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Homework 14

Nika kurdadze
June 23, 2020

chapter 13.1
exercise16
We have to find and clasify the critical points of the function of 3 variables
f (x, y, z) = xyz − x2 − y 2 − z 2 we have:

f1 (x, y, z) = yz − 2x
f2 (x, y, z) = xz − 2y
f3 (x, y, z) = xy − 2z

each of the derivatives must be zero, therefore we have:

f1 (x, y, z) = yz − 2x = 0
f2 (x, y, z) = xz − 2y = 0
f3 (x, y, z) = xy − 2z = 0

which has the solutions: (0,0,0), (2,2,2), (2,-2,-2), (-2,2,-2) and (-2,-2,2); we only
need to check first three of them, because by symmetry, last three have the same
values.
f11 (x, y, z) = −2 f12 (x, y, z) = z f13 (x, y, z) = y
f21 (x, y, z) = z f22 (x, y, z) = −2 f23 (x, y, z) = x
f31 (x, y, z) = y f32 (x, y, z) = x f33 (x, y, z) = −2
So, for (0,0,0) we have  
−2 0 0
0 −2 0 (1)
0 0 −2
which is clearly negatively defined, so 0,0,0 is local minimum of the function.
f (0, 0, 0) = 0
for (2,2,2) we have  
−2 2 2
 2 −2 2  (2)
2 2 −2

1
this matrix is neither positive or negative defined so it is saddle point
for (-2,2,2) we have  
−2 2 2
 2 −2 −2 (3)
2 −2 −2
this matrix is also neither positive or negative defined so it is saddle point.
by symmetry (2,-2,2) and (2,2,-2) are also saddle points.
We see that function has minimum value, but it has mo maximum value which
is logic because first term is third degree and second is second degree, so as x,y
and z increase function increases to infinity.

exercise18
We have to show that the function : f (z, y, z) = 4xyz − x4 − y 4 − z 4 has local
maximum at the point (1,1,1). first we calculate first partial derivatives:

f1 (x, y, z) = 4yz − 4x3 f1 (1, 1, 1) = 0


3
f2 (x, y, z) = 4xz − 4y ⇒ f2 (1, 1, 1) = 0
f3 (x, y, z) = 4xy − 4z 3 f3 (1, 1, 1) = 0

Now, lets calculate the Hessian matrix at the indicated point. We have:

f11 (x, y, z) = −12x2 f12 (x, y, z) = 4z f13 (x, y, z) = 4y


2
f21 (x, y, z) = 4z f22 (x, y, z) = −12y f23 (x, y, z) = 4x
f31 (x, y, z) = 4y f32 (x, y, z) = 4x f33 (x, y, z) = −12z 2

So the Hessian matrix is:


 
−12 4 4
 4 −12 4 
4 4 −12

D1 = −2, D2 = 128, D3 = −1024 So the matrix is negatively defined and


therefore indicated point is local minimum of the function.