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# EMM4209: INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

## Abdul Aziz Hairuddin

Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering,
Faculty of Engineering,
Universiti Putra Malaysia
Office: 03-89466331
Room: L5-21

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• Chapter 1 : Introduction on Internal Combustion Engine
• Chapter 2 : Engine Cycles
• Chapter 3 : Fuel and Thermochemical Properties
• Chapter 4 : Induction System
• Chapter 5 : Combustion in Engine
• Chapter 6 : Heat Transfer in Engine
• Chapter 7 : Cooling System
• Chapter 8 : Engine Friction
• Chapter 9 : Lubrication
• Chapter 10 : Exhaust Flow, Emission and Pollution
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Contents:
Week 3 and 4
1. Air-standard cycles and analysis
2. Otto, diesel and dual cycle
3. Comparison between Otto, Diesel and dual cycle
Engine Cycles

## 4. Actual fuel-air engine cycle

5. Standard cycles
6. Engine parameter effect

Assessment Type:
C4, C5 – Test / Final Exam / Laboratory
A4 – Practice Question / Quiz
CTPS – Test / Final Exam / Laboratory
P5 - Laboratory
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4 Energy Equation
• Develop a simple finite energy release model by incoporating
Wiebe function (eqn. 2.27)

## • Assume, the energy release occurs for a given combustion

duration 𝜃𝑑 during the compression and expansion strokes.

crank angle

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• The closed system differential energy equation, for a small crank angle, 𝑑𝜃:

𝛿𝑄 − 𝛿𝑊 = 𝑑𝑈

• After derivation (pg 46), the cylinder pressure can be obtained from:

𝑑𝑃 𝑃 𝑑𝑉 𝑄 𝑑𝑥
= −𝛾 + 𝛾−1
𝑑𝜃 𝑉 𝑑𝜃 𝑉 𝑑𝜃

## Where, work is given by:

𝑑𝑊 𝑑𝑉
=𝑃
𝑑𝜃 𝑑𝜃

• These equations are linear first order differential equations, and easily
solved by numerical integration.

## • Used for closed system, e.g. both valves close.

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From Ferguson’s
textbook
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Example 2.2
Results from example 2.2 of
the textbook for the pressure
and temperature profiles.

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5 Cylinder and Mass Transfer Loss
• Develop a simple models of the heat transfer and mass blowby
process, then include in the previous energy equation.

## • ICE do not operate on closed thermodynamic cycles: induction,

expulsion of combustion products, leakage or blowby past the
rings etc.

3%.

## • Heat transfer rate to the cylinder walls is represented by

Newtonian-type convection equation.

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• The heat transfer to the walls (expanded):
𝑑𝑄 = 𝑄𝑖𝑛 𝑑𝑥 − 𝑑𝑄1

𝑑𝑄1
= ℎ𝐴 𝑇 − 𝑇𝑤
𝑑𝑡

## ℎ = heat transfer coefficient

𝐴 = cylinder surface area in contact with gases
𝑇𝑤 = cylinder wall temperature

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• The ordinary differential equations for pressure, work, heat loss
and cylinder mass:

𝑑𝑃 𝑃 𝑑𝑉 𝛾 − 1 𝑑𝑥 𝛾𝐶𝑃
= −𝛾 + 𝑄 − ℎ 1 + 𝛽𝑉 𝑃𝑉 Τ𝑚 − 𝑇𝑤 −
𝑑𝜃 𝑉 𝑑𝜃 𝑉 𝑑𝜃 𝜔

𝑑𝑊 𝑑𝑉
=𝑃
𝑑𝜃 𝑑𝜃

𝑑𝑄1
= ℎ 1 + 𝛽𝑉 𝑃𝑉 Τ𝑚 − 𝑇𝑤
𝑑𝜃

𝑑𝑚 𝑚
= −𝐶
𝑑𝜃 𝜔
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6 Ideal Four-Stroke and Residual Fraction
• Use energy equation to model the exhaust and intake strokes
and determine the residual fraction of gas.

