc7*vfe'a«i * *.>1■Mjik^ih «■
MOB i v 207-209
C'.k'KMUJMrM**

2> idCvy. i 26
3* Dhs *179
191

On t h e s o l u t i o n o f t h i s q u e s t i o n , d e p e n d s o u r
u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e w h o le s u b j e c t . Bu t s t r a n g e l y e n o u g h ,
th is is th e p o i n t o n w h i c h t h e DharnmasangaT i s p ractica lly

silen t *

I t may be n o t e d h e r e t h a t i n t h e Dhamin a s a fig a nT


a c c o u n t , r e f e r e n c e i s made n o t o n l y t o t h e s t a t e o f b o d i l y
t e n s i o n o r e x c i t e m e n t (which i s k a y a v i n n a t t i ) b u t a l s o t o
b o d i l y movements s u c h as r e t r a c t i n g an arm o r s t r e t c h i n g
it forth. T h i s seems t o be an i n d i c a t i o n of the f a c t th a t ,
a l t h o u g h b o d i l y movements a r e no t k a y a v i n n a t t i , y e t t hey
have q c l o s e c o n n e c t i o n w i t h i t . That i s t o s a y t h e y , t o o >
have a p a r t t o p l a y i n t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f t h o u g h t .
What t h i s c l o s e c o n n e c t i o n i s , would be c l e a r i f a
c o r r e s p o n d e n c e c o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d b et w e e n t h e k a y a v i n n a t t i
o f t h e DharmiiasanganT a n d t h a t o f t h e D ar s t a ’n t i k a s g i v e n
i n t h e V i i n a p t i r n a t r a t 4a s i d d h i : uD! apre& l e s D a r s t a n t i k a s .
i l e x i s t e un c e r t a i n Rupa q u i n * e s t n i c o u l e u r (va rri a) n i
f i g u r e ( s a m s t h a n a ) qui e a t p r o d u i t par l a p e n s d e . Ge
Rupa met en mouvement l a main e t l e s a u t r e s memb res ". ^
What t h i s " c e r t a i n Riipa,f i s , i s n o t e x p l a i n e d h e r e
i n more p o s i t i v e t e r m s . I n the k arm asidd hiprakarana of

Vasubandliu, an a l m o s t i d e n t i c a l , i f n o t t h e s ame, t h e o r y
i s a t t r i b u t e d to the Sauryodayikas. According to t h i s

1 . La S i d d h i 48
192

t h e o r y , b o d i l y movements a r e due t o t h e ai r- el en i er .i t
( v s i y u - d h a t u ) , g i v e n r i s e t o by a c e r t a i n v a r i e t y of
consciousness ( c i t t a - v i ^ e s a d utpannah). And, i t i s t h i s
a i r - e l e m e n t t h a t i s r e c o g n i z e d as t h e Icayavi j n a p t i * ^
What i n t e r e s t s us h e r e i s t h e f a c t that according
t o b o t h a c c o u n t s ( B a r s t a n t i l c a - S a u r y o d a y i l c a ) Icayavi j n a p t i
i s t h e c a u s e ( h e t u ) o f b o d i l y movements. From t h i s i t may
be c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e D a r s t a h t i h a s and uhe Sauryo day ilcas
do n o t seem t o have o v e r l o o k e d t h e c o n t e n t i o n o f t h e
" V at s Tp u tr T ya s, n a m e l y , t h a t Icayavi j n a p t i o c c u r s o n l y when
uhere i s some k i n d of movement ( i n j i t a ? ) o f t h e body an d
p
not otherw ise.
I t may t h e n be a s k e d why t h e d e s i g n a t i o n , Icayavi j n a p t i ,
~z
( t h a t wh i ch makes known) i s g i v e n t o t h e c a u s e of b o d i l y
movements, b u t n o t t o t h e b o d i l y movements t h e m s e l v e s . For
a c c o r d i n g t o t h i s e x p l a n a t i o n t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f lcaya-
v i j n a p t i a s a mode of s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n i s r a t h e r i n d i r e c t .
This i s c e r t a i n l y so. But l i k e t h e V a i b t i a s i k a s t h e y ^ t o o ?
were c o m m i t t e d t o t h e t h e o r y o f t h e d e n i a l of m o t i o n . For,
a l t h o u g h t h e y s p e a k of movements, t h e y do n o t r e c o g n i z e
t h n n i n an a b s o l u t e s e n s e . S t r i c t l y s p e a k i n g , t h e r e i s no
u d e c a n t a r a s amicr a n t i i . e . , movement o f a t h i n g from one

1. See k S P ; IvICB i v 219 f f *


2. See AK.Oh.iv 4
3 . See ibaltiU , 3 n . 2
195

lo cus In space to a n o t h e r , but only ud e c a n t a r o t p a t t i ,u


i . e . , t h e a p p e a r a n c e of (momentary e l e m e n t s ) i n a d j a c e n t
locations.1 I t seems v e r y p r o b a b l e 5t h e r e f o r e 9t h a t i t was w i t h
a view t o r e t a i n i n g i t s r e a l i t y t h a t Icayavi j n a p t i was
s o u g h t t o be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t he c a u s e of b o d i l y movements.
T h at t h e r e i s some p a r a l l e l i s m b et ween t h e i c a y a v i n n a t t i
of t h e Dhammas a ng a nT and t h a t o f t h e J j a r s t m i t ilcas a n d t h e
Sauryodayil cas i s clear*. The f orme r, t o o , i s neither* c o l o u r
( va n n a ) n o r f i g u r e ( s a n t h a n a ) . Dor i t s e x c l u s i o n from t h e
r l i p a y a t a n a a n d i t s i n c l u s i o n i n t h e dhammayatana p r e c l u d e s
i t s being i d e n t i f i e d with e i t h e r .
I t s p a r a l l e l i s m w i t h t h a t o f t h e .Sauryodayiicas goes
s t i l l further. As we have a l r e a d y n o t e d , * i t i s d e f i n e d as
ulcayassa thambharia sant hambhana s a n t h a m b h i t a t t a i n " . It
may a l s o be n o t e d h e r e t h a t t h a m b h i t a t t a m ( t e n s i o n ,
d i s t e n s i o n ) i s one o f t h e t e r m s u s e d i n t h e DharnmasahganT
in defining the a i r element.^ Does t h i s mean t h a t t h e
I c a y a v i n n a t t i of t h e Dhamma sang anT „ l i k e t h a t o f t h e
Sauryodayiicas, i s the a i r element?
I n t h e Dhammas a hganT s e v e n t e e n ru*pa-dhammas a r e
l i s t e d under the heading c i t t a - s a m u t t l i a n a , i . e . , a r i s i n g

1* KSP: MOB i v 219-20


2, 0 £ i!Lc i t . , 177
194

in response t o , or c o n d i t i o n e d by, consciou sn es s- Two of


them are the a i r element and the k a y a v i n n a t t i . ^ I t the
l a t t e r were the same as the former , then they would not be
mentioned s e p a r a t e l y and counted as two items. On the
o t he r ha nd s i f t he lea y a v i ana 11 i we re d i f f e r e nt f r ovn , or i f
i t had no conne ct ion w i t h , th e a i r element, then i t would
not be explained, as (liayassa sari) thambhitattam. The r e l a t i o n
between them seems to be one of i d e n t i t y as w e l l as
difference.
The whole s i t u a t i o n becomes c l e a r when i t i s
understo od i n th e l i g h t of c e r t a i n o b s e r v a t i o n s made by
the commentators. Except f o r one s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t t h e i r .
i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t a l l i e s w ell w it h the main p o in ts brought
i n t o r e l i e f so f a r .
According to the commentators what i s c a l l e d
k a y a v i n n a t t i i s an Haicara-vikara5' or s?vilcarau of the
c i t t a - s a m u t t h a n a a i r element. 11JJlcara-vilcara*1 ( l i t .
a l t e r a t i o n of the mode1 ) or " v i k a r a ” ( a l t e r a t i o n ) , as
understood i n the commentaries and in the kindred works 3
means a p a r t i c u l a r p o s i t i o n , s i t u a t i o n or c o n d i t i o n (of the
a i r element}.^ Since the a i r element cannot a r i s e or e x i s t

1. O p . c i t . o 147
2. See As i . 8 3 , 3 4 3 \ V i s m . 4 4 8 ; A b h v k . 273 f f
195

in d ep en d e n tly of the o th e r t h r e e primary e l e m e n ts , it is


f u r t h e r observed that* in r e a l i t y * i t i s t h e *akara~viicara of
a l l t h e f o u r ( a n d o f any o t h e r s e c o n d a r y e l e m e n t t h a t a r i s e s
and e x i s t . s w i t h t h e m ) . ^ But i t i s c a l l e d *aica r a - v i ka r a o f t h e
aii* elernej..it f o r t h i s r e a s o n ; Junong t h e p r i m a r y e l e m e n t s
(and any o t h e r s e c o n d a r y e l e m e n t t h a t a r i s e s a n d e x i s t s
w i t h them) of which i t i s an Ilkara ~v i k a r a ? t h e a i r e l e m e n t
i s c h a r a c t e r i s e d , by more i n t e n s i t y (ussada) or c a p a b i l i t y
( s’ama t t h i y a ) ^ I n t he kb h i d harnma 11 hay i k a s i nT t h i s "aka r a -
v Hear a i s s a i d t o r e s e m b l e t h e s t a t e o f e f f o r t •“making
( u s s a h a n a - v i k ' a r a ) whi ch a p p e a r s i n t h e body o f a p , r s o n
when, w i t h f u l l e f f o r t , he i s l i f t i n g a huge s t o n e • ^
We have a l r e a d y o b s e r v e d t h a t i n t h e Bhaimtasangaiil
r e f e r e n c e i s made t o a l i s t o f c i t t a ~ s a m u 1 1 l i a n a i*upa-
dhammas o f which two a r e t h e a i r e l e m e n t and t h e kaya~
vinnatti,
•s.. v
V/e have a l s o di^awn a t t e n t i o n t o - t h e c l o s e
a f f i n i t y b e t w e e n two of t h e words u s e d i n d e f i n i n g t h e
two i t e m s i n q u e s t i o n , When t h e s e two f a c t s a r e t a k e n i n t o

1, See a b o v e , 78
2 o Of, t h e t h e o r y o f a v i n i b h o g a - r t i p a ; s e e above - /03
3» See VismT 450; k b h v k . 273-274
4* • • •mahantam p^s’a n a m ^ u k k h i p a n t a s s a sabba11hamsna g a h a n a -
ketle s a r T r a e s a u s s a h a n a v i k a V o v i y a
VQTJf pcovt >1V1, ft) rji
l a b Phams ’110 eko
a k a r a v i k a r o k a y a v i n n a t t i nama t i v u t t a m h o t i - P3l . c p i t . ,
274-275* i*epeated i n kDSVT.113
196

c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f k a y a v i n n a t t i as an
akaVa-vilmra of th e c i t t a - s a m u t t h a n a a i r element (and i t s
c o n c o m i t a n t s ) seems t o be q u i t e i n a c c o r d w i t h t h e e a r l i e . r
account. I t c o u l d be under st oo d , as a r e - s t a t e m e n t ? made
i n t erms o f e l e m e n t a l a n a l y s i s ^ of t h e e a r l i e r g e n e r a l
definition.
The p o s i t i o n o f k a y a v i n n a t t i as a mode o f s e l f -
e x p r e s s i o n i s e x p l a i n e d as f o l l o w s : i S y a v i n n a t t i i s a
c o n d i t i o n ( p a c c a y a ) f o r t h e o c c u r e n c e of b o d i l y movements
A

(pariphandana, calana). I t ib through the b o d ily


movements which a r e c o n d i t i o n e d by k a y a v i n n a t t i t h a t t h e
p a r t i c u l a r t h o u g h t i s e x p r e s s e d or i n t i m a t e d , . The t h o u g h t
i s known ( i n f e r r e d ) a f t e r the apprehension of th e colour
( v a nnag a ha rm n ua r am ) o f t h e body which i s i n movement .2
In r e c o g n i s in g k a y a v i n n a t t i as a c o n d i t i o n (paccaya)
f o r t h e o c c u r r e n c e of b o d i l y movements, t h e T h e r a v a d i n s
a r e i n g e n e r a l agr eement w i t h t h e D a r s t a n t i k a s and t h e

1 . . . . n ap e ta b ba m . . . anumanato siddham - n b h v k . 275


2 . See B b hvk .2 ?3 ~2 7 5; VismT. 451 ] hBSVI. 113-115
h . B . I n t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r ^ v/e t o o k n o t i c e of t h e f a c t
t h a t i n t h e l a t e works ( t h e t Tk as f o r i n s t a n c e ) o f t h e
T h e r a v a d i n s , t o o , m o t i o n was i n t e r p r e t e d a s u d e s a n t a r u p -
p a t t i 1' , i . e , a p p e a r a n c e o f dhammas i n a d j a c e n t l o c a t i o n s .
From t h e i r p o i n t o f v i e w , t h e r e f o r e , a l l r e f e r e u a e s t o
( b o d i l y ) movement s h o u l d be u n d e r s t o o d a c c o r d i n g l y -
a p o i n t e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e d i n ADSVT.114
197

Sauryodayikas. However, t h e r e i s t h i s s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e
t o be n o t e d : According to the Sauryodayikas keiy a-v ijn ap ti
i s t h e a i r e l e m e n t , wher eas a c c o r d i n g t o t h e T h e r a v a d i n s
k ' a y a v i n n a t t i i s an " a k a r a - v i k a r a of t h e a i r e l e m e n t ( a n d
i t s concomitants.) Why The T h e r a v a d i n s t o o k t h i s
p o s i t i o n needs e x p la n a ti o n .
I t seems t h a t k ' a y a v i n n a t t i i s c a l l e d so b e c a u s e of
two r e a s o n s : The f i r s t i s t h a t i t makes m a n i f e s t o r
e x p r e s s e s t h a t p a r t i c u l a r t h o u g h t i n r e s p o n s e t o which i t
arises. T h i s m a n i f e s t a t i o n or e x p r e s s i o n , a s we have seerii^
i s a c e r t a i n t e n s i o n o r e x c i t e m e n t of t h e body ( k a y a s s a
th a m b h ita tta ). I t i s n o t s o me t h i n g t h a t i s v i s i b l e , ^
but i t i s the ph ysical r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of a mental event.
In t h i s sense i t is b o d ily e x p r e s s io n , i . e . , k'ay av in n atti.
The s e c o nd i s t h a t i t c o n d i t i o n s o r h e l p s t h e
A-
o c c u r e n c e o f b o d i l y movements t h r o u g h wh ich t h a t t h o u g h t i s
communi cat ed. I n t h i s s e n s e i t i s t h a t which makes known
- v i nn ap ar ia .
now, e l s e w h e r e i n t h e DhammasahganT i t is s ta te d
t h a t the k'ayavinnatti i s c i t t a - s a h a b h u , i.e..., c o - e x i s t e n t
w i t h t h e t h o u g h t ( i n r e s p o n s e t o which i t a x ^ i s e s ) , and
c i t t a n u p a r i v a t t i , i . e . , f o l l o w s t h e p a t t e r n of t h e t h o u g h t

1. See Abhvk. 275; iuvn.6 5


198

(In response to which.^atisesP The i mp li ed , r e a s o n i s


A
t h a t since i t i s th e p hy s ic al m a n i f e s t a t i o n or
r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of a t h o u g h t , i t s d u r a t i o n , t o o ?should be
equal to t h e d u r a ti o n of t h a t p a r t i c u l a r thou gh t. Secondly s
since i t i s brought about by being conditioned, by t h a t thought
(which i t makes manifest or r e p r e s e n t s ) , i t too follows
the pa11ern of t h a t p a r t i c u l a r t h o u g h t .
In t h i s co n n ec t io n , i t should be noted here t h a t in
the view of th e Theravatdlns the d u r a t i o n of a m a t e r i a l
element i s lo n g e r th a n that of a mental el em ent .^
a c c o r d i n g l y , although the e i t t a - s a m u t t h a i i a a i r element and
i t s concomitants a r i s e sim ul taneously with a thought-moment^
yet they do not cease to e x i s t t o g e t h e r with t h a t th o u g h t -
moment. I n view of t h i s c i rc um s ta nc e, the a i r element
and i t concomitants cannot be described, as c i tt a- s ah ab ii u^
because to d e s c r ib e them so i s to admit t h a t t h e i r d u r a t i o n
i s equal to t h a t of the thought-moment. But the k'aya­
v i n n a t t i has to be c i t t a s a h a b h u . This e x p l a i n s why the
d e s i g n a t i o n , k a ' y a v i n n a t t i , i s g i v e n , not to the a i r element
and i t s conco m ita nts , but to t h e i r akara -vi klr ra. I s there

1. Dhs. 148 , ^
2. See* b e l o w , 2 1 5 - 1 7 ; 223; 2 24 , n . l ; 323
3* Gf.gk£*3 where c i t t a and c e t a s i k a s ar e p o s t u l a t e d as a
c o n d i t i o n by way of co-nascnece ( s a h a ^ a t a - p a c c a y a , in
r e l a t i o n to ci tta -s am u tth a' n a ru pa.
199

t h e n 110 c o n t r a c l l o t i o n i s r e c o & n i z i n g k’a y a v i n n a t t i a s a


rTTpa-dhamma w h i l e d e s c r i b i n g i t as c i t t a - s a h a b t i u ?
What we s h o u l d n o t o v e r l o o k h e r e i s t h a t 'what i s
c a l l e d k’a y a v i n n a t t i i s not a iniipa-dharflma i n i t s u s u a l
sense. I t i s n o t s o m e t h i n g which i s d i s t i n c t a n d s e p a r a t e
from t h e a i r e l e m e n t and i t s c o n c o m i t a n t s . It signifies
o n l y a p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n o r p o s i t i o n « e*leara-wika r a -
of the l a t t e r . I t i s a name g i v e n t o t h e l a t t e r when t h e y
are in a p a r t i c u l a r p o s i t io n , A p a r t from t h e a i r e l e m e n t
a nd i t s c o n c o m i t a n t s , of whi ch i t i s a n *alcar a - v I lea r a 9 t h e r e
* *1"11 . |M H INJ

i s no s e p a r a t e rupa-dhamma c a l l e d k a y a v i n n a t t i P j u s t as
much a s t h e r e i s n o t h i n g c a l l e d t a b l e a p a r t from a c o l l e c t i o n
of ru’pa-dhamrnas ( m a t e r i a l e l e m e n t s ) o r g a ni s e d , and
arranged in a p a r tic u la r order.
I n o t h e r w o r d s 5 k’a y a v i n n a t t i i s a name g i v e n t o t he
a i r e l e m e n t a n d i t s c o n c o m i t a n t s when t h e y f u n c t i o n as
b o d i l y e x p r e s s i o n o r m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f a t h o u g h t s j u s t as
t a b l e i s a name g i v e n t o a c o l l e c t i o n o f rupa-dhamrnas when
t h e y f u n c t i o n as t h a t what we c o n v e n t i o n a l l y c a l l wt a b l e * ' .
S t a t e d o t h e r w i s e s t h e a i r e l e m e n t and. i t s c o n c o m i t a n t s
a r e c a l l e d k’a y a v i n n a t t i as l ong as t h a t p a r t i c u l a r t h o u g h t
i n r e s p o n s e t o which t h e y a r i s e s e x i s t s s b e c u a s e i t i s
d u r i n g t h i s t i me t h a t t hey make m a n i f e s t or r e p r e s e n t t h a t
t h o u g h t (= v i n n a t t i ) a n d f u n c t i o n as a c o n d i t i o n f o r t h e
200

occurrence of b o d i l y movements and t h e re b y make known


t hat tho ug hi (= v i nna pa ha) •
However, the a i r element and i t s concomitants do
not cease to e x i s t c o n c u r r e n t l y with th e c e s s a t i o n of
t h a t p a r t i c u l a r thought i n response to which they a r i s e ,
but t h e i r p o s i t i o n and f u n c t i o n as K'ayavinnatti do. The
sun i s c a l l e d mid-sun when i t i s overhead; bat i t does
not s e t immediately aftei* i t s p o s i t i o n and f u n c t i o n as
mid-sun i s over, n similar s i t u a t i o n obtains here,too.
Thus i t is c l e a r t h a t k a y a v i n n n a t t i i s not a ru p a -
dhamma , di s t i nc t a nd s e par a t e from the a i r e leme ut a nd
i t s co n co m it a n ts , s i g n i f y i n g as i t does only an a k a r a - v i k a r a
of th e l a t t e r . However, in the Dhammasa rigah i not only the
ail* element and i t s concomitants but a l s o k' ayavinnatti are
1
d e s c r i b e d as c i t t a - s a m u t t h a n a - a s i t u a t i o n which give s
the im pression t h a t the l a t t e r has an a r i s i n g s e p a r a t e
from t h a t of the former*, n e v e r t h e l e s s , the f a c t t h a t
k a y a - v i n n a t t i i s d e s c r i b e d as c i t t a - s a h a b h u a l th o ug h no
ru pa -dhamma can ..be so d e s c r i b e d , su g g es ts t h a t thereby th e
it _
I . not t.onn t h , t .in a ( s e p a r a t e ) r a p . -
dhamrna. The lo gi c t h a t seems to have guided i t i n ta k in g
such a s t e p could be t h a t since the a i r element and i t s
concomitants are c i t t a - s a m u t• t• h a ’n a , t h e i r *'sheara-vikara1'
*

(~ k'ay avi nn atti), too, i s c i t t a - s a m u t t h a n a .

3-* O p^cft*. , 147


201

The Commentators c l a r i f y t h e whole s i t u a t i o n when


they observe t h a t , s t r i c t l y sp e a k in g , only the a i r element
A
and i t s c o n c o m i t a n t s a r e c i t t a - s a m u t t h a n a . 1 T h i s i s q u i t e
understandable. F o r , a s we have a l r e a d y s e e n , I c a y a v i n n a t t i
s i g n i f i e s t h e s e l f s a m e huraber o f rTTpa-dhammas when t h e y
Cb
a r e inyj p a r t i c u l a r p o s i t i o n or. s i t u a t i o n , a nd n o t s om et h in g
t h a t i s d i s t i n c t from them. I n o t h e r w o r d s , i t i s an
a n i pphanna - r u p a ,
As f o r t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f v a g v i j n a p t i ( p ' a l i :
v a c T v i n n a t t i ) t h e r e i s g e n e r a l ag reement among most of t h e
s c h o o l s o f S a n s k r i t Buddhism. Voice (vac} o r v o c a l sound
( v a g d h v a n i ) a s a mode o f s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n o r as a medium
f o r t h e c o m m u n i c a t i o n of o n e ' s t h o u g h t t o a n o t h e r i s
vagvijnapti. I t i s d e f i n e d as sound which i s d i s c o u r s e by
its nature, i . e . , a rtic u la te ( v a r n a t m a k a ) s o u nd ; as t h e
p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f sou nd s ( g h o s o e c a r a n a ) ; o r a s t h e d i s t i n c t
p r o n u n c i a t i o n of s y l l a b l e s ( v y a k t a v a r n o c c a r a n a ) Since
v a g v i j n a p t i means v o c a l sound i t i s brought u n d e r d a b d a y a t a n a ,
2
t h e s p h e r e of the a u d i b l e . I t i s p re s u m a b l y b e c a u s e of
t h i s g e n e r a l a gr e e m e n t on t h e s u b j e c t t h a t t h e a c c o u n t s of
v a g v i j n a p t i occupy c o m p a r a t i v e l y space i n the sources
o f S a n s k r i t Buddhism.

1. Bee A s i . 537
2. See A K . c h . i v 14; KSP: MOB i v 1 5 6 , 26u; Ividhy . V r t . 3 0 7 ;
AKvy. i i 351 ——— — -
202

On th e o t h e r hand, the TheravTda account of the


s u b j e c t ta k es q u it e a d i f f e r e n t form, 'the one given i n
the .Ahhi dilemma Pi taka does not pres ent a complete p i c t u r e .
F i r s t , vaca (v oice) i s described, as g i r a ( u t t e r e n c e ) ,
vyappatho (s pe ac h, s p e a k i n g ) , udTrana (vocal e m i s s i o n ) ,
ghosa ( n o i s e ) , ghosa-kamma ( ac t of making n o i s e ) , or vacTbheda
(broken or a r t i c u l a t e v o ic e ) - which a r i s e s i n response
to a thought wholesome, unwholesome, or morally indeterminate*
Then i t i s s a i d t h a t the m a n i f e s t a t i o n ( v i n n a t t i ) , th e
making known (v innap aria) or the s t a t e of having made known
(virm apitattaj (of t h a t thought) through vaca i s
vt
vacm natti. '
A
At f i r s t s i g h t i t might appear from t h i s statement
t h a t v a c T v i n n a t t i means vo ca l sound as a medium of thought
expression. But i t s e x c l u si o n from sadd’ayatana shows t h a t
i t i s not conceived as a v a r i e t y of sound as such. However,
the f a c t t h a t vocal sound i s r e f e r r e d t o , suggests
t h a t i s i s c l o s e l y connected with v a c T v i n n a t t i , even as
b o d i l y movements are with k'ayavi nna tt i. T h i r d l y , the f a c t
t h a t i t i s al so d e s c r i b e d as c i t t a - s a h a b h ’u s h o w s t h a t
l i k e k’a y a v i n n a t t i i t i s not a d i s c r e t e rupa-dhamma.
The commentators* i n t e r p r e t a t i o n f a l l s w i t h i n the

1 . g h B .1 4 3 - 1 4 4
2 . r b i d . , 148
203

framework of t h e s e th r e e fundam ental f a c t s * We may


t h e r e f o r e tak e i t as an e x p l i c i t sta te m e n t of what has
b een i m p l i c i t l y r e c o g n is e d in th e Abhidhamma P itak a*
That th e th ou gh t i s communicated through v o c a l sound
i s a d m itte d . But th e v a c T v in n a t t i i s n o t th e same as
v o c a l so u n d , but i s c a u s a l l y r e l a t e d to i t i n th e same
way as k 'a y a v in n a tti i s t o b o d i l y movements."*
V a c T v in n a t t i, i t i s s a i d , i s an a k a r a -v ik a r a o f th e
c it t a - s a m u t t h a n a e a r t h elem en t • A lth ou gh i t i s c a l l e d
s o , i n r e a l i t y , l i k e th e k 'a y a v in n a tti, i t i s an a k a r a -
v ik a r a o f a l l th e fo u r primary elem en ts (and o f w hatever
secon d a ry elem en t t h a t a r i s e s and e x i s t s w ith th em ). In
t h i s c a s e i t i s th e e a r th elem en t th a t i s c h a r a c t e r i s e d
by more i n t e n s i t y and c a p a b i l i t y ^ hence i t i s c a l l e d th e
alcara-vik*ara o f th e e a r t h element."*
T h is s o - c a l l e d TksTra-vikeTra o f th e e a r t h elem en t
(« v a c T v i n n a t t i ) s t r i k e s a g a in s t th e v o c a l apparatus
(u p a d in n ak a, a k k h a r u p p a ttitth a n a ) and produces ( v o c a l )
4
sound through which th e th ou ght i s communicated.
Why §n aklara-vikeira o f th e e a r th elem en t and i t s
c o n c o m ita n ts i s r e c o g n is e d as v a c T v in n a t t i i s b ecau se o f

1 . Vism.3 7 9
2. I b id .lo c .c it. ,
3 . V isn ff.452
Abhvk.27 7 ; s e e a l s o Mvn. 65
204

the f a c t t h a t , l i k e I m y a ^ i n n a t t i * i t too has to be c i t t a -


sahabhuu iuidy the p o s i t i o n of v a c T v i n n a t t i i n r e l a t i o n to
the e a r t h element and i t s concomitants should be understood
in the sarne way as t h a t of the k'ayavinnatti in r e l a t i o n to
the a i r element and i t s concomitants, That i s to s a y *
a p a r t from those elements of which i t i s an ‘aka’r a-v ik' ara
t h e r e i s no d i s t i n c t and s e p a r a t e rTpa-dhamma c a l l e d
v a c T v i n n a t t i - hence i t s i n c l u s i o n i n the c a t e g o r y of
a ni p p ha nna -r*u pa .
C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of m a tt e r
By c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of m a tt e r we mean the t h r e e
items* namely * r up as sa lahut'a* r u pas sa mudutT and rupas sa
kammannat'a, The f i r s t means l i g h t n e s s (lahutaO of m a t t e r *
i t s l i g h t t r a n s f o r m a b i l i t y (lahu par inornate?) * i t s lac k of
heaviness (adandhatT)- or n o n - r i g i d i t y ( a v x t h a t a t a ) ; the
s e c o n d ^ p l a s t i c i t y of ma tter (nmdutT)* i t s s o f t n e s s
(madd.avat'a)/ or i t s absense of hardness ( akakkhalatla );
and the t h i r d * w ie l d i n e s s or p l i a b i l i t y of m a tte r (karmimnnat'a *
kammannat tam * kammannabha"va),
According to these d e f i n i t i o n s ^ w h i c h we have taken
from the DhammasahganT^- the t h r e e items seem to i n d i c a t e
some c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f q u a l i t i e s of m a tt e r i n g e n e r a l .
However* in the l a t e r worns we are t o l d t h a t they s i g n i f y

1 , 144
205

c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the matter1 of the body of a


l i v i n g being; i'hey are not found a p a r t from each o th e r
(na annam*annam v i j a h a n t i ) ; the t r i a d r e p r e s e n t s a c e r t a i n
p o s i t i o n of th e body when i t i s healthy* e f f i c i e n t or when
A
i t i s amenable to work.
This g i v e s an i n d i c a t i o n of why the hb hi clha mma has
r e c o g n i s e d the items in q u e s ti o n . In the kikayas much
emphasis i s l a i d on the d e s i r a b i l i t y of bodily h e a l t h or
e f f i c i e n c y f o r the purposes of mental c u l t u r e , n h ea lt hy
body i s u s u a l l y d e s c r i b e d as lahu and Itaramanna, i . e . ,
p l i a b l e and w ie l d y .^ Ov er -ea ti ng re nd er s the body garu
(heavy) and akammanna ( u n s e r v i c e a b l e ) ; i t i s l i k e a load
of soaked beans. Such a s t a t e of the body i s not conducive
to p u t t i n g f o r t h energy in the r i g h t d i r e c t i o n . Hence the
monks are advised to have a body t h a t i s lahu and. k a m m a n n a .3
Thus i t i s t h a t Khitaka of the Theragatlia e x u l t s in the
thought t h a t h is body i s lahu and t h a t i t " f l o a t s ” l i k e
a piece of c o t t o n in the a i r T h e term fkudu occurs
mostly i n the r e f e r e n c e s to bodily beaut y.
n e v e r t h e l e s s the f a c t t h a t lahu and kammanna occur

1. See nbhvk.281
2* Ox. O.g.* . / j *^3'y
3. Of. the d e s c r i p t i o n of e i g h t k u s T t a - v a t t h u s 9 bases of
indolence in A.iv* 332 f f .
4 . Thao;. 15
206

o f t e n in the x^ikayan a l l u s i o n s to the b o d i l y h e a l t h and


e f f i c i e n c y and the f a c t t h a t Buddhism a t t a c h e s much
importance to i t , seem to confirm the s ta te me nt s namelys t h a t
the ttxree items are meant to recognize c e r t a i n
chai*actexii s t i c s , not of m a tt e r i n genei^al, but of the
body of a l i v i n g being (yrhen i t i s h ea lt h y and e f f i c i e n t ) *
However, nowhere i n the Hilcayas are they recognizec!
as i*upa~ cl.hammas although they are so recognized in the
nbhidhamma Hi t a k a . Whether* t h i s means t h a t they are
understood as t h r e e d i s c r e t e m a t e r i a l elements i s t h e
q u e s ti o n t h a t a r i s e s here-
The way they ar e named (note the term r u p as s a added
before each item) and the way they are defined, suggest
c l e a r l y t h a t they could, well be i n t e r p r e t e d as e q u a l i t i e s
of m a tte r (body)* Their e l e v a t i o n to the s t a t u s of. r;upa-
dhamma seems to have been done with a view to f o r e s t a l l i n g
t h e i r being i n t e r p r e t e d as such* But the commentators
appear to have r e a l i z e d t h a t - b y t h i s device alone t h e i r
t r u e n a t u r e cannot be concealed* This e x p l a i n s why i n the
latex* works they are explained i n such a way as to deprive
them of rdxeir apparent p o s i t i o n as d i s c r e t e e n t i t i e s .
V/hat they r e a l l y amount to P i s s t a t e d c l e a r l y : When
the body i s not e f f i c i e n t , i . e . , when i t i s not l i g h t ( l a h u ) ,
p l i a b l e (mudu), and wieldy (kammanna), i t i s s a i d to be
207

i
c h a r a c t e r i s e d by 11dhatukkhobha" , elemental d i s t u r n a c e .
V/hat i s c a l l e d dhatukkhobhh i s e i t h e r the disharmony between
wind ( v a t a ) , b i l e ( p i t t a ) and phlegm ( s e m h a ) , o r t h a t of
chyme? e t c * , ( r a s a d i d h a t u ) « In e i t h e r c a s e , i n the
u l t i m a t e a n a l y s i s , i t means t h e same t h i n g : i t is a
c e r t a i n p o s i t i o n or s i t u a t i o n (vilcara) of rhe primary
elements and of whatever o th e r secondary element
c one o m i ta n t w i t h t hem.3
Likewise, when the body i s not c h a r a c t e r i s e d by
dhatukkhobha, i n the u l t i m a t e a n a l y s i s , i t a l s o s i g n i f i e s
a c e r t a i n p o s i t i o n or s i t u a t i o n of the primary elements
and t h e i r concomitants* I t i s t h i s p o s i t i o n or s i t u a t i o n
t h a t i s r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e t r i a d , lahut a' -raudut a’-kammannata.
4
Hence i t Is c a l l e d v i k a r a - r u p a . hud, s in c e they r e p r e s e n t
a vilcara of the primary elements and t h e i r c o n c o m i t a n t s ,
a p a r t fi*om them th e re i do not e x i s t t h r e e inJpa--d.ii a mmas
c a l l e d l a h u t a , muduta and kammanhata. s t a t e d othe rw ise ;
t he y are a n i pphanna-rupa *

1. See h s l . 3 2 6 - 7 ; Visiru 448-9


2* D h a tu k k h o b h o : v a t a - p i t t a - s e m h a p p a k o p o } r a s a d i d h a t u n a r n
va v i k a r a v a t t h a - V i s m ! . 453
■ iiiiih . m- t l > i

3 . Dvidha v u t t o pi a t t h s t o pathavT adidliatun am yeva v i k a r o


d a t t h a b b o - i b i d . l o c . c i t , ,*
4 . See 'h b h v k . 2 8 o f f .
208

Phase s i o f ma t t e r
The n e x t f o u r i t e m s , n am e l y , r u p a s s a u p a c a y a , r u p a -
a s a s a n t a t i , r u p a s s a j a r a t a and r u p a s s a aniccat*a a r e a
itemujrar-i-g 1 of f o u r p h a s e s , n o t of m a t t e r i n g e n e r a l ,
buit of t h e p h y s i c a l body of a l i v i n g b e i n g . I t i s of
c o u r s e t r u e t h a t t h i s l i m i t a t i o n i n t h e i r s cope i s n o t
e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e d i n t h e Abhidhamma. But t h e way they a r e
d e s c r i b e d , b o t h i n t h e e a r l i e r and t h e l a t e r w o r k s , makes
i t c l e a r t h a t t h i s was t h e u n d e r l y i n g a s s u m p t i o n . And, i t
i s o n l y when t h i s f a c t i s t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h a t
t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e as w e l l a s t h e i r m u t u a l r e l a t i o n become
Increasingly clea r.
Let us t a k e t h e f i r s t t w o , f i r s t . R u p a s s a upac aya
i s d e f i n e d a s ; STyo ^yataneTnam lacayp, so r u p a s s a upac ayo5' ,
and. r u p a s s a s a n t a t i a s ‘'yo r u p a s s a u p a c a y o , s a r u p a s s a
"1
santati*'• T h u s , w h i l e t h e f i r s t i s e x p l a i n e d as uayatananam
m

a’c a y o u , t h e sec ond i s i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e f i r s t .


