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Element 6
Q1(a) In a relation to the classification of fires, give an example of a material(fuel) that
falls within EACH of the classes A, S, C and D (4)

Refer Page No - 174

Class A - Fire involving solids - wood, paper or plastics (usually material of an organic nature).

Class B - Fires involving liquids or liquefiable solids - petrol, oil, paint fat or wax.

Class C - Fires involving gases - liquefied petroleum gas, natural gas or acetylene.

Class D - Fires involving metals - sodium, magnesium, aluminium and many metal powders.

Class E - Fires involving electrical apparatus. In many cases, electricity is a source of heat.

Class F or K - Fires involving cooking oils and fats.

Q1 (b) Identify the methods of heat transfer AND explain how EACH method contributes
to the spread of fire (4)

Refer Page No -174

Convection - The movement of hotter gases up through the air (hot air rises).e.g. Smoke and
hot gases rising up a staircase through an open door.

Control measure - Protection of openings buy fire doors and the creation of fire resistant
compartments in buildings.

Conduction - The movement of heat through a material (usually solid). E.g. A metal beam or
pipe transmitting heat through a solid wall.

Control measure - Insulating the surface of a beam or pipe with heat resistant materials.

Radiation - Transfer of heat as invisible waves through the air (the air or gas is not heated but
solids and liquids in contact with the heat are). E.g. Items or waste containers stored too near to
a building may provide enough heat to transfer the fire to the building if they are ignited.

Control measure - Separation distances or fire resistant barriers.

Direct Burning - Combustible materials in direct contact with naked flame. E.g. curtains or
carpet tiles may be consumed by combustion and enable fire to be transferred along them to
other parts of a building.

Control measure - The use of fire retardant materials.

Q1 (c) Identify the principles of fire triangle. (2)

Refer Page No - 173



Q2 Identify Eight Common causes of fires in the workplace (8)

Refer Page No -174 & 175


Causes may be split four main groups. These are:

Careless actions and accidents

E.g. hot works, discarded lighted cigarette end or match, smoldering waste, unattended burning
or poor electrical connections.

Misusing equipment

E.g. overloading electrical circuits and using fuses of too high a rating, failure to follow servicing
instructions, failure to repair faulty machinery/equipment promptly.

Defective machinery or equipment

E.g. electrical short circuits, electrical earth fault can cause local, overheating and electrical
insulation failure may occur when affected by heat damp or chemicals.

Deliberate ignition

E.g. Insurance fraud, aggrieved persons, concealment of another crime, political activities or

Q3 (a) Identify FOUR types of ignition source that could cause a fire in the workplace (4)

Refer Page No - 173


Any source of heat is possible ignition source. Examples could be:

 Welding

 Hot Work
 Smoking
 Arson

Q3 (b) Outline control measures for EACH of the ignition sources identified in (a) (4)

Refer Page No - 179


 Only use the competent trained workers.

 Regulators should be of a recognized standard.
 Clearly identify by colour code, the different hoses for oxygen, acetylene, propane.
 Fit non-return valves at blowpipe/torch inlet on the both gas lines.
 Fit flashback arrestors incorporating cut-off valves and flame arrestors fitted to outlet of
both gas regulators.
 Use crimped hose connections not jubilee clips.
 Do not let oil or grease contaminate oxygen supply due to explosion hazard.
 Check equipment visually before use, and check new connections with soapy water for
 Secure cylinders in upright position.
 Keep hose lengths to a minimum.

Hot Work:

It is imperative that good safe working practices are utilized. Combustible materials must be
removed from the area or covered up. Thought must be given to the effects of heat on the
surrounding structure, and where sparks, names, hot residue or heat will travel to. It is often
necessary to have for watcher to spot any fires that may be started. Fire extinguishers need to
be immediately available and operatives must know how to use them. The work area must be
checked thoroughly for some time after the completion of work to ensure there are no
smouldering fires.


Smoking should be prohibited in stock rooms not under continuous supervision. Any area where
'no smoking' is imposed should have the rule strictly enforced. Where smoking is allowed, easily
accessible, on-combustible receptacles for cigarette ends and other smoking material should be
provided and empty daily. Smoking should cease half an hour before closing down. In many
countries now smoking bans have been imposed in all public and work places.


Simple but effective ways to deter the arsonist are by giving the security, ·both external, which
should encompass the following:

External security

 Control of people having access to the building/site.

 Use of patrol guards.
 Safety of keys.
 Structural protection.
 Sitting of rubbish bins I skip at least 8m from buildings.