## • The intake and exhaust strokes are also assumed to occur

adiabatically and at constant pressure. More realistic model in

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Exhaust Stroke
• Exhaust stroke processes: gas blowdown and gas displacement.

## • At the end of the expansion stroke, the 𝑃𝑐𝑦𝑙 > 𝑃𝑒

• Hence, when the exhaust valve opens, gas will flow out even if the piston
does not move: sonic flow is possible to occur at the valve → thus cylinder
pressure drops rapidly to exhaust manifold pressure, 𝑃𝑒 .

• Thus, the remaining gas in the cylinder that has not flowed out through the
exhaust valve undergoes an expansion process.

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Therefore, the temperature and pressure of the exhaust gases remaining in
the cylinder are: 𝛾−1 Τ𝛾
𝑃5 𝑃5 = 𝑃𝑒
𝑇5 = 𝑇4
𝑃4

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The blowdown is assumed to occur
at constant cylinder volume, the
control mass is assumed to expand
isentropically

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• The energy equation is:

## • The flow is assumed to be adiabatic, the first law becomes:

or

• The residual gas fraction, 𝑓 is the ratio of the residual gas mass (𝑚𝑟 = 𝑚6 )
in the cylinder at the end of the exhaust stroke (state 6) to the mass (𝑚 =
𝑚1 = 𝑚4 ) of the fuel-air mixture: 1 Τ𝛾
1 𝑃𝑒
𝑓=
𝑟 𝑃4
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Intake Stroke
• When the intake valve is opened, the intake gas mixes with the residual gas.

• The intake gas temperature is < the residual gas temperature, hence the in-
cylinder temperature at the end of the intake stroke will be greater than the
intake temperature.

## • Derivation from unsteady energy equation gives intake temperature due to

residual gas as:

𝛾−1 𝑃𝑖
𝑇1 = 1 − 𝑓 𝑇𝑖 + 𝑓 1 − 1− 𝑇𝑒
𝛾 𝑃𝑒

## • The volumetric efficiency is then given by:

𝑚𝑖 𝑃𝑒 Τ𝑃𝑖 − 1
𝑒𝑣 = =1−
𝜌𝑖 𝑉𝑑 𝛾 𝑟−1
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Four-Stroke Otto Cycle Analysis
• When the residual gas fraction is taken into account, the heat addition is:

## ❑ Program FourStrokeOtto.m iterates through the cycles to determine the cycle

pressures, temperature and overall thermal parameters

## ➢ 6, i-1: Intake stroke:

𝛾−1 𝑃𝑖
𝑇1 = 1 − 𝑓 𝑇𝑖 + 𝑓 1 − 1− 𝑇𝑒 𝑃1 = 𝑃𝑖
𝛾 𝑃𝑒

## ➢ 1-2: Isentropic compression stroke:

𝛾
𝑉1
𝑇2 = 𝑇1 𝑟 𝛾−1 𝑃2 = 𝑃1 = 𝑃1 𝑟 𝛾
𝑉2

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➢ 2-3: Constant volume heat addition:
𝑞𝑖𝑛 1 − 𝑓 𝑇3
𝑇3 = 𝑇2 + 𝑃3 = 𝑃2
𝑐𝑣 𝑇2

𝛾−1 𝛾
1 1
𝑇4 = 𝑇3 𝑃4 = 𝑃3
𝑟 𝑟

1−𝛾
𝑃4 𝛾
𝑃5 = 𝑃𝑒
𝑇5 = 𝑇4
𝑃𝑒

## ➢ 5-6: Isentropic blowdown:

𝑇𝑒 = 𝑇5 𝑃6 = 𝑃5 = 𝑃𝑒 1
𝑓= 1 Τ𝛾
𝑟 𝑃6 Τ𝑃4

Problem 2.8

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Reference: Ferguson, C.R. and Kirkpatrick, A.T. (2016), Internal Combustion
Engines: Applied Thermosciences, 3rd Edition, Wiley