One i mmediat e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t c a n be drawn from t h i s
i s t h a t b o t h a r e e x p r e s s i v e o f t h e same t h i n g . On t h e
o t h e r h a n d , one c a n n o t o v e r l o o k t h e f a c t t h a t t h e y a r e
c o u n t e d as two i t e m s a n d t h a t t h e y convey two d i f f e r e n t
m ea n i n g s : t h e f i r s t means g r o w t h o r i n t e g r a t i o n o f m a t t e r
an d t h e s e c o n d i t s c o n t i n u i t y oi* s u b s i s t e n c e . When

1 . Dhs.153
r-W.41MTX.t4
209

both, p o i n t s a r e t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n , t h e i r r e l a t i o n
tu rn s out t o be one of i d e n t i t y as w e l l a s d i f f e r e n c e . In
which s e n s e a r e t h e y i d e n t i c a l and i n wh ich d i f f e r e n t ?
From t h e (Vi bhSvi nT) t Tk a t o t h e Abhid hammat th as an ga ha
' * # Tn g i^irmfT^TTT— —— irm- ‘‘ l i ^ r r inifTfH T r ,i f n n i r N-tn ~ i ■ I r 1 * f,J*

one g a t h e r s t h a t t h e f i r s t r e f e r s t o t h e g r o w t h of
t h e body ('embryo) from t h e moment of c o n c e p t i o n t i l l t h e
*1
sense-mechanism i s complete. A l t h o u g h i n t h e l a t e r works
t h e s u b j e c t u n d er c o n s i d e r a t i o n has under gone much c h a n g e ,
y e t t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s t a t e m e n t c o u l d be s u p p o r t e d by t h e
d a t a c o n f i n e d t o t h e Abhidhamma P i t a k a .
Yfe saw t h a t r u p a s s a upacaya ~ a y a ta n an am a c a y o . We
need, f i r s t c l a r i f y what t h e t erm l ayat ana s i g n i f i e s h e r e .
I t i s a w e l l known f a c t t h a t t h e r e a r e t w e l v e ’a y a t a n a s , o f
which s i x (caklchu, s o t a , e t c . , ) a r e q u a l i f i e d as a j j h a t t i k a
a n d t h e o t h e r s i x ( r u p a , saclda, e t c . , ) as b U h i r a . But u s u a l l y
t h e s i m p l e t erm a y a t a n a i s u s e d t o mean o n l y t h e a j j h a t t i k a
group. S al-ayatana (Skr.sad-'ayatana) i s a case in p o in t.
I n t h e p h r a s e i n q u e s t i o n , t o o , t h e term a p p e a r s t o have
been used w ith t h i s r e s t r i c t e d d e n o a ti o n . F u r t h e r proof
of the su p p o s itio n is the f a c t t h a t i t t a l l i e s w ell w ith
t h e r e s t o f t h e d a t a on t h e s u b j e c t . S i n c e ay a ta nan am
acayo = r u p a s s a u p a c a y o , we c o u l d s t i l l n a r ro w down t h e

1 . Of.Tattha p a t i s a n d h i t o pa tj, hay a yava c a kk h a d i d a s a k a n a m


u p p a t t i , e t t h a n t a r e rupuppado upadayo nama. - ADSVT. i l k
210

f i e l d to in c lu d e only the f i r s t f i v e a j j h a t t i k a ayatanas*


i . e . j t h e f i r s t f i v e s e n s e - o r g a n s * which a l o n e come u n d er
rupa.
S i n c e ac a ya means u h e a p i n g up *1 or ,fa c c u m u l a t i o n " *
"ayatananam 'acayo i m p l i e s t h a t t h e coming i n t o b e i n g of t h e
fiv e sense-organs is a graduated process. This is f u r t h e r
c o n f i r m e d by a Kat h a V a t t h u c o n t r o v e r s y c o n c e r n i n g t h e
g e n e s i s of t h e s e n s e - m e c h a n i s m . A c c o r d i n g t o some s c h o o l s
( t h e T u b b a s e l i y a and t h e A p a r a s e l i y a ) 2 t h e s i x - f o l d s e n s e
s p h e r e comes i n t o b e i n g a l l a t once (apubbam acarimam)*
The T h e r a v a d i n s r e j e c t t h i s vi ew on t h e g r o un d t h a t i t i s
n e i t h e r l o g i c a l n o r s u p p o r t e d by t h e S c r i p t u r e . T h e i r view
i s t h a t o n l y (manayatana) a n d k a y a y a t a n a come \ , i n t o b e i n g
a t t h e moment o f c o n c e p t i o n . The o t h e r f o u r * namely*
cakkloayatana * s o t a y a t a n a * g h a n a y n t a n a and j i v h a y a t a n a
a r i s e s u b s e q u e n t l y i n t h e o r d e r t h e y a r e m e n t i o n e d h e r e .-5
With t h i s t h e o r y i n mind when one a p p r o a c h e s t h e
f o r m u l a ; "ayatananam lacayo = r u p a s s a upaeayo* i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e
becomes c l e a r . The a c c u m u l a t i o n * i . e * t h e coming i n t o
b e i n g one a f t e r t h e o t h e r * o f t h e f i r s t f i v e s e n s e - o r g a n s

1. T h i s i s not t o s u g g e s t t h a t t h e s e n s e - o r g a n s c o u l d a r i s e
i n d e p e n d e n t l y ojC o t h e r ru pa - dh am ma s* b e c a u s e t h e y a r e a
v a r i e t y of u p a d a - r u p a 5
2 , i . e . a c c o r d i n g t o KvuA.148
3* Kvu.493 tt.
211

i s * i n o t h e r words,, t h e g r o w t h o r i n t e r g r a t i o n o f t h e
body ( r u p a s s a u pac ay a) * It i s lik e saying: the gathering
of p e o p l e i s t h e g r o w t h of t h e crowd. Or t o a d o p t a
s i m i l e from t h e c o m m e n t a r i e s : t h e w e l l i n g up o f w a t e r i s
tlie brimming up o f t h e w e l l .
From t h i s i s s h o u l d n o t be c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e s e n s e -
o r g a n s cou.id a r i s e i n d e p e n d e n t l y of some o t h e r m a t e r i a l
elements, b i n c e t h e y a r e up’ada-ruipas i t i s i m p l i e d t h a t
t h e f o u r maliabliutas and t h e f o u r up'ada-pu’pas whi ch
2
n e c e s s a r i l y a r i s e w i t h them are also p re se n t, ngain* s in c e
t h e y a r e kamma~samutthana r up a* and s i n c e t h e s t a b i l i t y
of t h e kamma-sarnuttliana r u p a i s d ep e nd en t on t h e r u p a -
jivitindriys ^ the presence of the ruTpa-jTvitindriya^ too ?
i s i m pl ie d* ^

1. See V i s m . 3 8 0 ; A s l . 3 2 7
2. See a b o v e , 1 0 3 - 4
3* See a b o v e , 167
4- To t h i s g r o u p t h e l a t e r works add h a d a y a - v i a t t h u and t h e
f a c u l t y o f s e x , b o t h o f wjhich a r e s a i d t o a r i s e t o g e t h e r
w i t h ( m a n a y a t a n a ) and k a y a t a n a - s ee V b h i \ . 2 2 ; ABS*30j
ADSS.199- The a d d i t i o n of t h e f o r m e r i s n e c e s s i t a t e d by
i t s b e i n g r e c o g n i z e d as t h e p h y s i c a l b a s i s of mind* Of*
Tkg.3 where i t i s s t a t e d t h a t a t t h e moment o f c o n c e p t i o n
t h e r e l a t i o n between^mind a n d m a t t e r i s one of r e c i p r o c a l
c o - n a s c e n c e (annam*anna s a h a ^ a t a ) * The a d d i t i o n , o f t h e
l a t t e r i s n e c e s s i t a t e d by t h e new i n t e r p r e t a t i o n g i v e n
to i t
212

Thus r u p a s s a upacaya means t h e g r o w t h of t h e embryo


w i t h t h e g r a d u a l a c c u m u l a t i o n of t h e s e n s e - o r g a n s . It
c o v e r s t h a t i n t e r v a l from t h e moment o f c o n c e p t i o n t o t h e
moment when t h e s e n s e mechanism i s c o m p l e t e .
With t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e s e n s e mechanism, i n
o t h e r words., w i t h t h e a c c p m u l a t i o n o f t h e l a s t s e n s e -
o r g a n , ends what i s c a l l e d r u p a s s a u p a c a y a , t h e g r ow t h of
t h e body. T h i s does n ot mean t h a t t h e r e i s no g r o w t h
thereafter. I t a l l means t h a t t h e body i s n o t d e f i c i e n t
i n any o f t h e s e n s e - o r g a n s . From t h e p o i n t o f view of t h e
sense-organs i t is complete. M o r e o v e r , i f r u p a s s a upacaya
means t h e a c c u m u l a t i o n o f t h e s e n s e - o r g a n s , i t f o l l o w s
t h a t w ith the accumulation of the l a s t sense-o rg an th e re
ends t h e phase c a l l e d , r u p a s s a u p a c a y a .
T h e re a fte r begins rupassa s a n t a t i , the c o n tin u ity
of t h e body c o m p l e t e w i t h a l l t h e s e n s e - o r g a n s . It i s not
c o n tin u ity in a s t a t i c sense. For c e r t a i n l y t h e body
grows e ve n d u r i n g t h i s p h a s e . I t is therefore continuity
( s a n t a t i ) by way o f g r o w t h ( u p a c a y a ) . T h i s e x p l a i n s why
r u p a s s a s a n t a t i i s d e f i n e d as r u p a s s a u p a c a y a : yo r u p a s s a
upacayo s i r u p a s s a s a n t a t i .
T h u s , b o t h r i l p a s s a upacaya and r u p a s s a s a n t a t i mean
t h e g r o w t h o f t h e body (= r u p a s s a u p a c a y a ) . In t h i s sense

they are i d e n t i c a l .
But t h e y r e p r e s e n t two ph as e s of growth*
1
In t h i s sense they are d i f f e r e n t .
SVt cUrtrt^e J
215

The t h i r d i s r u p a s s a j a r a t a s “ The d e c a y ( j a r a ) o r
t h e s t a t e of d e c a y i n g ( j T r a n a t a ) of t h e body ( r u p a ) ,
b r o k e n e s s of t e e t h ( k h a n d i c c a ) , g r e y n e s s o f h a i r ( p a l i c c a ) ,
th e s t a t e of having w r i n k l e s ( v a l i t t a c a t a ) , s h rin k a g e i n
t h e l e n g t h o f days (ayuno s a m h a n i ) , h y p e r - m a t u r i t y o f t h e
, « ... J) A
faculties (indriyanam p a r ip a k o ) .
One q u e s t i o n t h a t a r i s e s h e r e i s w h e t h e r r u p a s s a
_ tULpAJeA .o ^ ^ u ts
j a r a t a .formu 1 a r I s e e ^ a s t a g e i n t h e h i s t o r y of t h e body
o r w h e t h e r i t r e f e r s t o t h e f a c t of d e c ay i t s e l f . Since
b r o k e n e s s o f t e e t h . , g r e y n e s s ' o f h a i r , e t c . , a r e s y m b ol ic
o f o l d a g e , i t seems more a p p r o p r i a t e i f i t i s u n d e r s t o o d
$s a s t a g e which s e t s i n w i t h t h e p a s s a g e o f t i m e , when
t h e body shows s i g n s of d e c a y , o l d a g e . The use of t h e w o r d s ,
“ s h r i n k a g e i n t h e l e n g h t o f d a y s 1' does a l s o e n c o u r a g e t h i s
conclusion.
Once i t i s u n d e r s t o o d as a s t a g e , t h e n e x t q u e s t i o n
th a t a r i s e s here i s w hether i t overlaps w ith ru passa s a n t a t i .
What we s h o u l d n o t o v e r l o o k h e r e i s t h a t ^ a l t h o u g h ruipassa
s a n t a t i means c o n t i n u i t y o f t h e b o d y , y e t i t i s d e f i n e d
a s r u p a s s a u p a c a y a , g r o w t h o f t h e body ( a f t e r t h e
c o m p l e t i o n of t h e s e n s e m ec h a n i s m . ) G enerally speaking,
when decay s e t s i n g r o w t h c e a s e s . And, s i n c e r u p a s s a

1* D h s . 1 4 4 ; t h i s same d e s c r i p t i o n o c c u r s as a s t o c k f o r m u l a
i r P D . i i 3 0 5 , M*i 4 9 , S . i i 2
214

s a n t a t i i s d e f i n e d a s t h e g r o w t h of t h e b o d y , i t seems
u n l i k e l y t h a t i t was u n d e r s t o o d as c o v e r i n g t h e g a r a t ’a-^phase^
too. T h i s i s n o t t o s u g g e s t t h a t g a r a t a as a phenomenon
could not take place during s a n t a t i , - (or upacaya-) phase.
But when l i f e i s young t h e t e n d e n c y i s t o w a r d s g r o w t h . With
t h e p a s s a g e o f time t h e r e i s a p l u s t e n d e n c y t o w a r d s d e c a y .
G radually the f a c u l t i e s g e t matured. The body b e g i n s t o
show s i g n s of m a t u r i t y and d e c a y . I t i s t h e s e two' p h a s e s
t h a t r u p a s s a s a n t a t i and r u p a s s a j a r a t a ’ r e p r e s e n t . During
t h e f i r s t t h e main c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s g r o w t h ( u p a c a y a ) ;
d u r i n g t h e second, i t i s decay ( g a r a t a , „
F i n a l l y , we come t o t h e f i n a l p h a s e , o r f a t h e r t h e
moment - r u p a s s a a n t c c a t a .
This s i g n i f i e s the break-up
1
o f t h e body a t t h e t ime of d e a t h . I t i s t h a t moment when
t h e body becomes a ( l i f e l e s s ) c o r p s e .
These f o u r up' ada-rupas whi ch amount t o a f o r m u l a -
f i x a t i o n o f f o u r p h a s e s o f t h e h i s t o r y of t h e body a p p e a r
t o have b e e n b a s e d on t h e t h r e e s a n k h a t a - l a k k h a n a s r e f e r r e d
*

t o i n t h e Ang u t t a r a n l k a y a . I n t h i s Dikaya i t is s ta te d

1. See Dhs .144


2. T h i s s h o u l d be t h e moment when t h e r u p a - g i v i t i n d r i y a
c e a s e s t o f u n c t i o n . Gf.KvuA.113 where i t i s s t a t e d t h a t
a t t h e moment o f d e a t h b o t h r u p a and a r u p a g T v i t i n d r i y a s
c easei t o ^ f u n c t i o n s i m u l t a n e o u s l y (Cutikkhanasmim d.ve
p i gTv i t 'an i sabTeva b h i g g a n t i - )
215

t h a t t h a t which, i s s a n k h a t a has t h r e e f u n d a m e n t a l
charact c r i s t i c s ( l a k k h a n a ) n a m e ly , u p p a d a , v a y a , and t h i t a s s a
annathatta.^
How, u p p a d a , i . e . , b i r t h o r o r i g i n a t i o n , c o r r e s p o n d s
t o t h e b e g i n n i n g of t h e f i r s t phase, ru p a ss a upacaya. Vaya,
i . e . , waning away o r c e s s a t i o n c o r r e s p o n d s t o r u p a s s a
aniccafa. B e f o r e one c o u l d f i n d out what c o r r e s p o n d s t o
t h i t a s s a a n n a t h a t t a one has t o f i n d o u t what i t r e a l l y
m ea n s •
As we s h a l l s oo n s e e d i f f e r e n t s c h o j I s o f Buddhism
i n t e r p r e t t h i t a s s a a n n a t h a t t a , l i t e r a l l y , 11o t h e r w i s e n e s s
o f t h a t wh ich i s e x i s t i n g ’1, i n d i f f e r e n t way s, a s i f t o
j u s t i f y t h e v e r y meaning conve yed by t h e p h r a s e . But what
i s common t o t h e s e l a t e r - d a y i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s i s t h a t t h e y
a r e b a s e d on t h e t h e o r y o f moments. T h i s t h e o r y does n o t
f i n d e x p re s s io n i n the e a r l i e r t e x t s . 1'rue, the d o c trin e
of impermanence i s c o n s t a n t l y a l l u d e d t o . But t h e l o g i c a l
i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s d o c t r i n e were not d e v e l o p e d on t h e
b a s i s of a t h e o r y o f moments. And, a s k r s . Rhys Davids
r i g h t l y obs erve s^ ” i t was i n e v i t a b l e t h a t l a t e r e x e g e s i s
o
would, so d e v e l o p t h e t h e m e . ”
The s e c o n d p o i n t t o be n o t e d h e r e i s t h a t a l t h o u g h

1 . 0 p * C X G. , 1 132
2. B u d . P s y , 14
216

The ..aJilcayas r e c o g n i z e t h e r a p i d i t y of change i n m e n t a l


e v e n t s , t h e y a s s i g n a r e l a t i v e permanence t o t h e body.
“B e t t e r we re i t , b h i k k h u s ; t h a t t h e u n e d u c a t e d m a n y - f o l k
s h o u l d c o n c e i v e t h i s f o u r - e l e m e n t - m a d e body 9 ra th e r than
c i t t b , t o be s o u l , h a d why? The body i s s e e n t o p e r s i s t
f o r a y e a r , f o r two, t h r e e , f o u r , f i v e , t e n or twenty y e a r s ,
for a generation ev e n f o r a h u n d r e d y e a r s o r even
l o n g e r , w h i l e t h a t whi ch i s c a l l e d , c o n s c i o u s n e s s , t h a t
i s mi nd, t h a t i s i n t e l l i g e n c e , a r i s e s a s one t h i n g ,
c e a s e s a s a n o t h e r b o t h by n i g h t and by d ay „w^
T h i s d i f f e r e n c e b et we en mind a n d m a t t ex5 a s r e g a r d s
t h e i r d u r a t i o n i s r e c o g n i z e d and u p h e l d i n t h e hbhidhamma
Pi talca, t o o „ A number of c o n t r o v e r s i e s i n t h e I£at bay a tit hu
s u g g e s t c l e a r l y t h a t t h e T h e r a v a d i n s had no h e s i t a t i o n
i n r e c o g n i s i n g t h e m o m e n t a r i n e s s of m e n t a l e l e m e n t s . 2
On t h e o t h e r hand., t h e y do n o t deny t h e r e l a t i v e
permanence of t h e body o r m a t t e r i n g e n e r a l . In point
o f f a c t t h e t h e s i s ( o f t h e P u b b a s e l i y a s and t h e n p a r a s e l i y a s
n a m e l y , t h a t t h e d u r a t i o n of m a t e r i a l t h i n g s i s e q u a l t o

1. S . i d 94 ( t r a n s l a t i o n from B u d . P s y .1 3 -1 4 ) ; c f . a l s o
H?*aham b h i k k h a v e annara ekadbammarn pi samarm passami evam
l a h u p a r i v a t t a m yathayi&am bhi kkhave c i t t a m - A d 10
2 . See £ £. 0^1 1. , § 0 4 - 8 , 4 5 8 - 5 , 620-1
3« a c c o r d i n g t o Kvuh. 1 9 6
217

th e d u r a tio n of a thought-moraent (e k a -c itta fe k h a n ik a ) i s


1
r e j e c t e d as u n te n a b le .
I t was n o t th e Theravladins a lo n e who u p h eld t h i s
tr a d itio n . Vasum itra r e c o r d s t h a t i n the v ie w o f the
Mahasanghikas th e m a t e r ia l s e n s e -o r g a n s and th e primary
ele m e n ts ,fe v o l v e H (p a r in a m a ti) whereas c o n s c io u s n e s s and
c o n s c io u s n e s s -e o n c o m ita n ts do not “e v o l v e 11. T his has b een
i n t e r p r e t e d to mean th%t w h ile m a te r ia l ele m e n ts endure
f o r a lo n g e r t i m e , m ental elem en ts are “n a i s s a n t - p .S r is s a n t
en un i n s t a n t 1* (ksanabhangura)#2 Ya&omltra n o t e s th a t i n
th e o p in io n o f th e £rya-Slm m itTyas m a tter i s o f lo n g e r
d u r a tio n whereas c o n s c io u s n e s s and c o n s c io u s n e s s -c o n c o m ita n ts
are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by in s ta n ta n e o u s being*^ A s i m i l a r view
i s a t t r i b u t e d to th e V sitsT p u trT yas,too: Some sajgiskaras
e x i s t f o r some tim e w h ile o th e r s p e r is h a t e v e r y m o m e n t .4
On th e o th e r hand, many o th e r s c h o o ls n o ta b ly the
S a r v a s t iv a d a , th e MahTlasaka, th e P u r v a l a i l a , and th e

1 . Bee Kvu.620 f f .
2 . Documents d 1Abh. : MOB v 136; Masuda 3 4 , S . 1 , 2 ; B areau ,
Des Sectes_Bouddhj.ques Du P e t i t V&hicule 7 3 -7 4
3* O f. yo py aha nikayaiptanya i t l arya-SammitTyah*j3a
gha$fader mudgar1adi-k|*to vinajSa i t i manyate kalam tar-
avasthayT h i tasya rupam. ci^ ta -ca itta n a m tu ksanlk a-
tvam - AKvy. i 179
4* Masuda, A M .ii 54
218

A p a ra ^ a ila d isa p p ro v ed o f t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n . In t h e i r
v iew n ot o n ly m ental but a l s o m a t e r ia l elem en ts are o f
in s t a n t a n e o u s being*^
I t seems f a i r l y c l e a r th a t over th e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n
o f th e e a r l y d o c t r in e o f impermanence th e B u d d h ist
s c h o o l s f e l l i n t o two g e n e r a l g ro u p s. Some r e c o g n iz e d
th e momentary d u r a tio n o f m ental e lem en ts but a s s ig n e d
a r e l a t i v e permanence t o m a t e r ia l e le m e n t s . O thers
o b j e c t e d t o in tr o d u c in g any such d i s t i n c t i o n . As we have
s e e n th e T heravadins o f th e Abhidhamma P ita k a b elo n g to
th e form er gro u p . As y e t th e y were n o t prep ared to admit
th a t m a t e r i a l elem en ts were o f momentary d u r a tio n .
In v ie w o f t h i s c ir c u m s ta n c e , as f a r a s m a t e r i a l
ele m e n ts are c o n c e r n e d , th e y seem to have u n d ersto od
t• h i t a s s a a n n a th a tta i n a v e r y g e n e r a l s e n s e .
* v-
That i s t o
s q y , m a t e r i a l th in g s become o th e r w ise w h ile th e y are
e x istin g . Looked a t i n t h i s way, how i t i s r e p r e s e n t e d

1 . Masuda. A M .ii, 5 4 , n .2$ B a rea u , Les S e c t e s Bouddhiaues


Du P e t i t ViShicule 1Q 3.1Q 5.144.186; s e e DocumenSd^AbhTs
MGB.v 1 3 7-140 where Sanghabhadra c r i t i c i z e s s e v e r e l y th e
t h e s i s t h a t m a tter i s not o f momentary d u r a tio n . Por
a compact but com prehensive d i s c u s s i o n on t h i s s u b j e c t ,
c o n s u l t S i lb u r n , I n s t a n t e t Cause 2 2 7 -2 7 4
219

among th e fo u r upada~rupas i s e a s i l y r e c o g n iz a b le * We
have a lr e a d y shown t h a t ru p assa upacaya and s a n t a t i
s i g n i f y th e g ra d u a l growth o f th e body and ru p a ssa j a r a t a
th e g r a d u a l p r o c e s s o f m aturing and d ecay t h a t s e t s i n
w ith th e march o f years* S in ce th e y p o in t t o th e f a c t
t h a t th e body becomes “ o th e r w is e ” (a n n a th a tta ) w h ile i t
i s “e x i s t i n g ” ( t h i t a s s a ) th e y e o u ld be u n d erstoo d as
r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h i t a s s a an n ath atta*
'The p o s i t i o n o f th e t h r e e sankhata~lakkhanas
v i s - S t - v i s th e fo u r up'ada-rupas c o u ld th en be g r a p h i c a l l y
i l l u s t r a t e d , as fo llo w s:

B eg in n in g o f upacaya A n ic c a ta
A /N
Upacaya S a n tati J a r a ta

t h i t a s s a Ailn n a t h a t t a

M/
Uppada Vaya

When th e A n g u tta ra n ik a y a r e f e r s t o t h e th r e e sa n k h a ta -
la k k h a n a s, th e purpose i s to show th a t a l l m en ta l and
m a t e r ia l t h i n g s are impermanent. The f a c t t h a t i n th e
e a r l i e r t e x t s th e impermanece o f b oth groups i s not
e x p la in e d i n e q u a l te r m s , i s a d i f f e r e n t q u e s t i o n . The
Abhidhamma P ija k a has not d e v ia t e d from t h i s fundam ental
p r in c ip le . I t may th en be a sk ed why i t has made a s p e c i a l
220

a ttem p t to show th e "sa n k h a ta-n ess" o f th e body*


Moral e d i f i c a t i o n seems t o be th e r e a s o n b eh in d
t h i s d ev ice* f r u e , to th e body some r e l a t i v e permanence
c o u ld be a s sig n e d * Yet i t i s n ot som ething t h a t i s e v e r ­
la stin g . I t has a b eg in n in g a l l r i g h t , but i t has an end
to o . I t has a phase o f growth a l l r i g h t , but i t has a
phase o f decay t o o l ,fI h i s c o r p o r e a l frame o f mine i s made
up o f th e fo u r e le m e n t s , s t a r t s from p a r e n t s , i s s u s t a i n e d
by r i c e and o th e r f o o d s , i s impermanent and s u b j e c t t o
a t t r i t i o n , a b r a i s i o n , e r a s i o n , d i s s o l u t i o n and d is r u p t i o n
and t h i s c o n s c io u s n e s s o f mine i s t i e d and bound up
th erew ith ^ * T h is i s how one i s expected, t o approach
o n e ’ s own body so th a t o n e 's own attachm ent to . i t , l e t
a lo n e t o any o th e r in s t a n c e o f m a t t e r , s h o u ld c e a s e thereby*
When one remembers t h a t the sco p e as w e l l as th e approach
o f th e B u d d h ist a n a l y s i s o f m a tter are m a in ly d eterm ined
by e t h i c a l f a c t o r s , one need not be s u r p r i s e d why th e
Abhidhamma P ij a k a has deemed i t n e c e s s a r y to enumerate
th e fo u r item s which we have so f a r d isc u s s e d *
When th e d o c t r in e o f impermanence which i n th e
e a r l i e r t e x t s was d e s c r ib e d i n sim p le and g e n e r a l terms
came to be e x p la in e d more s y s t e m a t i c a l l y and w ith g r e a t e r
221

p r e c i s i o n , a tte m p ts were a l s o made t o r e i n t e r p r e t the


sa n k h a ta -la k k h a n a s•
The VaibhsTsikas i n t e r p r e t e d s t h it y a n y a t h a t v a ( t h i t a s s a
a n n a th a tta ) as J a r a t a , p o s t u la t e d an oth er ite m , s t h it i,* *
and th u s in c r e a s e d th e number to fo u r : ( i ) j a t i , o r i g i n a t i o n ;
( i i ) s t h i t i , e x iste n c e ; ( i i i ) j a r a t a , d ecay; and ( i v )
a n ity a ta , e x tin c tio n , A l l aharmas, elem en ts of e x i s t e n c e ,
m ental as v /e ll as m a t e r i a l , c h a r a c t e r i z e d by them are
saniskrta. Only sTkaSa and th e two k in d s o f n irodha esc a p e
2
from t h e i r in e x o r a b le sway# At e v e r y k s a n a , moment, a l l
(sa m sk rta ) dharmas a re a f f e c t e d by them, A ksana i s th e
tim e during which the fo u r sa m sk r ta -la k sa n a s a cc o m p lish
t h e i r o p e r a t io n . The V a ib h a sik a s a l s o m a in ta in e d t h a t th e y
were n o t o n ly d i s t i n c t from , but a l s o as r e a l a s , the
dharmas th e y c h a r a c t e r i z e - showing th e r e b y a s tr o n g
p r e d i l e c t i o n t o n a iv e r e a lism * And, i n consonance w ith
th is th e s is , i t was a l s o c la im e d t h a t th e y were i n tu rn
c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a n u la k s a n a s , secon d ary c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s *
The S a u tr a n tik a s made a p rolo n ged polem ic a g a in s t
t h i s V a ib h a sik a i n t e r p r e t a t i o n * They p o in t e d out th a t the
s a m sk y ta -la k sa n a s were mere c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , mere

1* A cco rd in g to some gfcaryas b o th s t h i t i t and jarateT are


r e p r e s e n t e d by s th ity a n y a tb ia tv a ; s e e AK,Ch*ii 223
2* See below , 24-5
d e s i g n a t i o n s , w ith no o b j e c t i v e r e a l i t y and argued th a t
th e r e c o g n i t i o n o f an u lak san as would l e a d to th e problem
o f i n f i n i t e r e g r e ss (a n a v a sth a ). In t h e i r v i e w , th e y a p p ly
n ot to one but t o a s e r i e s o f momentary e le m e n ts . “The
s e r i e s or stream i t s e l f i s c a l l e d s u b s i s t e n c e , ( s t h i t i ) ,
i t s o r i g i n i s c a l l e d j a t i , i t s c e s s a t i o n i s v y a y a , and
th e d i f f e r e n c e i n i t s p reced in g and s u c c e e d in g moments
i s c a l l e d s t h i t y a n y a t h a t v a 11• A momentary elem en t ; , so
a
t h e y a r g u e d , cannot have^phase c a l l e d s t h i t i or j a r a t a ,
f o r w hatever th a t o r i g i n a t e s has no time t o s u b s i s t or
d ecay but to p e r is h # 2
How th e T heravadins o f th e Abhidhammic com m entaries
and th e k in d red works d ev elo p ed th e d o c t r in e o f
impermanence and how th e y i n t e r p r e t e d th e sa n k h a ta -
lakkhapas can be u n d ersto o d c l e a r l y when* th e s u b j e c t i s
u n fo ld e d a g a i n s t t h i s background* We have a lr e a d y shown
th a t a lth o u g h th e Abhidhamma P ita k a r e c o g n iz e s th e

1# J a i n i , The development of the th e o r y o f the v ip ra y u k ta


sam sk aras, BSQAS V o l . x x i i Pt*3
2 . T h is b r i e f s k e tc h i s b ased on; J a i n i , o p # c i t # . De La
V a lin e P o u s s in , Documents d fAbh* : MOB.v 134 f f * ;
S t e h e r b a t s k y , C e n tr a l Concep* 39 f f , B ud .L ogic i 7 9 -11 8
S i l b u r n , Cause e t I n s t a n t .254-262# See a l s o AK*Ch#ii
2 2 2 -2 3 8 ; AKv,y# i . 174 f f # ; CP* Mdhy#Vrt*108 f f . ;
La S i d d h i *6 4 -6 8
225

m om entariness o f m ental e le m e n ts , i t does n o t e x te n d th e


same p r i n c i p l e to m a t e r ia l e le m e n ts . What i s m ore, even
t h i s Hlim ited * 1 m om entariness i s not e x p la in e d s y s t e m a t i c a l l y *
The new developm ent i s t o be s e e n i n th e fo r m u la t io n o f
a th e o r y o f moments, r e p la c in g th e e a r l y d o c t r in e o f
momentariness* I t a p p l i e s t o b oth groups o f e le m e n ts
e q u a l l y , but f o r one s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e : The e a r l i e r
t r a d i t i o n t h a t m a tter i s o f lo n g e r d u r a tio n i s r e c o g n is e d ,
but o f co u rse n ot i n th e same forra*^ On some t e c h n i c a l
p o in t s th e Theravada th e o r y d i f f e r s from th o s e o f th e
V a ib h a sik a s and the S a u t r a h t ik a s . However, i n th e £Tkas
where the s u b j e c t i s d e a l t w ith i n more d e t a i l , i t has
come v e r y c l o s e to th a t o f th e S a u tr a h tik a s*
The most s t r i k i n g t h in g about th e Theravada th e o r y
i s th a t th e f a c t o f m om entariness i s e x p la in e d i n q u ite
a d i f f e r e n t way: Each dhamma has th r e e moments, nameljr,
uppadakkhana, th e moment o f o r i g i n a t i o n ; t h i t i k k h a n a , the
moment o f e x i s t e n c e ; bhahgakkhana, th e moment o f c e s s a t i o n *
The t h r e e moments do n o t co rresp o n d t o th r e e d i f f e r e n t
dhammas* On th e c o n t r a r y , th e y r e p r e s e n t th r e e phases
(a v a t t h a ) - th e n a s c e n t , th e s t a t i c and th e c e s s a n t -
o f one "momentary11 dhamma* Hence th e s t a t e m e n t , nam ely,
t h a t dhammas are momentary, means t h a t a g i v e n dhamma

1* s e e below , 525
224

has th r e e momentary p hases or s ta g e s * I t a r i s e s i n th e


f i r s t moment, s u b s i s t s i n the secon d moment and p e r is h e s
i n th e t h i r d moment
Commenting on th e th r e e sa n k h ata-la k k h a n as o f th e
«i M r P 1M
A n g u tta r a n ik a y a * th e Commentator s a y s t h a t uppada i s
3*ati ( b i r t h , o r i g i n a t i o n ) , vaya is ,b h e d a ( d e s t r u c t i o n ) ,
and t h i t a s s a a n n a th a tta i s g a ra ta (d eca y )* And he g o e s
on to s a y t h a t t h e s e t h r e e are r e p r e s e n t e d by uppada-
kkhana, bhangakkhana and ^ h itik k h a n a r e s p e c t i v e l y * ^ The
f a c t t h a t SsTti ari<i bheda are s a i d to be r e p r e s e n t e d by
uppadakkhana and bhangakkhana a e s p e c t i v e l y does not pose
a v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t problem* But th e f a c t t h a t j a r a fa i s
s a i d to be r e p r e s e n t e d by th itik k h a jia shows t h a t th e
s o - c a l l e d moment o f s u b s i s t e n c e i s a l s o th e moment o f decay*
In c o n t r a s t , th e V a ib h a sik a s tak e jaratiT a s d istin c t
from s t h i t i > and a c c o r d in g ly count them a s two s e p a r a te
s a m s k r ta - la k s a n a s . S in c e th e T heravadins e x p l a i n t h i t i
(kkhana) as ^ a r a ta , i t may be co n clu d ed t h a t th e r e i s
some k in d o f change or m o d i f i c a t i o n in a g i v e n dhamma

1 . See V b h A .7-8, 2 5 -2 9 ; V ism .2 9 1 - 2 9 2 , 6 1 3 -6 1 4 . The $ h i t i -


kkhana o f rupa i s o f lo n g e r d u r a tio n th an t h a t o f th e
m ental e le m e n ts ; s e e b e lo w v r O n how th e th e o r y o f
p e r c e p t io n i s e x p l a i n e d on th e b a s i s o f th e t h e o r y o f
moments, s e e S arath ch a n d ra, Kud*Psy*of P e r c e p * 42 f f *
2* See above, 2 1 4 - 1 5
3 . A A .i i 252
225

d uring th e moment o f i t s s u b s is t e n c e *
Shat t h i s i s s o , i s shown by two comments made by
Buddhaghosa and Huddhadatta. In alm ost i d e n t i c a l w ord s,
t h e y o b se r v e t h a t j a r a t a i s m a n ife s te d a s th e l o s s o f
navabhava, n ew n ess, o f a dhamma (navabhavapagama ) fr and
n o t a s th e l o s s i f i t s sab h ava, i n t r i n s i c n a tu re
(sabhavanapagaraa)* I t i s l i k e (new) paddy becoming o ld
(vThipurSpabhavo v iy a )* ^ S in c e j a r a t a = t h i t i (kkhana)
t h i s means t h a t a dhamma i s new and f r e s h at th e moment o f i t s
o r i g i n a t i o n , b ut i s o l d , m atured, changed or m o d ifie d a t
th e moment o f i t s s u b s i s t e n c e - though, i t s i n t r i n s i c
n a tu re rem ains th e same.
Of much s i g n i f i c a n c e i s th e f a c t t h a t b o th commentators
to o k s p e c i a l ca re to p o in t out th a t jarateT d oes n ot
s i g n i f y th e l o s s o f sab h a v a , but o n ly th e l o s s o f navabhava*
Thereby th e y were i n t e n t to show th a t d uring th e j a r a t a -
phase th e i d e n t i t y o f a dhamma i s n o t c p m p le te ly l o s t *
I f i t were o th e r w ise th en i t would mean t h a t th e dhamma
t h a t s u b s i t s i s n ot th e same a s th e dhamma t h a t o r i g i n a t e s *
There would be two dhammas co r resp o n d in g t o th e two
moments, uppa’dakkhana and th itik k h a n a - a s i t u a t i o n
w hich wogild undermine th e v e r y fo u n d a tio n o f th e th e o r y
o f moments.

