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Name: Paulo Emmanuel S.

Santos Course: Science, Technology, and


Society
Section: 1A17
Date: April 18, 2020

A. What is Nanotechnology?

1. Based on the video, try to define the following:


a. Nanotechnology – it is the process of making new things using materials that are
very small but can deliver incredibly. It also deals with the manipulation of matter
on smaller scales which creates new properties for such things.
b. Nanostructures – these are structures of sizes between microscopic and
molecular. Such structures have been found to influence physical and chemical
properties of different objects.
c. Nanomaterials – these are materials with particles that are very small in nature
which can be use to create different things using nanotechnology. These
materials can either be naturally-occuring or engineered.
2. Give 3 examples of naturally occurring nanomaterials. How did these materials
change the world?
a. Volcanic Ashes – After volcanic eruptions, the danger of volcanic ashes falling
out from the sky could result to many negative health concerns. Just like what
happened in our country during the 1991 Pinatubo eruption, a vast ash flow was
recorded, that caused many people to die due to various respiratory diseases.
b. Cosmetics – many beauty companies nowadays use the combination of Zinc
oxide and Titanium oxide nanoparticles as part of their sun block formulation.
These nanoparticles have been found to lessen the UV exposure of our skin. The
smaller these particles are, it is easier to mix them in the liquid formulation of the
sun block, making it much easier to absorb.
c. Calcium sulfate – it was found out in researches that Calcium sulfate in sea water
can help in bone regeneration. Using them as barriers, it keeps the bone’s
connective tissues to stay together, which is good in bone regeneration during
healing.
3. How does scientist create nanostructures?
There are truly many ways on how scientists may create their nanostructures following
their specific purpose. Nowadays, scientists create nanostructures by manipulating and
rearranging the atoms of an object. In this was, they can create new nanomaterials with
new properties such as strength, weight, and color. Just like in the food industry,
through creating their own nanostructures, they can create food supplements that could
help the body absorb more nutrients faster and easier.

4. In the video, how does food researcher used nanotechnology? Explain and give an
example.

Nanotechnology is being utilized by food researchers in the betterment of health and


wellness. They could create food products which has the ability to help the body easily
absorb the nutrients we intake. Also, they could create devices through nanotechnology
that will help ensure the quality and shelf life of products being manufactures, in the
form of nanosensors. Based from the video, I was hooked in her example regarding salt.
Salt is a crucial ingredient in our food because it is one of the sources of flavor. Through
nanotechnology, salt can be maximized through turning it into smaller particles. This will
allow us to put smaller amounts of salt and not compromise the flavor of the food we are
eating. This is also helpful for those who are not allowed to eat too salty food due to
health concerns.

5. What are the safety assessments in which nanotechnologists must follow?

The safety assessments compose of different properties to ensure that products


manufactured with the aid of nanotechnology will be safe for the users. This is
specifically considered in the food industry. Companies need to secure that their
products meet these properties, namely: Physicochemical Characterization; Hazards
Identification; Hazard Characterization; Exposure Assessment; and, Risk
Characterization. This is to ensure the impact it will give to humans and the environment.

B. The Mighty Power of Nanomaterials

1. What are the problems that we are facing in the cellular level in which
nanotechnology can solve?
One problem the whole world is facing right now is the COVID-19 virus. Some scientists
and chemical engineers actually thought of using nanotechnology as a way of
formulating a cure for this worldwide pandemic. According to Northeastern chemical
engineer Thomas Webster, since the problem itself is ultra-small, he and a whole
contingency of scientists are proposing particles of similar sizes to attach to the virus
with the help of infrared light treatment which wll halt the survival of the virus in the body.
They are also proposing theranostics, which uses nanomedicine, and has already
treated diseases like influenza and tuberculosis. And with an enemy that is very very
small to even see, we need a defense that can match its size. Hopefully, they may use
the power of nanotechnology to end this outbreak. (source:
https://www.nanowerk.com/nanotechnology-news2/newsid=54710.php)

2. What is the criteria of a nanomaterial?

One of the main criteria of a nanomaterial is its size. It must be smaller than 100
nanometers, in terms of its dimensions. A nanometer is 100,000 times smaller than the
width of the human hair. It is very small, even to be seen in an ordinary microscope.
They also possess different unique properties which could influence an object greatly.
Because in breaking down the particles, it unlocks properties which improves the
qualities of products made using these nanomaterials. Nanomaterials can either be
naturally-occurring or engineered by nanotechnologists.

3. Can you see a nanomaterial using a light microscope? Explain your answer.

A nanomaterial, because of its very small size, is something that cannot be seen on any
regular microscope. According to the video, you can use an electron microscope. This
allows you to magnify samples by up to one million times. But in order to work with
nanoscale materials, you would need a scanning tunneling microscope which allows
you to see individual atoms and molecules, and to move them around.

4. If you break an object into smaller materials, will the surface area increase? Why?

Yes, this is true. If you have one big object, it definitely has a large surface area. But if
you break it into smaller chunks and add up all the surface areas of the object, it will end
up having a larger surface area overall. It is because as you break a big object into
smaller parts, it creates new individual objects that have their own dimension and parts.
These smaller chunks have surface areas, and if you combine all of the surface areas of
each small chunk, it is relatively larger because of breaking it down. Because of this, it
can reach to more spaces and eventually it can have more direct contact with its
surroundings.

5. Can nanomaterials be used as catalysts? How?

In the field of Chemistry, nanomaterials are often used to industrial chemical reactions
because of the way it reacts of chemical substances. It is also said that nanomaterials
are more often attractive to water and oil materials. And because of their small size,
they can easily penetrate these substances. There are also some solid nanomaterials
that can change phase and flow like how water does. This explains why nanomaterials
have more surface area. With each individual chunk, it is able to reach wider and have
more contact with the substance it is interacting. As a result, nanomaterials are easier to
absorb than larger or bigger objects.

6. What properties of matter can a nanomaterial change? Give an example.

Some of the properties that nanomaterials can change, aside from size, is the material’s
melting point, fluorescence, color, and even taste. The example given in the video was
gold. Gold in its own is the name of the color or visible light that it emits. But if you break
down gold into nanoscale materials, it may appear to be color red or purple. This
nanoscale gold can be used in detecting and safely treating tumors through laser
destruction, without harming healthy cells.

7. How can a nanomaterial be useful in the field of medicine? In electronics? In beauty


products?
a. Medicine – Since some diseases are in a cellular level, we can use
nanomaterials to help solve these problems with tiny or small origins. Also, going
this small could prevent greater harm like destroying healthy cells with other
processes. We can also create medicines that are easier to absorb and could
trigger the root cause, even if it’s on a nanoscale.
b. Electronics – With every electronic product getting smaller and smaller, we are
getting the sense that we may use nanomaterials in understanding the products
we use. This will also be helpful in fixing technical problems, like in
semiconductors or other components which are on the nanoscale. Creating
longer life batteries are also an advantage of the use of nanotechnology in
electronics.
c. Beauty Products – like the example in Question 2 in the first part, sun screen
needs to have the property of preventing too much UV exposure for our skin.
Through the use of Zinc oxide and Titanium oxide, the formulation of sun screen
have been better than ever.
8. What are the problems of nano size particles?

Just like the problem with COVID-19 virus, nano particles are too small to be detected.
Some of these particles have negative properties we haven’t discovered or known yet.
With these dangers, we might not know we are already inhaling big amounts of
poisonous nanomaterials in our bodies. It is also dangerous to deal with nanomaterials,
especially in treating diseases. The last thing you want to happen is to cause another
problem because of these nanomaterials. In short, the main problem with
nanotechnology is the lack of research about it.