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Homework 8

Nika kurdadze
May 11, 2020

chapter 11.1
exercise 5

We have to find the velocity, speed, and acceleration at time t of the particle
whose position is r(t) Describe the path of the particle.

r = t2 i − t2 j + k
dr
v= = 2ti − 2tj + 0k
dt p

| v |= (2t)2 + (2t)2 = 2 2t
dv
a= = 2i − 2j
dt
The scalar parametric equations for the curve are

x = t2 y = −t2 z=0

we have z=0 so, the curve lies in xy plate. also, x = −y and therefore given
equation represents straight line in xy plate with the equation y = −x

exercise 9
have to find the velocity, speed, and acceleration at time t of the particle whose
position is r(t) Describe the path of the particle.

r = 3 cos (t)i + 4 cos (t)j + 5 sin (t)k


dr
v= = −3 sin (t)i − 4 sin (t)j + 5 cos (t)k
dt p
| v |= (−3 sin (t))2 + (−4 sin (t))2 + (5 cos (t))2 =5
dv
a= = −3 cos (t)i − 4 cos (t)j − 5 sin (t)k
dt

1
The scalar parametric equations for the curve are
2
x = 3 cos (t) y = 4 cos (t) z = 5 sin (t)

We have x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 52 So, the curve lies on the sphere with the center at
origin and the radius of 5. also, 4x = 3y so the curve lies in the plane 4x = 3y
and on the sphere with the radius 5 and center at the origin. Also, r is a function
of t and its period is 2π So, particle moves around the circle and has the period
of 2π

exercise 15
A particle moves around the circle x2 + y 2 = 25 at constant speed, making one
revolution in 2 s. Find its acceleration when it is at (3; 4)
we can easily guess that it is radial acceleration and calculate it with formula
2
a = vR , but lets do it without using this formula.
It’s easy to notice that particle moves on the circle with radius 5. so, the position
of the object at time t is

r = 5 cos (ωt)i + 5sin(ωt)j

the particle does one turn in 2 seconds, so period of r should be 2, so we have


ωt = 2π ω = π so, we have:

r = 5 cos (πt)i + 5 sin (πt)j

now, lets calculate the time, that the particle needs to arrive at given point. on
that point, particle turns by the angel cos−1 ( 53 ) = sin−1 ( 45 ), particle turns with
cos−1 ( 3 ) cos−1 ( 53 )
the angle 2π in 2 seconds, so, to turn with given angle, will take 2 2π 5 = π
seconds. now, lets calculate the acceleration and substitute the value of t.
dr
v= = −5π sin (πt)i + 5π cos (πt)j
dt
dv
a= = −5π 2 cos (πt)i − 5π 2 sin (πt)j =
dt
cos−1 ( 35 ) sin−1 ( 54 )
− 5π 2 cos (π )i − 5π 2 sin (π )j = −3π 2 i − 4π 2 j
π π

paragraph 11.3
exercise 7
We have to parametrize the curve of intersection of the given surfaces.

x2 + y 2 = 9
z =x+y

2
we use the equality sin2 x + cos2 x = 1 ⇒ (3 sin x)2 + (3 cos x)2 = 9 so we have

x = 3 sin x y = 3 cos x z = 3(sin x + cos x)

exercise 15
We have to Express the length of the curve r = at2 i + btj + c ln tk (1 ≤ t ≤ T )
as a definite integral and then Evaluate the integral if b2 = 4ac
RT
We know that s = 1 vdt We have :
r r
c c2
v = (2at)2 + b2 + ( )2 = 4a2 t2 + b2 + 2
t t
So, r
T
c2
Z
s= 4a2 t2 + b2 +
1 t2
If b2 = 4ac, we will have
Z Tr Z T T
c2 c
2at + = (at2 +ln ct) = aT 2 +ln cT −a−ln c = aT 2 +ln T −a

s= 4a2 t2 + 4ac + 2 =
1 t 1 t 1

exercise 23
We have to reparametrize the given curve in the same orientation in terms of
arc length measured from the point where t = o
we have :
p
v = A2 + B 2 + C 2
Z t Z tp p
s= vdt = A2 + B 2 + C 2 dt = t A2 + B 2 + C 2
0 0
s
t= √
A + B2 + C 2
2

So, the parametrization is:


As Bs Cs
x= √ y=√ z=√
A2 + B 2 + C 2 A2 + B 2 + C 2 A2 + B 2 + C 2

Paragraph 11.4
exercise 1
We have to Find the unit tangent vector T̂ (t) for the curve:

r = ti − 2t2 j + 3t3 k

3
We have to find the tangent vector and than divide it by its lengths. We have
p
V = i + 4tj + 9t2 k ⇒ v = 1 + 16t2 + 81t4

so, the unit tangent vector is:

i 4tj 9t2 k
√ +√ +√
1 + 16t2 + 81t4 1 + 16t2 + 81t4 1 + 16t2 + 81t4

exercise 7
We have to show that if κ(s) = C is a positive and τ (s) = 0 for all s, then
r = r(s) is a circle.
It is easy to guess, that it is circle with radius 1c so it has equation: x2 + y 2 = c12
lets paramertize it.
sin t cos t
x= y= z=0
c c
t
s = ⇒ t = sc
c
so, intrinsic parametrization will be
sin sc cos sc
x= y= z=0
c c
T̂ = cos (cs)i + sin (cs)j + 0k
N̂ = − sin (cs)i + cos (cs)j + 0k
q
κ = c2 sin2 (cs) + c2 cos2 (cs) = c
dB̂
B̂ = T̂ × N̂ = 0i + 0j + k ⇒ =0⇒τ =0
ds
So, the circle with radius 1c has curvature of c and torsion of 0. From the
fundamental theorem of space curves, we can deduce that if any curve has same
curvature and torsion, it is also circle. What was to be proved