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U.S. Military Aircraft


B-52 Stratofortress
The B-52H BUFF [Big Ugly Fat Fellow] is the primary nuclear roled bomber in the
USAF inventory. It provides the only Air Launch Cruise Missile carriage in the USAF.
The B-52H also provides theater CINCs with a long range strike capability. The bomber
is capable of flying at high subsonic speeds at altitudes up to 50,000 feet (15,166.6
meters). It can carry nuclear or conventional ordnance with worldwide precision
navigation capability.

The aircraft's flexibility was evident during the Vietnam War and, again, in Operation
Desert Storm. B-52s struck wide-area troop concentrations, fixed installations and
bunkers, and decimated the morale of Iraq's Republican Guard. The Gulf War involved
the longest strike mission in the history of aerial warfare when B-52s took off from
Barksdale Air Force Base, La., launched conventional air launched cruise missiles and
returned to Barksdale -- a 35-hour, non-stop combat mission.

A total of 744 B-52s were built with the last, a B-52H, delivered in October 1962. Only
the H model is still in the Air Force inventory and all are assigned to Air Combat
Command. The first of 102 B-52H's was delivered to Strategic Air Command in May
1961. The H model can carry up to 20 air launched cruise missiles. In addition, it can
carry the conventional cruise missile which was launched from B-52G models during
Desert Storm.

Barksdale AFB, LA and Minot AFB, ND serves as B-52 Main Operating Bases (MOB).
Training missions are flown from both MOBs. Barksdale AFB and Minot AFB normally
supports 57 and 36 aircraft respectively on-station.

Features

In a conventional conflict, the B-52H can perform air interdiction, offensive counter-air
and maritime operations. During Desert Storm, B-52s delivered 40 percent of all the
weapons dropped by coalition forces. It is highly effective when used for ocean
surveillance, and can assist the U.S. Navy in anti-ship and mine-laying operations. Two
B-52s, in two hours, can monitor 140,000 square miles (364,000 square kilometers) of
ocean surface.

Starting in 1989, an on-going modification incorporates the global positioning system,


heavy stores adaptor beams for carrying 2,000 pound munitions and additional smart
weapons capability. All aircraft are being modified to carry the AGM-142 Raptor missile
and AGM-84 Harpoon anti-ship missile.

The B-52H was designed for nuclear standoff, but it now has the conventional warfare
mission role with the retirement of the B-52G’s. The B-52 can carry different kinds of
external pylons under its wings.
 The AGM-28 pylon can carry lighter weapons like the MK-82 and can carry 12
weapons on each pylon, for a total of 24 external weapons. With the carriage of
27 internal weapons, the total is 51.
 Heavy Stores Adaptor Beam [HSAB] external pylon can carry heavier weapons
rated up to 2000 lbs. However, each HSAB can carry only 9 weapons which
decreases the total carry to 45 (18 external).
 A third type pylon is used for carrying ALCMs/CALCMs/ACMs.

So the B-52 can carry a maximum of either 51 or 45 munitions, depending on which


pylon is mounted under the wings. However, the AGM-28 pylon is no longer used, so the
B-52 currently carries on HSABs, limiting the external load to 18 bombs, or a total of 45
bombs.

The use of aerial refueling gives the B-52 a range limited only by crew endurance. It has
an unrefueled combat range in excess of 8,800 miles (14,080 kilometers).

All B-52s are equipped with an electro-optical viewing system that uses platinum silicide
forward-looking infrared and high resolution low-light-level television sensors to
augment the targeting, battle assessment, flight safety and terrain-avoidance system, thus
further improving its combat ability and low-level flight capability.

Pilots wear night vision goggles (NVGs) to enhance their night visual, low-level terrain-
following operations. Night vision goggles provide greater safety during night operations
by increasing the pilot's ability to visually clear terrain and avoid enemy radar.

Current B-52H crew size is five. Pilot and co-pilot are side by side on the upper flight
deck, along with the electronic warfare officer (EWO), seated behind the pilot facing aft.
Side by side on the lower flight deck are the radar navigator, responsible for weapons
delivery, and the navigator, responsible for guiding the aircraft from point A to point B.
Because the H model was not originally designated for conventional ordnance delivery,
weapons delivery was assigned to the radar navigator and the "bombardier/navigator"
crew station designation of the earlier B-52 series was not used.)

The controls and displays for aircraft systems are distributed among the crew stations on
the basis of responsibilities. The Air Force’s objective is to employ the latest navigation
and communication technology to reduce the crew size to four people, by combining the
radar navigator and navigator functions into one position.
The navigator stations use CRT displays and 386x-type processors. Interface to avionics
architecture is based on the Mil-Std-1553B data bus specification.

Current Upgrade Activities


The current service life of the aircraft extends to 2040.
The B-52 is a typical representation of the misnomer of "legacy" system. While the B-52
exceeds 30 years of age, new modifications and mission capabilities are constantly
updating the system. The following is a list of current B-52 modification programs:

1. Global Positioning System (GPS)


2. TACAN Replacement System (TRS)
3. Integrated Conventional Stores Management System (ICSMS)
4. ARC-210/DAMA Secure Voice
5. AGM-142 HAVENAP Missile Integration
6. High Reliability Maintenance-Free Battery
7. Electronic Counter-Measures Improvement (ECMI)
8. Off-Aircraft Pylon Tester (OAPT)
9. Air Force Mission Support System (AFMSS)
10. Electro Viewing System - EVS 3-in-1 (EVS, STV, FLIR)
11. Advanced Weapons Integration Program (JDAM, WCMD, JSOW, JASSM)
12. Night Vision Imaging System Cockpit Compatible Lighting
13. Night Vision Imaging System Compatible Ejection Seat Mod
14. Standard Flight Loads Data Recorder (SFLDR)
15. Avionics Midlife Improvement (AMI) (ACU, DTUC, and INS Replacement)
16. ALR-20 System Replacement
17. Fuel Temperature Monitoring System
18. Panoramic Night Vision Goggles
19. Advanced Infrared Expendables
20. Advanced real Time Engine Health Monitoring System
21. Closed Loop Sensor-To Shoot Data Collection/Trans
22. Precision Targeting Radar
23. TF-33 Engine Replacement
24. Lethal Self Protection
25. B-52 Cockpit Modernization
26. KY-58 VINSON Secure Voice
27. AVTR
28. Additional Cabin Pressure Altimeter
29. Enhanced Bomber Mission Management System
30. Chaff and Flare Dispenser Upgrade
31. Non 1760 Pylon Upgrade

The B-52 is undergoing a Conventional Enhancement Modification which allows it to


carry MIL-STD 1760 weapons. The Advanced Weapons Integration (AWI) program
supports the conventional enhancement of the B-52 through the addition of the Wind
Corrected Munitions Dispenser (WCMD), Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM), Joint
Stand-off Weapon (JSOW), and the Joint Air-to-Surface Stand-off Missile (JASSM).
Limited Initial Operational Capability for the WCMD was achieved on the B-52 in
December 1998, and LIOC for JDAM was achieved on the B-52 in December 1998.

The Air Force Mission Support System supports the Air Force movement of all mission
planning to a common system. GPS TACAN Emulation provides support to the
Congressionally-directed GPS-2000. Electronic Countermeasures Improvement supports
a DESERT STORM identified deficiency. The B-61 Mod 11 program was added at the
direction of the Nuclear Posture Review and Presidential Decision Directive-30.