1* See Vism*4 4 9 ; Abhvt*71


226

Although, t h i s e x p la n a t io n does n ot le a d to th e
c o l l a p s e o f the th e o r y o f moments, y e t i t r a i s e s one
s i g n i f i c a n t problem which seems t o have e sc a p e d th e
a t t e n t i o n o f i t s authors* I f a dhamma becomes d i f f e r e n t
w ith o u t? h o w e v e r , l o s i n g i t s i n t r i n s i c n a t u r e , th en t h i s
s i t u a t i o n approaches th e d o c tr in e of parinamavada a c c o r d in g
t o which th e e s s e n c e , th e s u b s t a n c e , rem ains th e same
w h ile i t s modes undergo change* Change, as i t came t o be
f i n a l l y i n t e r p r e t e d i n th e s c h o o ls o f Bud d h is t l o g i c ,
i s n ot th e tr a n s fo r m a tio n o f one and the same dharma from one
s t a g e to a n o t h e r , but th e replacem en t o f one momentary
dharma by another*** The f o l l o w i n g polem ic i n th e
AbhidharmakojSa * d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t th e V a ib h a sik a s who
a d m itte d jaratla o f one momentary dharma, a p p l i e s e q u a l l y
t o th e e x p la n a t io n g i v e n by Buddhaghosa and Buddhadatta*
,lMais comment a t t r i b u e r & dharma l a v i e i l l e s s e ?
La v i e i l l e s s e , e ’ e s t l a t r a n s f o r m a t io n , l a d i s s i m i l i t u d e
e n t r e deux I t a t s * Or, p e u t-o n d ir e d ! un dharma qu’ i l
d e v ie n t d i f f e r e n t de lui-m&ne?
S ' i l r e s t e c e l u i - c i , i l n ’ e s t pas c e l u i - l & ; s ’ i l
e s t tra n sfo r m ^ , i l n* e s t p lu s c e l u i - c i . Done l a
tr a n s fo r m a tio n d f un dharma e s t im p o s s ib le 11*^

1 . See S t c h e r b a t s k y , B ud .L ogic i 96 f f *
O p ^ c it* * C h * i i , 233
227

The a u th o rs o f th e tT k a s , n o ta b ly Suraangala, seem


to have tak en n o t i c e o f th e whole problem stemming from
th e r e c o g n i t i o n and d e f i n i t i o n o f ja r a ta * T h is e x p l a i n s
why an attem p t has b een made to f o i s t a new i n t e r p r e t a t i o n
i n t o j a r a t a - an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n which r e a l l y amounts t o
i t s d e n ia l.
I t may be r e c a l l e d here th a t a cc o rd in g to th e
e a r l i e r accou n t jarateT i s m a n ife s te d as th e l o s s o f navabhava
o f a dhamma, and n ot as i t s com plete l o s s o f i d e n t i t y *
A ccord ing t o Suraangala1s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , navabhava i s
o n ly a f i g u r a t i v e e x p r e s s i o n f o r uppa&akkhana,
th e moment o f o r i g i n a t i o n - so c a l l e d b eca u se o f i t s
c h r o n o l o g i c a l p r i o r i t y i n r e l a t i o n t> t h i t i k k h a n a , th e
moment o f s u b s is t e n c e * That i s to s a y , s i n c e uppsidakkhanQ;
o f a dhamma p reced es i t s t h it ik k h a n a , i n t h i s s e n s e th e
former i s i t s navabhava* U nderstood i n t h i s way, th e l o s s

1* I t i s v e r y l i k e l y thajt th e y were i n s p i r e d by the arguments


o f th e AK* The T heravad ins o f Oeylon show much a c q u a in ta n ce
w ith t h i s (and o th e r n o ta b le works o f Skr.Buddhism)
Of* e*g* VismS* v 51 f f * where q u o t a tio n s from i t are
c i t e d n o t , as might be e x p e c t e d , w it h a v ie w to r e f u t i n g
them, but in support o f i t s own s ta te m e n ts* On T h e r a v a d in s,
a c q u a in ta n c e w ith Skr .Bud* w ork s, s e e Godakumbara, S in h a le s e
L it e r a t u r e * 4 1 -4 6 ; h i s a r t* R e fe r e n c e s t o S k r.B u d *w riters
i n S in h a l e s e l i t e r a t u r e , GUR V o l . l P t . l ; s e e a l s o
P a r a n a v ita n a , Matiayanism in O ey lo n f GJS V o l . l . R o .l
228

o f navabhava i s n o th in g but th e la p s e o f uppaclakkhana,


and th e (im m ediate) l a p s e o f uppadakkhana means th e
su c c e ss io n o f th itik k h a n a . How, j u s t a s uppadakkhana i s
c a l l e d navabhava, "new ness", b ecau se i t comes b e fo r e
t h it ik k h a n a ev en so t h it ik k h a n a i s c a l l e d ja r a te i,
— 1
" o ld n e s s " , b eca u se i t comes a f t e r uppadakkhana.
There i s an oth er r e a s o n - t h i s o f c o u r se i s o n ly
why-
im p lie d -^ J h itik k h a g a c o u ld be d e s ig n a t e d a s j a r a t a .
Sometimes t h it ik k h a n a i s d e f i n e d as "nirodhabhiraukh-
avattha" o r "bhangassa abhim ukhavattha", i . e . , th a t
phase (moment) when a dhamma i s f a c i n g i t s d e s t r u c t i o n . 2
The o b v io u s i m p l i c a t i o n i s t h a t
s i n c e bhangakkhana i s
to
th e immediate and u n av o id a b le s u c c e s s o r a
At#h i t i k k h a n• a .»
during i t s moment o f s u b s i s t e n c e a dhamma can o n l y f a c e
i t s own d e s t r u c t i o n , i t s own d e a th . G e n e r a lly s p e a k in g ,
d eath i s p reced ed by o ld age ( j a r a t a ) . And, s i n c e
bhangakkhana i s alw ays (im m e d ia te ly ) p reced ed by $ h itik k h a n a ,
on th e abowe a n a lo g y but as a f i g u r e o f speechyfche l a t t e r
c o u ld w e l l be d e s ig n a t e d a s " o ld age" ( j a r a t a ) .

1 . O f.T h itik k h a n e h i jara^nama; na ca tad's dhammo sabiiavam


v i j a h a t i JSavabtiavo u p p ad a vatth a , t a s s a apagamabhavena
gayhatT t i aha navabhavapagamapaccupattliana t i -
Abhvk.2 8 4
2 . See A bhvk.305; ADSV?. 115
l i - i i
229

Sumangala i s r i g h t l y aware th a t in th e c o n te x t o f
t h i s new i n t e r p r e t a t i o n th e " o lto e ss-o f-th e -p a d d y ^ sr iim ile "
(vThipuranabhsTvo; v iy a )^ i s n o t r e l e v a n t , i f n ot m is le a d in g .
A c c o r d in g ly he o b se r v e s th a t when paddy becom es o ld th e r e
i s a t l e a s t a change i n i t s s a v o u r , e t c . , On th e o th e r
hand, when a dhamma becom es o l d , i . e . , when i t comes to
th e moment o f s u b s is t e n c e i t abandons n o th in g e l s e but
i t s own moment o f o r i g i n a t i o n ’.^

To sum up th e d i f f e r e n c e : a cc o rd in g t o Buddhaghosa
and B u d d h ad atta, th itik k h a n a i s a l s o c a l l e d ju rat's
b eca u se a t t h i s moment a dhamma has undergone a change
a lth o u g h i t has n o t l o s t i t s com p lete id e n t it y * A ccord in g
to Sum angala, a lth o u g h th itik k h a n a i s c a l l e d ju r a ts' th e
l a t t e r term i s n ot be u n d ersto o d as d ecay or a s im p ly in g
any id ea o f c h a n g e , m o d if ic a t io n or tr a n sfo r m a tio n o f a
dhamma. In o th e r word% th e r e i s no ja r a ta when i t i s
u n d ersto o d i n i t s u su a l s e n s e . A ccord in g t o th e form er
t h it i( k k h a n a ) i s r e a l l y jarat*a; a c c o r d in g t o th e l a t t e r
J h itijk k h a n a ) i s r e a l l y t h i t i in th e tr u e s e n s e o f th e
terra*
T h is new i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , though i t has s u c c e s s f u l l y

1 . See above, 225 ^ ^


2 . vThipu.ranabhavo ta v a ra sa dim a p a n e t i, ayarapana kevalam
uppadavattham eva a p a n e ti - Abhvk.284
230

e lim in a te d th e problem stemming from th e e a r l i e r d e f i n i t i o n


o f j a r a t a , u p s e ts th e corresp on d en ce b etw een th e th r e e
khanas (moments) and th e th r e e san k h ata-lak k h an as* We
saw1- t h a t a c c o r d in g to th e e a r l i e r a cco u n t th itik k h a n a
r e p r e s e n te d th e t h i r d sa n k h a ta -la k k h a n a , i . e . , t h i t a s s a
a n n a th a tta . H owever, s in c e t h iti(k k h a n a ) was e x p la in e d
as j a r a t a , one cannot s a y th a t some j u s t i c e was n ot done
to th e id e a o f “ change” or “becoming o th e r w is e ” con veyed
by th e p h r a s e , t h i t a s s a a n n a th a tta . But in th e l a t e r
accou n t t h it i( k k h a n a ) i s n o t u n d ersto o d as j a r a t a , a lth o u g h
it is (fig u r a t iv e ly ) c a lle d so . As su ch )h a s i t any c la im
t o r e p r e s e n t t®h i t a s s a a n n a th a tta ?
• a,

From a p a s s in g comment 2 made by Suraangala one g a th e r s


th a t he d id n o t , b eca u se he c o u ld n o t , ta k e th itik k h a n a as
co r resp o n d in g to t h i t a s s a a n n a th a tta . In v ie w o f t h i s

1 . See ab o v e, 224 ^ ^
2. We mean th e q u e s tio n : Kasraa pajiyam th itik k h a n o na v u tto
(Abhvk.3 0 5 )« T h is shows th a t^ t& liik k h a n a i s n ot ta k en
a s r e p r e s e n t a t iv e o f t h i t a s s a a n n a th a tta , f o r th e l a t t e r
i s r e f e r r e d to in th e p a l i , i .e V , th e Canon ( s e e A . i 1 5 2 ) .
We are t o l d th a t i t i s b ecau se o f a p u r e ly p r a c t ic a l
r e a s o n , ^ i . e . , in th e i n t e r e s t s o f th e in s t r u c t e d ( v in e y y a -
jjh a sa y a n u ro d h en a , c f . upaya-kaugalya o f Mahayana) th a t
th e th itik k h a n a i s n ot r e f e r r e d to in th e Canon. Perhaps
t h i s may mean th e same as what c e r t a i n V a ib h a sik a s sa y :
W ith a v ie w t o c r e a t in g com p lete d etach m en t, in th e minds
o f th e d i s c i p l e s , from sam sk rta-dh arm as, i t was deemed
proper th a t th e s t a t i c p h a s e * ( s t h i t i ) o f th e sa m sk rta -
dharmas sh o u ld be o v e r lo o k e d . - s e e A K .C h .ii 223
231

c ir c u m s ta n c e s , th e t h i r d sa n k h a ta -la k k h a n a , t h i t a s s a
a n n a th a t ta , rem ains u n r e p r e se n te d by any o f th e th r e e
k h an as. We a re n ot t o l d how we- sh o u ld u n d erstan d i t .
n e v e r t h e le s s th e d e n i a l , n am ely, th a t i t d oes not a p p ly
t o a momentary dhamma, c a r r i e s th e im p lic a t io n th a t i t
a p p lie s t o a s e r i e s o f momentary dhammas.
T h is b r in g s th e p o s it i o n o f th e T heravad in s an oth er
s t e p c lo se & to th a t o f th e S a u tra a h tik a s.'* However th e r e i s
t h i s fundam en tal d if f e r e n c e t o be n o te d : U n lik e th e
S a u t r a n t ik a s , Sumangala (and o th e r s ) do n o t deny th e t h i t i
phase o f a momentary dhamma. I f t h i s to o c o u ld be d e n ie d ,
th e n th e d if f e r e n c e would >become alm ost n e g lig e a b le * In
p o in t o f f a c t , among some T heravad ins th e r e was a movement
tow ards su ch a d i r e c t i o n .
For Sumangala h im s e lf r e f e r s to one a c a r iy a , named
iTnanda, who o b j e c t e d t o th e r e c o g n it io n o f th e Jh itikk h aiaa
under any g u i s e , w hether i t was in t e r p r e t e d as ja r a ta or 1
n o t. A ccord in g to th e l a t t e r , a dhamma has o n ly two p h a s e s ,
one o f o r i g i n a t i o n and a n o th er o f c e s s a t i o n . J h iti is
r e c o g n iz e d , b u t a s a p p ly in g o n ly to a s e r i e s . T h is i s
c a l l e d p a b a n d h a - th iti, th e s e r i e s i t s e l f a s s u b s is t e n c e .
T h ita s s a a n n a th a tta i s in t e r p r e t e d a s p u b b 'a p a ra -v isesa ,

1 . See above, 2 2 1 -2 2
232

th e d if f e r e n c e b etw een th e p reced in g and th e su c c e e d in g


dhammas th a t c o n s t i t u t e a s e r i e s ( pabandha) #**
I t h a rd ly needs m e n tio n , th e above in t e r p r e t a t io n
i s an attem p t to in tr o d u c e w h o le sa le th e S a u tr a n tik a
th e o r y in to th e Theravada* From what we can g a th e r from
th e t T k a s , i t does n ot seem to have, had a g r e a t f o llo w in g
among th e Theravada s c h o l ia s t s * The cou n ter-argu m en t
o f Sumangala and o th e r s amounts to t h i s :
T ru e, a dhamma th a t o r ig in a t e s sh o u ld a l s o c e a se to
e x is t* But b e fo r e i t c o u ld c e a s e to e x i s t , th e r e arhould
be a t l e a s t a moment when i t tu rn s tow ards i t s own
c e s s a t i o n (nirodhafehim ukhavattha)* I t i s t h i s moment when
a dhamma i s f a c in g i t s own c e s s a t io n th a t we c a l l th e moment
o f s u b s is t e n c e ( t h it ik k h a n a ) . The u n d e r ly in g assu m p tion o f
t h i s co u n te 14argument seem s t o be th a t a dhamma th a t a r i s e s
cannot c e a s e to e x i s t a t one and th e same t im e , f o r o t h e r -

1* Abhvk*304-3G5j s e e a ls o
The argument a t t r ib u t e d
ADSV?. 116
TO fffianda - Api ca yathabhuto
djiammo u p p a j j a t i , kim ta th ab h u tova b h i j j a t i , udahu
apnathabKuto? Y adi^tathabhutova b h i j j a t i na jjarataya
sambhavo; annathabhuto anno eva so t i sab batha p i
th itik k h a n a s s a abhavo yeva (Abhvk*3Q5) - i s r e m in is c e n t
o f : j^adi sa eva nasav ath^nyatha na sa eva ( h i /
tasm ad ek asya dharmasya nanyathatvam p r a s i d h y a t i / / )
- K K .O h .ii 2 3 3 , n . l
233

-w is e e x is t e n c e and n o n - e x is te n c e would become c o - e x i s t e n t


- an e x tr e m e ly d i f f i c u l t s i t u a t i o n even t o im agine*
T h is b r in g s us to an end o f our su rv ey o f how th e
Abhidhammic com m entaries and jTkas have e x p la in e d th e
e a r ly d o c tr in e o f impermanence on th e b a s is o f a
fo r m u la te d th e o r y o f moments* Our purpose i n g iv in g t h i s
acco u n t i s to show how and why th e y d i f f e r from th e
Abhidhamma P ita k a i n in t e r p r e t in g th e fo u r up'ada-rupas,
n a m ely , ru p a ssa u p acaya, ru p assa s a n t a t i , ru p a ssa ja r a ta
and ru p a ssa a n n ic c a ta w ith w hich we are co n cern ed in t h i s
s e c tio n *
How th e y a re d e fin e d in th e Abhidhamma P ita k a has
a lr e a d y b een exam ined. W© have shown th a t th e s e fo u r it e m s .
io
w hich amount^©* a form ulaH W lition o f some p h ases i n th e
h i s t o r y o f th e b o d y , are b ased on th e th r e e sa h k h a ta -
la k k h a n a s. We have a ls o whown th a t in e x p la in in g how th e
body i s san kh ata th e Abhidhamma P ita k a d oes n ot go so
f a r a s t o s a y th a t th e rupa-dhammas th a t c o n s t i t u t e i t
are o f momentary duration*^ T h e r e fo r e , and q u ite
u n d e r sta n d a b ly , th e l a t e r s c h o l i a s t s c o u ld n ot r e t a i n
th e e a r l i e r a cco u n t o f th e s u b j e c t in th e same form* Por
in t h e i r v iew th e th r e e san k h ata-lak k h an as r e p r e s e n t th r e e
momexitary p hases - th e n a s c e n t , th e s t a t i c (d e c a y ) and

th e c e s s a n t - o f a ,fmomentary1* dhamma* I t i s to be

1* s e e above, 216 f f .
234

e x p e c te d t h e r e f o r e th a t t h e i r in t e r p r e t a t io n o f th e s u b je c t
sh o u ld f a l l in l i n e w ith t h i s developm ent*
That ru p a ssa upacaya and ru p assa s a n t a t i are e x p r e s s iv e
o f th e same phenomenon i s r e c o g n iz e d by th e l a t e r s c h o l i a s t s ,
too* (That th e r e i s some k in d i f d if f e r e n c e betw een them
i s not d e n i e d ! :but t h i s can be o v e r lo o k e d fo r th e moment)*
But i n t h e i r v ie w i t i s j l a t i , w upp'ada o f r u p a , i . e * ,
g e n e s is or o r i g i n a t i o n o f m a tte r * 1 W ith th e r e c o g n it io n
o f t h i s f a c t th e fo u r upeTdet-rupas g e t red u ced to t h r e e ,
n am ely, ( i ) ru p a ssa j*ati (= upacaya and s a n t a t i ) , ( i i )
ru p a ssa ja r a ta 1 and ( i i i ) ru p assa a n ic c a ta # T hese th r e e
it e m s , i t may be n o te d h e r e , corresp on d t o th e th r e e
khanas (moments) n am ely, ( i ) uppladakkhana, ( i i ) t h i t i ­
kkhana ( j a r a t a ) and (L ii) bhangakkhana* ..Once,.'this
co rresp o n d en ce i s e s t a b l i s h e d i t i s ea sy to approach th e
s u b j e c t from th e p o in t o f v iew o f th e th e o r y o f moments*
2
A ccord in g to a p o s t-c a n o n ic a l th e o r y o f th e T heravada,
body c o n s i s t s o f an enormous number o f r u p a -k a la p a s , i . e * ,
th e u ltim a te or th e s m a lle s t groups o f rupa-dhammas.
The rupa-dhammas o f each ru p a -k a la p a are n o t s e p a r a b le ,
one from th e oth er* They form a u n it y h avin g a common

1* Ubhayam p^etam j a t ir u p a s s 0 evadhivacanam - Vism *38Q;


s e e a l s o A s l.3 2 6
2* s e e below-, c h . v i i i
235

o r i g i n , a common e x i s t e n c e and a common c e s s a t io n * Hence


th e th r e e momentary p h ases o f one ru p a -k a l’apa mean th e
th r e e momentary p h ases o f a l l th o se rupa-dhammas th a t
make up th a t p a r t ic u la r r u p a -k a ia p a . The c o n t in u it y o f
th e b o d y - s e r ie s i s due to th e circu m sta n ce th a t when some
ru p a -k a ia p a s p e r is h th e y are im m ed ia tely su c c e e d e d by
o th e r s. I t i s a p r o c e ss o f c o n tin u a l s u c c e s s i o n , p r o j e c t in g
a p ic tu r e o f s t a t i c e x is t e n c e .
The n a sc e n t p h a se , i n o th e r w ord s, th e uppeTdakkhana
of! a l l th o s e rupa-dhammas th a t e n te r in t o th e c o m p o sitio n
o f th e b o d y - s e r ie s i s ru p assa j a t i (» upacaya and s a n t a t i ) ;
t h e i r s t a t i c p h a se , in o th e r w ord s, th e th itik k h a n a which
i s a l s o c a l l e d jaratsT, i s ru p assa j a r a t a ; t h e i r c e s s a n t
p h a se , i n o th e r w o rd s, th e bhangakkhana, i s ru p a ssa
a n ic c a t’a .
A lth ou gh b o th ru p a ssa upacaya and ru p a ssa s a n t a t i
a re s a id to s i g n i f y ru p a ssa j a t i , y e t t h i s d if f e r e n c e
betw een them i s recogn ized :} The n a sc e n t phase o f th o s e
rupa-dhammas w hich c o n s t i t u t e th e b o d y - s e r ie s from th e
moment o f c o n c e p tio n t i l l th e sense-m echanism i s com p lete
i s ru p a ssa u pacaya. The n a s c e n t phase o f th o s e th a t c o n s t i t u t e
i t t h e r e a f t e r , i . e . , upto th e tim e o f d ea th (c u ti-p a r iy o sa n a m )
i s ru p a ssa s a n t a t i . 1

1 . What has b een s t a t e d so f a r i s b ased on th e a c c o u n ts g iv e n


in th e com m entaries a s w e ll as in th e jT k a s; c f . Visra.
50
^ “ ; A s l.3 2 7 f f . ; V isn ff.4 5 4 f f . ; Afcbvk.2 8 2 -2 8 4 .
ADSVf .H T T T f. *•
- :

287 289
236

The l a t t e r sta te m e n t n eed s some e x p la n a tio n # We


h%ye a lr e a d y shown-* th a t a cc o rd in g to th e Abhidhamma
P ita k a ru p a ssa s a n t a t i s i g n i f i e s th a t phase o f th e body
(g ro w th ) w hich comes b e fo r e ru p assa j a r a t a . But A ccord in g
t o th e new in t e r p r e t a t i o n ru p a ssa j a t i ( » upacaya
and s a n t a t i ) , ru p a ssa ja r a ta and ru p a ssa a n ic e a ta s i g n i f y
th r e e momentary p h ases o f a ru p a-dham m a/rupa-kalafa
th a t e n t e r s in t o th e c o m p o sitio n o f th e body s e r ie s *
As s u c h , s t r i c t l y s p e a k in g , ru p assa j a r a t a a s u n d ersto o d
by th e Abhidhamma P ita k a has no ; p la c e i n th e c o n te x t o f
th e new in t e r p r e t a t io n * T h is e x p la in s why ru p a ssa s a n t a t i
(«: ru p a ssa j*ati) i s s a i d to c o n tin u e up to th e moment
o f death*
n e v e r th e le s s ^ ja r a ta a s u n d ersto o d by th e e a r l i e r
t e x t s i s a l s o r e c o g n is e d , b ut i s g iv e n a d i f f e r e n t
in t e r p r e t a t io n * I t i s c a l l e d p ' a k a i a - j a r a “e v id e n t
decay*1 and i s d is t in g u is h e d from jar's or ja r a tsi a s a
momentary p h a s e d The l a t t e r i s c a l l e d a v i c i - j a r a ,
b eca u se i t ta k e s p la c e i n c e s s a n t l y , w ith o u t in te r r u p tio n * ^

1* S e e a b o v e , 213-14-
2 * A s l * 3 2 8 i Vism*449
3* i * e * ,. $ h itik k h a n a ; s e e abovei_ 2 2 9 : a c c o r d in g to
Buddhaghosa and* o th e r s ja r a ta im p lie s some k in d o f
c h a n g e , a cc o rd in g to Sumangala and o th e r s i t i s
o n ly a f i g u r a t i v e e x p r e ssio n *
4* A s l »328; V ism *449: Abhvk*283
237

B rok en n ess o f t e e t h (k h a n d icca ) i s an in s t a n c e o f paka^ta-


ja r a . In term s o f e le m e n ta l a n a ly s is p a k a ta -ja r a i s o n ly
a v ik ’ara#** That i s to d a y , i t m erely s i g n i f i e s a p e c u l i a r i t y
o f th e p o s i t i o n , s i t u a t i o n or arrangem ent o f th e
momentary2 rupa-dham m as/rupa-kalapas t h a t c o n s t i t u t e th e
b o d y - s e r ie s .
In th e c o u r se o f our d is c u s s io n on th e th e o r y o f
moments we n o t i c e d ? th a t Jnanda (a s r e p r e s e n te d by
Sumangala) o b je c te d to th e r e c o g n it io n o f th e J h itik k h a n a
under any g u i s e . When approached from t h i s p o in t o f
v ie w , th e fo u r item s wostld g e t redu ced to two: ru p assa
j a t i (= upacaya and s a n t a t i ) and ru p assa a n ic c a t a .
Why th e ite m s under c o n s id e r a tio n are brought under
th e h e a d in g , anipphanna may how be c o n s id e r e d . T hese
item s s i g n i f y c e r t a i n p hases o r , as th e s c h o l i a s t s s a y ,
c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (lak k h an a) o f th e nipphanna
ru p a. As su ch th ey are n ot r e a l rupa-dhammas. When
a rupa-dhamma o r i g i n a t e s i t i s c a l l e d ru p a ssa j a t i ;
when i t s u b s i s t s (d e c a y )2** i t i s c a l l e d ru p a ssa j a r a ta ;
when i t p e r is h e s i t i s c a l l e d ru p a ssa a n ico a ta f. In

1* See; Abhvk.2 8 3
2 . Momentary means h aving th r e e momentary p h a ses: se e above,
2 2 3 —24 '
3* S ee a b o v e ,2 3 1 -3 2
4* S e e a b o v e,2 2 9
258

a d d itio n to th e rupa-dhamma w hich o r i g i n a t e s , s u b s i s t s


(d ec a y ) and p e r i s h e s , th e r e are no rupa-dhammas an sw erin g
to th e names ru p a ssa j a t i , ru p a ssa ja r a ta and ru p assa
a n ic c a ta *
I f th e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ,t o o ,w e r e p o s t u la t e d as
r e a l e n t i t i e s , th e n i t would be n e c e s s a r y to p o s t u la t e
a n o th er s e t o f (se c o n d a r y ) c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s to accou n t
f o r t h e i r own o r i g i n a t i o n , s u b s is t e n c e rod c e s s a t i o n ,
And t h e s e (se c o n d a r y ) c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w ould in tu r n
r e q u ir e a n o th er s e t o f (se c o n d a r y -se c o n d a r y ) c h a r a c t e r is t ic s ;
t o acco u n t f o r t h e i r o r i g i n a t i o n , etc* y In t h i s way
i t w ould le a d to a p r o c e ss ad in fin itu m * And i t i s
in o rd er to a v o id t h i s problem o f i n f i n i t e r e g r e s s th a t
th e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are n ot r e c o g n iz e d as e n t i t i t i e s
d i s t i n c t fr o m , and a s r e a l a s , th e dhammas w hich th ey
c h a r a c te r iz e * T h is i s th e s i g n i f ic a n c e o f th e sta te m e n t
made i n th e Mohavicc-hedanT: f,I t i s n ot c o r r e c t to assume
th a t o r i g i n a t i o n o r i g i n a t e s , decay d ecays and c e s s a t i o n
c e a s e s b ecu a se su ch an assu m p tion le a d s to th e ( f a l l a c y ) -
o f i n f i n i t e r e g r e s s (a n a v a tth a n a )11*^

1* Ha h i j a t i j a y a t i , {jara j T r a t i , maranam; m T y a tlti


voharitunj y u tta m , an avatth an ato* — o p * c i t * * 67-68#
See a l s o Abhvk*£fl&: AK*On*ii 225 lA K vyii 175 >
OP»Mdhy*Vrt ♦110 ,n*273 ,n*274 ,126-7
239

E lem ent o f sp a ce
We have drawn a t t e n t i o n to th e f a c t t h a t a lth o u g h
in ;.th e Kik*ayas akasa i s som etim es enum erated im m ed ia tely
a f t e r p ath avT , a p o , te^ o and v a y o , i t i s n o t r e c o g n iz e d
a s a mahabhutsu.^ As f a r a s i t s e x c lu s io n from th e c a te g o r y
o f mahabhutas i s c o n c e r n e d , th e p o st-H ik a y a n works a g r e e
w ith th e HikeTyas. H owever, when we come to th e Dhamma-
sanganT and th e Vibhanga we f i n d an item c a l l e d UksTsa-
d h a t u ,, elem en t o f s p a c e , r e c o g n iz e d a s one o f th e up’ada
- 2 ^ ^ _
r u p a s. I t s r e c o g n it io n as an upada-rupa c a r r ie s th e
it
im p lic a t io n t h a t ^ is dependent on th e raahabhntas.
As p o in te d ou t by P r o f.K e ith and Mrs.Rhys D a v id s,
i t i s d i f f i c u l t to im agine th a t i s was r e c o g n iz e d so
b ecu ase i t was a pure form o f i n t u i t i o n o r a m ental
c o n s t r u c t io n .^ T h is s u g g e s t io n g a th e r s su p p o rt from,
a K ath avatth u c o n tr o v e r s y on th e n atu re o f e& asa, to which
we s h a l l r e f e r in th e c o u r se o f t h i s d isc u ssio n .^ * There
i s no e v id e n c e to s u g g e s t th a t th e Abhidhamma P ita k a i s
a c q u a in te d w ith th e c o m p a r a tiv e ly l a t e SautreTntika th e o r y ,,
nam ely th a t ’ak’alta i s n o th in g b u t th e mere a b sen ce of

1 . See above ,6 3
2i D h s .l4 4 ;; Vbh»84
3* K 6tth .Bud. P h i. 1 8 9 1 Mrs .Rhys D avids .B u d .P s y .E t h ic s .
I n t r o d u c t io n , I x v i
4 . See below , 24? f f .
24-0

r e s i s t a n t m a tter (sap ratigh ad ravygfb h avam atra), w ith no


c o r resp o n d in g o b j e c t iv e r e a l i t y * '
In e x p la in in g why in th e PhammasanganT ak asa-B hatu
i s r e c o g n is e d as an u p ad a-ru p a, P ro f* K e ith o b se r v e s th a t
i t i s in t i m a t e l y c o n n e c te d w ith m atter* I t i s p o in te d
out t h a t s in c e i t i s n e c e s s a r y f o r th e movement o f m a tter
i t can w e ll be p la c e d under secon d ary m atter*^
That a&’asadJhatu i s th a t w hich a ffo r d s room f o r
th e movement o f m a te r ia l th in g s i s o f c o u r se one o f th e
ways i n w hich i t i s d e s c r ib e d in th e V ibhanga,^ But i t
i s v e r y d o u b tfu l w hether t h i s was th e s o l e or r a th e r th e
main f a c t o r th a t was ta k en in t o c o n s id e r a t io n i n p la c in g
i t under m atter* Por i f i t were th e r e a s o n , th e n i t
ought to have b een g iv e n a p o s it io n a t l e a s t on a par
w ith th e fo u r m ahabhutas, r a th e r than b ein g r e c o g n iz e d
a s dependent o n , and th e r e fo r e secon d ary t o , them*
The w hole s i t u a t i o n becomes cle a r , when i t i s
u n d ersto o d in th e l i g h t o f th e V aib h asik a c o n c e p tio n
o f aha&a* Two k in d s o f akaiSa are d is t in g u is h e d :

