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symmetric matrix

Nika kurdadze
May 5, 2020

 
a b
we have to show that the symmetric matrix , where a, b, c and d are
b c
real numbers, has real eigenvalues and its eigenvectors are orthogonal.
let its eigenvalue be K. we will have:
      
a b x ax + by Kx
= = (1)
b c y bx + cy Ky

To find K we have to solve the system of equations:

x(K − a)
ax + by = Kx y=
b (2)
bx + cy = Ky

If b 6= 0 we will have:

cx(K − a) Kx(K − a)
+ bx =
b b
c(K − a) K(K − a)
+b=
b b
c(K − a) + b2 = K(K − a)
K 2 − (a + c)K − b2 + ac = 0
D = (a + c)2 − 4ac + 4b2 = (a − c)2 + 4b2

a+c± D
K=
2
D ≥ 0 so both eigenvalues are real. √
a+c D
now, lets find eigenvectors. For simplification let 2 = m and 2 = n we will
have K1 = m + n and K2 = m − n
from equation (2) we will have:

x1 (m + n − a)
y1 =
b (3)
x2 (m − n − a)
y2 =
b

1
So, first igenvector is (1; (m+n−a)
b ) and second igenvector is (1; (m−n−a)
b ) let us
calculate their scalar product:
 (m − a)2 − n2

 1 [(m − a) + n][(m − a) − n]
1 (m+n−a) (m−n−a) = 1+ 2
= 1+
b
b b b2
now substitute the values of m and n
(a−c)2 +4b2 (a−c)2 (a−c)2
(m − a)2 − n2 ( a+c 2
2 − a) − 4 4 − 4 − b2
1+ = 1+ = 1+ =0
b2 b2 b2
Scalar product is zero and vectors are nonzero, so they are orthogonal, What
was to be proved.
If b = 0 from equation(2) we will have:

ax = Kx
(4)
cy = Ky

if a 6= c it has two solutions: k1 = a, x1 = x, y1 = 0 and k2 = c, x2 = 0, y2 = y


So, eigenvectors are (1,0) and (0,1) which are clearly orthogonal.
now consider the case, when a=c. we will have:

ax = Kx
(5)
ay = Ky

Its solution is K = a and x = x, y = y so any vector satisfies the equation(5). So


eigenvectors are all vectors and clearly all of them has corresponding orthogonal
vector.