The AGM-142 (or Have Nap as it is commonly called) and Harpoon missile systems
were first installed and made operational on the B-52Gs in the mid-1980s. When the “G”
models were retired, these capabilities were moved to the B-52H model. While Air
Combat Command (ACC) was happy to retain these operational capabilities, they were
limited in their ability to employ either Have Nap or Harpoon by the fact that only a
limited number of B-52Hs could employ the missiles. In the early 1990s the B-52
Conventional Enhancement Modification (CEM) Integrated Product Team (IPT) began
programs to make it possible for any B-52H to carry and launch either missile. At about
the same time, the AGM-142 SPO began a second phase of their producibility
enhancement program, PEPII for short, to upgrade the AGM-142 missiles to both
enhance supportability and lower the missiles cost. As of 31 December 97 these programs
provided ACC with the expanded and more flexible mission capability they desired.
Upgrades
The B-61 Mod 11 program involves development and testing of a modified nuclear
weapon on B-52 operational aircraft. Replacement of a strategic weapon was
recommended by the Nuclear Posture Review and directed by Presidential Decision
Review-30. Congress was notified during the second quarter of FY 1995, of the
Department of Defense, and the Department of Energy intent to modify an existing
weapon to provide a replacement option. Modifications (made by the Department of
Energy) to the B-61 Mod 7 strategic bomb accomplish the mission requirements of the
replaced weapon. Modification of an existing weapon is less expensive than the cost to
develop a new weapon from "scratch." Flight testing by the 419th FLTS, Edwards AFB,
CA is required to certify the modified weapon mass and physic properties are the same as
the Mod 7 device. The Air Force asked and received permission from Congress to
reprogram the $4.5M FY 96 Congressional plus-up for AGM-130 integration on the B-
52, into the B-61 Mod 11 Flight Test program. This program was completed in FY 97.

A key element to preserving the combat capability of the BUFF is the continued effort to
improve the reliability, maintainability, and supportability (RM&S) for the B-52s in the
near future. The three major defensive ECM systems on the aircraft, the AN/ALQ-172,
AN/ALQ-155, and AN/ALR-20, all needed upgrades or replacement due to performance,
reliability, and/or supportability problems. In addition, a myriad of other defensive
systems on the BUFFs required enhancements to keep the B-52 ECM suite viable
throughout the lifetime of the aircraft. In FY97, the B-52 fleet received only six percent
of the overall bomber budget which further complicated efforts to maintain these aging
ECM systems.

Between October 1996 and March 1997, the B-52 ECM suite became the leading cause
of the Air Combat Command's B-52 bomber wings not meeting mission capable (MC)
rate standards for the B-52H fleet. The aircraft's three major defensive systems all needed
upgrades or replacement due to performance, reliability, and supportability issues. During
these six months, these three systems combined to produce a six month mission incapable
(MICAP) driver rate for the B-52 fleet of more than 43,000 hours. In addition, B-52 ECM
employees discovered that because of this, readiness spares packages (RSPs) kits were
depleted of several key system line replaceable units (LRUs). This resulted in a
significant impact to the operational readiness of the entire B-52H fleet.

In March 1997, HQ ACC B-52 logistics officials (HQ ACC/LGF52), Oklahoma City
ALC B-52 leadership (OC-ALC/LHL), and managers from the Center's LNR division
implemented an ECM Support Improvement Plan (SIP) to improve the B-52H ECM
MICAP rate and RSP fill rates to acceptable levels. As a result, they eliminated MICAPs
by April 1997 and filled RSP kits to the Independent Kit Level by May 1997.

The ALQ-172 ECM electronic countermeasures suite is being improved to cover a


requirement identified during DESERT STORM. The improvement provides for an
increased memory capability to handle advanced threats as well as correcting a coverage
capability problem. The project adds a third ALQ-172 to the ECM suite and develops the
new display required by the addition of the third system. The B-52's electronic
countermeasures suite is capable of protecting itself against a full range of air defense
threat systems by using a combination of electronic detection, jamming and infrared
countermeasures. The B-52 can also detect and counter missiles engaging the aircraft
from the rear. These systems are undergoing continuous improvement in order to enable
them to continue to counter emerging threat systems.

Situational Awareness is the highest priority modification needed for the B-52. The
Electronic Countermeasure Improvement is a Reliability and Maintainability initiative
that upgrades two low Mean Time Between Failure components, and replaces two
Control and Display Units (CDU) with one CDU. The ECM system uses 1960s-era
technology and will likely be unsupportable by FY02.
Link-16 - A line-of-sight datalink that uses structured message formats to provide the
capability for an organized network of users to transfer in real-time/near real-time,
digitized tactical information between tactical data systems used to increase survivability
and develop a real-time picture of the battlespace.
An unsolicited proposal for reengining 94 aircraft in the B-52 fleet was submitted to the
Air Force by Boeing North American, Inc. in June 1996. Boeing proposed modernizing
the B-52 fleet by replacing the current TF-33 engines with a commercial engine through a
long-term leasing agreement, and providing fixed-cost, privatized maintenance based on
the number of hours flown each year. Boeing's proposal included modernizing the B-52
fleet by replacing the TF-33 engines with the Allison/Rolls commercial RB-211 engine
through a long-term leasing agreement and providing a fixed-cost, privatized
maintenance concept through a "power-by-the-hour" arrangement. Boeing initially
projected reengining cost savings of about $6 billion, but later revised the projected
savings to $4.7 billion to reengine 71 B-52s. An Air Force team formed to study Boeing's
proposal analyzed the lease and purchase alternatives and concluded that both options are
cost prohibitive compared to maintaining the existing TF-33 engines. The General
Accounting Office estimated that Boeing's unsolicited proposal to reengine the B-52 fleet
would cost the Air Force approximately $1.3 billion rather than save approximately $4.7
billion as Boeing projected.

Service Life

Updated with modern technology, the B-52 will continue into the 21st century as an
important element of US forces. There is a proposal under consideration to re-engine the
remaining B-52H aircraft to extend the service life. B-52 re-engine plans, if implemented,
call for the B-52 to be utilized through 2025. Current engineering analysis show the B-
52's life span to extend beyond the year 2040. The limiting factor of the B-52’s service
life is the economic limit of the aircraft's upper wing surface, calculated to be
approximately 32,500 to 37,500 flight hours. Based on the projected economic service
life and forecast mishap rates, the Air Force will be unable to maintain the requirement of
62 aircraft by 2044, after 84 years in service