1 . See AK*0h*i. 50 n * l; AKvy* i 57


2 . Bud*Phi*.189
3* Of* •* • yesna ca asitap T tak h ayitan ii a j j h o h a r a t i , y a tth a
ca asij;aj>Ttakhayitam s a n t i t t h a t i ,_yena ca a sita p T ta k h a y ita m
adhobhageT nikkharaatx ( =•■ a k a sa -d h a tu ) — o p * c it * , 8 4
241

One i s e le v a t e d to th e s t a t u s o f an a s a y s k r t a-dharm a,
and i s r e f e r r e d t o by th e sim p le term , ‘ak afe* The o th e r
i s brought under r u p a , and i s r e f e r r e d to by th e compound,
'ak'a^a-dh'atu.^
Dr* Mc*Govern t e l l s us th a t i n th e C h in ese so u r c e s
th e fox»mer i s ren d er ed as h su 'k 'u n g and th e l a t t e r as,
k*ung* Kf u ng, he s a y s , 11a g r e e s more or l e s s w ith th e
S th a v ir a v a d in (= T heravad in) c o n c e p tio n o f AkaSa11*2 To
t h i s c o r r e sp o n d e n c e ,, Prof* De l a V a lin e P o u s s in to o has
drawn a t t e n t i o n * ^ The f a c t th a t b oth are in c lu d e d in rupa
does c e r t a i n l y show th a t th e r e i s a c l o s e p a r a lle lis m
betw een them. Of e q u a l s i g n i f ic a n c e i s th e f a c t th a t
b o th a re r e f e r r e d t o , n ot by th e sim p le terra, ‘ak'asa, but
by th e compound, akasa-dhiatu*
T h is i s o n ly p art o f th e sto r y * There i s much
e v id e n c e t o show th a t th e T h era v a d in s^ to o 5have r e c o g n is e d
a n o th er k in d o f ak'asa* T h is th ey have n ever in c lu d e d i n
ru p a; and e x c e p t f o r one s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t i t corresp o n d s
to th e asaniskrta-akaiSa o f th e V aib h asik as*^
F i r s t l e t us c o n s id e r what th e B u d d h ists mean by

1. S ee AK*Ch*i7-8 and 4 9 -5 0 ; AKv.y. 1 1 5 ,5 7


2* A Manual o f B u d d h ist P h ilo s o p h y * i 1 1 0 -1 1 1
3* Ag*Ch*i 49 n .4
4* See b elow , 245 f f .
242

a k a sa -d h a tu and examine why i t i s brou ght under rupa* In


th e Abhidharmako5a th e V a ib h a sik a akajSa-dtiatu i s d e fin e d
as fo llo w s : “La e a v it S ou v id e de l a p o r t e , de la
f e n ^ t r e , e t c * , c ’ e s t l f $X$ment e sp a c e (aksTgadh^tu) e x te r n e
(b a h y a ); l a c a v it y de l a b o u ch e, du n e z , e t c * , c f e s t
I 1Elem ent e sp a c e in te r n e (ad h yatm ik a)11^ The Theravada
d e f i n i t i o n i s more or l e s s th e same; th e d i s t i n c t i o n betw een
i n t e r n a l ( a j j h a t t i k a ) and e x t e r n a l (b a h ir a ) i s a ls o
r e c o g n iz e d : The c a v i t i e s o f th e ea r (k a n n a c c h id d a ), o f th e
n o se (r ia s a c c h id d a ), th e m outh-door (m ukhadvara), th a t
th rou gh which what i s e a t e n , drunk, chewed a r e sw a llo w e d ,
th a t where th e y a re d e p o s it e d , and th a t th rou gh which
a, — —
th e y are e v a c u te d a r e a j j h a t t ik a a k a sa -d h a tu . L ikew ise;
th e c a v i t i e s and i n t e r s t i c e s th a t o b ta in o u ts id e th e body
- (th e c a v i t i e s i n ; t h e w a ll* o f th e d o o r -s p a c e , e t c . , ) ^

- a re b'ahira ^Icasa-dhatu*^
I t w i l l th u s be s e e n th a t a cc o rd in g to b oth s c h o o ls
a k a sa -d h a tu means c a v i t i e s , h o l e s , a p e r t u r e s , i n t e r s t i c e s ,
etc. , I t c o u ld t h e r e fo r e be u n d ersto o d as bounded or
d e lim it e d space* The C hinese r e n d e r in g , k ’ ung i s s a id
t o mean “ la c k o f ru p a , or i n t e r s t i c e s b etw een rupa“

3-* Q P « c it* . C h .i 49
2. VbhA.72
3. Vbh *.84-85
4* E c.G o v ern , o p . c i t * * 111
243

The l a t e r works o f th e T heravada, to o ^ r e c o g n iz e t h i s


meaning when th e y r e f e r to ak asa-d h atu by th e t e c h n ic a l
term, p a r ic c h e d a -r u p a . P aricch ed a s i g n i f i e s n o t o n ly th a t
which d e lim it s (p a r ic e h in d a ti) but a ls o th a t w hich i s
d e lim it e d ( p a r & c c h i j j a t i ) .2 The im p lic a t io n i s th a t s in c e
a k a sa -d h a tu means c a v i t i e s , i n t e r s t i c e s , e t c . , i t s e t s
l i m i t s t o , and i s i t s e l f li m it e d b y , th e su rrou n d in g
m a tte r .
Once a k a sa -d h a tu i s u n d erstood as bounded or d e lim it e d
sp a ce why i t 3s r e c o g n iz e d as dependent on th e i mhhabhutas
i s not fa r to see k . H o le s , c a v i t i e s , e t c . , have an
in tim a te c o n n e c tio n w ith m atter in th e s e n s e th a t th e y
o b ta in owing t o th e p e c u lia r p o s it i o n or s i t u a t i o n o f th e
la tte r . In t h i s s e n s e th ey can w e ll be c o n c e iv e d a s
dependent on m a tte r . And s in c e th e fo u r mah'abhutas sh o u ld
n e c e s s a r i l y e n te r in t o th e c o m p o sitio n o f a l l m a te r ia l
t h i n g s , on fu r th e r a n a l y s i s , th ey are dependent on th e
m ahabhutas.
This exp lan ation i s fu rth er confirmed by Buddhaghosa1s
sta tem en tr namely th at 'akasa-dhatu i s m an ifested as the
con fin ed o f m atter (rupa-mariyada-paccupatth’ana) and
th a t I t has i t s proximate cause in m atter d elim ited

1* SeeJVism .4 5 1 ^
2 . E u p ih ip a r ic e h in d a t i, sayam va t e h i p a r i c c h i j j a t i -
A bhvk.279
24-4

by it (p a ricch in n a rllp a -p a d a tth a n a )* ^ The same id e a i s


im p lie d i n Yad.omitnis comment, namely th a t i t i s
e s t a b l i s h e d (v y a v a sth a p ita n i) w ith r e fe r e n c e to (a p ek sy a )
w a lls ,e t c .,2
In so fa r a s th e V a ib h a sik a s are co n cern ed one
c a n n o t, h ow ever, sa y th a t t h i s was th e o n ly f a c t o r th a t
was ta k en in t o c o n s id e r a t io n . In t h e ir v iew Taka&a-dhatu
i s e i t h e r l i g h t (*aloka) or darkness (taraas) and as such i s
v i s i b l e (s a n id a r £ a n a )* For t h i s r e a so n i t i s c o n s id e r e d
as a p art o f ru p a y a ta n a.^ That th e T heravadins do not.
admit th e v i s i b i l i t y o f ak asa-d h atu i s shown n ot o n ly by
i t s i n c l u s i o n in th e dhammayatana but a ls o by a K athavatthu
c o n tr o v e r s y . Borne B u d d h ists argue th a t i t i s v i s i b l e
on th e ground th a t one can s e e th e in t e r v a l b etw een
two t r e e s or two p o s t s , th e sp a ce in a k e y -h o le or in a
window* The Theravada r e p ly i s th a t in th e c a s e o f an
i n t e r v a l betw een two t r e e s , fo r I n s t a n c e , one s e e s w ith
h i s ey e o n ly th e c o lo u r o f th e two t r e e s and t h a t th e
i n t e r v a l a s su ch i s known o n ly by th e m ind.^
The V a ib h a s ik a s , as s t a t e d a b o v e , d i s t i n g u i s h 'ak'ada

1. Vism.4 4 8
2* AKvy* i 57
3. M .G h -i 4 9 - 5 0 ; AKv.v. i 57
4. See Kvu. 3 3 0 -1 and KvuA.93
245

dhatu from ak'asa# The l a t t e r , l i k e p ra tisa n k h y a - and


a p r a tis a n k h y a -n ir o d h a ,is an asanaskrta-d0.arma* A s s u c h ,
*
th e sa m • • sk r ta -la k sa
• •n a s do n o t a p p lyv to i t # It is
o m n i-p resa n t (s a r v a g a ta ) and e t e r n a l ( n it y a ) # I t s n a tu re
i s n o n -o b s tr u c tio n (anO T arana-svabhava). T hat i s to sqy*
i t d oes n o t o b s tr u c t C a v rn o ti) m a tter w hich f r e e l y e x i s t s
t h e r e in ; nor i s i t o b s tr u c te d ( a v r iy a t e ) by m a tter f o r
i t ca n n o t be d is lo d g e d b y th e l a t t e r . However i t i s n ot
th e mere ab sen ce o f o b s t r u c t io n (anavaranabh*avam atra),
b u t i s so m eth in g p o s i t i v e l y r e a l# 2 Thus what i s c a l l e d
asaniskrta-aka#,a may be u n d ersto o d as s p a c e , c o n s id e r e d
a s a b s o lu t e l y r e a l and as c o n s t i t u t i n g a c e c e p t a c le f o r
th e e x is t e n c e and movement o f m atter#
T h is i s a b r i e f sta te m e n t g iv in g th e fu n dam en tal
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f th e asaniskrta-'ak'a&a 9 made f o r th e
purpose o f show ing th a t i t has i t s c o u n te r p a r t in th e
T heravada, t o o .
In th e M ilindapanha we are in tr o d u c e d to an akasa
w hich i s q u ite d i f f e r e n t from th e ak'asa-dhatu o f th e
DhammasanffanT# I t s fundam ental c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a re a s

1# See above, 221


2 . See AK.Ch.8; AKvy# i 15
246

fo llo w s : In no way can i t be g ra sp ed (sa b b a so a g a y h o ); i t


in s p i r e s t e r r o r ( s a n t a s a n iy o ) y i t i s i n f i n i t e ( a n a n to ),
b o u n d le ss (appamano) and im m easurable (a p arim eyyo ) ; it
d oes n o t c l i n g to a n y th in g (a lfc g g o ), i s n o t a tta c h e d to
a n y th in g ( a s a t t o ) , r e s t s o n .n o th in g ( a p p a t i£ $ h it o ) and i s
A
n o t o b s tr u c te d by a n y th in g (a p a lib u d d h o ).
E lsew h ere i n th e same work we are t o l d th a t two
t h in g s in t h i s w o rld are n o t born o f lfarama (akammaja) or
o f c a u s e s (a h e tu ja ) or o f se a so n ( a n u t u j a ) , nam ely,.
Hibb'ana and ’ak’asa ,2
Y/ith refere n c e to t h i s ak'asa o f th e M ilindapanha
P r o f.K e it h o b se r v e s th a t f,i t i s c e r t a i n l y a more p h ilo s o p h ic
v iew th an i s fou n d in th e DhammasahganTo f th e Abhidhamma
(t/ ?
P ita
^
k a where i t i s c l a s s i f i e d a s a mA t e r ia l d e r iv a t e 11
A ccord in g t o t h i s o b s e r v a tio n th e gTlrasa-dhatu o f th e
Dhammasanaaril and th e akasa o f th e M ilindapanha re p r esen t;:
th e two d i f f e r e n t v ie w s on th e same s u b j e c t and th a t th e
l a t t e r i s a more r e f i n e d v e r s io n o f th e form er#
I t i s o f c o u r se tr u e th a t th e M ilindapanha i s
l a t e r th an th e works o f th e Abhidhamma P ita k a * However,
a s we s h a l l s e e f a i r l y s o o n , th e ty p e o f ak asa r e f e r r e d
to t h e r e in i s known to th e Abhidhamma P itak a* M oreover,,

3 8 7 -3 8 8
2* I b i d . , 268
3* B ud*P hi*l69
247

when one c o n s id e r s th e fundam ental c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f


th e M ilindapanha akasa one cannot f a i l to no i c e i t s 6
s tr o n g s i m i l a r i t y w ith th e asarpskrta-*aka£a o f th e
V a ib h a sik a s# Of much s i g n i f i c a n c e i s the sta te m e n t
th a t o n ly Hibbana and akasa are n ot born o f kamma (akammaja)
or o f c a u se s (a h e tu ja ) or o f se a so n (a n u tu ja )# T his
i s a c l e a r attem p t to b r in g ITkasa on a par w ith Nibbana#
The V a ib h a sik a s to o e le v a t e lakajS.a to such a p o s it io n
by r e c o g n is in g akafia and th e two k in d s o f n irod h a as
asam skrta# And we have a lr e a d y shovm how th e aTlcasa-
dhiatu o f th e PhammasanganT (and th e V ibhanga) corresp on d s
to th e 'aka^a-dhatu o f th e V a ib h a sik a s. In v ie w o f th e s e
c ir c u m sta n c e s we c o u ld q u ite j u s t i f i a b l y assume t h a t ,
a s th e V a ib h a sik a s d o , th e T heravadins to o d i s t in g u i s h
betw een t?/o k in d s o f a k a sa . As such th e ty p e o f akasa
r e f e r r e d to i n th e M ilindapanha sh o u ld be u n d e r sto o d ,
n o t a s a d i f f e r e n t ( l a t e r ) v e r s io n o f th e same k in d
o f "akasa ( - d hatu) o f th e PhammasanganT:: (an d th e
V ib h a n g a ), b u t a s th e Theravada c o u n te r p a r t o f th e
V a ib h a sik a asam skrta-akada#
I t i s n o t i n th e M ilindapanha a lo n e th a t we g e t
r e fe r e n c e to th e Theravada c o u n te r p a r t o f th e V aib h asik a
asam skrta-aka& a* One o f th e c o n t r o v e r s ie s in th e
K athavatthu o f th e Abhidhamma P ita k a concerns: th e
24-8

q u e s tio n w hether Ukasa i s a sa n k h a ta . In one o f h is


ansy/ers th e T heravad in ad m its th a t akasa i s n o t sankhata*"*
T h is a d m issio n shows th a t th e akasa a t is s u e h ere
i s n o t th e same as th e akasadhsTtu o f th e DhammasaxiganT
b eca u se th e l a t t e r i s sa n k h a ta . On th e o th e r hand i t
p o in ts t o th e c l o s e corresp on d en ce betw een th e akasa o f
■kk® K ath avatth u c o n tr o v e r s y and th a t o f th e M ilind ap an ha*
I t may be r e c a l l e d h ere th a t a c c o r d in g to th e l a t t e r work
b o th Hibbana and akasa are n o t born o f kanima or o f c a u s e s
or o f season * T h is i s a n o th er way o f sa y in g th a t b oth
are n o t sa n k h a ta *2 For a l l sankhata-dharamas a r i s e and
e x i s t b eca u se o f c a u s e s . S in ce th e akasa o f th e
K ath avatth u and th a t o f th e M ilindapanha a re n o t
s a n k h a ta ? it i s f a i r l y c e r t a i n th a t b o th works r e f e r to
th e same k in d o f akasa*
There i s , how ever, t h i s s i g n i f i c a n t problem to be
c o n s id e r e d : A lth ou gh th e T heravadin o f th e K athavatthu
c o n tr o v e r s y d e n ie s th a t stk asais sa n k h a ta , he d oes not.

1* KYU«33Q: To th e o p p o n e n t's q u e s t io n , "Akaso san kh ato t i !t


th e Theravadirf s answer i s h^evam v attab b e" *
2* F u rth er co n firm ed b y: Yathia maharaja ak aso na j a y a t i na
mTyajfci na c a v a t i na u p p a jj a ti *•• evam 'eva kho raatiaraja
nibbanam na jgTyati na jT y a ti na m Tyati na c a v a t i na
u p p a jj a ti - M il*32Q-21
249

ad m it;:th at i t is; asankhata* Thus in h is v ie w , i t cannot


be d e s c r ib e d e i t h e r a s sankhata or as asankhata*
The commentator s a y s th a t t h i s i s b eca u se akasa i s
a mere p a n n a tti ( p a n n a t t i - m a t t a m ) i . e . , a nom inal
dhamma* As f a r as th e d ata are con cern ed t h i s c o n c lu s io n i s
c e r t a i n l y c o r r e c t* For th a t w hich i s n e it h e r sankhata
nor asan k h ata sh o u ld be a p an n atti*^
There i s however th e f o llo w in g s i t u a t i o n to be
c o n sid e r e d * The d e f i n i t i o n o f ITksisa i n th e Mi lin d a panha
does n o t g iv e any in d ic a t io n o f i t s b ein g r e c o g n iz e d as;
a p a n n a tti* On th e o th e r hand, as a lr e a d y s t a t e d i t
b ea rs a str o n g resem b lan ce to th e akaiS.a o f th e V a ib h a s ik a s ,
which i s an asam skrta-dharm a* I t has a ls o b een n o te d
th a t a c c o r d in g to t h i s work b o th Nibbstna and ’akasa
are n o t sankhata* Nov/, i f Ukasa i s n o t a p a n n a tti and i f
i t i s n o t sa n k h a ta , i t sh o u ld be an asankhata-dhaim a*
But what i s s i g n i f i c a n t to n o te h ere i s th a t a lth o u g h
th e M jlindapanha a p p lie s th e term asan kh ata to Nfibbana,
it ( c a r e f u l l y ) a v o id s a p p ly in g th e same term to a k a sa .
On t h i s p o i n t , a s we have s e e n , th e K ath avatth u i s more
p o s i t i v e , f o r i t c a t e g o r i c a l l y s a y s th a t ITkasa sh o u ld

1* See Kvu* 328 f f *


2 . Ky u A*92
3* See a b o v e , 1 8 1 -2
4* O p .c i t * * 270
250

n o t be d e s c r ib e d as asankhata (a lth o u g h o f co u rse i t


d e n ie s th a t i t i s s a n k h a ta ).
When th e above s i t u a t i o n i s taken in t o c o n s id e r a tio n
i t i s d i f f i c u l t to f o llo w th e com m entator. As we have
a lr e a d y o b serv e d i t i s o f Bourse tr u e th a t h i s c o n c lu s io n
i s su p p o rted by th e data i n th e K ath avatth u . But
th e r e are some good r e a s o n s to b e li v e th a t th e problem
a t is s u e h ere i s on q u ite a d i f f e r e n t l e v e l . As such
th e com m en tator^ c o n c lu s io n d oes n o t seem to r e p r e s e n t
th e a c tu a l s i t u a t i o n th a t o b ta in s i n th e K ath avatth u .
The T h e r a v a d in s, i t sh o u ld be n o te d h ere , n ever
o b j e c t to Nibbana b ein g q u a l i f i e d as a sa n k h a ta . What is .
m ore, th ey seem to have deemed i t improper to ex ten d th e
term to som ething e l s e even i f i t i s n ot san kh ata l e s t
t h i s sh o u ld g iv e th e im p ressio n th a t it:, i s a s e x a lt e d
and a s n o b le a s Nibbana - th e h ig h e s t i d e a l o f Buddhism.
T h is seems to be th e re a so n why the lilin d a p a n h a and th e
K ath avatth u do n ot a p p ly the term asankhata to ‘ak'asa.
a lth o u g h a c c o r d in g to b o th i t i s n ot sa n k h a ta . In o th e r
worfia, akasa a s c o n c e iv e d in th e s e two works i s n ot a
p a n n a tt i 5it i s a r e a l dhamma.. which i s n o t sa n k h a ta , but
which i s n o t d e s ig n a te d as a sa n k h a ta .
On th e one hand, t h i s s u g g e s tio n e x p la in s th e
251

p e c u lia r s i t u a t i o n th a t o b ta in s i n th e M ilin d ap an h a# On
th e o t h e r ^ it g e t s more p o s it i v e su p p ort from th e n a tu r e
o f th e Theravada argum ents as r e p r e s e n te d i n th e K athavatthu
c o n tr o v e r s y .
To th e sta te m e n t o f th e o p p o n en t, nam ely th a t
akasa i s a sa n k h a ta , th e im m ediate r e a c t io n o f th e T heravad in
i s ; ”B oes t h i s mean t o s a y th a t ’ak’asa i s RibbSana, th e
S h e l t e r , th e C ave, th e R e fu g e , th e G oal* th e P a s t - D e c e a s e ,
•j
th e A m b rosial” # When th e opponent d e n ie s t h i s th e
T h eravad in r e t o r t s i n th a t c a se one h a st to r e c o g n iz e
two I'Tibb'anas# Even h i s o th e r argum ents are m a in ly b a sed
on th e a ssu m p tio n th a t th e e x te n s io n o f th e term asan kh ata
to 'ak’asa w ould n e c e s s a r i ly amount to a c o n f u s io n , i f n ot
i d e n t i t y , betw een Nibbana and akasa# The main argument
o f th e opponent f o llo w s what may be c a l l e d th e l o g i c
o f la n g u a g e ; ” I f you deny th a t akasa i s sa n k h a ta , you
2
sh o u ld adm it th a t i t i s asan k h ata”’#
The assu m p tion o f th e T heravadin i s c e r t a i n l y
fa r -fe tc h e d # To adm it th a t Hibbana and a&iasa are
asan kh ata d oes n o t n e c e s s a r i l y mean th a t th e y are i d e n t i c a l
in a l l r e s p e c t s , g u st as much as nama-dhammas and rupa-dhamroas
are n o t i d e n t i c a l in a l l r e s p e c t s a lth o u g h b oth groups a re

1 . Kvu#328 ( t r .f r o m P o in ts o f C o n tro v e rsy )


2 # H id . . 330
252

q u a l i f i e d as sa n k h a ta .
In p o in t o f faerfc s im ila r c o n t r o v e r s ie s a r i s i n g
from th e r e s t r i c t i o n o f th e u se o f t e c h n ic a l term s do
occu r in th e K a th a v a tth u , A t y p i c a l exam ple i s th e one
co n c e r n in g th e q u e s tio n s Gould rupa be a h etu ? The
T heravadin answ ers i t in th e n e g a tiv e and th e opponent
i n th e a f f i r m a t i v e , At f i r s t s ig h t i t ap pears t h a t the
form er has r e j e c t e d a fundam ental t e n e t o f B u d d h ist
p h ilo so p h y by n o t a d m ittin g th a t rupa c o u ld c o n s t i t u t e
a ca u se ( h e t u ) . But i n a a tu a l f a c t t h is i s n o t s o .
There i s no d isa g reem en t betw een th e two p a r t i e s . The
T heravad in (r a th e r a r b i t r a r i l y ) r e s t r i c t e d th e meaning
o f f,h e tu u to in d ic a t e o n ly th e umoral c a u s e s 11, n am ely,
a lo b h a , a d o s a , amoha, e t c ,,/* A c c o r d in g ly and u n d ersta n d a b ly
he d e n ie d th e p r o p o s it io n th a t rupa c o u ld c o n s t i t u t e a
h e tu . Whereas h is opponent u n d erstood th e term in the
g e n e r a l se n se o f cause and a c c o r d in g ly he a ffir m e d i t ,2
A. s im ila r s i t u a t i o n seems t o o b ta in in th e c o n tr o v e r s y
ov er th e q u e s tio n : I s alcasa asankhata?
From what we have o b serv e d so f a r i t sh o u ld become
c l e a r th a t th e T h e r a v a d in s ,to o *d i s t i n g u i s h betw een

1* On t h i s s u b j e c t s e e a ls o D hs,1 2 4 ,1 8 8 : Tkp, l l
2 . Kvu, 5 3 2 -3
255

two k in d s o f ak asa and t h a t , e x c e p t fox* some m inor


d e t a i l s , th e y co rresp o n d to th e two k in d s o f ak'afia
r e c o g n is e d by th e V a ib h a sik a s. One som etim es re a d s
th a t w h ile th e V a ib h a sik a s e le v a t e d "alcana to th e s t a t u s
o f an asam skrta-dharm a th e T h eravad in s b rou gh t i t under
— 1
ru p a . Such a c o n t r a s t i s n o t j u s t i f i e d . I t o v e r lo o k s
th e f a c t t h a t b oth s c h o o ls have r e c o g n is e d two k in d s o f a k a s a ,
one o f w hich (= a k a sa -d h a tu ) i s in c lu d e d i n , and th e
o th e r ( k 'ak'asa) e x c lu d e d from , ru p a.
We m ight a ls o n o te i n p a ssin g th a t p a r a l l e l
s i t u a t i o n s are met w ith i n o th e r sy stem s o f In d ia n th o u g h t,
to o . The SsTmkhya-Yoga, f o r in s t a n c e , d is t i n g u is h e s
b etw een two k in d s o f aksfSa, n am ely, karyaka£a and K aran-
‘ak’a l a . The form er i s d e r iv a t iv e b eca u se i t i s produced
from § a b d a -ta n m a tra , th e s o u n d -p o te n t ia l; th e l a t t e r i s
o r i g i n a l b ecu a se i t i s a s s o c ia t e d w ith p r a k r t i, th e
uncaused f i r s t ca u se o f th e w orld o f n o t - s e l f S i m i l a r l y
c e r t a i n J a in a works? t o o ,r e c o g n is e two v a r i e t i e s o f ‘ak'aSa.
One i s lo g a g a s a , th e sp ace th a t g i v e s room f o r th e f

1 . See e . g . M ish a ra , H i s t . o f I n d .P h i .i 403


2 . See J h a v e r i, ®hej c o n c e p t o f akajSa i n In d ia n P h ilo s o p h y ,
ikBORI V o l.x x x v i 1 9 5 6 , where a t t e n t i o n i s drawn to the
f a c t^ th a t in th e Sarakhya-Yoga work^ e a r l i e r th an
V ijn a n a b h ik su ’ s o n ly d e r iv a t iv e ‘a k a la i s m en tio n ed .
O f.“ a l s o S e a l . P o s i t i v e S c ie n c e s o f th e H in d u s.2 7 -2 8
254-

e x is t e n c e o f a l l ex te n d e d su b sta n c e s ( a s t ik s t y a ) . The
o th e r i s a lo g a g a s a , th e i n f i n i t e sp ace beyond th e cosm os,
where th e two c o n d it io n s o f m otion (dharraastiklaya) and
^ A
r e s t (a d h arm astik aya) do n o t have t h e i r i n f l u e n c e .
Of c o u r s e , th e co rresp on d en ce betw een t h e s e
t h e o r ie s d oes n o t go v e r y f a r , b ecau se each o f them has
been fo r m u la te d a c c o r d in g to th e m e ta p h y sic a l assu m p tion s
o f th e p a r t ic u la r system o f th ou ght to w hich i t b e lo n g s .
But what i s s t r i k i n g i s th e s i m i l a r i t y in th e p a tte r n
o f d evelop m en t.
What made th e B u d d h ists draw su ch a d i s t i n c t i o n
c o u ld be tr a c e d to th e Hik'ayas th e m s e lv e s . T h erein
som etim es akasa i s d e s c r ib e d p a r t ic u l a r l y w ith r e fe r e n c e
o
to h o l e s , c a v i t i e s , a p e r t u r e s , e t c . . Such d e s c r ip t io n s
s u g g e s t th e b e g in n in g o f ‘akasadhatu which i s bx*ought
under rupa.
Som etim es i t i s d e s c r ib e d as th e u ltim a te b a s i s ,
a s o r t o f fu lcru m or r e c e p t a c l e , o f th e whole p h y s ic a l
w o r ld . Thus in th e M ahaparinibbana-Sutta Buddha i s
r e p r e s e n te d as s a y in g : "This g r e a t e a r t h , 0 Ananda, r e s t s ,
on w a te r , w ater on a i r , and a i r on ak a sa " .3 And in th e

1 . See D avva-sangaha 5 6 -5 7 ; P a n ca stik a y a Samayaslara .99


Ni yama slap a . lb f f .
2 . Of . e . g . 4-51, i i i 51
3 . D . i i 107
255

Kethulovada S u tta i t i s s a id th a t ‘ak'asa f o r i t s p art does


n o t r e s t on a n y th in g (ak aso na lcattha c i p a t it t h it o ) * '*
In p o in t o f f a c t , itfagasena (M ilin d ap an h a) c i t e s t h i s
same c a n o n ic a l sta te m e n t a f t e r enum erating th e fundam ental
—— 2
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a k a s a , im p ly in g th e r e b y th a t ite is:
su ch s ta te m e n ts in th e e a r l i e r t e x t s th a t pafeed th e way
to th e c o n c e p tio n o f UkeTsa which we f i n d in th e
M ilindapanha and th e K a th a v a tth u * E q u a lly s i g n i f i c a n t
is an o b s e r v a tio n made by Ya^om itra: When th e W aibh'asikas
argue th a t akaSa i s r e a l th e y b ase t h i s argument on a
(S U tra) p a ssa g e where Buddha d e c la r e s t o a brahmin th a t
th e e a r th r e s t s on th e c i r c l e o f w a te r , th e c i r c l e o f
w ater on a i r , a i r on 'alcana, and th a t atcaSa i t s p a rt
does n o t r e s t on a n y th in g , does n o t c l i n g to a n y t h i n g * ^
When v/e come to th e com m entaries and th e su b seq u en t
works th e w hole s u b j e c t has undergone a n o ta b le change*

1 . M .i 424
2 . lil* 3 8 8 _
3* A kvy*i 1 5 ;_ (S iftr a ) p a ssa g e : p rth ivT bho Gautama k u tra
p r a t is t h it 'a . p rth iv T brahmana*ap-mandale p r a t i s t h i t a *
ap-manjlalam bho^Gautama kva’ p ratist& itam * vayau*
p rja tlsth ita m * vayur bho Gautama kva p r a & ls th ita h .
ak*a$e p ra t 1 s t h i t ah* eteagani bho Gautama k u ir a j? r a tisth ita m *
a t i s a r a s i manabj&a&mayat^sarasi mahabrahmana* aka £ am*
b rah in an ap ratisth itan j analambanam. i b i d * l o c * c i t * , *
256

The ‘ak'asa o f th e K athavatthu and th e M ilin d a p a n h a « w hich


a s we have s e e n , i s th e Theravada c o u n te r p a r t o f th e
V a ib h a sik a s * asarnslcrta-’akaSa, came to be d e s ig n a te d as
anantsTlcasa, i n f i n i t e s p a c e , ox* a ja ta lc a s a , unbounded
A
sp a ce, A lth ou gh th e two term s are r e m in is c e n t o f it w
e a r l i e r r e a l i s t i c c o n c e p t io n , th e use o f a n o th er term ,
tucchsTkasa, f a l s e or empty space? i n d ic a t e s an a ttem tp to
d ep riv e i t o f i t s r e a l i t y . As a m atter o f f a c t ? i t i s
7
c l e a r l y s t a t e d th a t i t i s o n ly a p a n n a t t i, a nom inal
dhamma w ith no co rresp o n d in g o b j e c t iv e r e a l i t y .
U n d erstan d ab ly th e same f a t e f e l l on th e ’ak'asa-dh’atu^
too# The l o g i c th a t g u id e d th e Vibhanga and th e
DhammasahganT i n b r in g in g i t under rupa i s c e r t a i n l y
fa r -fe th h e d . I t s c o n c e p tio n as r e a l i s a d i f f e r e n t
q u estio n # The l a t e r s c h o l i a s t s were n ot s a t i s f i e d w ith
erither o f t h e s e s i t u a t io n s # They e lim in a te d b oth by
b r in g in g i t under th e h e a d in g , an ip p h an n a-ru p a. For t h i s
it
i s a n o th er way o f sa y in g t h a t ^ is n e it h e r rupa nor a dhamma
in th e tr u e se n se o f th e term s# As su ch i t s d e s c r ip t io n
a s th a t w hich d e lim it s ( p a r ic c h in d a t i) or th a t w hich i s
d e lim te d ( p a r i c c h i j j a t i ) ^ sh o u ld n ot be u n d ersto o d in a

1# See. KvuA# 9 2 , 9 3; Abhvk,2 7 9


2# KvuA# 92
3* I b id # lo c # c it»,
4# See above , ^4-3
257

r e a lis t ic sen se. For i t i s n o th in g but the.:., mere


l i m i t a t i o n o f m a tter - rupa-parieehe& a-m attanu**

1* Abhvk* 279
258

CHAPTER SIX
CLASSIFICATIONS OF THE MATERIAL ELEMENTS.
S e c t io n A.
In th e c o a r s e o f our d i s c u s s i o n o f th e tw e n ty e i g h t
_ 1
rupa-dhammas we saw how th e y were s u b j e c t e d t o c e r t a i n
c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s such as th e one i n t o primary and secondary*
In a d d it io n to th o s e ,, an e a r l i e r d i s c u s s i o n o f which was
n e c e s s i t a t e d f o r a b e t t e r u n d erstan din g o f th e s u b j e c t
so f a r c o v e r e d , th e r e are o t h e r s no l e s s important*. And
i t i s t h e s e rem aining c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s t h a t we propose
t o examine i n t h i s ch ap ter*
D iv is io n s and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s play a s i g n i f i c a n t
p art i n th e Abhidhammic s y s t e m a t i z a t i o n . They are th e
s t o c k - i n - t r a d e o f i t s m eth o d o lo g y , the fundam ental means
whereby th e import and i m p l i c a t i o n s o f th e term s r e p r e s e n t in g
th e v a r io u s ele m e n ts o f e x i s t e n c e (dhamma) are so u gh t to be
unfolded* In th e se v e n Pakaranas o f the Abhidhamma
P lta k a i t i s v e r y r a r e l y in d e ed t h a t one f i n d s a d i r e c t
enum eration o f a l l th e rupa-dhammas; o f t e n e r than n o t t h e y
are p r e s e n te d under v a r io u s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s * Hence i t i s
— 2
th a t th e R u p a v ib h a tti o f th e PhammasanganT c o n s i s t s , to a