Internal Security

 Good housekeeping.
 Inspections.
 Clear access routes.
 Visitor supervision.
 Control of sub-contractors.
 Audits.

Q4 Identify precautions that would need to be considered before welding work can
commence. (8)

Precautionary measures for welding involve in every aspect of a welding operation. From the
purchase of safe and approved equipment and accessories like Welding helmet or welding
mask, gloves and personal protection tools, through proper installation in fixed and stable
welding booths with Fume Extractors. The major precautionary measures include

 Fully charged and operable Fire Extinguishers, appropriate for the type of possible fire,
shall be available at the work place.

 Work to be performed must be screened to prevent sparks from flying outside the
immediate welding / Burning / Grinding area.

 All combustible material must be .removed or covered with fire-resistant material (fire
blankets).Combustible material such as paper clippings, wood shavings or textile fibres
on the floor shall be swept clean.

 Combustible floors shall be kept wet, covered with damp sand, or protected by fire-
resistant shields.

 If Welding I burning is to be carried out on metal partition wall or ceiling I roof,

precautions shall be taken to prevent ignition of materials on the other side (to be also
checked if there are combustibles on the other side). In case combustibles are found on
the other side, the preferred precaution is to relocate them. Moreover, a Fire Watcher
and a portable Fire Extinguisher shall be provided on the opposite side of the work to be

 Do not carry out Electric Arc Welding with equipment placed on wet floors.
 Electric cables must be inspected daily for any damage. Should affected parts are found,
they must be immediately removed.

 Hot Work Permit shall be always obtained prior to start any activity. While working, stop
the activity if conditions change from those under which the Permit. To Work was

 All welding sets (including cables and connectors) must be maintained in good condition,
and be of adequate capacity.

 Unnecessarily long lengths of hose should be avoided. Oxygen and fuel gas hoses
should be of the same length.

 Cylinders and gas hoses shall not be allowed to come into contact with electric cables.
Therefore: -Special attention should be paid to the places where electro-welding and gas
burning of metals are carded out simultaneously.

 Welding equipment (welding machine, electric cables, electrode holder, etc) shall be
verified prior to start the work.

 Burning and Flame-Cutting equipment (torch, hoses, connections, etc.) shall be verified
prior to start the work. Flame Arrestor must always be fitted close to the torch or near the
cylinders regulator.

 The work piece must be bonded to earth by means of a heavy section conductor having
suitable clamped connections.

 Welding area was made free-from flammable materials and / or free of explosive
mixtures (H2S, propane, etc). The welder must weld / cut only where conditions are

 In addition to the commonly required Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), use all the
PPE specially required for the operation: Welding Mask, Welding Gloves, Welding
Apron, Safety Goggles, etc.

 It must be ensured that gases / fumes produced by Welding, Burning, etc. are removed
either by natural ventilation or forced mechanical ventilation.

 One appointed Fire Watcher and one Fire Extinguisher have to be always present at the
work place.

 Welders and helper must always be alert to the danger of fire and explosion.

 Electrode holders under voltage MUST NOT are left unattended.

 Welding, Burning, etc. operations involving the use of scaffolding is allowed only after
taking measures to prevent the scaffold boards from ignition and molten metal falling on
people below.

 After finishing work, ensure nothing is burning or smoldering near the work place.

 Slag shall not be cleaned from newly welded joints until it has time to cool. Safety
Goggles must be worn also for slag removal.

Q5 Outline the general role a fire marshal would be expected to undertake in an

emergency evacuation of a workplace in the event of a fire. (8)
Outline the emergency evacuation procedure of the workplace in case of fire (8)

Refer Page No - 190 & 191

 Sound the fire alarm system & Order the evacuation of the floor.
 Check the source, type and severity of the emergency.
 Call the fire and rescue service.
 Advice the emergency on the floor and the proposed action to be taken.
 Ensure that all occupants of the floor are aware that evacuation of the floor is necessary,
and direct the occupants to the nearest accessible exit or escape stairs, through which
they should proceed to the designated assembly area.
 Ensure that evacuation from the floor is orderly and by means of the stairs.
 Ensure that necessary assistance is given to disabled and other persons in need of
special care.
 Check fire doors to ensure that they are closed and post a watch so that they are kept
closed except during the escape of occupants.
 Provided it is safe to do so, make a thorough search of the whole floor or area to ensure
that no persons remain.
 Carry out a roll call.
 Assist the Building Warden in checking that all building occupants have arrived at the
assembly area.