The May 1997 Report of the Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR), prescribed a total fleet
of 187 bombers (95 B-1, 21 B-2, and 71 B-52). Since the QDR, two B-1s have been lost
in peacetime accidents. However, the Report of the Panel to Review Long-Range Air
Power (LRAP) concluded the existing bomber fleet cannot be sustained through the
expected life of the air frames and that additional aircraft will eventually be required. To
address this issue, the Air Force will add five additional B-52 attrition reserve aircraft,
bringing the B-52 total from 71 to 76 for a total bomber force of 190. The B-52 fleet will
remain the same with 44 combat-coded aircraft.
Specifications
Primary
Heavy bomber
Function:
Contractor: Boeing Military Airplane Co.
Power Plant: Eight Pratt & Whitney engines TF33-P-3/103 turbofan
Thrust: Each engine up to 17,000 pounds (7,650 kilograms)
Length: 159 feet, 4 inches (48.5 meters)
Height: 40 feet, 8 inches (12.4 meters)
Wingspan: 185 feet (56.4 meters)
Speed: 650 miles per hour (Mach 0.86)
Ceiling: 50,000 feet (15,151.5 meters)
Weight: Approximately 185,000 pounds empty (83,250 kilograms)
Maximum 488,000 pounds (219,600 kilograms)
Takeoff
Weight:
Range: Unrefueled 8,800 miles (7,652 nautical miles)
Armament: Approximately 70,000 pounds (31,500 kilograms) mixed ordnance --
NOTE: The B- bombs, mines and missiles.
52 can carry 27
internal NUCLEAR CONVENTIONAL PRECISION
weapons. 20 ALCM 51 CBU-52 (27 int, 18 18 JDAM (12 ext)
Authoritative 12 SRAM [ext] ext) 30 WCMD (16 ext)
sources diverge 12 ACM [ext] 51 CBU-58 (27 int, 18 8 AGM-84 Harpoon
as to maximum 2 B53 [int] ext) 20 AGM-86C CALCM
munition loads, 8 B-61 Mod11 51 CBU-71 (27 int, 18 8 AGM-142 Popeye [3
with some [int] ext) ext]
suggesting as 8 B-83 [int] 30 CBU 87 (6 int, 18 18 AGM-154 JSOW (12
many as 51 ext) ext)
smaller 30 CBU 89 (6 int, 18 12 AGM-158 JASSSM
munitions and ext) [ext]
30 larger 30 CBU 97 (6 int, 18 12 TSSAM
munitions, while ext)
others suggest 51 M117
maximum loads 18 Mk 20 (ext)
of 45 and 24, 51 Mk 36
respectively. 8 Mk 41
The Heavy 12 Mk 52
Stores Adaptor 8 Mk 55
Beam [HSAB] 8 Mk 56
external pylon 51 Mk 59
can carry only 9 8 Mk 60 (CapTor)
weapons which 51 Mk. 62
limits the total 8 Mk. 64
carry to 45 (18 8 Mk 65
external). 51 MK 82
The AGM-28 18 MK 84 (ext)
pylon could
carry lighter
weapons like the
MK-82 and can
carry 12
weapons on each
pylon, for a total
of 24 external
weapons, for a
the total of 51.
However, the
AGM-28 pylon
is no longer
used, so the B-
52 currently
carries on
HSABs, limiting
the external load
to 18 bombs, or
a total of 45
bombs.
AN/ALQ-117 PAVE MINT active countermeasures set
AN/ALQ-122 false target generator [Motorola]
AN/ALQ-153 tail warning set [Northrop Grumman]
AN/ALQ-155 jammer Power Management System [Northrop
Grumman]
AN/ALQ-172(V)2 electronic countermeasures system [ITT]
AN/ALR-20A Panoramic countermeasures radar warning receiver
AN/ALR-46 digital warning receiver [Litton]
AN/ALT-32 noise jammer
12 AN/ALE-20 infra-red flare dispensers
6 AN/ALE-24 chaff dispensers
Systems
AN/ANS-136 Inertial Navigation Set
AN/APN-224 Radar Altimeter
AN/ASN-134 Heading Reference
AN/APQ-156 Strategic Radar
AN/ASQ-175 Control Display Set
AN/AYK-17 Digital Data Display
AN/AYQ-10 Ballistics Computer
AN/AAQ-6 FLIR Electro-optical viewing system
AN/AVQ-22 Low-light TV Electro-optical viewing system
AN/ARC-210 VHF/UHF communications
AN/ARC-310 HF radio communications
Five (aircraft commander, pilot, radar navigator, navigator and
Crew:
electronic warfare officer)
Accommodatio
Six ejection seats
ns:
Unit Cost: $30 million
Date Deployed: February 1955
44 combat-coded
Inventory: Active force, 85; ANG, 0; Reserve, 9
B-52 Image Bank
B-1B Lancer
The B-1B is a multi-role, long-range bomber, capable of flying intercontinental missions
without refueling, then penetrating present and predicted sophisticated enemy defenses. It
can perform a variety of missions, including that of a conventional weapons carrier for
theater operations. Through 1991, the B-1 was dedicated to the nuclear deterrence role as
part of the single integrated operational plan (SIOP)

The B-1B's electronic jamming equipment, infrared countermeasures, radar location and
warning systems complement its low-radar cross-section and form an integrated defense
system for the aircraft.

The swing-wing design and turbofan engines not only provide greater range and high
speed at low levels but they also enhance the bomber's survivability. Wing sweep at the
full-forward position allows a short takeoff roll and a fast base-escape profile for airfields
under attack. Once airborne, the wings are positioned for maximum cruise distance or
high-speed penetration. The B-1B holds several world records for speed, payload and
distance. The National Aeronautic Association recognized the B-1B for completing one
of the 10 most memorable record flights for 1994.

The B-1B uses radar and inertial navigation equipment enabling aircrews to globally
navigate, update mission profiles and target coordinates in-flight, and precision bomb
without the need for ground based navigation aids. Included in the B-1B offensive
avionics are modular electronics that allow maintenance personnel to precisely identify
technical difficulties and replace avionics components in a fast, efficient manner on the
ground.

The aircraft's AN/ALQ 161A defensive avionics is a comprehensive electronic counter-


measures package that detects and counters enemy radar threats. It also has the capability
to detect and counter missiles attacking from the rear. It defends the aircraft by applying
the appropriate counter-measures, such as electronic jamming or dispensing expendable
chaff and flares. Similar to the offensive avionics, the defensive suite has a re-
programmable design that allows in-flight changes to be made to counter new or
changing threats.

The B-1B represents a major upgrade in U.S. long-range capabilities over the B-52 -- the
previous mainstay of the bomber fleet. Significant advantages include:

 Low radar cross-section to make detection considerably more difficult.


 Ability to fly lower and faster while carrying a larger payload.
 Advanced electronic countermeasures to enhance survivability.
Numerous sustainment and upgrade modifications are ongoing or under study for the B-
1B aircraft. A large portion of these modifications which are designed to increase the
combat capability are known as the Conventional Mission Upgrade Program. In FY93,
The Air Force initiated CMUP in FY1993 to improve the B-1’s conventional warfighting
capabilities. The $2.7 billion CMUP program is intended to convert the B-1B from a
primarily nuclear weapons carrier to a conventional weapons carrier. Capability will be
delivered in blocks attained by hardware modifications with corresponding software
updates:

 Initial conventional capability was optimized for delivery of Mk-82 non-precision


500lb gravity bombs
 Current capability (Block C) also provides delivery of up to 30 Cluster Bomb
Units (CBUs) per sortie for enhanced conventional capability against advancing
armor. Initial capability achieved in September 1996 with FOC in August 1997.
The upgrade consists of modification for B-1B bomb module from the original
configuration of 28 500-pound bombs per unit to 10 1,000-pound cluster bombs
per bomb rack. The modifications apply to a total to 50 refitted bomb racks --
enough to equip half the B-1B fleet.
 Block D integrates the ALE-50 repeater decoy system, the first leg of the
electronic countermeasures upgrade, and JDAM for near precision capability and
adds anti-jam radios for secure communication in force packages. FY96 and
FY97 Congressional plus-ups are being used to accelerate JDAM initial capability
by 18 months (1QFY99). Congress has provided extra funding to allow a group of
seven aircraft to be outfitted and ready a full 18 months early, with the first three
JDAM equipped aircraft to be ready by December 1998, and the last of those
seven aircraft are planned to arrive at Ellsworth AFB by Feb 99.
 Block E upgrades the current avionics computer suite and integrates Wind
Corrected Munitions Dispenser (WCMD), Joint Standoff Weapon (JSOW) and
Joint Air to Surface Standoff Missile (JASSM) for standoff capability (FY02)
 Block F improves the aircraft’s electronic countermeasures’ situational awareness
and jamming capabilities in FY02
Background

The B-1B is a modified B-1A with major


revisions in offensive avionics, defensive
avionics, weapon payload, range, and speed.
These modifications were made to incorporate
certain technological advances that had
occurred between the original B-lA contract
award in 1970 and the LRCA competition in
1980. Improvements consist primarily of off-
the-shelf technology such as a new radar, new
generation computers, expanded ECM
capabilities, reduced RCS, and avionics
compatibility with the ALCM. The wing
sweep is restricted to 60 which limits the
maximum speed to just above supersonic.
Rockwell also estimated range increases for
the modified B-1.