1 . s 4 mahabhutas + 14 nipphanna-up'ada + 10 anipphanna-up’sda*


2* i . e . , th e s e c t i o n ( 8 t h Bbanavara) where th e s u b j e c t o f rupa
i s ex p la in e d * As f a r a s th e P a l i Oanon i s co n cern ed i t i s
th e most e x h a u s tiv e *
259

g r e a t e x t e n t , o f an enormous number o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s ,
arranged i n t o t e n s e c t i o n s i n an a sce n d in g n u m erical
order.
1
The f i r s t s e c t i o n c o n s i s t s o f one hundred and fo u r
2 —*
c la ssific a tio n s, each b e in g an arrangement o f ru p a -
dhammas i n t o t?/o g r o u p s . The l a s t n i n e t y are d e v e lo p e d
i n a r a t h e r "m ech an ical” way. In each th e d i s t r i b u t i o n
o f rupa-dhammas i n t o two groups i s made i n such a way
t h a t o n ly one rupa-dhamma c o n s t i t u t e s th e f i r s t ”group1*’
whereas a l l th e o t h e r s th e seco n d grou p . The f i r s t i s
d e s c r ib e d by a p o s i t i v e terra and th e sec o n d by i t s
n e g a t iv e formed w ith th e a d d i t i o n o f th e n e g a t i v e p a r t i c l e
«na« * The l a s t n i n e t y sh o u ld t h e r e f o r e be u n d ersto o d as:
a (monotonous) d e v ic e to show th e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s p e c u lia r
to a g iv e n rupa-dhamma. I n each such arrangem ent th e
c o n t r a s t betw een a g i v e n rupa-dhamma on th e one hand and

1 . Our reck o n in g as l s t , ^ 2 n d e t c . , s t a r t s from th e 2nd


s e c t i o n o f Dhs.from vjpre cmward we g e t th e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s .
In i t s 1 s t s e c t i o n 11a l l rupa” i s c o n s id e r e d under s i n g l e
u n c o r r e la t e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s * See B u d .P s y .E t h i c s .154
2 . We use th e terra c l a s s i f i c a t i o n to mean e v e r y arrangement
o f rupa-dhammas under two or more h e a d in g s . Very o f t e n
***

o n ly one item f a l l s under one o f th e two or more h ead in gs


i n such c a s e s th e purpose i s t o show how a g i v e n
rupa-dhamma can be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from th e r e s t .
260

th e r e s t on th e o th e r i s brought in t o r e l i e f * Two
methods are ad opted f o r t h i s purpose*
(a ) Sometimes a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f a f u n c t i o n p e c u lia r
t o a g iv e n rupa-dhamma i s tak en as th e b a s i s o f th e
a r r a n g e m e n t e . g . , "There i s rupa which i s th e b a s i s
o f v i s u a l c o n s c io u s n e s s (= cakkhu, th e organ o f s i g h t )
and th e r e i s rupa which i s n ot th e b a s i s o f v i s u a l
c o n s c io u s n e s s (*= a l l th e rem aining rupa-dhammas)"• **
What r e s u l t s from such an approach i s o b v io u s : That
rupa-dhamma th e p e c u lia r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f f u n c t i o n o f
which i s ta k en as th e b a s i s o f th e arrangement comes under
th e p o s i t i v e c a t e g o r y and a l l th e r e s t under th e n e g a tiv e *
T h is, i s a method w ith wide 3wbde£ scop e f o r what i s r e c o g n is e d
as p e c u l i a r t o one rupa-dhamma cannot be p r e d ic a t e d o f
a n o th e r . However o n ly th e f i v e s e n s e -o r g a n s and th e
c o r resp o n d in g o b j e c t i v e f i e l d s are s u b j e c t e d t o such a
tr e a tm e n t. And t h i s r e s u l t s i n as many as f o r t y arrangem ents.
For a l l i t s t e d io u s le n g th and apparent c o m p le x ity i t
i s o n ly a d i f f e r e n t way o f d e s c r ib in g th e o f ttr r e c u r r e n t
t h e s i s th a t cakkhu, s o t a , e t c . , are th e b a s e s ( v a t t h u ,
n i s s a y a ) and t h a t ru p a , sad d a, e t c . , are th e o b j e c t s
o f th e f i r s t f i v e k inds o f c o n s c io u s n e s s (v in n a n a )

1 . A t t h i rlagam cakkhuvinnanassa v a t t h u , a t t h i rupam


cakkhuvinnanassa na v a tth u - Dhs.125
261

and t h e i r c o n co m ita n ts ( c e t a s i k a s ) *
(b ) Sometimes a g i v e n rupa-dhamma i t s e l f i s talcen
as th e b a s i s o f th e arrangement; © . g . , tfThere i s ru|>&
w hich i s kabaMfxk'ara-ah'ara and th e r e i s rupa which i s
n ot th e kaba'linkara-ahara (~ the rem ainin g rupa-dhammas),f • 2
A ccording t o t h i s method rupa i n i t s t o t a l i t y can be
d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n as many ways as th e r e are rupa-dhammas*
However th e a c t u a l number o f the arrangem ents e x c e e d s
th e number o f rTTpa-dharnmas becau se o f t h i s r e a s o n : Some
item s such as th e s e n s e -o r g a n s are r e p e a te d under d h atu ,
ayatana and i n d r i y a . There are i n a l l f o r t y such arrangem ents:
Each s e n s e -o r g a n as d h a tu , siyatana and in d r iy a i s
d i s t i n g u i s h e d t h r i c e from th e r e s t o f th e rupa-dhammas
( 1 5 ) ; each o b j e c t i v e f i e l d as dh!atu and layatana i s
d i s t i n g u i s h e d tw ic e ( 1 0 ) ; th e rem aining f i f t e e n are each
d i s t i n g u i s h e d o n ly once (15)«
The f o u r t e e n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s th a t occur a t th e
b e g in n in g o f th e f i r s t s e c t i o n are more im p ortan t i n th e
s e n s e t h a t th e y form th e n u c le u s o f a g r e a t m a j o r it y t h a t

1* See below, 315 , 321 _ ___


2* A t t h i rupam kabalink*aro etharo, a t t h i rupara na k a b aiih k aro
Sgaro - Dhs >127
3« Three maKabhutas are c o l l e c t i v e l y r e f e r r e d to by th e 3 th
o b j e c t i v e f i e l d ; h ad a ya-vatth u i s n o t known to Dhs» ;
hence i n a l l 27 item s are i n v o lv e d here*
262

come i n th e n e x t n in e s e c t i o n s * They are th e arrangement


o f rupa-dhammas i n t o two groups as (1 ) up'ad’a and anupladS,
(2 ) up'adinna and anup'adinna , (3 ) up*adinnup“adanTy a and
anupadlgnupadariiya^ (4 ) sa n id a ssa n a and a n ia a s s a n a * (5 )
sa p p a tig h a and a p p a tig h a , (6 ) in d r iy a and na in d r iy a ,
( 7 ) mahabhuta and na m ahabhuta, (8 ) v i n n a t t i and na
v i n n a t t i , (9 ) e itta sa m u tth a n a and na eittasam u 'tth 'an a,
(1 0 ) ejittasahabhH and na c itta s a h a b h H , .('11) c i t t a n u p a r i v a t t i
and na c i t t a n u p a r i v a t t i , (1 2 ) a j j h a t t i k a an& b a h ir a , (1 3 )
o|!arika and sukhuma, and (1 4 ) dure and san tike*.
The i m p l ic a t i o n s o f a g r e a t m a jo r ity o f t h e s e
f o u r t e e n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s have a lr e a d y been examined* No*!
r e f e r s t o th e d i s t i n c t i o n betw een primary and second ary
m a t t e r , and Ho*7 i n d i c a t e s th e typ e o f m a t e r i a l elem en ts
th a t c o n s t i t u t e each grou p . Ho* 4 p o in ts t o a
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p e c u lia r ro rup'ayatana. S in c e rupayatana
r e p r e s e n t s th e v i s i b l e i t a lo n e comes under th e p o s i t i v e
heading,, sa n id a ss a n a ( v i s i b l e ) * ^ As f a r a s th e con tents:
are c o n c e r n e d , th e r e i s no d i f f e r e n c e betw een H o s .5 , 13
and 14: th e s e n s e -o r g a n s and th e o b j e c t i v e f i e l d s are
s a p p a t lg h a , o l a r i k a and s a n t i k e ; the rem ainin g rupa-dhammas
are a p p a t ig h a , sukhuma and d u re. We have d i s c u s s e d t h e i r
s i g n i f i c a n c e and shown how th e y t e s t i f y t o a v e i l e d

1 . See above, 1 1 1 -1 2
263

r e c o g n i t i o n , on th e p art o f th e Theravada Abhidhamma, o f


th e d i f f e r e n c e between what e a r l y Buddhism and what most
o f th e B ud d h ist s c h o o l s i n common r e c o g n i s e as rupa on
th e one hand and the l a t e r a c c r e t i o n s on th e other./*
N o.6 i s an attem p t to c l a s s i f y a l l th e rupa-dhammas i n t o
two groups as in d r iy a and "n on -in d riy a " • The f i v e
s e n s e - o r g a n s , th e two f a c u l t i e s o f s e x and th e f a c u l t y
2
o f l i f e c o n s t i t u t e th e f i r s t group and th e r e s t th e
second. Uo#8 draws a t t e n t i o n t o th e f a c t t h a t two rupa-dhammas,
namely k a y a - and v a c T - v i n n n a t t i , are v i n n a t t i s ^ and t h a t
th e r e s t are n o t v i n n a t t i s . Nos. 10 and 11 are b a se d on
two c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (« c itta s a h a b h u and c itt e T n u p a r iv a tti)^
p e c u l i a r to th e two v i n n a t t i s . As such t h e s e two item s
a lo n e come under th e p o s i t i v e terms and a l l th e r e s t
under th e n e g a t i v e . ■
%

The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n t o upstdinia1upadanTya and


anupadinj&upadanTyas (H o.3) i s th e same as th a t in t o
upladirxna and anupefdinjta (Bo.2), e x c e p t f o r t h i s d i f f e r e n c e :
In th e form er th e term upadanTya i s added to q u a l i f y b o th
th e p o s i t i v e and th e n e g a t iv e s u b - c l a s s e s o f th e l a t t e r .
Thus upadlanTya s i g n i f i e s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c common to a l l

1. See above, 112, 1 1 5 -1 8


2. See ab ove, 1 4 0 -4 1 , 1 5 7 -5 8 , 165
3* See ab ove, 186 f f .
$• See ab o ve, 1 9 7 -9 8 , 202
264

t h e rupa-dhammas* Ho*3 can n ot t h e r e f o r e be ta k en as a


s e p a r a te c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . Most probably i t was made in
ord er to a v o id any p o s s i b l e c o n fu s io n b etw een th e
a p p a r e n tly s i m i l a r up’adanTya^and upadinna. As th e former
q u a l i f i e s a l l th e rupa-dhammas and th e l a t t e r o n ly some,
th e d i s t i n c t i o n i n t h e i r meaning i s n o t t o be overlook ed *
We are th u s M f t w ith o n ly th r e e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s ,
i . e . , th o s e i n t o ( a ) up'adinna and anup*adinnar (b ) c i t t a -
sarautthana and na citta sa m u tjih a n a , and ( c ) a g j h a t t i k a and
b a h ir a . B e fo r e we come to a d i s c u s s i o n o f them l e t us
su r v e y th e o th e r n in e s e c t i o n s which c o n t a i n more complex
c la ssific a tio n s.
The sec o n d s e c t i o n c o n s i s t s o f one hundred and th r e e
c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , each b e in g an arrangement o f rupa-dhammas
i n t o th r e e g r o u p s . Each such arrangement has th e
c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n t o a j y h a t t i k a and b*ahira o f th e f i r s t
s e c t i o n as i t s i n v a r i a b l e b a s i s . I t i s tra n sfo rm ed i n t o one
w ith th r e e c l a s s e s by c l a r i f y i n g e i t h e r th e a j j h a t t i k a - r u p a s
or th e b sih ira-ru p as (b u t n o t both c o n c u r r e n t ly ) in t o two g ro u p s.
E .g . ,
A$ 3ha t t i k a f -----^Bahira j I n v a r ia b le b a s i s
A jjh attik a^ ^Bal^ira \\ E i r s t a l t e r n a t i v e
Upada Anu&adaj
Ad3ha 11 ika g----- ^Ba h ira
Gakkhayatana Ha cakkhayatana

1 . See b e lo w , 396
265

The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w ith r e f e r e n c e t o which e i t h e r


th e a;J3hattika ov b a h ir a ru p a si^ .a-re f.cT 'asM fle'd .'-ln to two
groups are a l l ta k en from th e f i r s t s e c t i o n . Hence the
a
secon d s e c t i o n £bs only^com plex arrangement o f a l l th e
c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s g i v e n i n th e f i r s t * I t s purpose i s t o
show th e p o s i t i o n o f th e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t n t o a j j h a t t i k a
aiid b'ahira v i s - S - v i s th e rem aining hundred and th r e e o f
th e p rec ed in g s e c t io n *
In th e t h i r d th e r e are tw enty two c l a s i f i c a t i o n s ,
each i n t o fo u r groups* A l l o f them are t r a c e a b l e to th e
f i r s t f o u r t e e n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s o f th e f i r s t s e c t i o n , A
s e l e c t e d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n l&bo two groups i s made i n t o one
w ith fo u r by arra n g in g i n t o two groups th e item s in c lu d e d
i n th e f i r s t ms w e l l as i n th e secon d groups o f th e former#
E*g*-
UpsT&aV — ------- —-------- -------- Anupadav
Upadinna Anupadinna Upadinna AnupaUxnna

A l l th e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s in v o lv e d i n t h e s e tw en ty
two c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s are ta k en from th e f i r s t s e c t i o n * As
su ch th e y are an a ttem p t to e s t a b l i s h some k in d o f
r e l a t i o n b etw een th e d i f f e r e n t groups i n th e f i r s t f o u r t e e n
c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s o f th e f i r s t s e c t io n *
266

The n e x t s e v e n s e c t i o n s c o n t a in in g se v e n
c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s i n order i n t o f i v e , s i x , s e v e n , e i g h t r
n i n e , t e n and e l e v e n groups are more r e p e t i t i v e and
t h e r e f o r e l e s s i n f o r m a t iv e .
That i n t o f i v e groups i s th e same as t h a t i n t o
upad'a and anupada hut f o r t h i s d i f f e r e n c e : S in c e anupadsT
c o n s i s t s o f th e fo u r primary elem en ts i t i s a c c o r d in g ly
arranged i n t o fo u r flgrou p s’*,
In th e c a s e o f th e n e x t th r e e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s i n t o
s i x , se v e n and e i g h t g r o u p s , th e a sce n d in g n u m erica l
ord er i s o b ta in e d by c l a s s i f y i n g i n t o two a s e l e c t e d
group o f th e im m ed ia tely p reced in g c l a s s i f i c a t i o n - a
p r o c e s s whereby th e f i r s t two c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s a re ren d ered
JUU
s u p e r f lo u s in th e s e n s e t h a t b o th g e t ab sorb ed i n t o ,
A
and thus r e p r e s e n te d b y , the t h i r d . T h e ir purpose i s t o
show how th e rupa-dhammas can be c l a s s i f i e d a cc o rd in g to
th e way th e y become o b j e c t s o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s . Colour
(rupa) f o r in s t a n c e d i f f e r s from Sound (sa d d a ) i n t h a t
w h ile th e form er i s known by v i s u a l c o n s c io u s n e s s ( c a k k h u -
v in n e y y a ) th e l a t t e r i s known by a u d it o r y c o n s c i o u s n e s s
( s o t av in ne y y a ) • ^
The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n t o n in e groups i s th e same as

t h a t i n t o in d r iy a and na in d r iy a e x c e p t f o r t h i s d i f f e r e n c e :

1 , See below , 315


267

S in c e in d r iy a -r u p a c o u n ts e i g h t rupa-dhamras, th e p o s i t i v e
group i s a c c o r d in g ly arranged under e i g h t h e a d in g s .
T h is same c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s n ex t made i n t o one w ith
t e n groups; by c l a s s i f y i n g th e item s t h a t come under th e
n e g a t iv e h e a d in g , i * e . , na i n d r i y a , i n t o two groups as
s a p p a tig h a and a p p a jig h a .
The l a s t w ith e l e v e n h ea d in g s show how th e ru p a -
dhammas are d i s t r i b u t e d i n th e oldex* l i s t o f th e tw e lv e
a y a ta n a s: The f i r s t f i v e s e n s e -o r g a n s and th e co rresp o n d in g
o b j e c t i v e f i e l d s c o n s t i t u t e th e t e n A yatanas c a l l e d a fter
t h e i r names as cak k h a yatan a, rTxpayatana, e t c , , and th e
rem aining f i f t e e n rupa-dhammas form a p art o f th e dhamma-
yatana,'*
T h is b r in g s us to an end o f our su rv ey o f th e two
hundred and t h i r t y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s g iv e n i n th e
PhammasanganT, Prom what we have o b serv e d i n i t s c o u r se
i t s h o u ld appear t h a t i t i s not n e c e s s a r y t o go i n t o each
and e v e ry one o f them s e p a r a t e l y , . We n o t i c e d t h a t a l l th e
c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s g i v e n i n th e seco n d and t h i r d s e c t i o n s and
th r e e o f th e se v e n g iv e n i n th e n ex t se v e n s e c t i o n s a re
a l l t r a c e a b le t o th e f i r s t s e c t i o n which c o n s i s t s o f
c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s i n t o two groups* The few e x c e p t i o n s were
n o t e d , and we have i n d i c a t e d i n th e r e l e v a n t p la c e s t h a t

1 , See above , 1 0 7 -1 0 9
268

any d ata t h e y y i e l d e d were d i s c u s s e d i n more appx*opriate


co n tex ts. In th e co u r se o f t h i s b r i e f s u r v e y i f we have
s t r e s s e d what i s o b v io u s and r e p e a te d what was s a i d e lse w h e r e
to
i t i s b eca u se our aim i s n o t o n l y ^ e l i c i t some im portant
c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s f o r d i s c u s s i o n but a l s o to g i v e a
c o n s p e c tu s o f th e Abhidhamraic m ethodology as r e v e a l e d
from th e e x p o s i t i o n o f rupa.**
The e n su in g d i s c u s s i o n w i l l t h e r e f o r e be C onfined
t o an ex a m in a tio n o f th o s e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s o f th e f i r s t
s e c t i o n which came under our f i n a l s e l e c t i o n #
S e c t io n B #
F i r s t l e t us examine th e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f th e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n
i n t o up’adinna and anupetdinpa*^ The p o s i t i v e term ,
upsTdinna l i t e r a l l y means th a t which has b een a p p r o p r ia te d
or l a i d h o ld o f , but i n order to u nd erstan d what i t e x a c t l y
c o n n o te s i n th e Abhidhammic te r m in o lo g y we have -to g e t a t
th e agency b eh in d t h i s a c t o f a p p r o p r ia tio n or l a y i n g h o ld
o f.
/*

Prof# De l a V a lin e P o u s s in i s o f th e o p in io n th a t t h e
p a ir o f te r m s, upsfdinna and anupadinna o f th e P a l i Abhidhamma
con v ey s th e same s e n s e as u p a tta and an u p atta as e x p la in e d

1# The appended ch arts w i l l hdp t o u n d erstan d th e r e l a t i v e


p o s i t i o n s o f th e v a r io u s groups in v o lv e d i n th e
c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s ^ s e e b e l o w , 299 f f -
2# See above m 264*
269

in th e Abhidharmakoga*^
The Kog.a .Abhidharmakoga) d e f in e s u p a tta as ue e
que l a pensg.e e t l e s mentaux prennent (u pagrhT ta) e t
MM 2
s 'a p p r o p r ie n t ( s v i k r t a ) en q u a lit g de su p p o rt (a d h is th a n a )u *
The f i v e s e n s e -o r g a n s (w ith th e e x c e p tio n o f th o se t h a t
were and th o se th a t w i l l b e) and th o s e o th e r rupas which
are in s e p a r a b le fro m , or in t e r g r a t e d w it h , th e se n s e -o r g a n s
(in d r iy a b h in n a , in d riy a v in irb h !a g a ) 9i mamely, r u p a , gandha,
r a sa and sp ra g ta v y a are c a l l e d upatta* The r e l a t i o n
betw een t h i s k in d o f m a tter and mind i s one o f e l o s e
c o n n e c tio n : tfen c a s de b ie .n -§ tr e ou * de m a la is e , i l y a
r e a c t io n r e c ip r o q u e e n tr e l a pensge e t c e t t e m a tig r e 11* I t
i s t h i s ru p a , o b se r v e s th e K oga. th a t th e " la n g u e 'v u lg a ir e '1
c a l l s Hs a c e ta n a H o r trsa;jTvaH*3
I t sh o u ld a ls o be n o ted h ere th a t^ a s e x p l i c i t y l ^
s t a t e d in th e KoSa^and a l s o as i s c l e a r l y im p lie d by th e
v e r y d e f i n i t i o n g iv e n to th e term i n q u e s t io n , th e m en tal
elem en ts are n o t u p atta*
With t h i s background, in m ind, i f we p roceed to

1. AK.Oh*i 6 3 , n * l
2* I b id * , Ch*i 63; o f * a ls o La S id d h i 193 f f *
3* AK*Ch*i 63 _ ! _
4* Gf*Les s^ p t dbatus de p en sjfe, l e dharmadhatu e t 1* a u d ib le
(%abdadhatu) ne so n t ;jamai§ appro p r ig s * - I b i d * *Qh»i 62
examine the meaning a ssig n ed to upadinna in the
Dhammasans; anT and a ls o the meaning rev ea led from i t s usage
in d iffe r e n t c o n te x ts , i t s id e n t if ic a t io n w ith upatta
p resen ts some d i f f i c u l t i e s *
She DhammasanganT makes i t abundantly c le a r that
what i s c a lle d upladinna rupa comes in to being through the
a c tio n o f kamma (kammassa k atatta)*^ However, t h is
statem ent does not in i t s e l f c o n s titu te a se r io u s d i f f i c u l t y
in id e n tify in g i t w ith upatta rupa* For the Koga*too ,
refer s, to a category o f rTTpas sa id to be the r e s u lt of
karma (v ip a k a ja ), th e con ten ts of which are the same a s
those enumerated under u p a tta .2 I t could th erefo re be
argued th a t when the DhammasanganT s ays th a t upadinna
rupa comes in to being through the a c tio n o f kamma, t h is
has to be understood,not as a d e fin itio n o f upadinna as
such, but as an exp lan ation on the o r ig in o f the rupa ao
designated*
There i s however some p o s itiv e evidence which su g g ests
th at upadinna i s not used in the same sense as. upeTtta*
The evidence comes from another passage o f the PhammasanganT
purpoting to g iv e the complete denotation o f the term
upadinna. To the question:"what dhammas are upeTdinnaT,?,r
271

i t provides the fo llo w in g answer:


uSasava k us a lak us a la n am dhammaaani vipaka kgfmsTvacara
rupavacara arTTpsTvacara vedanakkhandho sannakkhandho
sankharakkhandho vinnanakkhandho - yan oa rupam lcamraassa
k a ta tta “ - ime dhamma upadinna
This statem ent makes i t abundantly c le a r th at not
on ly rupa but a ls o the other four khandhas th a t come in to
being through the a c tio n o f kamma (vip ak a, kammassa k a ta tta )
are con sid ered as upadinna. On the other hand, as
s ta te d in the Kofia,m ental elements, (vedana, sanna, e t c . , )
are not c a lle d upeftta - a fa c t im plied by the; very
d e f in it io n g iv e n to i t : !,ce que la pensg.e e t l e s mentaux
prennent . . . en q u a litd de support11.
To sum up the d iffe r e n c e s w hile the PhammasanganT
uses upadinna to denote a l l r e s u lta n t s t a t e s o f kamma,
mental as w e ll as m a te r ia l, the Kofcuses upatta to
d e sig n a te those rupa-dhammas which the mind and th e
m in d -factors take as th e ir support*
I t cou ld however be s a id th at the o r ig in a l meaning
of upadinna i s the same as th at o f upatta and th at when
the PhammasanganT uses i t to include m ental elem ents as.

1 . Q p .c it . . 211; see a ls o 255


■v E.B.j s to why the term vipaka is not used in r e sp ect
o f rupa which a r is e s as a r e s u lt of kamma, see b e lo w ,283-4-
272

w e ll, i t has i l l e g i t i m a t e l y extended the meaning of th e


term* Herein we are concerned w ith the meaning of upadinna
80 used in the DhammasahganT* Whether i t rep resen ts a
subsequent development or n o t, I s another question*
Such a view cou ld however be m aintained i f th ere i i

were evidence in the e a r lie r t e x t s - the S u ttas for


in sta n ce - which would lend support to the meaning
a ssig n ed to upatta in the Ko|a* An exam ination of' some
passages in the S u ttas shows th a t n eith er the DhammasanganT
is
nor the Kosa^representin g the o r ig in a l meaning.
In a numbei^ o f S u ttas the term upsTdinna occurs; in
a sto c k formula where the four mahabhutas are described*
Each mahabhHta.. i s sa id to e x is t e ith e r in te r n a lly
(a^Jhattaip paccattam ), i* e * , as part o f the complex th at
makes the in d iv id u a l or e x te r n a lly (b’a h ir a ), i* e , , in the
n on sen tien t world* The d is t in c t io n in q u estion i s sought
to be e s ta b lis h e d by d esig n a tin g the former as up'adinna*
©uch b o d ily c o n s titu e n ts as t e e t h , h a ir , n a i l s , b on es, blod d,
e t c * , are c it e d as up'adinna*^ Although the n eg a tiv e term ,
anupadiima does not occu r, y et we may say th a t the rupa
which en ters in to the com position of t r e e s , h i l l s , ro c k s,
e tc • , i s anup'adinna,t •
In the Mahahatthipadopama Sutta where t h is d is t in c t io n

1 . O f* e.g * , M .i, 185 ff* J 421 ff*


275

i s extended to the sTklTsa-dlxatu as w e ll , upadinna i s


exp lain ed as th at which i s appropriated by craving ~
tanhupadinna* ^
• ** « a

Thus in the S u ttas upadinna i s used to d is tin g u is h


the rupa th a t e n ters in to the com position o f liv in g
beings from other in sta n c e s of rupa* Since upadlgna i s
fu rth er exp lain ed as Htanhup‘adinnatf, i t may be asked why
on ly the m atter o f the body i s so cfesignated* The answer
i s provided in the same passage where the term i s exp lain ed :
One ap propriates one’s own body with craving (tantia)
which m an ifests i t s e l f in such thoughtsas. "This am" I 11
is
(ahan t i ) , "Thisyymine" (maman t i ) andtfI am (th is )"
(asmT t i ) , 2 Accompanied by craving such thoughts can be
d ir e c te d to other th in g s , too* B u t, in the main, i t i s
one’ s own body th at one appropriates w ith craving,, w ith i t
one id e n t i f i e s o n eself* I t i s up'adinna par ex cellen ce*
And in t h is sense the terra i s used to q u a lify only the
body (so as to d is tin g u is h i t from other in sta n c e s o f
m atter)*
Buddhaghosa* s i*emarks in t h is con n ection are q u ite
s ig n if i c a n t . Commenting on upadinna as used in the Suttas
he observes th a t i t means: “daJ.haiji adinnani aham maman t i
— — 3
evara dalham adinnara gahitam pararaajJhara1** In point of

1 . M . i ,. 185
2* I b id * lo c * c it * ,
3 . Vism*349
274-

fa ct^ th e commentators were quite aware th a t in the e a r lie r


t e x t s upadi^ina was used in a sen se d iffe r e n t from the
sense in which i t came to be used in the Abhidhamma. For
in s ta n c e , the commentator of the Malilihimanik'a ya observes
th at upadinna (as used in the Ma.1 .ihimanikaya) r e fe r s to
a l l rupa, ir r e s p e c tiv e of the d is t in c t io n as to whether
i t i s kamma-caused or n o t, th at en ters in to th e com position

* 1
of the body (sarTratJhaka-rupa)#
That the e a r lie r meaning o f upadinna is: d iffe r e n t
from e ith e r o f the meanings given to i t by th e
DhammasanganT and the Koda i s fu rth er confirm ed by the
d iffe r e n c e in the item s brought under the term. Since the
S u ttas understand upadinna as r e fe r r in g to the rupa th at
c o n s tit u te s the body, they bring under i t such th in g s a s
h a ir , b on es, b lo o d , u r in e , excreta e t c * ^ For the
Dhammasanffan?. sin c e up'sdinna~ru pa means the rupa th at
a r is e s by way of kammic f r u it i o n , i t e lim in a te s from the
category so d esign ated such riapa-dbammas as the tr ia d o f
lahutla e t c . , because th ey are cittasam utth'ana.^ For th e Ko&a

1 . Cf.Upadinnam t i na kammasamutthanam ev a , a v isesen a pana


sa rira fth a k a ssa etam gahanam* SarTratthakam h i upadinnam
va hotu anupadinnam va adinne^gahita~paramatihavasena*
sabbam upefdinnam eva riama* - o p . c i t . , i i 222**
2 . Bee e . g . M .i 183 f f . ; 421 f f .
3« Bee Dhs. l¥ 6
t
2?5

sin c e upatta means 11ce que la pens£e e t l e s mentaux


prennent . . . en quality. &e support (adhis$h1ana)n , ^
e lim in a te s from the category so d esign ated such things,
as the h ea d -h a ir, b o d ily h a ir , n a ils and t e e th - lten
exceptant la r a c in e , la q u e lle e s t li £ e au corps ou organe
a.u t a c t ” - and e x c r e ta , u r in e , s a liv a , mucus, blood e t c . ^
Prof.D e la V allSe P oussin has drawn a tte n tio n to
the fa c t th at the “Majjhima i i i 240, rep rod u it dans
Pit'aputras.am'agama, donne le s cheveux . . . l e s excrements,
comme ajahattani paccattam kakkhalam upsuiinnam” . Since
mm O
tfl e s cheveux ne sont pas upadinna” , he i s inelin& d to
b e lie v e th a t one has confused the a^ jh attik a-ru p a w ith
upatta-x^pa. I t appears to us th at i t i s not n ecessary
to exp lain away the anomaly in qu estion by p u ttin g i t down
to a con fu sion between upadinna and ajjjh atta. The anomaly
p e r s is t s because i t is concerned with a term which has two
m eanings, the e a r lie r and the la t e r . I f in the S u ttas a
term occurs in a sense d iffe r e n t from what i t has assumed
su b seq u en tly, t h is i s understandable. For when a term
acquired, a d iffe r e n t meaning su b seq u en tly, attem pts were not
always made to change the co n tex ts in which the self-sa m e

1 . AK.Ch.i 63
2 . i . e . , from the point of view of the Koga d e f in it io n .
3*^ ^K.Oh.i 6 3 , n *l
276

term had been used in the o r ig in a l se n se , so as to bring


a l l in lin e w ith the la t e r meaning* Sometimes even in th e
•4

same work both meanings do occuri In the Vibhanga * fo r


in s ta n c e , upadinna i s used in the H^kayan sen se as w e ll as.
in the sense in which i t i s used in the DhammasanganT*
Since the meaning o f upa&ijina o f th e DhammasahganT
i s d iffe r e n t from th at of upsTtta of the Kola and both
from that su ggested by i t s usage in the S u tta s , we may
reasonably assume th at the f i r s t two ca ses are two
separate developments of the o r ig in a l idea* I t may
however be noted here th a t sin c e the Kola does not bring
mental elem ents under up*atta, to that ex ten t i t i s more
f a it h f u l to the e a r lie r * The term i s ex p la in ed in a
s im ila r way in the Abhidharmamrta o f Ghosaka* where a lso
• M a p a m iP X M M w p w A a iM i •-

a l l th e m ental elem ents are excluded from th e category of


— 2
upatta*
Even th e P sili commentaries and the tTk*as do not
len d any support to the in te r p r e ta tio n of the upadinna o f
the DhammasanganT in the lig h t o f the upatta o f the Kola*
They a l l agree in m aintaining th a t the rupa so d esign ated
i s karamaja or kammasamutthana*^ The Visuddhimaaga observes
th g t i t i s c a lle d so because i t i s grasped by kamma - "tami

QP*Qit * * /3
2* Qf *&stad|,asu k a ty u p a tta te / k a ti niranu pat t a l i - / / nava
(upaltanup’attabhedena dvividhsTjg)/ indriyena saha pratyutpan-
na upatta^/cittacaitasikadharm anaraasahabhavat//- o p . c i t . .58;
3* See ^ sl* 3 3 6 -7 ; &PS»28; ADSS* 121:
277

M . _ _ 4

karamena u p a d in n a tta upadirngLag)11• The e x p la n a t io n g iv e n


i n th e VibhsfvinT yT ka. a lth o u g h alm ost th e same, seems t o
combine th e two meanings g i v e n t o i t i n th e S u t ta s and i n
th e PhammasahganT: ‘‘t a n h i - d i t t h T h i upetena kammuna a tta n o
2
phalabhetvena adinnattia** s* 11(so termed) b eca u se i t has been
g r a sp e d a t by th e karma th a t i s c l o s e l y a t t e n d e d w ith
c r a v in g and erroneous o p i n i o n , by way o f i t s own fruit** *^
However i t s h o u ld n o t be o v e r lo o k e d here t h a t i n th e
com m entarial works th e Hik*ayan e x p la n a t io n o f upadinna
i s a l s o r e c o g n is e d .
The ite m s brought under upadinna may be c o n s id e r e d
now* On th e b a s i s o f up’adiajtna and i t s n e g a t i v e anupsidinna,
th e PhammasanganT a r r a n g e s th e rupa-dhammas i n t o three.
groups* 4
The f i r s t group i s i n v a r i a b l y up'adinna. I t cons i t s o f
th e e i g h t in d r iy a - r u p a s , nam ely, th e f i v e s e n s e - o r g a n s ,
th e two f a c u l t i e s o f s e x and th e f a c u l t y o f l i f e *
The se c o n d group i s som etim es upadinna and som etim es
anupadinna* I t c o n s i s t s o f e le v e n i t e m s , n am ely, th e fo u r
mahabhutas, r u p a , gandha, r a s a , ah ara , 'ak'asa-dhatu, upacaya
and s a n t a t i . These item s r e p r e s e n t th e ty p e o f rupa w ith w hich

l * Q p » o it* ,4 51
2*0 p . c i t * , 116
3 » 0 P d .l5 9 n . 6
4 #DtlS e X46
278

th e in d r iy a - r u p a s are a s s o c i a t e d . S in c e th e in d r iy a - r u p a s
are a v a r i e t y o f upeida-rupa, th e y cannot e x i s t w ith o u t
h ein g ; su p p o rted by th e matiabh"utas. And th e raahlabhutas cannot
e x i s t in d e p e n d e n tly o f fo u r o f th e u p a d a -rS p a s, nam ely,
r u p a , gan dh a, ra sa and aiaara.^ T h is e x p l a i n s th e p resen ce
o f th e f i r s t e i g h t item s i n th e secon d group# The i n c l u s i o n
o f akasa-dtiatu seem s to have been n e c e s s i t a t e d by the need
to account f o r any c a v i t i e s or h o l e s i n v o lv e d i n th e
c o n s t i t u t i o n o f th e s e n s e -o r g a n s# The i n c l u s i o n o f upacaya
and s a n t a t i appears r a t h e r stra n g e# We have s e e n t h a t b o th
s i g n i f y th e growth o f th e m a tter o f th e body# T h e ir
i n c l u s i o n i n t h i s group shows t h a t a c c o r d in g t o th e l o g i c
o f th e DhammasanganT th e growth o f th e upadigna rupa i s i t s e l f
upadina. In o th e r words th e growth o f th e kamma-caused
rupa i s a l s o c o n s id e r e d as kamma-caused*
Why th e ite m s in c lu d e d i n t h i s (s e c o n d ) group are n o t
r e c o g n iz e d as i n v a r i a b l y up'adinna i s not f a r to s e e k . When
th e y e x i s t i n a s s o c i a t i o n w ith th e in d r iy a - r u p a s th e y are
upadinna and when th e y e x i s t o th e r w ise th e y are anupadinna#
I t w i l l be s e e n th a t i n t h i s (se c o n d ) group th ere
are some item s ifhich i n th e commentaries are brought under
th e h e a d in g , anipphanna. We have a lr e a d y n o te d th a t i n the
view o f th e com m entators, s t r i c t l y s p e a k in g , none o f th e