Differences between the B-1B and its predecessor, the B-1A of the 1970s, are subtle, yet
significant. Externally, only a simplified engine inlet, modified over-wing fairing and
relocated pilot tubes are noticeable. Other less-evident changes include a window for the
offensive and defensive systems officers' station and engine housing modifications that
reduces radar exposure. The B-1B was structurally redesigned to increase its gross
takeoff weight from 395,000 to 477,000 pounds (177,750 to 214,650 kilograms). Still, the
empty weight of the B-1B is but 3 percent greater than that of the B-1A. This added
takeoff weight capacity, in addition to a movable bulkhead between the forward and
intermediate weapons bay, allows the B-1B to carry a wide variety of nuclear and
conventional munitions. The most significant changes, however, are in the avionics, with
low-radar cross-section, automatic terrain-following high-speed penetration, and precise
weapons delivery.

Prior to 1994 B-1B fleet had never achieved its objective of having a 75-percent mission
capable rate. In 1992 and 1993 the B-1B mission capable rate averaged about 57 percent.
According to the Air Force, a primary reason for the low mission capable rate was the
level of funding provided to support the B-1B logistics support system. Concerned about
the low mission capable rate, a history of B-1B problems, and the Air Force's plans to
spend $2.4 billion modifying the B-1B to become a conventional bomber, the Congress
directed the Air Force to conduct an Operational Readiness Assessment (ORA) from June
1, 1994, through November 30, 1994. The purpose of the ORA was to determine whether
one B-1B wing was capable of achieving and maintaining its planned 75-percent
operational readiness rate for a period of 6 months, if provided the full complement of
spare parts, maintenance equipment and manpower, and logistic support equipment.
During the ORA the test unit achieved an 84.3-percent mission capable rate during the
test period. The ORA demonstrated that, given a full complement of spare parts,
equipment, and manpower, the Air Force could achieve and sustain a 75-percent mission
capable rate for the B-1B. The Air Force projects that the entire B-1B fleet will reach a
75-percent mission capable rate by 2000 by virtue of numerous on-going and future
reliability, maintainability, and management initiatives. However, as of mid-October
1999 the Air Force wide mission capable rate of the B-1 had fallen to 51.1 percent --
mainly because of maintenance problems and a shortage of parts. Over the previous 12
months, the Kansas Guard had maintained a mission capable rate of 71.1 percent for the
10 usable aircraft assigned to it.

The basis for the projection of useful life of the B-1 is the Aircraft Structural Integrity
Program (ASIP). The useful life of the structure is assumed to be the point at which it is
more economical to replace the aircraft than to continue structural modifications and
repairs necessary to perform the mission. The limiting factor for B-1’s service life is the
wing lower surface. At 15,200 hours, based on continued low level usage, the wing’s
lower skin will need replacement. Current usage rates, operational procedures, and
mishap attrition will place the inventory below the requirement of 89 aircraft in 2018,
while the service life attrition will impact around 2038.

The first B-1B, 83-0065, The Star of Abilene, was delivered to the Air Force at Dyess Air
Force Base, Texas, in June 1985, with initial operational capability on Oct. 1, 1986. The
100th and final B-1B was delivered May 2, 1988. The Air Force has chosen to fully fund
the operation of only 60 B-1Bs for the next few years, compared with plans to fund 82
beyond fiscal year 2000. In the short term, the Air Force has classified 27 of 95 B-1Bs as
"reconstitution aircraft." These aircraft are not funded for flying hours and lack aircrews,
but they are based with B-1B units, flown on a regular basis, maintained like other B-
1Bs, and modified with the rest of the fleet. B-1B units will use flying hours and aircrews
that are based on 60 operational aircraft to rotate both the operational aircraft and the
reconstitution aircraft through its peacetime flying schedule. These 27 aircraft will be
maintained in reconstitution reserve status until the completion of smart conventional
munition upgrades. At that time, around the year 2000, there will be 95 aircraft providing
an operational force of 82 fully modified B-1s. The B-1 will complete its buy back of
attrition reserve by the fourth quarter of FY03, and re-code six training aircraft to attain
70 combat-coded aircraft by the fourth quarter of FY04.
During the Cold War, heavy bombers were used primarily for nuclear deterrence and
were operated solely by the active duty Air Force. According to the Air Force, the
National Guard's part-time workforce was incompatible with the bombers' nuclear
mission because of a requirement for continuously monitoring all personnel directly
involved with nuclear weapons. With the end of the Cold War and increased emphasis on
the bombers' conventional mission, the Air Force initiated efforts to integrate Guard and
reserve units into the bomber force. As part of its total force policy, the Air Force
assigned B-1B aircraft to the National Guard. Heavy bombers entered the Air Guard's
inventory for the first time in 1994 with a total of 14 B-1Bs programmed by the end of
fiscal year FY 1997 for two units, the 184th Bomb Wing (BW), Kansas, and the 116th
BW, Georgia. The 184th completed its conversion in FY 1996 at McConnell Air Force
Base (AFB), Kansas. After a long political struggle that involved resisting the planned
conversion from F-15s and an associated move from Dobbins AFB near Atlanta to
Robins AFB near Macon, the 116th began its conversion on 1 April 1996. The unit
completed that process in December 1998. All the bombers in both units were configured
for conventional, not nuclear, missions.
Prior to 1994, the B-1B fleet operated out of four bases: Dyess Air Force Base, Texas;
Ellsworth Air Force Base, South Dakota; McConnell Air Force Base, Kansas; and Grand
Forks Air Force Base, North Dakota. In 1994, the Air Force realigned the B-1B fleet by
closing the Grand Forks Air Force Base and transferring the aircraft at McConnell Air
Force Base to the Air National Guard. With the transfer, the B-1B support structure,
including spare parts, was distributed to the two remaining main operating bases. The
concentration of aircraft and repair facilities at Dyess and Ellsworth Air Force Bases
resulted in improved support capabilities, which improved mission capable [MC] rates.

On 26 March 1996 it was announced that the 77th Bomb Squadron would return to
Ellsworth. On 1 April 97, the squadron again activated at Ellsworth as the geographically
separated 34th Bomb Squadron completed its transfer to its home at the 366th Wing,
Mountain Home AFB, Idaho. By June 1998, the 77th had six of its B-1Bs out of the
reconstitution reserve. This number ballanced those lost by the 34th BS.

Upgrades
Cockpit Upgrade Program (CUP) - Current B-1 cockpit display units are not capable of
supporting graphic intensive software modifications. The CUP installs a robust graphic
capability via common display units throughout the front and aft stations. This program
increases B-1 survivability by providing critical situational awareness displays, needed
for conventional operations, keeping pace with current and future guided munitions
integration, enhancing situational awareness, and improving tactical employment.
Link-16 – Providing Line-of-Sight (LOS) data for aircraft-to-aircraft, aircraft-to-C2, and
aircraft-to-sensor connectivity, Link-16 is a combat force multiplier that provides U.S.
and other allied military services with fully interoperable capabilities and greatly
enhances tactical Command, Control, Communication, and Intelligence mission
effectiveness. Link-16 provides increased survivability, develops a real-time picture of
the theater battlespace, and enables the aircraft to quickly share information on short
notice (target changes). In addition to a localized capability, the B-1’s datalink will
include BLOS capability increasing flexibility essential to attacking time-sensitive
targets.
B-1 Radar Upgrade is a candidate Long Term Upgrade that would improve the current
Synthetic Aperture Radar resolution from three meters to one foot or better, allowing the
B-1 to more autonomously and precisely Find, Fix, Target, Track, Engage, and Assess
enemy targets with guided direct-attack or standoff munitions (JDAM/JSOW). Finally,
the upgrade would replace older components that will be difficult to maintain due to
obsolescence and vanishing vendors.
Specifications
Primary Long-range, multi-role, heavy bomber
Function:
Builder: Rockwell International, North American Aircraft
Operations
Air Frame Offensive avionics, Boeing Military Airplane; defensive avionics,
and AIL Division
Integration:
Power Four General Electric F-101-GE-102 turbofan engine with
Plant: afterburner
30,000-plus pounds (13,500-plus kilograms) with afterburner, per
Thrust: engine
Length: 146 feet (44.5 meters)
137 feet (41.8 meters) extended forward, 79 feet (24.1 meters)
Wingspan:
swept aft
Height: 34 feet (10.4 meters)
Weight: Empty, approximately 190,000 pounds (86,183 kilograms)
Maximum
Takeoff 477,000 pounds (214,650 kilograms)
Weight:
Speed: 900-plus mph (Mach 1.2 at sea level)
Rotate and 210 Gross - 119 Rotate kts / 134 kts Takeoff
Takeoff
390 Gross - 168 kts Rotate / 183 kts Takeoff
Speeds:
Landing 210 Gross - 145 kts
Speeds: 380 Gross - 195 kts
Range: Intercontinental, unrefueled
Ceiling: Over 30,000 feet (9,000 meters)
Four (aircraft commander, pilot, offensive systems officer and
Crew: defensive systems officer)
NUCLEAR CONVENTIONAL PRECISION
84 Mk 62 30 WCMD
84 MK82 24 JDAM
Armament: 30 CBU 87 12 GBU-27
30 CBU 89 12 AGM-154 JSOW
30 CBU 97 12 TSSAM
12 Mk 65
Date
June 1985
Deployed:
Unit Cost: $200-plus million per aircraft
100 total production
93 total current inventory

Active force, 51 PMAI (69 actual)


ANG, 18 PMAI (22 actual)
Reserve, 0
AFMC, 2 (Test)

Inventory: Deployment

Cmd # Location Unit


ACC 39 Dyess AFB, TX 9th Bomb Wing
ACC 21 Ellsworth AFB, SD 28th Bomb Wing
ACC 9 Mountain Home AFB, ID 366th Air Expeditionary Wing
ANG 10 Robins AFB, GA 116th Bomb Wing
ANG 12 McConnell AFB, KS 184th Bomb Group
AMC 2 Edwards AFB, CA test aircraft
6 lost to mishaps [as of 18 Feb 98]
1 eliminated under START II Treaty

Airframe Inventory
# Tail # Name Location Comment
1
83-
2 Star of Abilene Dyess
0065
83-
3 Ole' Puss Dyess
0066
83-
4 Texas Raider Dyess
0067
83-
5 Predator Dyess
0068
83-
6 The Beast Dyess
0069
83-
7 7 Wishes Dyess
0070
83-
8 Spitfire Dyess
0071
84-
9 Edwards
0049
84-
10 Dawg B-One Dyess
0050
84-
11 Boss Hog Dyess
0051
84-
12 Lost 09-25-87 @ La Junta, Colorado
0052
84-
13 Lucky 13 Dyess
0053
84-
14 Rage [Tasmanian Terror] Dyess
0054
84- Shockwave [Lethal
15 Dyess
0055 Weapon]

16 84- Sweet Sixteen Dyess


0056
84-
17 0057 Hellion Dyess
18 84- Eternal Guardian Dyess
0058

19 85-
0059
85- McConne
20
0060 ll
85-
21 Ellsworth
0061
85-
22 Uncaged Dyess
0062
85-
23 Lost 11-09-88 @ Dyess AFB, Texas
0063
85- McConne
24
0064 ll
85-
25
0065
85-
26 On Defense Ellsworth
0066
85-
27
0067

28 85- Edwards
0068

29 85- McConne
0069 ll
85-
30
0070
85-
31
0071
85-
32 Polarized Dyess
0072
85- McConne
33
0073 ll
85-
34 Crew Dawg Dyess
0074
85-
35 Ellsworth
0075
85- Lost 11-17-89 @ Ellsworth AFB
36
0076 S.D.
85-
37 Ellsworth
0077
38 85- Ellsworth
0078

39 85- Ellsworth
0079
85-
40
0080
85-
41
0081
85-
42 Global Power Dyess
0082
85-
43 Ellsworth
0083
85-
44 Ellsworth
0084
85-
45 Ellsworth
0085
85-
46 Ellsworth
0086
85-
47 Ellsworth
0087

48 85-
0088

49 85-
0089
85-
50 Ellsworth
0090
85-
51 Robins
0091
85-
52 Ellsworth
0092
86-
53 Ellsworth
0093
86-
54 Ellsworth
0094
86-
56 Ellsworth
0096
86-
57 Robins
0097
86-
58 Ellsworth
0098
59 86- Ellsworth
0099

60 86- Phoenix Dyess


0100
86-
61 Heavy Metal Dyess
0101
86-
62 Ellsworth
0102
86-
63 Reluctant Dragon Dyess
0103
86-
64 Robins
0104
86-
65 Snake Eyes Dyess
0105
86- Lost 12-01-92 @ IR 165, Van Horne
66
0106 TX
86-
67
0107
86-
68 Alein With An Attitude Dyess
0108

69 86- Spectre Dyess


0109

70 86- Stairway to Heaven Dyess


0110
86-
71 Ellsworth
0111
86-
72 Black Widow Dyess
0112
86-
73 Ellsworth
0113
86-
74 Ellsworth
0114
86-
75
0115
86-
76 Robins
0116
86-
77 Night Stalker Dyess
0117
86-
78 Robins
0118
79 86- The Punisher Dyess
0119

80 86- Iron Horse Dyess


0120
86-
81 Robins
0121
86-
82
0122
86-
83 [none]
0123
86-
84 Dyess
0124
86-
85 Robins
0125
86-
86
0126
86-
87
0127
86-
88 Ellsworth
0128

89 86- Ellsworth
0129

90 86- Bad Company Dyess


0130
86-
91 Robins
0131
86-
92 Oh, Hard Luck Dyess
0132
86-
93 Ellsworth
0133
86-
94 Robins
0134
86-
95 Deadly Intentions Dyess
0135
86-
96
0136
86-
97 Ace In The Hole Dyess
0137
86-
98 Robins
0138
99 86- Robins
0139
10 86- Last Lancer Dyess
0 0140
B-2 Spirit
The B-2 Spirit is a multi-role bomber capable of delivering both conventional and nuclear
munitions.