1# Bee above , 103-4* v b e l o w , 35 3, 3 7 2-3


279

an ip p h an n a-ru p as aan be d e s c rib e d as karamasamutthaha (=t


upadinna) although, th e y can be s«o d e s c r ib e d i n an i n d i r e c t
1
way ( p a r iy a y a to ) or in a c o n v e n tio n a l s e n s e . Hence from
t h e i r p o in t of v ie w , s t r i c t l y speaking,- ak’asa-dheTtu,
upacaya and s a n t a t i are n o t upstdfnna.
The t h i r d group i s in v /a ria b ly anup*adinna. It
c o n s i s t s o f e i g h t i t e m s , namely th e two v i n n a t t i s , th e t r i a d
of la h u ta * muduta and kammannata, ja r a tU and a n i c c a t a , and
sadda* Elsew here in th e DhammasanganT th e f i r s t f i v e item s
a re b ro u gh t under th e h ead in g , c i tta s a m u ltt ia n a .2 This,
e x p la in s why th e y a re co m p lete ly ex cluded from th e c a te g o r y
of up'adinna which i s Ukammasarautthana,r. The K ath av atth u
shows t h a t , a lth o u g h th e a u th o rs of th e Abhi&hamma P lta k a
had no o b j e c t i o n to a s s ig n in g causes to j a t i ( g e n e s is )
and u p a c a y a - s a n ta ti |- (grow th), th e y were n o t p re p a re d to
•M . X
t r e a t j a r a t a and a n i c c a ta In th e same way# I t is in
keeping w ith t h i s t r a d i t i o n t h a t j a r a t a and a n i c c a ta a r e
in c lu d e d i n t h i s group* For to have in c lu d e d them i n e i t h e r
of th e f i r s t two groups i s to r e c o g n is e t h a t they are; brought
about by kamma.
The r e c o g n i t i o n o f sadda (sound) Os i n v a r i a b l y
anupsTdinna shows t h a t , as th e V aib h asik as d o , t h e 'f h e r a v a d i n s ,

1 . See above ,184—5


2 . See a b o v e , 187, 200
3# See K v u .4 6 0 -4 6 2 ; 3 5 3 -3 5 5
280

t o o , do n o t co n sid er1 t h a t sound co u ld e v er r e s u l t from


karama. However th e r e were o th e r schools which m a in ta in e d
th e o p p o s ite view , namely t h a t sound, t o o , c o u ld be
c o n d itio n e d by karma* From th e K ath av atth u and i t s
Commentary one g a th e r s t h a t th e Mahasanghikas were of t h i s
opinion*
In s u p p o rt of t h e i r th e o ry th e y adduce ev id en ce
from a passage i n th e PTghaniklTyaf which ru n s as f o llo w s :
"He th ro u g h having w rought, having accu m u lated , having
p i l e d up, having in c r e a s e d such karma becomes re b o rn w ith
th e v o ic e of Brahma God, l i k e t h a t of th e karavTka b i r d 11-*
Hence th e Mahasanghikas m a in ta in t h a t sound c o u ld c e r t a i n l y
be a r e s u l t of karma* The T h erav a d in , on h i s p a r t does
n o t adduce a co n v in cin g counter-argum ent* He m erely says
t h a t sound i s n o t v ip a k a ; b u t , as we s h a l l soon s e e ,^ i n
th e te rm in o lo g y o f th e i^bhidhamma P ita k a v ip ak a i s g iv e n
a r e s t r i c t e d d e n o ta tio n to in c lu d e o n ly th o se r e s u l t s of
kamma which belong e x c l u s i v e ly to th e realm o f m ental
phenomena* Hence th e T h e ra v a d in 1s argum ent, b ased as i t
i s on th e d e f i n i t i o n o f vipalia - a d e f i n i t i o n which th e
non-Therava*din does no t a c c e p t - ta k e s th e whole c o n tro v e rs y
t o a d i f f e r e n t l e v e l w ith o u t p ro v id in g a d i r e c t answer

1. Gee Kvu*4 6 6 -7 and KvuA* 113


2. Q p * e it * . i i i , 1 7 3
3* T r a n s l a t i o n from P o in t s o f C o n tr o v e r s y *267
4* See b e lo w , 283
281

t o th e o p p o s it e v iew a s embodied i n th e c i t e d sen ten ce *


The com m entator, t o o , ev ad es th e i s s u e by o b se r v in g
t h a t th e Mahasanghikas hatee come to t h i s c o n c l u s i o n by a
c a r e l e s s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f th e q uotation *
While th e Theravada v iew i s sh a red by th e V a ib h a slk a s
the o p p o site view i s shared by the VatsixputrTyas and the
— 1 _
■tfibhajyavadins# The V a ib h a s ik a s , t o o , were c o n fr o n te d
•• * *

w ith a somewhat s i m i l a r passage o e c u r in g i n th e


Pr a l i n a p t i s a s t r a : *'This mark o f th e mahapuruaa which
one c a l l s 1v o ic e o f Brahma1 (brahmasvaratsi) r e s u lt s from
2
th e p e r f e c t p r a c t i c e o f a b s tin e n c e from i n j u r i o u s language** *
How i s t h i s t o be r e c o n c i l e d w ith th e t h e s i s t h a t sound i s
n ev er a karmic r e s u l t ? Two s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t answers are
g iv en * The f o l l o w i n g v ie w i s common to b o th : I t i s tru e
t h a t v o c a l sound i s produced by the c o n c u s s io n o f th e
mababhutas which have r e s u l t e d from karma; y e t , s i n c e th e
sound i t s e l f does n ot r e s u l t d i r e c t l y from k a r m a ,it i s not
to be re g a rd ed as karma-caused*^ However, a c c o rd in g t o th e
q u o t a tio n th e Brahm a-voice has i t s cau se i n th e good karma
accum ulated p r e v i o u s l y . As such i t r e c o g n iz e s th e f a c t th a t
th e n a tu re o f th e sound i s determ ined by th e p r e v io u s
karma#

1* See jtf£*Ch*i 6 9 , n#4


2* AK.Ch*d 6 9 -7 0
3# I b i d * * O h .i 70; s e e a l s o AKvy. i 70
282

What one can gather* from a l l t h i s i s t h a t th e e a r l y


B uddhist t e x t s - where th e mechanism of karmic f r u i t i o n
was n o t e x p la in e d i n d e t a i l - tools: th e g e n e r a l view t h a t
as a r e s u l t of good karama one could p o sse ss i n th e n ex t
b i r t h a good voice* This id e a i s c l e a r l y im p lie d i n th e
two q u o ta tio n s r e f e r r e d to# During th e p e r io d of th e
Abhidhamma s y s t e m a t i z a t i o n , when th e mechanism o f kammic
f r u i t i o n came to be e x p la in e d in more d e t a i l , some s c h o o ls
n o ta b ly th e T heravadins and th e V aibhagikas changed th e
e a r l i e r view# This change seems to have been n fe c e s s i t!a t e d
by t h i s r e a s o n : Of th e many rjjpa-dharamas o n ly th e in d r i y a
ru p as a re re c o g n iz e d as i n v a r i a b ly kamma-caused# However,
r u p a , gandha e t c # , t o o , must be in c lu d e d i n th e group of
dhammas which a re sometimes kamma-cuased because being
— 1
av in ib h og a ru p as th e y a r e n e c e s s a r i l y and in s e p a r a b ly
i n t e g r a t e d w ith the in d riy a -ru p a s # Sadda (s o u n d ), on th e
o th e r h a n d jis n o t an avinibhoga rupa# As such i t i s n o t
n e c e s s a r i l y c o - e x i s t e n t ; w ith every r^pa-dhamma* Hence i t s
com plete e x c lu s io n from th e categ o ry of kamma-caased r u p a
co u ld be e f f e c t e d w ith o u t v i o l a t i n g th e p r i n c i p l e
t h a t th e s e n se -o rg a n s and th e o th e r in d r iy a r^ p a s a re
b ro u g h t in to b ein g th ro u g h th e a c t i o n of lcamma#
C lo s e ly con n ected w ith th e th e o ry t h a t th e sense-organs;

1# See a b o v e , 103-4-
283

are karamasam utt liana i s the problem a r i s i n g from, th e


d e f i n i t i o n o f v ip a k a . I n fo u r o f th e K atliavatthu
c o n t r o v e r s i e s th e T heravadins deny th a t jfcupa can ever, be
vipaka.*1 S in c e vipalca as i t i s g e n e r a l l y u n d erstood means
th e r e s u l t s o f karama, t h i s d e n ia l a t f i r s t s i g h t /seems t o
c o n t r a d i c t Y/hat we have been s a y in g so f a r , namely th a t
some rupa-dharamas come i n t o b e in g through th e a c t i o n o f
karama*
The Theravada argum ents, how ever, p o in t t o a d i f f e r e n t
mm* « 2
c o n c lu s io h * A g a in s t th e a s s e r t i o n o f th e Matiasanghikas
namely t h a t th e s e n s e -o r g a n s are v ip a k a , th e f o l l o w i n g
o b je c tio n i s r a is e d ; "The vip ak a i s a m a tter o f f e e l i n g ,
p l e a s a n t , p a i n f u l or n e u t r a l ; i t i s c o n j o in e d w ith f e e l i n g
o f th e s e th r e e k in d s ; i t i s c o n jo in e d w ith m ental c o n t a c t ,
f e e l i n g , p e r c e p tio n and v o l i t i o n and th o u g h t; i t g o e s w ith
a m ental o b j e c t ; w ith i t go a d v e r t i n g , a t t e n t i o n , v o l i t i o n ,
a n t i c i p a t i o n and a im in g . Are th e f i v e s e n s e - o r g a n s an yth in g
o f t h i s kind?9 3 T h is counter-argum ent i s meant to show
t h a t i n th e v ie w o f th e T heravadins th e term i s a p p l ic a b l e
o n ly to th e m en ta l s t a t e s r e s u l t i n g from kamraa* In o th e r
w ord s, f o r th e TheraVadiLns v ip ak a i s e s s e n t i a l l y a
s u b j e c t i v e e x p e r ie n c e .

1* See K v$u536-7; a l s o 3 4 9 -5 2 ; 466-469


2 . i . e . , a cc o rd in g t o KvuA.1 3 6
3* P o in t s o f C o n tr o v e r s y .2675 (Kvu*467 f f * )
284

B u t t h i s d o e s n o t m ean t h a t t h e y o b j e c t t o t h e

r e c o g n i tio n o f the sense-organs as th e r e s u l t s o f kamma. It

o n l y m e ans t h a t i n t h e t e r m i n o l o g y o f t h e A h h i dhamma

P i t a k a th e term v ip a k a i s g iv e n a B e s t r i c t e d d e n o ta tio n *

The c o n t r o v e r s y c o n c e r n s a q u e s t i o n r e l a t i n g to the use

o f term s. I n a c t u a l f a c t b o th p a r t i e s a g re e w ith the

view t h a t t h e s e n s e - o r g a n s a r e k a m m a - r e s u lts . In p o in t

of f a c t ; t h e com m entator o b s e rv e s t h a t th e T h e ra v a d a argum ent

is m e a n t t o show t h a t t h e u s a g e ( v o h a r a j o f v i p a k a does

no t apply to t h e r u p a - d h a m m a s r e s u l t i n g f r o m kammic f r u i t i o n . ’*

T h i s e x p l a i n s why no o b j e c t i o n i s r a s i e d a g a i n s t kbhe

M a tia b a n g h i k a s * a s s e r t i o n t h a t t h e m a r i a y a t a n a c o u l d b e
— 2
v ip ak a. I t i s a l s o i n k eep in g w ith t h i s c irc u m s ta n c e
we
t h a t i n t h e DhammasahganT p a s s a g e w h i c h ^ h a v e q u o t e d a b o v e , 3

w h ile th e f o u r k h an d h as w hich r e p r e s e n t t h e m e n ta l e le m e n ts

a r e d e s c r i b e d a s vip*aka, th e rupa-dham m as a r e s e p a r a t e l y

m en tio n ed w ith th e q u a l i f i c a t i o n : k am m assa k a t a t t a .

M ost p r o b a b l y i t is th is phrase th a t l a t e r gave r i s e to

k a t a t t a - r u p a w h i c h , i n t h e P a t t t f a n a ^ became t h e s t a n d a r d

te rm f o r kam m asam utthana r u p a .

1 . C f .R u p a d h am m esu p a n a y a m v o i i a r o v a n a t t h T t i d a s s e t u m
puecheT s a k a v a d i s s a . - &vuA. I 5 6
2 . See K v u .467 f f #
3 . See above ,2 7 1
4 . O f . e . g . , T k g * 5 j r E k g * l 6 , 17
285

Whether th e s e n s e -o r g a n s are th e r e s u l t o f one kamma


or o f a m u l t i p l i c i t y o f kammas i s a n oth er q u e s t i o n t h a t
drew th e a t t e n t i o n o f th e B ud d h ists* HsTgasena co n firm s
th e l a t t e r a l t e r n a t i v e . J u s t a s - so runs th e i l l u s t r a t i o n
- f i v e d i f f e r e n t see d s sown i n a f i e l d l a t e r y i e l d f i v e
d i f f e r e n t k in d s o f f r u i t s , even so the f i v e s e n s e -o r g a n s
r e s u l t from d iv e r s e kammas and not from one kamma*. 1
Buddhaghosa, t o o , seems to have had th e same th e o r y
i n mind when he sa y s t h a t th e d i f f e r e n c e betw een th e
s e n s e -o r g a n s i s due to k am m a-visesa, th e d i f f e r e n c e i n the
kammas o f which th e y are th e r e s u l t s * 2
However, h i s commentator i n t e r p r e t s 11kam m a-visesa”'
n o t as r e f e r r i n g to a m u l t i p l i c i t y o f kammas, but as.
r e f e r r i n g to a s i n g l e karama h avin g th e p o t e n t i a l i t y o f
d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g th e s e n se -o r g a n s* I n e x p la n a t io n i t i s
s a i d th a t^ a lth o u g h th e kamma;. i s o n e, a r i s i n g as i t i s
from th e d e s i r e f o r a mode o f e x i s t e n c e (attabh ava). com plete
w ith f i v e - s e n s e - b a s e s ., y e t , s i n c e i t i s th e ca u se o f th e
d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f the s e n s e - o r g a n s , i t i s d e s c r ib e d as
n,kamma-visesa,l^ I t i s f u r t h e r o b serv e d t h a t th e d i f f e r e n c e

1 . M il, 6 5
2 . Vism»445 ^ ^ ^
3 . Cf,Ekam p i kammam pa.ncayatanikattabhavabhayapatthana
nipphanneygi c a k k h a d iv is e s e h e tu t’aya annamannassa as'adharanan
t i ca kammaviseso t i ca vuttam t i datthabbam - V ism l^ W f
286

o f t h i s kamma b y w hich i t i s a c o n d i t i o n ( p a c c a y a )
f o r t h e o r g a n o f s i g h t by t h a t same d i f f e r e n c e i t i s n o t
a c o n d i t i o n f o r t h e o r g a n o f h e a r i n g a n d so o n , f o r o t h e r w i s e
1
t h e r e w i l l n o t be d i f f e r e n c e b e tw e e n t h e s e n s e - o r g a n s . -
I t i s v e r y u n l i k e l y t h a t Buddhaghosa had u s e d ttkamma~
v i s e s a u i n t h e same s e n s e a s h i s c o m m en tato r i n t e r p r e t e d
it* The p r o b a b i l i t y i s r a t h e r t h a t he meant a m u l t i p l i c i t y
o f kammas, a s was r e c o g n i s e d by l^fagasena. Since “b tiu ta-
2
v i s e s a 1* w h ich o c c u r s i n t h e same s e n t e n c e means t h e
d i f f e r e n c e b e tw e e n t h e p r i m a r y e l e m e n t s ( p l u r a l ) i t seems
more p r o p e r t h a t kam m a-v isesa t o o s h o u l d be s i m i l a r l y
in terp re te d .
ftfhat i n t e r e s t s us more h e r e i s t h e f a c t t h a t b o t h
e x p l a n a t i o n s a t t e m p t ^ t o show t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e tw e e n
t h e s e n s e - o r g a n s i s due t o t h e kamma o r kammas o f w h ic h
th ey are the r e s u l t s . The r e a s o n f o r t h i s i s n o t f a r t o
seek. We saw how c e r t a i n B u d d h i s t s , a d o p t i n g a V a i d i s i k a
t h e o r y , m a in ta in e d t h a t th e d i f f e r e n c e betw een th e
s e n s e - o r g a n s was due t o t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e i r s u p p o r t i n g

1 . Ha h i tam yena v i s e s e n a cakkhussa paccayo ten ev a s o t a s s a


paccayo kot*, in d r iy a n ta r g b h a v a p p a ttito * - VismT.4 4 4
2 ». Kim pana tam yani annamannassa as'adiiaranam, kammap eva
nesam v isesa k a ra p a m , tasnia kam m avisesalo*etesam v i s e s o
na b h u t a v i s e s a t o . - V ism .445
287

primary element®• We...;aIso n o tic e d what prevented the



Theravadins from accep tin g th at th eory. 1 This c la r ifie s.- why
both exp lan ation s i n s i s t on the f a c t th at the d iffe r e n c e
between the sen se-organ s i s due to the kamma or kammas o f
which they are the r e s u lt s ,
P in a lly ,a f a c t which has been im p lic it; in the fo r e ­
going account of kammasamutjhana rupa should be made
e x p li c it here: The rupa th at comes in to being through the
a c tio n of kamma does not obtain o u tsid e o f the body o f a
liv in g b ein g. This i s on ly an im p lica tio n a r is in g from
— 2
the fa c t that on ly the in d riy a -ru p a s, the hadaya-vatthu
and what i s in sep arab ly a sso c ia te d w ith them are recogn ised
as kamma samuttlaana,
•#
However, there had been a tendency on th e part of
c e r ta in Buddhists to extend the sphere of kammic in flu en ce
on rupa* Since human a c tio n i s sometimes d ir e c te d to ga in
domination and so v e r e ig n ty over the earth som£ Buddhists
are recorded to have concluded that the earth i t s e l f is the
r e s u lt of kamma.-3 This view which the Theravadins a ttr ib u te

1 , See above, 137 f f -


2 . i . e . , ^according to the commentaries, see above? /78
3* Cf*Hanei a t t h i issariya-saipvattanikam kammanj adhipacca-
samvattanikam kammam, tena vata re vattabbe* pathavT-
kamraavip'ako - Kvu, 332
288

to the ibndhakas i s r e je c te d by the former as com pletely


u ntenable. Their counter-argum ent, in b r i e f , i s as:
fo llo w s :
I f the earth were the r e s u lt of kamma then e ith e r
one liv in g being or a l l the liv in g beings in common should
be resp o n sib le fo r the kamma in question# The f i r s t
h yp othesis i s not ten ab le because in th a t case many w i l l
enjoy the f r u i t of kamma fo r which on ly one i s r e sp o n sib le .
The secon d i s eq u a lly untenable because a l l b ein gs do not
share the use of the earth : there are th ose who u t t e r ly
pass away (p arin ih b ayan ti) w ithout enjoyin g the use o f i t .
But i t i s im p ossib le - so the argument runs - fo r one
to pass away u t t e r ly w ithout exhausting the r e s u lt of
*i
kamma fo r which he or she i s r e s p o n sib le .
The o b je c tio n of the Theravadins i s s ig n if ic a n t in
th at i t shows th at they d id not want to modify the view.*
namely th a t one is resp o n sib le fo r a l l the consequences:
a r is in g from one*s own kamma. This view i s s a id to be

1* See Kvu, 549 f f ; O f.a lso the fo llo w in g passage from D ivy.
^"^sPUrnena karmani krtahy u p acitan i ko*nyah pratyanu—
b h a v isg a ta / na bhiksavah karmani krtyany u p acitan i vahye
prtihividhata^u vipacyante nabdhatau*na tejodhatau na vayu-
dhatav api tU pattesv eva skandh’atvayatanejsu karmani
krtyany u p acitan i vipacyante Subhanyalubhani c a /
289

_ A
su p p o rted by a s ta n z a i n th e Khuddakapatha where i t i s

s t a t e d t h a t kammie f r u i t i o n i s n o t commonly en jo y e d by a l l
(asadh’aranam annesam:), E q u a lly s i g n i f i c a n t i s th e o p p o s it e
v ie w i n t h a t i t seems t o show th e b e g in n in g o f an a ttem p t
to r e l a t e th e r e s u l t s o f kamma t o a w ider b a s i s or i f we
may sa y so to " s o c i a l i z e ’1 th e f r u i t i o n o f kamma.
The arrangement o f rupa-dhammas on the b a s i s o f
c itta s a m u tth a n a and i t s n e g a t iv e may be c o n s id e r e d now.
The term c i t t a s a m u t t h n a , as o b served by Mrs, Rhys
- 3
D a v id s , d oes n o t im ply c r e a t i o n o f rupa by mind. In our
a cco u n t o f th e two v i n n a t t i s i t was s t a t e d t h a t some ru p a -
dhammas a r i s e i n r e sp o n se t o a th o u g h t, wholesome ( k u s a l a ) ,
unwholesome (a k u s a la ) or n e u t r a l (a v y a k a ta ),^ The
i m p l ic a t i o n i s n o t t h a t th e y a r e c r e a t e d but s e t up or
prompted by mind. I t i s p r e c i s e l y f o r t h i s r e a so n t h a t
i n th e P atth an a c o n s c io u s n e s s ( c i t t a ) and i t s co n co m ita n ts

( c e t a s i k a ) a re i n s t a n c e d as a sah aj'ata-p accay a ( c o n d i t i o n


by way o f c o -n a s e h n c e ) i n r e l a t i o n to a l l rupadhammas
— 5
q u a l i f i e d by c itta s a m u tjh a n a *
A& i n th e c a s e o f up'adinna and i t s n e g a t i v e , on the
b a s i s o f c itta s a m u tth a n a and i t s n e g a t iv e a l l riipa-dhammas

1 , Op . c i t . , 7
2. Kvu,351
3* B ud.B sy.E thics ,1 8 8 . n .3
4, see above, 187, 202
5# Tkp.3 see b elo w , 320
290

are c l a s s i f i e d i n t o t h r e e groups* The f i r s t i s r e c o g n is e d as


i n v a r i a b l y c itta s a m u tth a n a and i t c o n s i s t s o f th e two
v in n a ttis. We have a lr e a d y shown th a t t h e s e two item s are
n ot two d i s c r e t e rupa-dhammas i n the s e n s e t h a t each s i g n i f i e s
an ak*ara-vilcara ( a p a r t i c u l a r p o s i t i o n or s i t u a t i o n ) o f
a s e t o f ( o t h e r ) rupa-dhammas.^ We have a l s o drav/n, a t t e n t i o n
t o th e f a c t t h a t s i n c e th e s e t o f rupa-dhammas i n q u e s t io n
i s citta sa r a u tJ h a n a , th e DhammasanganT has th ou gh t i t
proper to e x te n d th e same d e s c r i p t i o n to the two v i n n a t t i s ,
t o o .3 And once th e two v i n n a t t i s are d e s c r ib e d as
citta s& m u jt’hana i t i s but proper th a t t h i s d e s c r ip t io n ,
s h o u ld be f u r t h e r q u a l i f i e d as "in v a r ia b ly X • For each o f
them r e p r e s e n t s an akeTra-vikara o f o n ly th o s e rupa-dhammas
which are eittasamut^th'ana*
The secon d group comes under b oth h e a d in g s , i . e . *
citta sa m u tth ifn a and i t s n e g a t i v e . I t in c lu d e s, th e fou r
m ahabhutas, r u p a , gandha, r a s a , *ah*ara, sa d d a , a k a s a -d h a tu ,
th e t r i a d o f lah uE a, e t c . , upacaya and s a n t a t i . T h eir
i n c l u s i o n under th e n e g a t i v e heading i s b eca u se o f th e sim p le
r e a so n th q t th e y do not always a r i s e i n r e s p o n s e t o , or
c o n d it io n e d by c o n s c io u s n e s s ( c i t t a ) . T h e ir i n c l u s i o n under
th e p o s i t i v e heading i s b ecaaae o f the f a c t t h a t th e y a re

1 . See D h s.1 4 7 -8
2 . See ab ove, 1 9 9 -2 0 0 , 204
3* See ab ove, 200
291

th e k in d o f rupa-dhammas th e akair a - v i kar a s o f which are


r e p r e s e n t e d by th e two v i n n a t t i s . i n t h i s c a s e th e y a re
c it t a s a m u t t h ’an a. As to th e s e l e c t i o n o f th e item s in c lu d e d
i n t h i s g r o u p , th e f o l l o w i n g f a c t s may be n o te d h e r e . The
f i r s t e i g h t item s are th e b a s ic e lem en ts p r e s e n t i n ev e ry
in s t a n c e o f rufpa* The n i n t h , i . e . , sadda r e f e r s to v o c a l
sound a s s o c i a t e d w ith v a c T v i n n a t t i . A k a sa -d h a tu , w h ic h ,
i n t h i s c a s e ^ r e p r e s e n t s the c a v i t i e s and h o le s i n th e
b ody, i s a l s o c o n n e c te d w it h th e v i n n a t t i s . In th e p ro d u c tio n
o f v o c a l sound th e c a v i t y i n th e mouth, f o r i n s t a n c e , has
i t s part t o play* The t r i a d o f l a h u t a , e t c . , which r e p r e s e n t s
b o d i l y e f f i c i e n c y c o u ld f a c i l i t a t e b o d i l y movements
in v o lv e d i n k a y a v i n n a t t i . T h e s e , i t seems to u s , are the
r e a s o n s f o r r e c o g n is i n g th e f i r s t t h i r t e e n ite m s as
(so m etim es) c itta sa m u tth 'a n a . The i n c l u s i o n o f upacaya and
s a n t a t i need not d e te r us h e r e . What we have s a i d about
t h e i r i n c l u s i o n under up*adinna a p p li e s h e r e , t o o .
In th e above (s e c o n d ) group we f i n d c e r t a i n item s
w hich i n th e com mentaries are r e c o g n is e d as anipphanna.
Hence from t h e i r p o in t o f v ie w , s t r i c t l y s p e a k in g , a l l
such item s are n ot c itt a s a m u t th ’ana•
The t h i r d group i s n ever c itt a s a m u j th ’an a. I t con sists
o f th e e i g h t in d r iy a - r u p a s and jaratsT and a n i c c a t a 1* The
f i r s t e i g h t , as we have s e e n , are i n v a r i a b l y up'adtoa, i . e . ,
292

kammasamutjhaha* Ilenoe th e y must he in c lu d e d i n t h i s group*


The i n c l u s i o n o f th e n e x t two item s i s b eca u se no cau se
1
o r c o n d i t i o n is ja s s ig n e d t o them
The two h e a d in g s , upadjgna ( kammas amutth!ana) and
c it t a s a m u t t h a n a , which we have c o n s id e r e d so f a r im ply two
g e n e r a t iv e c o n d i t i o n s (sam u tjhan a-p accaya) o f ru p a , namely
kamma and c i t t a * To t h i s th e commentators add u t u fand
ahara*
Utu (tem p erature or se a so n ) i s a n o th er name f o r t e j o
dhatu which i s one o f th e mahabhutas?and which r e p r e s e n t s
th e phenomenon o f h e a t and c o l d . Aiiara i s th e same as
kabalihliara^ah’ara which i s one o f th e up’ad’a-rupas^ and
which r e p r e s e n t s th e n u t r i t i v e a s p e c t o f m a tt e r , th e
Q u a l i t y ” of n u tritio n * B0th are r e c o g n is e d as two g e n e r a t iv e
c o n d i t i o n s o f rupa* The k in d s o f rupa c o n d it io n e d bg? utu
and ahara are c a l l e d utusarautjhana and *aha*ra s amu11hema
2 —— — —
r e sp e c tiv e ly . While aharasamutthana rupa i s c o n fin e d to
th e body o f a l i v i n g b e in g , utusamujthana rupatofctains^botft.
i n t e r n a l l y and e x t e r n a l l y , i . e . , as part o f th e rupa t h a t
c o n s t i t u t e s th e body and a l s o o u t s id e o f i t

1 . Bee above, 279


2 . See Vism*566*451-2; Asl*34G f f .
3* See A D S *29; MP*39
293

F i n a l l y th e r e rem ains to be c o n s id e r e d th e
c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f th e rupa-dhammas i n t o two groups as
— 1
a j j h a t t i k a and b a h ir a . While th e f i v e s e n s e -o r g a n s are
brought under a j i h a t t ilea-rupa th e rem ainin g ite m s are
— * ?
brought under bahira* T h is arrangement i s not an Abhidhammic
in n o v a tio n f o r i t i s im p lie d i n the c l a s s i c a l l i s t (o f
tw e lv e a y a ta n a s arranged i n th e same way i n t o two g ro u p s.
With r e f e r e n c e to what are some item s a j a h a t t i k a
( i n t e r n a l ) and th e o th e r s b'ahira ( e x t e r n a l ) ^ B u d d h ist
e x e g e s i s g i v e s more th an one e x p la n a tio n and t h e y a l l
purport to show t h a t no im p l ic a t io n o f sttmavada sh o u ld be
a s s o c i a t e d w ith the term a j j h a t t i k a , lfb e lo n g in g t o th e
s e l f 11*
A ccord ing to one e x p la n a t io n - f r e q u e n t l y r e p e a te d
- a;j;jhattika means t h a t which b e lo n g s to th e a t t a . And
th e term a t t a i s i n t e r p r e t e d n o t a s r e f e r r i n g to s o u l but
as synonymous v/ith a tta b h a v a , i . e . , th e em p iric i n d i v i d u a l i t y
as composed o f m ental and p h y s ic a l f a c t o r s . S in ce th e
s e n s e -o r g a n s su ch as cakkhu, s o t a , e t c . , e x i s t o n ly as a
part o f th e com plex t h a t makes th e l i v i n g b e in g th e y are
c a l l e d a j j h a t t i k a , ub e lo n g in g to th e a tta b h a v a 1**^
There are howevei* o th e r rupa-dhammas which a l s o go

1 . See above, 264


2*. D h s.148
3 . See Vism>450 and ADSVyi l g
294

t o make th e l i v i n g b e in g . T h e refo re one may ask why th e y


are not brought under th e h e a d in g , a j j h a t t ik a - r u p a # The
e x c lu s io n , o f su ch item s as th e fo u r mahabhUtas i s
a
u n d ersta n d ab le f o r u n lik e th e s e n s e -o r g a n s th e y do not e x i s t
e x c l u s i v e l y as a part o f th e complex th a t makes th e l i v i n g
b e in g . Bat th e same i s n o t tr u e o f i t t h i n d r i y a , p u r i s i n d r i y a ,
r u p a - j T v it in d r iy a and hadagra-vatthu. Along w ith th e
s e n s e -o r g a n s t h e y , t o o , are r e c o g n is e d as i n v a r i a b l y
kammasaraut'Jhaha• B ecause o f t h i s v e r y fact"* - n o t to
m ention any o th e r - th e y n ever e x i s t o u t s i d e o f th e body o f
a l i v i n g being#

Sumangala, th e author o f th e VabhavinT tfESj, seems

t o have ta k en n o t i c e o f t h i s s i t u a t i o n when he o b s e r v e s
t h a t , as a m a tter o f fact*rupa-dhammas o th e r th an th e
s e n s e -o r g a n s a l s o go to make srp what i s c a l l e d a tta b h a v a ,b u t ,
as a m a tter o f c o n v e n t io n ,t h e l a t t e r a lo n e are d e s g in a t e d as*
a32,hattika-rupa* As an a l t e r n a t i v e e x p la n a t io n i t i s s a i d
t h a t th e s e n s e -o r g a n s a lo n e are a j j h a t t i k a par e x c e l l e n c e
( v i s e s a t o ) b ecau se th ey are so h e l p f u l to th e attab h ava
t h a t th e y seem to sa y ; " I f i t were not f o r us you would be
3
l i k e unto a l o g o f wood."