Along with the B-52 and B-1B, the B-2 provides the penetrating flexibility and
effectiveness inherent in manned bombers. Its low-observable, or "stealth,"
characteristics give it the unique ability to penetrate an enemy's most sophisticated
defenses and threaten its most valued, and heavily defended, targets. Its capability to
penetrate air defenses and threaten effective retaliation provide an effective deterrent and
combat force well into the 21st century.

The blending of low-observable technologies with high aerodynamic efficiency and large
payload gives the B-2 important advantages over existing bombers. Its low-observability
provides it greater freedom of action at high altitudes, thus increasing its range and a
better field of view for the aircraft's sensors. Its unrefueled range is approximately 6,000
nautical miles (9,600 kilometers).

The B-2's low observability is derived from a combination of reduced infrared, acoustic,
electromagnetic, visual and radar signatures. These signatures make it difficult for the
sophisticated defensive systems to detect, track and engage the B-2. Many aspects of the
low-observability process remain classified; however, the B-2's composite materials,
special coatings and flying-wing design all contribute to its "stealthiness."

The B-2 has a crew of two pilots, an aircraft commander in the left seat and mission
commander in the right, compared to the B-1B's crew of four and the B-52's crew of five.

The B-2 is intended to deliver gravity nuclear and conventional weapons, including
precision-guided standoff weapons. An interim, precision-guided bomb capability called
Global Positioning System (GPS) Aided Targeting System/GPS Aided Munition
(GATS/GAM) is being tested and evaluated. Future configurations are planned for the B-
2 to be capable of carrying and delivering the Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM) and
Joint Air-to-Surface Standoff Missile.

B-2s, in a conventional role, staging from Whiteman AFB, MO; Diego Garcia; and Guam
can cover the entire world with just one refueling. Six B-2s could execute an operation
similar to the 1986 Libya raid but launch from the continental U.S. rather than Europe
with a much smaller, more lethal, and more survivable force.
Background

The B-2 development program was initiated in 1981, and the Air Force was granted
approval in 1987 to begin procurement of 132 operational B-2 aircraft, principally for
strategic bombing missions. With the demise of the Soviet Union, the emphasis of B-2
development was changed to conventional operations and the number was reduced to 20
operational aircraft, plus 1 test aircraft that was not planned to be upgraded to an
operational configuration. Production of these aircraft has been concurrent with
development and testing.

The first B-2 was publicly displayed on Nov. 22, 1988, when it was rolled out of its
hangar at Air Force Plant 42, Palmdale, Calif. Its first flight was July 17, 1989. The B-2
Combined Test Force, Air Force Flight Test Center, Edwards Air Force Base, Calif., is
responsible for flight testing the engineering, manufacturing and development aircraft as
they are produced. Three of the six developmental aircraft delivered at Edwards are
continuing flight testing.

Whiteman AFB, Mo., is the B-2's only operational base. The first aircraft, Spirit of
Missouri, was delivered Dec. 17, 1993. Depot maintenance responsibility for the B-2 is
performed by Air Force contractor support and is managed at the Oklahoma City Air
Logistics Center at Tinker AFB, Okla.

The prime contractor, responsible for overall system design and integration, is Northrop
Grumman's Military Aircraft Systems Division. Boeing Military Airplanes Co., Hughes
Radar Systems Group and General Electric Aircraft Engine Group are key members of
the aircraft contractor team. Another major contractor, responsible for aircrew training
devices (weapon system trainer and mission trainer) is Hughes Training Inc. (HTI) - Link
Division, formerly known as C.A.E. - Link Flight Simulation Corp. Northrop Grumman
and its major subcontractor HTI, are responsible for developing and integrating all
aircrew and maintenance training programs.

The Air Force is accepting delivery of production B-2s in three configuration blocks--
blocks 10, 20, and 30. Initial delivery will be 6 test aircraft, 10 aircraft in the block 10
configuration, 3 in the block 20 configuration, and 2 in the block 30 configuration.

Block 10 configured aircraft provide limited combat capability with no capability to


launch conventional guided weapons. The Block 10 model carries only Mk-84 2,000-
pound conventional bombs or gravity nuclear weapons. B-2s in this configuration are
located at Whiteman Air Force Base and are used primarily for training.
Block 20 configured aircraft have an interim capability to launch nuclear and
conventional munitions, including the GAM guided munition. The Block 20 has been
tested with the Mk-84, 2,000-pound, general-purpose bombs and the CBU-87/B
Combined Effects Munition cluster bombs (low-altitude, full-bay release).

Block 30 configured aircraft are fully capable and meet the essential employment
capabilities defined by the Air Force. The first fully configured Block 30 aircraft, AV-20
Spirit of PENNSYLVANIA, was delivered to the Air Force on 07 August 1997.
Compared to the Block 20, the Block 30s have almost double the radar modes along with
enhanced terrain-following capability and the ability to deliver additional weapons,
including the Joint Direct Attack Munition and the Joint Stand Off Weapon. Other
features include incorporation of configuration changes needed to make B-2s conform to
the approved radar signature; replacement of the aft decks; installation of remaining
defensive avionics functions; and installation of a contrail management system.

All block 10, 20, and test aircraft are to eventually be modified to the objective block 30
configuration. This modification process began in July 1995 and is scheduled to be
completed in June 2000.

The B-2 fleet will have 16 combat-coded aircraft by the second quarter of FY00,

Upgrades

Link-16 – Providing Line-of-Sight (LOS) data for aircraft-to-aircraft, aircraft-to-C2, and


aircraft-to-sensor connectivity, Link-16 is a combat force multiplier that provides U.S.
and other allied military services with fully interoperable capabilities and greatly
enhances tactical Command, Control, Communication, and Intelligence mission
effectiveness. Link-16 provides increased survivability, develops a real-time picture of
the theater battlespace, and enables the aircraft to quickly share information on short
notice (target changes).
Connectivity – DoD requires survivable
communications media for command and
control of nuclear forces. To satisfy the
requirement, the Air Force plans to deploy
an advanced Extremely High Frequency
(EHF) satellite communications
constellation. This constellation will
provide a survivable, high capability
communication system. Based on
favorable results from a funded risk
reduction study, the B-2 will integrate an
EHF communication capability satisfying
connectivity requirements.
Digital Engine Controller - The current
analog engine controllers are high failure
items, and without funding, ACC will be forced to ground aircraft beginning
approximately FY08. Replacement of the engine controllers will improve the B-2’s
performance and increase supportability, reliability, and maintainability.
Computers/Processors - With advances in computer technology and increased demands
on the system, the B-2’s computers will need to be replaced with state-of-the-art
processors. Although reliable, maintaining the present processors will become
increasingly difficult and costly.

Signature Improvements - The B-2’s signature meets operational requirements against


today’s threats. As advanced threats proliferate, it will be prudent to investigate advanced
signature reduction concepts and determine if it is necessary to improve the B-2’s low
observable signature. CANDIDATE LONG TERM UPGRADES BEYOND FY 15
TOTAL The basis for the useful life of the B-2 includes data from initial Developmental
Test and Evaluation analysis. Data indicates the aircraft should be structurally sound to
approximately 40,000 flight hours using current mission profiles. Analysis further
suggests that the rudder attachment points are the first structural failure item. The B-2 has
not implemented an ASIP similar to the other bombers, and this makes it difficult to
predict the economic service life and attrition rate. However, a notional projection, based
on the B-52, predicts one aircraft will be lost each 10 years. This attrition rate, plus
attrition due to service life, will erode the B-2 force below its requirement of 19 aircraft
by 2027.

Tactical delivery tactics use patterns and techniques that minimize final flight path
predictability, yet allows sufficient time for accurate weapons delivery. For conventional
munitions. Bomb Rack Assembly (BRA) weapons delivery accuracies depend on
delivery altitude. For a weapons pass made at 5,000 ft above ground level [AGL] or
below, the hit criteria is less than or equal to 300 feet. For a weapons pass made above
5,000 feetAGL, the hit criteria is less than or equal to 500 feet. Similarly, Rotary
Launcher Assembly (RLA) delivery of conventional or nuclear weapons (i.e. Mk-84, B-
83, B-61) is altitude dependent. For a weapons pass made at 5,000 feet AGL or below,
the hit criteria is less than or equal to 300 feet. For a weapons pass made above 5,000 ft
AGL, the hit criteria is less than or equal to 500 feet. The hit criteria for a weapons pass
made with GAM/ JDAM munitions is less than or equal to 50 feet.

B-2 Image Gallery

Specifications
Primary function: Multi-role heavy bomber.
Prime Contractor: Northrop Grumman Corp.
Boeing Military Airplanes Co.,
Contractor Team: General Electric Aircraft Engine Group
Hughes Training Inc., Link Division
Power
Four General Electric F-118-GE-100 engines
Plant/Manufacturer:
Thrust: 17,300 pounds each engine (7,847 kilograms)
Length: 69 feet (20.9 meters)
Height: 17 feet (5.1 meters)
Wingspan: 172 feet (52.12 meters)
Speed: High subsonic
Ceiling: 50,000 feet (15,152 meters)
Takeoff Weight 336,500 pounds (152,635 kilograms)
(Typical):
Range: Intercontinental, unrefueled
NUCLEAR CONVENTIONAL PRECISION
16 B61 80 MK82 8 GBU 27
16 B83 16 MK84 12 JDAM
Armament: 16 AGM-129 36 CBU87 8 AGM-154
ACM 36 CBU89 JSOW
16 AGM-131 36 CBU97 8 AGM-137
SRAM 2 TSSAM
Payload: 40,000 pounds (18,000 kilograms)
Crew: Two pilots
Unit cost: Approximately $2.1 billion [average]
Date Deployed: December 1993
Active force: 21 (planned operational aircraft); ANG:
Inventory:
0; Reserve: 0
Air Delivered Arrived
Aircraft # Name [*] Ordered
Vehicle to USAF Whiteman
AV- 1 82-1066 Fatal Beauty n/a 17 Jul 89
AV- 2 82-1067 Spirit of ARIZONA n/a 19 Oct 90 20 Mar 98
Ship From Hell
[Murphy's Law]
AV- 3 82-1068 Spirit of NEW YORK n/a 18 Jun 91 10 Oct 97
Navigator / Ghost
[Afternoon Delight]
AV- 4 82-1069 Spirit of INDIANA n/a 02 Oct 92 22 May 99
Christine
AV- 5 82-1070 Spirit of OHIO n/a 05 Oct 92 18 Jul 97
Fire and Ice [Toad]
AV- 6 82-1071 Spirit of MISSISSIPPI n/a 02 Feb 93 23 May 98
TOV&V Black Widow / Penguin
[Arnold the Pig]
AV- 7 88-0328 Spirit of TEXAS 1987 29 Aug 94 31 Aug 94
Pirate Ship
AV- 8 88-0329 Spirit of MISSOURI 1987 11 Dec 93 17 Dec 93
AV- 9 88-0330 Spirit of CALIFORNIA 1988 16 Aug 94 17 Aug 94
Spirit of S.
AV-10 88-0331 1988 29 Dec 94 30 Dec 94
CAROLINA
Spirit of
AV-11 88-0332 1989 27 Oct 94 30 Oct 94
WASHINGTON
AV-12 89-0127 Spirit of KANSAS 1989 16 Feb 95 17 Feb 95
AV-13 89-0128 Spirit of NEBRASKA 1990 26 Jun 95 28 Jun 95
AV-14 89-0129 Spirit of GEORGIA 1990 25 Sep 95 14 Nov 95
AV-15 90-0040 Spirit of ALASKA 1991 12 Jan 95 24 Jan 96
AV-16 90-0041 Spirit of HAWAII 1991 21 Dec 95 10 Jan 96
AV-17 92-0700 Spirit of FLORIDA 1992 29 Mar 96 3 Jul 96
AV-18 93-1085 Spirit of OKLAHOMA 1993 13 May 96 15 May 96
Spirit of KITTY
AV-19 93-1086 1993 30 Aug 96
HAWK
Spirit of
AV-20 93-1087 1993 05 Aug 97
PENNSYLVANIA
AV-21 93-1088 Spirit of LOUISIANA 1993 10 Nov 97
AV-22-76 Cancelled
AV-77-133 Cancelled
AV-134-
Cancelled
165
AIRCRAFT NAMES

Each stealth bomber has at least three designations. The Air Vehicle [AV] number [eg,
AV-1], indicative of the aircraft's construction sequence within the stealth bomber
program. The tail number [eg 82-1066] is part of the general Air Force numbering system
in which the first two digits are the year in which the plane was authorized, and the last
four digits are the aircraft's unique serial number. The planes also have both formal and
informal names, which is an unusual [though increasingly common] practice. For a long
time we had a bit of difficulty providing robust correlation among these three designation
systems, since Whiteman AFB and Dave Hastings did't have their stories straight on
Spirit of OHIO and Spirit of ARIZONA. While we think that we have finally gotten these
ducks lined up, any additional corrections would be vastly appreciated.
Following the naval precedent in which battleships, and subsequently whatever ship the
Navy regarded as its capital ship [currently ballistic missile submarines, but it was
nuclear powered cruisers for a while] were named after states, operational B-2 aircraft are
named after states, with the annoying exception of Spirit of KITTY HAWK. States so
honored are generally those with a close association [operational, political, or otherwise]
with the program. This would seem to place an upper limit of 50 on the number of
aircraft that can eventually be expected to be produced, though one imagines that
additional states can be admitted to the Union if the need arises.

Test aircraft have a somewhat less illustrious, and less definitive, naming system. Sources
vary as to the names that have at times been used in connection with these airfraft, and
we provide all names that have been reportedly associated with these vehicles [with the
less certain names in [] parentheses]. As they enter operational service, these aircraft are
given more dignified state names, as recently happened with AV-2 Spirit of OHIO.
B-3 bomber
Under current plnas, the B-52, along with the younger B-1B Lancer and the new stealthy
B-2 Spirit, will be kept around until approximately 2037, by which time the Air Force
calculates that attrition will have reduced the fleet below the minimum 170 aircraft. The
B-52s may fly to 2045.
Based on current operating procedures, attrition models, and service lives, the total
bomber inventory is predicted to fall below the required 170 aircraft fleet by 2037. This
date will become the target Initial Operational Capability (IOC) date for a follow-on to
the current bomber capability, and an acquisition process can be planned by backing up
from this date. Based on current projections for airframe economic service life and
forecast mishap rate, initiating a replacement process no later than 2013 will ensure a
capability to fill the long-range air power requirement as the current systems are retired.
There are, however, additional concerns besides service life and mishap rates that could
shift this replacement timeline. Changes in employment concepts, driven by
technological advances in munitions and threats, or improvements in industry’s ability to
perform cost effective major structural extensions could extend the today’s bomber force
well beyond current projections. This may shift the acquisition timeline for a replacement
capability further into the future.
The Light Bomber (Manned) concept calls for a medium-sized aircraft that blends the
advantages of a tactical fighter with a strategic bomber to develop a medium/long range,
high payload capability (inter-theater) affordable bomber. The aircraft will utilize some
level of low-observable technology to obtain an effective yet affordable aircraft which
can provide for multiple/heavy weapons carriage and launch for missions requiring real
time decision making/replanning or autonomous operations. Cost would be controlled by
utilizing off-the-shelf systems and affordable stealth technologies (JSF technology).
Logistic support would be enhanced by maximizing commonality of support equipment
with existing systems.