1 . See above ,2 8 7 - 9
2 . iiam an ^aS S e p i h i a j a h a 11 q s a m b h u ta a t t h i , r u l h T v a s e n a p a n a
cakkKadilfeam y e v a a j a 'h a t t i k a n i - ADSVJ.115
3 . A-fcha va ya d i mayam na horaa Ivajp ka^tjhalihgarupamo bhav/-
isaasi^ t i vadant'a v iy a a tta b h a v a ssa s a tisa y a m upakgiratta
cakkhadineva v i s e s a t o a j j h a t t i k a n i hama. - i S i d . l o c . c i t # *
295

The Abhidharmakoga^on th e o th er hand, ta k e s a'tman


as a synonymous term for c i t t a , c o n s c i o u s n e s s . C o n sc io u sn e ss
i s th e o b j e c t o f th e n o t i o n o f s e l f (ettman); i t i s t h a t
which th e p eo p le f a l s e l y ta k e to be t h e i r s e l f . H en ce,
by way o f metaphor , i t r e c e i v e s th e name, "atman. Then
i t o b s e r v e s th a t th e s e n s e -o r g a n s ( i n c l u d i n g th e mano-dtiatu)
are proxim ate (p r a ty a s a n n a , abhyasanna) to c o n s c i o u s n e s s >
b ecau se t h e y a r e , i n f a c t , i t s ff p o in t d ’ ap pu i11 (a£rgy« )«
For t h i s r e a s o n th e s e n s e -o r g a n s are d e s c r ib e d as ’adhyatmika
whereas r u p a , r a s a , e t c . , which become th e o b j e c t s o f
c o n s c io u s n e s s are d e s c r ib e d as bajiya, e x t e r n a l ( t o
A
c o n s c i o u s n e s s )•
What a l l th e s e e x p la n a t io n s attem p t to show i s t h a t
th e diohotem y^bdtween. a j j h a t t i k a (adhgatm ika) and b ah ira
(bahya) has no r e f e r e n c e to a s e l f ( a t t a ,^ t m a n ) . S in c e
th e B u d d h ist a t t i t u d e t o eitmavada i s one o f em phatic d e n ia l,;
as f a r as t h i s f a c t i s c o n c e r n e d , th e y are a l l E o r r e e t.
However, i n u n d erstan d in g why i n t h e DhammasamanT
o n ly th e s e n s e -o r g a n s are brought under th e heading
a j j h a t t ik a - r u p a * th e e x p la n a t io n g iv e n i n th e Abhidharmakoga
i s more h e l p f u l than any o t h e r . I f , as i s s u g g e s t e d by th e
o th e r e x p l a n a t i o n s , a ttab h a va i s th e c e n t r e w ith r e f e r e n c e

1 . AK.Gh^i 74 $ cfj^ .latmanam va c it t a m a d h ik r ty a g o dharniah


pratyasanna-bhava't et^raya-bhavena v a r t a n t e ! t e adhyatmikah.
- i^Kvy. i 74
296

to which th e d i s t i n c t i o n betw een " in te r n a l" (a jjh a ttik a )


and " e x t e r n a l ” (B a h ira ) i s e s t a b l i s h e d , th e n t h i s r a is e s ;
th e q u e s t io n as t o why such item s as th e two f a c u l t i e s o f
s e x are e x c lu d e d from the c a t e g o r y o f a j j h a t t ik a - r u p a .. The
q u e s tio n does n ot a r i s e i f , as i s s u g g e s t e d by th e
AbhidharmakojSa. c i t t a i s taken as th e p o in t o f r e fe r e n c e #
That i s to s a y , th e b a s e s o f su p p o rts ( v a t t h u , nis& aya) o f
c i t t a are i n t e r n a l t o i t whereas th e t h in g s t h a t become' i t s
o b j e c t s are e x t e r n a l to i t .
I t i s tr u e t h a t no c i t t a can a r i s e w ith o u t r e f e r e n c e
t o an o b j e c t , t o o . However, s i n c e th e s e n s e -o r g a n s are th e
v e r y b a s e s o f c i t t a i n t h i s s e n s e th e y are more proxim ate
to i t . T h is id e a seems t o be im p lie d by th e f a c t th a t the
(C onsciousnesses are named a f t e r t h e i r basfis a s c a k k h u —
vinnffna, s o t a - v in n a n a , e t c . ,
W; IV, f
The sta te m en t made i n th e
Commentary t o th e Fat:th a n a , namely th a t when co n sc io u sn e ss;

a r i s e s , i t seems to s p r in g f o r t h from w i t h i n th e s e n s e - o r g a n s ,1
i s b ased on th e same i d e a .
Sumahgalaf s statem en t, namely th at the use of the
term a jjh a ttik a to q u a lify on ly the sen se-organ s i s m ostly
a m atter o f co n v en tio n ,2 becomes more meaningful i f i t i s
understood in the co n tex t o f an ob servation made by

1 . Cf .A rupino h i khandlia cakkhadTnam. vatthunam| abbhantarato


n ikk h anta v iy a uppaj j a n t i . - Tkpt 53 -54
2* See above ,2 9 4
297

S th a v ir a (= BrTlaita)9 a c e l e b r i t y of th e D'ars.t'antika School*


The l a t t e r r i g h t l y p o in ts out t h a t th e d i s t i n c t i o n between
"adhyatmika and bahgra i s not a h ard and f a s t one (p ary ay ik am ):
As b a s e s o f co n sc io u sn e ss th e se n s e -o rg a n s alone are adhyatm ika,
b u t s in c e th e s e n s e -o rg a n s ,to o ^ can become th e o b je c ts of

co n sc io u sn e ss th e y become bahya as w ell* 1
S t h a v i r a 1s o b s e r v a tio n c o u ld be confirm ed from
an o th e r p o in t of view* From a V ibhasa p a s s a g e , c i t e d by
Prof* De l a V a lin e P o u s s in , one g a th e r s tharfc th e d if f e r e n c e
between th e two term s i s e s t a b l i s h e d from two o th e r p o in ts
of view ; (a ) l e s dhaimias qui se tro u v e n t dans lai personne
propre (svatm abhava) so n t p e rs o n n e ls ; ceux qui se tro u v e n t
ches a u t r u i e t a u s s i ceux he sont pas in t£ g r £ s aux
§ t r e s v iv a n ts (a ^ s a ttv a k h y a ) so nt e x t e r n e s ; (b) l e s dharmas
int<5gr£s aux e t r e s v iv a n ts peuvent § t r e p e r s o n n e ls ; les:
p
a u t r e s so n t e x t e r n e s *
A s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n o b ta in s i n the Vibhahga and th e
Dhammasahgan?: The two term s i n q u e s tio n a re used i n th e
a d v e r b i a l a s a jjh a tta m and bahiddba to s i g n i f y an o th e r
d i s t i n c t i o n * "Rupam a j jh a tt a m ’* deno tes th e rupa t h a t makes
up o ne’ s own person and "rupam bahiddha” t h a t which makes

1* S th a v ir a 'aha. p'aryayikam esamjjadhyatmika-b*ahyatva,m.


vijpanaham; ajSrayas te cjtksur-*aa.aya i t y a'dhyatmilcafi. mano
v i j n a n a - v i s a y a t v a t tu bahya iti* . - AKvy. i 40
2* AK.Oh.i 7 3 l n . l
298

1
up a l l o th e r l i v i n g beings* The p o in t of r e f e r e n c e d if f e r s ;
from person to p e r s o n . , To A h i s own body i s ajjjhattam b u t
to B i t i s bahiddtia. _ C u rio u s ly enough, t h i s does not take
in t o account th e rupa t h a t does not e n t e r i n t o th e
co m p o sitio n o f l i v i n g b e in g s . As such i t cannot be i d e n t i f i e d
w ith e i t h e r (a) o r (b) o f th e V ibhasa.■m m h o m m A m
Nor does i t f a l l i n
l i n e w ith th e Nik*ayas where th e two terms a re o f te n used
to e s t a b l i s h th e dichotomy between th e rupa t h a t
c o n s t i t u t e s th e body of th e l i v i n g being ahd th e rupa t h a t
o b ta in s o u ts id e o f i t . In th e Vikhanga and th e PhammasanganT
th e same p a i r o f terms i s a p p lie d to th e o th e r fo u r khandhas,
p
to o . P erhpas f o r th e sake of u n if o r m ity a s to c k form ula i s
used i n r e s p e c t o f rupa as w e ll as th e o th e r khandhas. This
e x p la in s why "rupani ajjjhattam " and "rupam bahiddha*1* as,
u n d e rsto o d by th e s e two w orks, do n o t r e p r e s e n t rTTpa i n i t s
to ta lity *

1. See Vbh.2 ; JDfcts. 187-8


2 . V bh-l f f j D hs.187^8 •
299

A b b reviation s
C la ssifieatio n -h ea d in g s
A = ups[&a a = anupl|d*a
B « u p a d i i i n a ______ b *3 anup][dinna ^ ^
G - u p ad in n u p ad an T y a 0 =3 anupadinnupsidanTya
D = sa n id a ssa n a d s= a n id a ssa n a
E = sa p p a tig h a e = ap p atig h a
F =• in d r i ye* f = na in d r iy a
G* = mahabliuta . g = na majaabliuta
H = v in n atti ^ h ss na tf i n n a t t i ^
I « ciVtasamutth'ana 1 = na o itta s a m u tt b ’ana
J 53 e i t t a s a h a b & u 3 =3 na aittasab aS & u
K = c i t t ’a n u p a r i v a t t i k *3 na c i t t 'a n u p a r i v a t t i
L = a jjh ia ttik a 1 as b a h ir a
M - o larik a ra = sjakhuma
B - san tik e n = dUre
M a te r ia l elem ents
1 = pathavT 10 = ru p a 19 = akasa^
2 = tjsfjo 11 = aadda 20 et lahutla
3 *3 vayo 12 = gandha 21 = muduta^
4 *3 *apo 13 = rasa 22 = kammanata
3 = cakkliu 14 = itth in d riy a 23 = upacaya
6 3= sota 15 s= p u r i s i n d r i y a 24 = santajfei
7 sa gliana 16 as jTv i t in d r iy a 25 = ja r a tii
8 = Jivha 17 = k a y a v ir m a tti 26 = aniceata
9 = Icaya 18 = v a c T v in n a tti 27 = ah ara
(H ad ay a-eatth u i s not known to tb e DhammasanganT)
* =5 a?he items i n d i c a t e d by t h i s mark comes under
upadinna as w e ll as under anupsTdinna (see
above, *277 ) o r under c itta s a ra u lJ h a n a as
w e ll as under na c itta s a m u tth a n a t^ e e
above, 290 ) **
C l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of the 1 s t S e c tio n

A a
5 -2 ? 1 -4
1
.B b
11 5 -9 ,1 4 -1 6 ,(1 -4 ,1 0 ,1 2 ,1 3 , 11 ,1 7 ,1 8 ,2 0 -2 2 ,2 5 ,2 6
1 9 ,2 3 ,2 4 ,2 7 )* (1 -4 ,1 0 ,1 2 ,1 3 ,1 9 ,2 3 ,2 4 ,2 7 )*
C c
5 - 9 , 1 4 - 1 6 , ( 1 - 4 , 1 0 ,12., 13 , 1 1 ,1 7 ,1 8 ^20 -2 2 ,2 5 ,2 6 ,
111 1 9 ,2 3 , 2 4 , 2 7 ) * (1 -4 ,1 0 ,1 2 ,1 3 ,1 9 ,2 3 ,2 4,27)*
D a
w 10 1-9,11-27
E 0
Y 1 -3 ,5 -1 3 4,14-27
P f
5 -9 ,1 4 -1 6 1-4 ,1 0 -1 3 ,1 7 -2 7
VI
a g
1 -4 5-27
V ll
H h.
17 ,18 1 - 6 , 1 9 -2 7
V lll
1 i
IX 1 7 , ?.8,( 1 - 4 , 1 0 - 1 3 , 1 9 - 2 4 , 5 -9 ,14- 1 6 ,2 5 ,2 6 , ( 1-4 ,
1 0 -1 3 ,19-24,27)*
J 3
1 7 ,1 8 1 - 1 6 , 1 9 -2 7
X

K k
1 7 ,1 8 1-16,19-27
XI
L 1
X ll 5 -9 1 -4,10-27
M m
X lll 1-3,5-13 4,14-27
nr n
XIV 1 -3 ,5 -1 3 4,14-27
301

Abbrev i a t i o n s •

O lassifica tio n -h e ad in g s
A - upa*da- a anuplada
B = u p la d in n a - b anup sT d inn a *'
0 = u p ad in n u p ad * an T y a c a n u pa d i nnu pa d a nT y a
D - sa n id a ssa n a d a n id a ssa n a
B = sa p p a tig h a e a p p a tig h a
J? ss i n d r i y a f na in d r iy a
G-= m a iia b h u ta g n a mah.abh.uta
11- v i n n a t t i h na v i n n a t t i
1 s= eitta sa ra u tth a n a i na c itta sa n rn tth la n a
J ~ cittjasahabfru j na c itta sa h a & K u
K = c itta n u p a r iv a tti k na c i t t 'a n u p a r i v a t t i
L = a j;jh a ttik a 1 b a h ira
M = o la rik a m s^ukhuma
N = sa n tik e n d*ure.

M a te r ia l elem ents
1 = p a th av T 10 = ru p a 19 akasa^
2 = te jjo 11 sadda 20 la h u ta
3 = v*ayo 12 = gandha 21 m u d u ta ^
4 - apo 13 - rasa 22 kamrnanat'a
5 = cakkhu 14 = itth in d riy a 23 upaeaya
6 = sojba 15 « p u risin d riy a 24 s a n ta t i
7 = ghana 16 - jT v itin d riy a 25 ja ra ta ^
8 = jiv h a 17 = k a y a v in n a tti 26 a n ic c a t'a
9 = Icaya 18 = v a c T v in n a tti 27 ‘a h a r a

( H a d a y a - c a t t h u i s n o t known t o t h e D ham m asanganT)

* " i t e m s i n d i c a t e d b y t h i s m a rk com es u n d e r
u p s id in n a a s w e l l .a s u n d e r a n u p s id in n a ( s e e
a b o v e * ,*277 ) o r u n d e r c i t t a s a m u t t f i a n a a s
w e ll as un der na c i tta s a m u t th a n a (s e e
a b o v e ', 2 9 0 )
302
C l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of th e 2nd S e c tio n

3jA 1A la
i 5 -9 10 “ 27 1 -4
IB IB lb
3 -9 1 4 - 1 6 , ( 1 —4 ,10 s12 1 1 ,1 7 ,1 8 ,2 0 -2 2 ,
ii 1 3 ,1 9 ,2 3 ,2 4 ,2 7 )* 2 5 ,2 6 ,(1 -4 ,1 0 ,1 2 ,
1 3 ,1 9 ,2 3 ,2 4 ,2 7 )*
LG 10 1c
3-9 1 4 - 1 6 ,( 1 - 4 ,1 0 ,1 2 , 11 ,1 7 ,1 8 ,2 0 -2 2
iii 1 3 ,1 9 ,2 3 ,2 4 ,2 7 )* 2 5 ,2 6 ,(1 -4 ,1 0 ,1 2 ,
13 , 1 9 , 2 3 ,24 ,27 ) &
Ld IB Id
XV 3-9 10 1-4,11-27
LE IE le
V 5 -9 3P3 ,1 0 -1 3 4,14-27
IF IF If
5-9 1 4 -1 6 1 - 4 , 1 0 - 1 3 , 17-27
vx

Lg 10 Ig
v ii 5-9 1-4 10 -2 7
Lh in lh
v iii 5-9 1 7 , 18 1 -4,10-16,19-27
Li 11 11
5 -9 1 7 ,1 8 ,(1 -4 ,1 0 -1 3 1 4 -1 6 ,2 5 ,2 6 ,
XX 19-24,27)* (1 -4 ,1 0 -1 3 ,1 9 -2 4 ,
2 7 )*
Ld 1J id
X 5 -9 17 ,18 1 -4 ,1 0 -1 6 ,1 9 -2 7
Lie IK lk
xi 5-9 1 7 ,1 8 1-4 ,1 0 -1 6 ,1 9 -2 7
LM 1M 1m
x ii 5-9 1-3 ,10-13 4,14-27
m In IN
x iii 5 -9 , 4,14-27 1-3,10-13
I

303

A b b rev iatio n s

C lassifiestio n -h ead ln g s
A = upada a ~ anupatda
B ~ u p a d in n a b = anupjidinna
0 = u p"a d i nnu pa d*anTya c = anupadifinupeTdanTya
D = sanidassana d = anidassana
E = sap patigh a e = appatigha
P = indriya f = na i n d r i y a
G- ~ mah’abhTTta g = na mababh’u t a
Ii 5= v in n atti h =. na v i n n a t t i
1 ~ c i t t a s a r n u t t h 'a n a i = na c i t t a s a m u t . t K a n a
3 = cittsieaha^bh'a j na c i t t a s a h a b f i u
K = eittan u p ariv a tti k = na e i t t a n u p a r i v a t t i
L = a jjh attik a 1 = bahira
M ~ o larik a m = eukhuma
H =- s ant ike n = dure
M a te r ia l elem ents
1 - p ath av T 10 = ru p a 19 sn a’k’a s a ^
2 = te jo 11 = sadda 20 55 la h u t l a
3 = vayo 12 = gandha 21 = rn u d u ta ^
4 = 'apo 13 rasa 22 zz kammanatst
3 = cakkhu 14 itth in d riy a 23 upacaya
6 ~ sot, a 13 = p ja risin d riy a 24 s a n ta ti
7 at ghana 16 = jT v i t i n d r i y a 23 5S j a r a t s T
8 « jiv h a 17 «- k a y a v i n n a t t i 26 sz ja n ic c a tl a
9 = kaya 18 - v a c T v ih n a tti 27 =: 'a h 'a ra

( H a d a y a - e a t t h u i s n o t known t o t h e Bharnm asanganT)

# ~ The i t e m s i n d i c a t e d by t h i s mark comes u n d e r


up'adinna a s w e l l a s u n d e r a n u p a d in n a ( s e e
above/*#* 277 ) o r u n d er c i t t a s a m u t t S n n a as
w e l l as u n d e r na e i t t a s a m u t t h a n a * ( s e e
above/# 290 )
304

C la s s if ic a tio n s of th e 3 rd S ectio n
A3 Ab 1 aB ab
5 -9,1 4 -1 6 1 1 ,17,18, (1-4)* (1-4)*
i (10*12,13, 20 -2 2 ,2 5 ,2 6 ,
1 9 ,2 3 ,2 4 ,2 7 )* (1 0 ,1 2 ,1 3 ,1 9 ,
2 3 ,2 4 ,2 7 )*
AC Ac aG ac
5 -9 ,1 4 -1 6 , 1 1 ,1 7 ,1 8 , (1-4)* (1-4)*
(10*12,13, 2 0 -2 2 ,2 5 ,2 6 ,
Ii i 19 ,2 3,24,27)* (1 0 ,1 2 ,1 3 ,1 9 ,
23 ,2 4 ,2 7 )*
AE Ae aE ae
5-13 1 4 -2 7 1-3 4
iii
AM Am aM am
. iv* 5-13 14-27 1-3 4
AN An aN an
5-13 14-27 1-3 4
V
BD Bd bD' bd
10 * 5 -9 ,1 4 -1 6 , 10 *- - 1 1 ,17,18,
vi (l-4 ,1 2 , 20 -2 2 ,2 5 ,2 6 ,
1 3 ,1 9 ,2 3 ,2 4 , (1 -4 ,1 2 ,1 3 ,
27) * 1 9 ,2 3 ,2 4 ,2 7 )*
BE Be bE be
5 -9 ,(1 -3 ,1 0 , • 14 -1 6 ,(4 ,1 9 , 11? (1 -3 , 1 0 , 17,18,20-22,
v ii 12,13)* 2 3 ,2 4 ,2 7 )* 1 2 , 1 3 )* 2 5 ,2 6 ,(4 ,1 9 ,
23 , 2 4 , 2 7 ) *
BGr Bg bG bg
'1 -4 )* 5-9 ,1 4 -1 6 , (1-4)* 1 1 ,1 7 ,1 8 ,
(1 0 ,1 2 ,1 3 ,1 9 , 20 -2 2 ,2 5 ,2 6 ,
v iii 23 , 2 4 , 2 7 ) * (1 0 ,1 2 ,1 3 ,1 9 ,
23 , 2 4 , 2 7 ) *
BM Bm bM bm
5 -9 ,(1 -4 ,1 0 , . 1 4 -1 6 ,(4 -1 9 , 11, (1 -3 ,1 0 , 1 7 ,1 8 ,2 0 -2 2 ,
ix 12,13)* 2 3 ,2 4 ,2 7 )* 12,13)* 2 5 ,2 6 ,(4 ,1 9 ,
2 3 ,2 4 ,2 7 )*

BN Bn bN bn
5 -9 ,(1 -3 ,1 0 , • 14 -1 6 ,(4 ,1 9 , 1 1 , ( 1 - 3 ,10 ; 17, 1 8 ,20- 2 2 ,
12,13)* 2 3 ,2 4 ,2 7 )* 12,13)* "2 5 , 2 6 , ( 4 , 1 9 ,
X 2 3 ,2 4 ,2?)*

Gont *d . ••
305

A bb rev iatio n s*

G lassif icatio n -b ead in g s


A ss up^ada*. a 55 anupatd’a
B ss u p a d in n a ^ ^ b = a n u p a d in n a
0 SS
upadinnu'padanTya c «- an u padinnupadanTya
D =5 s a n i d a s s a n a d 55 a n i d a s s a n a
B a sap p atigba e =5 a p p a t i g b a
3? = in driya f SS na i n d r i y a
G- 55 m ababbuta S 55 na mababbUta
H =5 v i n n a t t i b 55 na v i n n a t t i
I 55 c i ‘t t asam uttK ana i SS na e i t t a s a m u t t b a h a
J 55 c i t t a s a b a ^ b U i S: na e i t t o s a h a b h u
K = c i t t a n u p a r iv a 11 i k S ina e i t t a n u p a r i v a t t i
L 55 a j j h a t t i k a 1 55 b a b i r a
M 55 o l a r ilea m 55 sjakhuma
N 55 s a n t i k e n 55 dure

M a te r ia l elem ents
1 55 pathavT 10 55 rupa 19 s: 'akstsa
2 55 tejjo 11 55 sadda 20 5= lahuta
3 S'- vayo 12 = gandba 21 55, muduta^
4 = apo 13 =5rasa 22 SSl kammanat'a
5 55 cakkbu 14 5=itth in d r iy a 23 upacaya
6 55 so to 15 55p u risin d riya 24 55 santatii
7 55 gbana 16 55;jTv i t indriya 25 SS: 3arata ^
8 55 ^ivba 17 =sk ayavin n atti 26 55: ^aniccata
9 55 kaya 18 =:v a cT v in a tti 27 5= abara
( H a d a y a - c a t t h u i s n o t know t o t h e DhammasanganT)
% = The i t e m s i n d i c a t e d by t b i s mark comes u#der
u p a d in n a a s w e l l a s u nder a n u p a d in n a ( s e e
-above*, 2 7 7 ) or under c it ta s a m u t ih a n a as
Y /ell a s u n d e r na c i t t a s a m u t t t i a n a
a b o v e , 290 )
306
C l a s s i f i c a t i o n s o f th e 3**cL S e c t i o n
0D Od cD cd
10 * 5 -9 ,1 4 -1 6 , 10 * 1 1 ,1 7 ,1 8 ,
xi ( 1 - 4 , 1 0 ,1 2 , 2 0 -2 2 ,2 5 ,2 6 ,
1 3 ,1 9 ,2 3 ,2 4 , (1 -4 ,1 0 ,1 2 ,1 3
2 7 )* 1 9 ,2 3 , 2 4 , 2 7 ) *
OS Ce cE ce
5 -9 , ( 1 - 3 , 1 0 , 14—1 6 , ( 4 , 1 9 , 1 1 ,(1 -3 * 1 0 9 1 7 ,1 8 ,2 0 -2 2 ,
xix 1 2 ,1 3 ) * 2 3 ,2 4 ,2 ? )* 12 13
, )* 2 5 ,2 6 ,(4 ,1 9 ,
2 3 ,2 4 ,2 7 )*
CG Cg cG eg
(1-4)* 5 -9 ,1 4 -1 6 , (1 -4 )* 1 1 ,1 7 ,1 8 ,
x iii (1 0 ,1 2 ,1 3 ,1 9 , 2 0 -2 2 ,2 5 ,2 6 ,
23 ,2 4 ,2 7 ) * (1 0 ,1 2 ,1 3 ,1 9 ,
23 , 2 4 , 2 7 )3f
OM ' Cm cM cm
'•^ ,(1 -3 ,1 0 , 1 4 -1 6 ,(4 ,1 9 , 1 1 ,(1 -3 ,1 0 , 17 18 20 22
, , - ,
x i v 9 ■’1 2 ,1 3 ) * 2 3 ,3 4 ,2 7 J* 12 13
, )* 2 5 ,2 6 ,(4 ,1 9 ,
2 3 ,2 4 ,2 7 )*

ON On cN - on
5 - 9 , ( 1 - 3 ,1 0 , 1 4 -1 6 ,(4 ,1 9 , 11 1 3 10,
,( - , 17, 18, 20- 22,
XV
1 2 ,1 3 ) * 23 , 2 4 ,2 7 ) * 1 2 ,1 3 ) * 2 5 ,2 6 ,(4 ,1 9 ,
2 3 , 2 4 ,2 7 ) *

EF Ef eF ef
xv i 5 -9 1 - 3 ,1 0 - 1 3 14-16 4 ,1 7 - 2 7

EG Eg gG eg
xv ii
1-3 5-13 4 14 -2 7

m Fm fM fm
5-9, 14 -1 6 1 - 3 ,1 0 - 1 3 4 ,1 7 - 2 7
xvixi
FN Fn fM fn
5 -9 14-16 1 - 3 ,1 0 - 1 3 4 ,1 7 - 2 7
ix x
GM Gm gM gm
XX 1-3 4 5-13 14-27

GN Gm gN gn
xxi 1-3 4 5 -1 3 . 1 4 -2 7
30 ?

chapter .seven

MATTER AND THE SYSTEM OF CORRELATION


One o f t h e f u n d a m e n t a l p o s t u l a t e s o f B u d d h i s t p h i l o s o p h y
i s t h a t a p l u r a l i t y of c o n d i t i o n s i s n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e
o r i g i n a t i o n o f e v e r y e l e m e n t of e x i s t e n c e , m e n t a l a s w e l l
as m a t e r i a l . I n t h e t r a d i t i o n of t h e T h e r a v a d i n s t h i s
p r i n c i p l e i s summed up i n t h e p h r a s e : "ekadhammassa a n e k a -
_ 1
p a c e a y a - b h a v a 11• The same i d e a f i n d s e x p r e s s i o n i n what t h e
s c h o o l s c o f S a n s k r i t Buddhism c a l l 11p r a t y a y a - s ^ m a g r T st
A c c o r d i n g l y , i t i s w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o a c o n c u r r e n c e of
r e l a t i o n s t h a t t h e occuxxrence o f a n e v e n t i s s o u g h t t o be
explained.
\

The T h e r a v a d a Abhidhamma s e e k s t o e x p l a i n t h e
i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e a n d t h e c o n d i t i o n a l i t y o f a l l dhammas w i t h
i n f e r e n c e t o what i s c a l l e d !tp a c c a y a k 'a r a - n a y a 11 , t h e s y stem
of co n g e la tio n . I t i s s a i d to px^ovide an e x p l a n a t i o n a s t o
t h e c a u s a l r e l a t i o n o f a l l dhammas, n o t o n l y i n t h e i r t e m p o r a l
sequence but a l s o in t h e i r s p a t i a l concom itance. In regard
t o t h i s s u b j e c t t h e r e a r e two t h i n g s which s h o u l d be n o t e d
a t th e v e r y o u t s e t , n a m e ly , ( a ) p a c c a y a , t h e c o n d i t i o n o r
t h e r e l a t i n g t h i n g a n d (b ) paccayuppanna-dham m a, t h e
c o n d itio n e d or the r e l a t e d th in g . In a given r e l a t i o n
b e tw e e n tvso dhammas i f one c o n s t i t u t e s a n e c e s s a r y g r o u n d

Tk p.59
2 . AKvy. i 235
308

f o r th e e x is te n c e of th e o t h e r , then i t i s d e s ig n a te d as
paccay a a n d t h e o t h e r * i . e . * what i s c o n d i t i o n e d t h e r e b y
pacoayappanna-dhamma. I n t h e words o f B uddhaghosa* w h a t e v e r
dhamma w hich i s a s u p p o r t f o r t h e p e r s i s t e n c e o r o r i g i n a t i o n
o f a n o t h e r i s t o be t a k e n a s t h e p ac caya o f t h e l a t t e r . " * It
i s t o be u n d e r s t o o d * he s a y s * i n t h e s e n s e o f a s s i s t i n g i n
2
t h e a r i s i n g o r coming t o be o f t h e (p a c c a y u p p a n n a ) dhamma*
In a l l t h e r e are tw enty fo u r p a c e a y a s, i . e . * tw enty
f o u r ways i n w h ich one dhamma i s a c o n d i t i o n f o r a n o t h e r ,
namely* h e t u ( m o r a l r o o t ) , *arammana ( o b j e c t ) , a d h i p a t i
( d o m i n a n c e ) , a n a n t a r a [ c o n t i g u i t y ) , s a m a n a n t a r a (im m ed iate
c o n t i g u i t y ) , s a h a j U t a ( e o - n a s c e n c e ) , annamanna (reciproc/fcy)
.. , - ' A *
n is s a y a ( b a s i s ) , upanissaya (inducem ent), p u r e ja ta ( p r e n a s c e n c e ) ,
p a c c h a j a t a ( p o s t - n a s c e n c e ) , “a s e v a n a ( h a b i t u a l r e c u r r e n c e ) ,
kamma ( v o l i t i o n a l a c t i o n ) , v ip a k a . ( r e t r i b u t i o n ) , *ab!ara
( n u t r i m e n t ) , i n d i r y a ( f a c u l t y ) , j l i a n a , magga ( P a t h ) ,
s a ra p a y u tta ( a s s o c i a t i o n ) , v i p p a y u t t a ( d i s s o c i a t i o n ) a t t h i
( p r e s e n c e ) , n a t t h i ( a b s e n c e ) , v i g a t a ( d i s a p p e a r e n c e ) an d
3
a v ig a ta (non-disappearence)«.
The s c h o o l s o f S a n s k r i t Buddhism p o s t u l a t e s i x k i n d s
o f h e t u a n d f o u r k i n d s o f px^atyaya a s f a c t o r s r e s p o n s i b l e
f o r th e o r i g i n a t i o n of a l l dharvnas* K a r a n a - h e t u ( t h e r a i s o n

1 . So h i dhammo y a s s a dhammassa t h i t i y a va u p p a t t i y a va
u p a k a ra k o h o t i , so t a s s a paccayo t i vucc^-ti*- - T k p . l l
2 . See i b i d . l o c . c i t . .
3 . I b i d . ,1
309

d * e t r e ) , sahabhu-hetu ( c o - e x is te n t c a u s e ), sabhaga-hetu
( i d e n t i c a l c a u s e ) , sam prayukta-hetu ( a s s o c i a t e d c a u s e ) ,
s a r v a t r a g a - h e t u ( u n i v e r s a l e u a s e ) , and v i p a k a - h e t u ( c a u s e
o f r e t r i b u t i o n ) a r e t h e s i x k i n d s o f h etu * H etu-pratyaya
(c a u s e - e o n d tio n ) , sam anantara-pratyaya ( irm n e d ia ta -c o n tig u ity -
c o n d i t i o n ) , alarnb a n a - p r a t y a y a ( o b ; J e c t - e o n d i t i o n ) an d
a d h i p a t i - p r a t y a y a ( d o m i n a n e e - c o n d i t i o n ) a r e t h e f o u r kinds.
1
o f pratyaya*
Y a$ o m itra s a y s t h a t no d i s t i n c t i o n i s drawn b e tw e e n
2
h e t u a n d p r a t y a y a a n d t h a t b o t h a r e synonymous. We may t h e n
a s k why some i t e m s a r e b r o u g h t u n d e r h e t u a n d t h e o t h e r s
u n d e r px^atyaya. The an s w e r g i v e n i s t ha ^ e x p o s i t i o n o f
h e t u s a s b a s e d on an e x m a i n a t i o n o f c a u s e s by way o f non­
o b s t a c l e (av ig h n a-b lo av a), c o - e x i s te n c e (sahabhU tva) i d e n t i t y
( s a d r . & a t v a ) , e t c . , w heras t h a t o f t h e p r a t y a y a s i s b a s e d on
an e x a m i n a t i o n o f c a u s e s by way o f im m ediate c o n t i g u i t y
( s a m a n a n ta i» a ), e t c . * T h a t t h e r e i s , howevex'1, an e le m e n t o f
r e d u n d a n c y i n v o l v e d h e r e i s shown by t h e e x p l a n a t i o n g i v e n
as t o t h e r e l a t i o n b e tw e e n t h e two g r o u p s .
I n h i s System s o f B u d d h i s t i c Thought which i s m a i n l y

1 . S e e ^ A K .O h .ii 245 an d 299 f f *


2 ., hetunam p ratyayanarn ca k ah p r a t i v i j S e s a h * na k a ^ c i d i t y
a h a . . . . he tub. p r a r y a y o iixdanam karanam n i m i t t a m lingaiji
u p a n i s a d i t i p a r y a y a h f - i\Kvy*.i 188
3 .‘ AlCvy.i 188
310

b a s e d on t h e C h in e se s o u r c e s , Yaraakarai S'ogen g iv e s t h e
f o l l o w i n g d ia g ra m t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e r e l a t i o n b e tw e e n h e t u ,
p r a t y a y a an d p h a l a ( e f f e c t ) as u n d e r s t o o d by t h e S a r v a s t i -
1
vadins*
He t u - pr a t ya ya S a hab h*u-he t uv- Purusalcara-phala
S arapr a y ukt a ~hy H is y a n d a - ph.
A*lamb a n a -p r. Sabhlaga.Th.
V ipaka-ph.
Sarvatraga-
Sam anantara-
Vipaka-h.^ ^^Adhipati-ph.
A dhipati-pr. k aran a-h .-^^^ Vi s amy o g a .- ph .

As i s shown h e r e , h e t u - p r a t y a y a c o r r e s p o n d s t o f i v e
o f t h e h e t u s w h i l e I c a r a n a - h e t u c o r r e s p o n d s to t h r e e of t h e
p r a t y a y a s - a f a c t which c l e a r l y shows t h a t t h e two
c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s in q u estio n are not m u tu ally ex c lu siv e but
t h a t t h e y c o m p l e t e l y c o a l s c e , one i n t o t h e o t h e r * The f i v e
v a r i e t i e s o f p h a l a which a r e p o s i t e d a g a i n s t t h e h e t u s
s h o u l d be u n d e r s t o o d a s r e l a t e d to t h e p r a t y a y a s ^ t o o ,
b e c a u s e t h e f o u r p r a t y a y a s do c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e s i x h e t u s *
T h a t i s t o s a y , w h i l e h e t u - p r a t y a y a r e f e r s t o f i v e of t h e
h e t u s , t h e r e m a i n i n g t h r e e p r a t y a y a s a r e r e f e r r e d t o by
th e l a s t of the h e t u s . T his e x p la n a tio n a s to th e r e l a t i o n
b e tw e e n h e t u an d p r a t y a y a i s i d e n t i c a l w i t h t h e one w h i c h ,
a c c o r d i n g t o Be l a V a l i n e P o u s s i n , w a s a d v a n c e d by t h e
Z
Hp r e m i e r e s m a i t r e s 11 o f t h e V ibhasa*

1* Q p . c i t . ,315
2 . See A K . C h . i i 2 9 9 , n * l
311

The A bhidmarmako £a a n d i t s i give a s l i g h t l y


1
d i f f e r e n t ex p lan atio n * The d i f f e r e n c e l i e s in the f a c t t h a t
a c c o r d i n g t o them k a r a n a - h e t u c o r r e s p o n d s o n l y t o a d h i p a t i -
p r a ty a y a > T h i s e x p l a n a t i o n i s i d e n t i c a l w i t h t h e one
a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e " s e c o n d s m a i t r e s " o f t h e V i _____JL—
b h a s a a n d a •l s o
2
w i t h t h e one a d o p t e d by t h e P r a k a r a n a . The m a s t e r s of t h e
Maliayana e x p l a i n t h e r e l a t i o n i n q u e s t i o n i n a s t i l l d i f f e r e n t
v/ay: "Le s a b H a g a h e tu e s t & l a f o i s h e t u p r a t y a y a e t a d h i p a t i
2

p r a t y a y a , l e s a u t r e s c i n q ^ h e t u s s o n t a d h ip a tip r a ^ b y a y a i' vVe


may i l l u s t r a t e t h e s e two k i n d s o f r e l a t i o n b e tw e e n t h e hetus*
and th e p ra ty a y a s as f o l lo w s :
The ^ s e c o n d s m a i t r e s 11 o f t h e M a s t e r s o f t h e Mahayana
V i b h a s a , Alt* ,AKvy* & P r a k a r a n a
P ratyaya H etu P ratyaya H etu
Hetu Sabhaga H etu S abh ag a
Samprayukta. S am prayu kta
Jlam bana A lambana
Sahabhu Sahabhu
S arvatraga S arvatraga
S a m a n a n ta r a Samanantara,
•Vip'aka V ip a k a
A dhipati. K aran a A dhipati Klarana
I n t h e f i r s t h e t u - p r a t y a y a s t a n d s a s a g e n e r a l designs'tibia

1* A K . C h . i i 244 f f ; i\Kvfy . i 186 f f .


2*. A K . C h . i i 2 9 9 , n . l
3 • Iffix d *l o c »c i i . ,
312

f o r a l l t h e h e t u s e x c e p t k a r a n a - h e t u w h ich c o r r e s p o n d s
to a& hipati-pratyaya* I n th e second i t i s the a d h ip a ti-
p r a t y a y a t h a t s t a n d s a s a g e n e r a l d e s i g n a t i o n f o r a l l th e
h e t u s , t h e f i r s t o f which c o r r e s p o n d s t o h e t u - p r a t y a y a , t o o .
In b o t h , a l a m b a n a - an d s a x n a n a n t a r a - p r a t y a y a s have n o t b e e n
r e l a t e d t o an y o f t h e h e t u s .
What one c a n g a t h e r from the t h h e e d i f f e r e n t
e x p l a n a t i o n s a s t o t h e r e l a t i o n b e tw e e n t h e s i x h e t u s and
t h e f o u r p r a t y a y a s i s t h a t t h e two g r o u p s have n o t b ee n
c o n s id e r e d as c o m p le te ly e x c lu s iv e of each o t h e r . In other
w o r d s , t h e two term s i n q u e s t i o n a r e u n d e r s t o o d a s more o r
less co n v e rtib le. This i s i n keeping w ith th e te rm in o lo g y
■m » i
o f t h e Nilcayas where h e t u a n d pac cay a a r e u s e d i n a p p o s i t i o n
b u t i s q u i t e i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e AfchicLhamma P i t a k a where t h e
u se o f h e t u i s r e s t r i c t e d t o d e n o te o n l y t h o s e f a c t o r s
( l o b h a , d o s a , moha, e t c . , ) which d e t e r m i n e t h e e t h i c a l
q u a lity of v o l iti o n a l a c ts .
T h i s i s a b r i e f resum e o f t h e T h e r a v a d i n s 1 p a c c a y —
akara-naya and of the h etu s and p ra ty a y as of th e schools

1 . Of* e . g . , D . i i i 2 8 4 ; S . i i 2 2 4 , iv 6 8 , 1 5 1 ; A*± 66
2* See a b o v e , 2 5 2 ; b e l o w , 3 3 3 -4

*
513

1
o f S a n s k r i t Buddhism. We a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e s u b j e c t
o n l y i n so f a r a s i t b e a r s some r e l e v a n c e t o t h e a n a l y s i s
of r u p a , Hence a l l a b s t r u s e a n d h a i r - s p l i t t i n g d etails
have b e e n o m i t t e d . I n r e g a r d t o t h i s s u b j e c t 5t o o ^ t h e r e a r e
many p o i n t s o f c o n t a c t b e tw e e n t h e Theravetda an d t h e o t h e r
s c h o o l s o f Bu d d h i s t t h o u g h t . In t h is connection th ere are
t h r e e t h i n g s t o be n o t e d .
I t i s t r u e t h a t t h e T h e r a v a d i n s have p o s t u l a t e d
c o m p a r a t i v e l y a l a r g e number o f p a c c a y a s . However, an
e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e l i s t s h o u l d show t h a t i t i s unduly
i n f l a t e d : som etim es an i t e m i s r e p e a t e d u n d e r d i f f e r e n t
names; sometime a g r o u p o f ( a l r e a d y m e n t i o n e d ) i t e m s are.
b r o u g h t u n d e r a new h e a d in g * T hat t h e s c h o l i a s t s were n o t
unaware o f t h i s e l e m e n t o f re d u n d a n c y i s shown b y ^nuruddha* s
o b s e r v a t i o n , nam ely t h a t t h e tw e n t y f o u r p a c c a y a s a r e
2
re d u c ib le to s i x . S e c o n d l y , a s we have a l r e a d y o bserv ed .,
i n t h e s c h o o l s o f S a n s k r i t Buddhism t h e two t e r m s h e t u and

1 , F o r more d e t a i l s on t h e s u b j e c t , s e e M rs,Rhys D a v i d s 1
a r t i c l e on r e l a t i o n s ( B u d d h i s t ) i n BBS; L e d i Sa&aw,
Pat'thlanuddesadTpanT , h i s a r t i c l e , The p h i l o s o p h y o f
r e l a t i o n s , JP T S , 1 9 1 5 -1 6 ; H y a n a t i l o k a , Guide t h r o u g h t h e
A b h i dhamma Pijraka . 62 5 T a t i a ^ a r t i c l e on
P a t i c c ' a s amup pa da . Na v a -Ha l a nda -Mahav i hlar a R e s e a r c h
P u b lic a tio n , V o l.l;
W.B.Karu n a r a t a n a , . Development of t h e T h e o r y o f
C a u s a l i t y i n e a r l y T h e r a v a d a B uddhism ,
2 . S e e -AD3.39
314
i
p r a t y a y a a r e r e c o g n i s e d a s more o r l e s s c o n v e r t i b l e #
T h e r e f o r e , i n f i n d i n g o u t whht c o r r e s p o n d s t o (PeTlx) p a c c a y a s
one n e e d n o t c o n f i n e o n e s e l f t o ( S a n s k r i t ) p r a t y a y a s b u t
may t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t t h e h e t u s 5t o o . T h i r d l y , as. De l a
Vall.de P o u s s i n r e m a r k s , c e r t a i n d i f f e r e n c e s c o n c e r n t h e
n o m e n c l a t u r e b u t n o t t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n * t ' f o r e x a m p le ,
t h e a nnam a nna - s a ha 3aTt a - pa c c a y a o f t h e T h e r a v a d i n s i s the,
**L.

— — — Z
same a s t h e s a h a b h u - h e t u o f t h e S a r v a s t i v a d i n s * To t h i s
s h o u l d be a d d e d : so m etim es t h e n o m e n c l a t u r e r e m a i n s t h e
same b y t t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n d i f f e r s * For exam ple, th e
h e t u - p a c c a y a o f P a l i Buddhism, has p r a c t i c a l l y no
correspondence w ith the h e tu -p ra ty a y a of th e S a n s k r it
sch o o ls.^
T a k in g a l l t h e s e p o i n t s i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n we may
examine how r u p a e n t e r s i n t o t h e s y s te m o f c o r r e l a t i o n of
th e T heravadins. W herever p o s s i b l e we may a l s o o b s e r v e t h e
p a r a l l e l c a s e s a s f o u n d iii t h e o t h e r s y s t e m s o f B u d d h i s t
th o u g h t. I n t h e m a i n , we a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n t h o s e r e l a t i o n s
where rUpa c o n s t i t u t e s e i t h e r a p ac cay a o r a p a c e a y u p p a n n a -
dhamma* I n o t h e r words?, t h e f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n i s an

1. A K .O h.il 2 9 9 ,n * l
2 , See b e l o w , 3 1 8 -1 9
3* See b e l o v / , 3 3 3
315

attem p t t o u n f o ld t h e I m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e p h r a s e , "rupagi
1
sappaccayaijr , w hich o c c u r s i n th e Dhammasanganl*
Aramma^ia-p ac c ay a :
Aramma^a-paccaya (= iilam b ap a-p ratyaya) can mean a n y th in g
w h ich , a s o b j e c t , c o n s t i t u t e s a c o n d i t i o n f o r th e a r i s i n g
o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s ( c i t t a ) and i t s c o n c o m ita n ts ( c e t a s i k a ) .
We have a lr e a d y i n d i c a t e d how a l l rupa-dhammas f a l l under
s i x d i f f e r e n t h e a d in g s a c c o r d in g t o th e way t h e y become
t h e o b j e c t s o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s . RUpa, sa d d a , gandha, r a s a
and pho‘j?t;l Lal ,l )a a r e known as o b j e c t s o f t h e f i v e k in d s o f
viftflHna named a f t e r th e c o r r e sp o n d in g s e n s e - o r g a n s (~ cakkhu-
vififiana, s o t a -v iflf ia n a , etc.)* su ed th e r e m a in in g rupa-dhammas
a s th e o b j e c t s o f mano-vififtana. Hence w h ile t h e f i r s t f i v e
ite m s a re i n s t a n c e d a s aramma$a-paccayas i n r e l a t i o n t o th e
f i r s t f i v e k in d s o f vififtana th e o t h e r s a re i n s t a n c e d as
&ramma$a-paccayas i n r e l a t i o n to th e s i x t h .
A d h ip a t i- p a c c a y a :
A d h ip a t i- p a c c a y a , th e c o n d i t i o n by way o f dom inance,
i s o f two v a r i e t i e s : a r a m m a b a d h ip a ti and s a h a j a t a d h i p a t i .
The form er i s t h e same a s aramma$a-paccaya b u t f o r
t h i s d i f f e r e n c e : o n ly t h o s e o b j e c t s which e x e r t a dominant
i n f l u e n c e on th e c o n s c io u s n e s s and i t s c o n c o m ita n ts are
Ll
r e c o g n iz e d a s eLramma^.adhipati.
l . O p . c i t . 1 2 4 -5
2 . Bee Tkp. 2 , 12 f f .
3 . See a b o v e ,266
4 . See Tkp. 1 3 , 31
316

The l a t t e r a p p l i e s o n l y t o t h e f o u r h i n d s o f id d h i p s td a ,
n a m e ly , c h a n d a - s a m a d h i ( c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f i n t e n t i o n ^ , v i r i y a -
samadhi ( c o n c e n t r a t i o n of e n e r g y ) , c i t t a - s a m a d h i ( c o n c e n t r a t i o n
o f e o n s c i o u s n e s s ) a n d vTmamsa-samadhi ( c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f
A
in v estig atio n ). These f o u r f a c t o r s a l o n e a r e r e c o g n i s e d as
s a h a j a t a i d h i p a t i b e c a u s e t h e y e x e r t an o verw helm ing i n f l u e n c e
on t h e m e n t a l s t a t e s w h i c h a r i s e s i m u l t a n e o u s l y w i t h them*
T'ljey a r e so p o w e r f u l t h a t a t a g i v e n moment o n l y one o f
2
them c a n a r i s e * I f a partieulai* co n scio u sn e ss and i t s
c o n c o m i t a n t s which a r e i n f l u e n c e d by one o f t h e s e i d d h i p a d a s
give r i s e to cittasam utthaina-rlT pa, th en t h i s c itta s a m u ttlia n a -
r u p a i s a l s o r e c o g n i z e d a s i n f l u e n c e d by t h a t iddhip*ada*
T h i s i s t h e p o s i t i o n o f r u p a i n r e l a t i o n t o s a h a j a t a ’d h i p a t i
paccaya* In t h i s p a r t i c u l a r r e l a t i o n th e p o s i t i o n of rupa
i s o n l y t h a t of t h e paceayuppanna-dhamma ( c o n d i t i o n e d ) .
The a d h i p a t i - p a c c a y a of t h e T h e r a v a d i n s s h o u l d n o t
be c o n f u s e d w i t h t h e a d h i p a t i - p r a t y a y a o f t h e Abhi dharmako.g a *
A c c o r d i n g t o t h e l a t t e r w o rk, i t i s t h e same as
l ia ra n a h e tu * As s u c h i t s scop e i s g r e a t e r t h a n t h a t o f any
o t h e r pratyaya* F o r what i s c a l l e d k a r a n a - h e t u a p p l i e s t o
a l l s a m s k r t a - d h a r m a s b u t f o r one e x c e p t i o n : a dharma i s n o t
l c a r a•n a - h e t u o f i t s e l f * The f u n c t i o n o f lcar a n* a - h e t u i s t o be

1 * I b i d . , 1 3. 31 f f * _ _
2 . Gf.Na ekakk han e bahu j e t t h a l c a nama h o n t r ^ —T-kp.31
3 . See Tkp. 2 * *# " x
317

u n d e r s t o o d , n o t i n a p o s i t i v e s e n s e , i . e . , as a k a r a k a ,
-i
b u t i n a n e g a t i v e s e n s e , i . e . , a s o f f e r i n g no o b s t a c l e .
I t s u n i v e r s a l a p p l i c a t i o n i s b a s e d on t h e c o n t e n t i o n t h a t no
dharma c o n s t i t u t e s an o b s t a c l e ( a v i g h n a b h W a v a s t t i a ) t o th e
o r i g i n a t i o n o f t h o s e o t h e r dhaxmias which a r e d e s t i n e d t o be
2
o rig in a te d (u q p attim an t). The i m p l i c a t i o n i s
t h a t 11i t does;
3
n o t d i r e c t l y make any d i s t u r b a n c e : , i n t h e c a u s a l n e x u s ’*.
I t i s b e c a u s e o f two r e a s o n s t h a t I c a r a n a - h e i u i s a l s o
*

c a lle d ad h ip ati-p raty ay a; The f i r s t i s t h a t i t a p p l i e s t o


t h e l a r g e s t number of dharmas ( a d h i k a h p r a t y a y a h ) . . The
second i s th a t i t c o n s t i t u t e s a c o n d itio n in r e l a t i o n to
t h e l a r g e s t number of dhai*mas ( a d h i k a s y a p r a t y a y a h ) . ^
T h a t t h e r e i s a b i g d i f f e r e n c e b e tw e e n t h e a d h i p a t i -
p r a t y a y a o f t h e Abhidharmako.ga a n d t h a t o f t h e Therava’d i n s
i s o b viou s* S t a t e d b r i e f l y : f o r t h e Abhidharmako&a a d h i p a t i
s i g n i f i e s dominance m a i n l y by way of q u a n t i t y , w h ereas f o r
t h e T h e r a v a d i n s a d h i p a t i s i g n i f i e s dominance s o l e l y by way
5
of q u a l i t y .
I n v iew of t h e f a c t t h a t k*aran a-hetu (= a d h i p a t i -
p r a t y a y a ) a p p l i e s t o a l l d h a rm a s , i t goes w i t h o u t s a y i n g
t h a t e a c h and e v e r y rupa-dhaxmia c o n s t i t u t e s a k a r a n a - h e t u ,

1 . A K .C h .i i 307
2 . A K .C h.ii 248; s e e a l s o AKvy.i 189 f f .
3 . S og en, Systems o f B u d d h i s t i c T h o u g h t . 3 / £
4* A K .C h .i i 308
5 . O f . J e .t t. h a k a f*t*h e n a u p a k a ra k o dhammo a d h i p a t i p a c c a y o ; - I k p .13
1

318

n o t o n ly i n r e l a t i o n to the o th e r rupa-dharm as hut a l s o i n


r e l a t i o n to a l l arupa-dharm as•
S aha^ata-paccaya;
I n t h e c a s e of two dhammas , i f one c a n n o t a r i s e u n l e s s
s im u lta n e o u s ly w ith th e a r i s i n g of th e o t h e r , th e n th e l e t t e r
i s r e c o g n i s e d a s a s a b . a j'a t a - p a c c a y a ( c o - n a s c n e c e - c o n d i t i o n )
in r e l a t i o n to the form er. I f t h e r e l a t i o n b etw e en A and B
i s s u c h t h a t B alw a y s a r i s e s s i m u l t a n e o u l s y w i t h A , t h e n A
i s t h e p a c c y a an d B t h e paccayuppanna-dhamma. T h i s does n o t
n e c e s s a r i l y mean t h a t A c a n n o t a r i s e i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f B, It
o n l y means t h a t u n d e r no c i r c u m s t a n c e s c a n B a r i s e i n d e p e n d e n t l y
1
o f Am The two ai*e n o t on a p a r .
When t h e y a r e on a p a r , t h e r e l a t i o n b e tw e e n them i s
d e s c r i b e d a s annam anna, r e c i p r o c a l . I t i s one o f m u t u a l
support. In t h i s c a s e , while A i s a sa h a ^ a ta -p a c e a y a i n
r e l a t i o n t o B , B t o o i s a s a h a j a t a - p a c c a y a i n r e l a t i o n t o A,
What i s t r u e o f one i s e q u a l l y t r u e of t h e o t h e r , 2 A ccordingly
i n s u c h a r e l a t i o n e a c h becomes a t one a n d t h e same tim e
3
t h e p a c c a y a a s w e l l a s t h e paccayuppanna-dhamma*
The J a t t e r v a r i e t y o f s a h a j a t a - p a c c a y a w hich i s
d i s t i n g u i s h e d from t h e f o r m e r by b e i n g q u a l i f i e d as annam anna,

1 . Bee Tkfc, 14 , 36
Ib id j.lo c ,c it, 3 _ _
3* Im ina va e t e s a m dhamrnanam ek&kkhane p a c c a y ab h n v a n c ' e v a
paccayupparmabfiavan ca d a p e t i , - Tkp,3 6
519

i s t h e same a s t h e sahabhuV hetu o f t h e S a i V a s t i v a c l i n s • F o r


i n t h e c a s e o f s a h a b h u - h e t u 5t o o , t h e r e l a t e d t h i n g s a r e
c o n s i d e r e d n o t o n l y as c a u s e s b u t a l s o a s e f f e c t s i n r e l a t i o n
1
to each other*
The S a u t r a n t i k a s t a k e s t r o n g e x c e p t i o n t o t h i s ,
p r in c ip le of r e c i p r o c a l c o n d i t i o n a l i ty or c a u s a tio n . They
c o n c e d e , h o w e v e r, t h a t b e tw e e n two c o - e x i s t e n t t h i n g s one
c o u l d become t h e c a u s e o f t h e o t h e r , a n d c i t e t h e r e l a t i o n
b e tw e e n t h e v i s u a l o r g a n a n d t h e v i s u a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s a s a
case in p o in t. B ut t h e y r e f u s e t o b e l i e v e t h a t two
c o - e x i s t e n t t h i n g s c o u l d be r e l a t e d i n s u c h a way t h a t one
becomes a t one an d t h e same tim e t h e c a u s e a s w e l l as t h e
2 _ _
e f f e c t of the o th e r . The c o u n t e r - a r g u m e n t of t h e S a r v a s t i v a d i n s
amounts t o t h i s ; T h ere a r e c e r t a i n t h i n g s w hich alw ays
a r i s e s i m u l t a n e o u l s y ; when one i s p r e s e n t t h e o t h e r s a r e
a l s o p r e s e n t ^ a n d when one i s a b s e n t t h e o t h e r s a r e a l s o
ab sen t. T h e r e f o r e i t i s t o be c o n c l u d e d t h a t th e r e l a t i o n
3
b e tw e e n s u c h t h i n g s i s one of r e c i p r o c a l c a u s a t i o n .
The w e ll-k n o w n example c i t e d i n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n i s
t h a t of t h r e e s t i c k s s e t u p r i g h t , a l l l e a n i n g a g a i n s t one
4 _

a n o th e r a t t h e i r upper ends. The S a u t r a n t i k a s c o n t e n d t h a t

1. See a K . C h . i i 248 f f * ; iiKvy. i 191 f f .


2. See A g . C h . i i 253 f f .
3* Ib id .lo c .c it.
4* I b i d . , 2 54; s e e a l s o T kp .1 4
320

t h e r e i s a com plex o f a n t e r i a r c a u s e s which i s r e s p o n s i b l e


f o r t h i s p e c u l i a r p o s i t i o n o f t h e s t i c k s ( b e c a u s e o f which
p o s i t i o n t h e t h r e e s t i c k s do n o t f a l l t o t h e g r o u n d ) .
The o b j e c t i o n o f t h e S a u t r a n t i k a s t o r e c o g n i z i n g
t h e s a h a b h u h e t u i s n o t w i t h o u t s i g n i f i c a n c e foah i t shows
2
t h a t t h e i r g e n e r a l p o l i c y o f r e d u c i n g t h e l i s t s was a p p l i e d
t o t h e l i s t of h e t u s a n d p r a t y a y a s as w e l l *
How t h e two k i n d s o f sa h a j l a t a - p a c c a y a a p p l y t o r u p a
may be c o n s i d e r e d now. Two c a s e s we r e n o t e d i n two p r e v i o u s
ch ap ters; ( a ) The f o u r mah'abiiutas a r e a s a h a j l a t a - p a c c a y a
( n o n - r e c i p r o c a l ) i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e up’acta-rTTpas*^ (b ) E ach
o f t h e maliabh*ut^s i s a s a h a j* a ta - p a c c a y a (annamanna =
V

recip ro cal) i n r e l a t i o n t o th e o t h e r . The f i r s t e s t a b l i s h e s


t h e n e c e s s a r y depenan
A
ce o f t h e up*ada-rupas on t h e mah'abiiutas
and t h e s e c o n d j t h e c o - o r d i n a t e p o s i t i o n o f t h e mah’a b h u t a s .
T h e re a r e two more c a s e s t o be n o t e d : ( a ) O i t t a and
c e ta s ik a s a r e a s a h a j a t a - p a c c a y a ( i x o n - r e c i p r o c a l ) i n r e l a t i o n
t o c it t a s a m u t t lia n a - r u p a .5 Here t h e c o n d i t i o n a l i t y i s n o t
r e c o g n i z e d as r e c i p r o c a l b e c a u s e of t h e s i m p l e r e a s o n t h a t
a c o n s c io u s n e s s and i t s concom itants can a r i s e w ith o u t
n e c e s s a r i l y g iv in g r i s e to cittasam utth"ana-rupa• (b ) The

1. M f h . i i 255
2. See above, 1 1 0 , 1 2 1 , 1 2 2 , 1 6 8 - 9 , 2 2 1 - 2
3. See above, 9 8 -9 9
4* See above, 7 8 -7 9
§. See T k £ . 3 , 1 4 , 3 7 f f .
321

otiiei? r e f e r s t o t h e r e l a t i o n b e tw e e n na&a (m ind) and r u p a


( m a t t e r ) a t t h e moment o f c o n c e p t i o n ( p a t i s a n d h i ) . Here t h e
c o n d i t i o n a l i t y i s re c o g n iz e d as r e c i p r o c a l w ith a view to
showing t h a t b o t h come i n t o b e i n g s i m u l t a n e o u s l y a n d t h a t
-I
t h e one, c a n n o t come i n t o b e i n g i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f t h e o t h e r .
N issaya-paccaya:
T h i s r e f e r s t o s o m e th in g which a i d s s o m e th in g e l s e i n
t h e manner o f a b a s e o r f o u n d a t i o n . C onsequently a l l th e
ex a m p les g i v e n w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o s a h a ; f a t a - p a c c a y a a r e
r e p e a t e d as n issa y a -p ac c a y s^ to o * A gain, s in c e the f i r s t f i v e
s e n s e - o r g a n s a r e t h e p h y s i c a l b a s e s o f t h e f i v e h i n d s of
v i n n a n a named a f t e r th e m , t h e fo rm e r a r e i n s t a n c e d as
n issa y a -p a c c a y a s in r e l a t i o n to the l a t t e r . S i m i l a r l y &s
e x p l a i n e d t h e p o s i t i o n o f h a d a y a - v a t t h u ( i . e . , u yam xnipam
_ ^ 2
. . . tam rupam1* o f t h e P a t t h a h a ) i n i t s r e l a t i o n t o mano an d
*>****» 3
m ano-vm nana.
P u rejfata- and P acch ag ata-p accay a:
P iire ja ta -p a c e a y a ( p r e - n a s c e n t- c o n d itio n ) r e f e r s to
s o m e th in g w h i c h , h a v i n g ar*isen f i r s t , becomes a s u p p o r t
f o r so m e th in g e l s e w h ich a r i s e s l a t e r ; a n d pa ccha’g’a t a - p a c c a y a
( p o s t - n a s e e n t - c o n d i t i o n ) t o s o m e th in g w h i c h , h a v i n g a r i s e n
l a t e r , becomes a s u p p o r t t o s o m e th in g e l s e which has ai’i s e n
4
earlier* I n t h e f i r s t as w e l l a s i n t h e s e c o n d , t h a t which

1* T h g . 3 , 1 4 ,
2 . See a b o v e , 175
3 . See f k p > 3 - 4 ,
See i b i d . . 1 7 .4 2 f f .
322

becomes t h e p a c c a y a ( c o n d i t i o n ) a n d t h a t w h ich becomes t h e


p ac cay ap p a n n a ( c o n d i t i o n e d ) a r e n o t c o - n a s c e n t . The f i r s t
i s l i k e t h e f a t h e r who s u p p o r t s h i s s o n . The se c o n d i s l i k e
t h e so n who s u p p o r t s h i s f a t h e r 4.
The f i r s t f i v e s e n s e - o r g a n s ( c a k k h u , s o t a , e t c * ,) an d
the corresponding s e n s e - o b je c ts (ru p a , sadda, e t c . , ) are
r e c o g n i z e d a s p u r e j a t a - p a c e a y a s ■i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e f i r s t
f iv e kinds of co n sc io u sn e ss (cak k h u-vinnana, s o ta - v in n a n a ,
e tc .,)* T h e ir r e c o g n i t i o n as such i s becuase of the
c i r c u m s t a n c e t h a t by t h e t i m e , s a y , e a k k h u - v i n n a n a a r i s e s
cakkhu an d r u p a have b e e n e x i s t i n g . Gakkhu an d r u p a do n o t
come i n t o e x i s t e n c e s i m u l t a n e o u s l y w i t h t h e c a k k h u - v in n m ia
•fej «r

i n r e l a t i o n t o w hich t h e y become p a c c a y a s . T his sta te m e n t


i s t r u e enough from t h e p o i n t of view o f t h e Abhfihamtna P i t a k a
an d t h e e a r l i e r works where t h e r e l a t i v e d u ra tio n of m a tte r
2
is recognized. But as we have a l r e a d y s e e n , t h e e a r l y
d o c t r i n e o f impermanence l a t e r gave r i s e t o a formula t e d
3
t h e o r y o f moments*
i t may be r e c a l l e d h e r e t h a t a c c o r d i n g t o t h e theoi*y
i n q u e s t i o n e a c h dharnma, m e n t a l o r m a t e r i a l , has t h r e e
momentary p h a s e s , n a m e ly , t h e n a s c e n t (u p p s td a ), t h e s t a t i c

1 . T k £ * 1 7 , 42 f f *
2 . Bee above, 215 f f *
3 . See above, 222 f f .
323

( t h i t i ) and th e ce ssa n t (bhanga). T here i s however t h i s


d i f f e r e n c e t o be n o t e d : t h e s t a t i c phase ( t h i t i ) o f a
1
m a t e r i a l dhamma i s l o n g e r t h a n t h a t of a m e n t a l dhamma.
T h e r e f o r e , i f a m a t e r i a l dhamma an d a m e n t a l dhamma come
i n t o e x i s t e n c e s i m u l t a n e o u l s y , t h e y w i l l n o t c e a s e to e x i s t
sim u ltan eo u sly . The f o r m e r w i l l c o n t i n u e t o e x i s t ( f o r some
tim e) even a f t e r th e c e s s a M o n of th e l a t t e r . Thus t h e
p r i n c i p l e , nam ely t h a t m a t t e r i s o f l o n g e r d u r a t i o n t h a n
m in d , i s n o t a b a n d o n e d eve n a f t e r t h e d ev e lo p m en t o f t h e
t h e o r y o f moments.
From t h i s i t f o l l o w s t h a t a m a t e r i a l dhamma which
a r i s e s e a r l i e r ca n become a c o n d i t i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o a
m e n t a l dhamma w hich a r i s e s l a t e r . In o th e r w ords, the
f o r m e r c a n become a pure;j*ata~paccaya i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e
la tte r. We have a l r e a d y n o t e d t h a t t h e f i r s t f i v e s e n s e -
o r g a n s an d t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g s e n s e - o b j e c t s a r e p u re js T ta -
paccayas f o r th e f i r s t f i v e k in d s of c o n s c io u s n e s s . The
t i m e - d i f f e r e n c e i n v o l v e d h e r e i s e x p l a i n e d by t h e co m m en tato rs
as f o l l o w s : When c o n s c i o u s n e s s a r i s e s , s a y w i t h cakkhu as i t s
b a s i s a n d r u p a ( t h e v i s i b l e ) a s i t s o b j e c t , t h e n b o t h cakkhu
-*» * 2
a n d r u p a a r e i n t h e i r s t a t i c phase ( t h i t i ) . That i s to

1 . See VbhA. 25 f f . > Vism..613


2 . See Tk£.42.
324

s a y , t fct t h i s tim e b o t h cakkhu an d r u p a have p a s s e d t h e i r


n a s c e n t p h ase ( u p p a d a ) . I t i s b e c a u s e of t h i s c h r o n o l o g i c a l
p r i o r i t y t h a t cakkhu a n d r u p a a r e d e s c r i b e d a s p u r e j a t a , a n d
i t i s b e c a u s e t h e y become t h e b a s i s an d t h e o b j e c t
r e s p e c t i v e l y of v i s u a l c o n sc io u sn e ss t h a t th ey are c o n s id e r e d
as p a c e a y a s .
The o t h e r ite m t h a t i s c o n s i d e r e d as p u r e j a ' t a - p a c c a y a
i s t h e h a d a y a - v a t t h u , i . e . , i n r e l a t i o n t o mano a n d mano-
w - n — L. A
v in n a n a * .At t h e moment o f c o n c e p t i o n , h o w e v e r, t h e r e l a t i o n
2
i s not of t h i s k in d . F o r , a s we have a l r e a d y i n d i c a t e d , at
t h i s moment h a d a y a - v a t t h u an d m anayatana come i n t o b e i n g
sim u ltan eo u sly .
I n t h e c a s e o f t h e r e l a t i o n by way o f paccLiaj’a t a , t h e
p a c cay a i s alw ays m e n t a l : C o n s c i o u s n e s s ( c i t t a ) an d i t s
c o n c o m i t a n t s ( c e t a a i k a ) c o n s t i t u t e a pacch'aj’a t a - p a c c a y a f o r
3
( t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f ) t h e body* T h i s , t o o , i s b a s e d on t h e
p r i n c i p l e t h a t m a t t e r i s of l o n g e r d u r a t i o n t h a n m in d.
S in c e t h e s t a t i c phase ( t h i t i ) o f a m a t e r i a l dhamma i s
l o n g e r t h a n t h a t o f a m e n t a l dhamma, t h e r e i s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y
o f t h e m a t t e r o f t h e body b e i n g c o n d i t i o n e d by p o s t - n a s c e n t
(pacciiajjerba) c o n s c i o u s n e s s and i t s c o n c o m i t a n t s .

1 . Tkp.-43
2 . See a b o v e , 211 n . 4
3 . Tkp. 3 , 43
325

I t w i l l be s e e n , t h a t p u re ;f a ta ~ a n d pace hsgeft a - p a c c a y a
do n o t a p p l y t o t h o s e r e l a t i o n s where b o t h p a c cay a ( c o n d i t i o n )
a n d p accay up p an n a ( c o n d i t i o n e d ) a r e m e n t a l . T h is i s because
of the fo llo w in g re a so n : M e n ta l e l e m e n t s a r i s e e i t h e r
s i m u l t a n e o u s l y o r i n im m ediate c o n t i g u i t y . I f they a r is e
s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , t h e y must p e r i s h s i m u l t a n e o u s l y * I f they
a r i s e i n im m ed iate c o n t i g u i t y , t h e n t h e i m m e d i a t e l y p r e c e d i n g
one has t o p e r i s h b e f o r e t h e i m m e d i a t e l y s u c c e e d i n g one
could appear. Hence a m e n t a l e le m e n t c a n n o t become e i t h e r
a p u r e j a t a - or a pacchagata-paccaya in r e l a t i o n to a n o th er
1
m e n t a l e lem en t*
Kamma-paccaya:
As a p a c c a y a i n t h e system of c o r r e l a t i o n , karama i s
o f two k i n d s ; I f what i s c o n d i t i o n e d t h e r e b y a r i s e s
sim u ltan e o u sly w ith i t , i t i s known as s a h a j a t a * I f what i s
c o n d i t i o n e d t h e r e b y i s a s y n c h r o n o u s , i t i s known as
nanakhanika. I n both cases the re fe re n c e is to c e t a n a , v o l i t i o n .
Ooncex»ning t h e f i r s t , i t is s a id th a t the c e ta n a ,
w h e t h e r wholesome ( k u s a l a ) or unwholesome ( a k u s a l a ) , fo rm s
a p a c c a y a f o r t h o s e m e n t a l s t a t e s which a r i s e t o g e t h e r w i t h
it* I f th e s e m ental s t a t e s g ive r i s e to ( c itta s a m u tth a n a )

1* B a se d on t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h e r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n c i t t a
and c e t a s i k a s and the d e f i n i t i o n of sa m a n a n ta ra -p a c c a y a ,
s e e b e l o w , 338 f f .
526

r u p a , t h e n t h e l a t t e r , to o ;