The Bomber Industrial Capabilities Study was directed by Congress, chartered by the
DOD, and conducted by The Analytic Sciences Corporation (TASC). The study
concluded that building a new bomber type, a B-3, could easily cost in excess of $35
billion for research and development alone (with unit flyaway costs about the same as a
B-2). Technology concepts from the USAF Scientific Advisory Board's (SAB) New
World Vistas and technology concepts submitted for the 2025 Study were reviewed and
concepts harvested from these efforts included the Future Attack Aircraft. This concept
envisions a 500-nm-range manned or unmanned aircraft that would use stealth
technology (both RF and IR) to reach a target and employ laser or high-power microwave
(HPM) weapons. An unmanned aircraft with a "tunable" HPM weapon could provide
either the nonlethal or lethal punch SAF needs in the constabulary mission.

Two concepts currently under consideration by Air Force Materiel Command include:

 Multi-mission - Manned, multi-role capability, radius > 450+ range (hi-med-hi),


Payload??, medium threat, Unit Flyaway Price (UFP) <$75M (BY00) Number of
Concepts Scored: 3 (‘96); 1 (‘97); 1 (‘98)
 10.2 Deep Strike - Manned, 1000NM < radius < 2000NM, 12-24 klbs, high-med-
high or hi-lo-hi, med-high threat, $50M < UFP < $250M (BY00)

A 1999 RAND Corporation study articulated a rationale for acquiring a Mach 2


supersonic bomber with the following characteristics

 unrefueled range of 3,250 nmi


 weight of 290,000 to 350,000 pounds each
 payload of 15,000 to 20,000 pounds
 support of 37 to 40 percent of the current USAF tanker fleet and 100 air
superiority fighters.

The Mach 2 bomber could attack targets almost anywhere in the world while operating
from well-protected, permanent bases on US and UK territory. A total inventory of
approximately 80 to 105 of these Mach 2 bombers could deliver enough PGMs (about
560 tons per day) to replicate the USAF Desert Storm effort.
HyperSoar
Hypersonic Global Range Recce/Strike
Aircraft
A HyperSoar hypersonic Global Range Recce/Strike Aircraft the size of a B-52 could
take off from the US and deliver its payload to any point on the globe - from an altitude
and at a speed that would challenge current defensive measures - and return to the US
without the need for refueling or forward bases on foreign soil. Equipment and personnel
could also be transported.

HyperSoar could fly at approximately 6,700 mph (Mach 10), while carrying roughly
twice the payload of subsonic aircraft of the same takeoff weight.

The HyperSoar concept promises less heat build-up on the airframe than previous
hypersonic designs - a challenge that has until now limited the development of
hypersonic aircraft. The key to HyperSoar is the skipping motion of its flight along the
edge of Earth's atmosphere - much like a rock skipped across water. A HyperSoar aircraft
would ascend to approximately 130,000 feet - lofting outside the Earth's atmosphere -
then turn off its engines and coast back to the surface of the atmosphere. There, it would
again fire its air-breathing engines and skip back into space. The craft would repeat this
process until it reached its destination.

A mission from the midwestern United States to east Asia would require approximately
25 such skips to complete the one-and-a-half-hour journey. The aircraft's angles of
descent and ascent during the skips would only be 5 degrees. The crew would feel 1.5
times the force of gravity at the bottom of each skip and weightlessness while in space.
(1.5 Gs is comparable to the effect felt on a child's swing, though HyperSoar's motion
would be 100 times slower.) Although the porpoising effect of a HyperSoar flight might
test the adventurousness of some airline passengers, this would not impact military or
space launch applications.
Most current hypersonic designs rely on rocket engines to boost the aircraft to the edge of
space, from where the craft essentially glides back down to its destination. Other designs
simply use engines to push the aircraft through the atmosphere.
All previous concepts have suffered from heat buildup on the surface of the aircraft and
in various aircraft components due to friction with the atmosphere. A HyperSoar plane
would experience less heating because it would spend much of its flight out of the Earth's
atmosphere. Also, any heat the craft picked up while "skipping" down into the
atmosphere could be at least partially dissipated during the aircraft's time in the cold of
space.
Another HyperSoar advantage is its use of air-breathing engines. Most conventional
hypersonic designs rely on rocket motors to boost the aircraft to the edge of space. By not
boosting to as high a velocity, and by dropping back into the atmosphere at the bottom of
each "skip," a HyperSoar plane can utilize air- breathing engines, which are inherently
more efficient than rocket engines. Also, HyperSoar engines would be used strictly as
accelerators, rather than as accelerators and cruising engines - as in some hypersonic
designs - thereby greatly simplifying the design and reducing technical risk.
Waveriders are aerodynamic shapes designed such that the bow shock generated by the
configuration is attached along the outer leading edge at the design Mach number. The
shock attachment condition confines the high-pressure region behind the shock wave to
the lower surface of the configuration, which provides the potential for high lift-to-drag
ratios. Waveriders also offer potential propulsion/airframe integration (PAI) benefits
because of their ability to deliver a known uniform flow field to a scramjet inlet.
Enhanced mixing mixing between the fuel and airstream, and thus reduced combustor
length and engine weight, is an important goal in the design of supersonic combustion
ramjet (scramjet) engines. Cryogenic hydrogen fuel was chosen for air-breathing scramjet
propulsion for the National AeroSpace Plane. Selection was based on its high specific
energy, its high heat-sink capacity for structural cooling, and its ability to burn very
rapidly and sustain flameholding in strained recirculation zones.
The HyperSoar concept has been under investigation by Lawrence Livermore National
Laboratory for several years and is being discussed with the US Air Force and other
government agencies. Livermore has been working with the University of Maryland's
Department of Aerospace Engineering to refine the aerodynamic and trajectory
technologies associated with the concept.

Other potential applications for HyperSoar aircraft include:

 Space lift - HyperSoar could be employed as the first stage of a two-stage-to-


orbit space launch system. Research shows this approach will allow
approximately twice the payload-to-orbit as today's expendable launch systems
for a given gross takeoff weight.
 Passenger aircraft - A commercial HyperSoar airliner or business jet could reach
any destination on the planet from the continental U.S. in two hours or less.
 Freighter - A HyperSoar freight aircraft could make four or more roundtrips to,
say, Tokyo each day from the U.S. versus one or less for today's aircraft. Analysis
indicates a HyperSoar aircraft flying express mail between Los Angeles and
Tokyo could generate ten times the daily revenue of a similarly- sized subsonic
cargo plane of today.

Proponents estimate that approximately $140 million would be needed over the next few
years to advance several technologies to the point where a $350 million one-third-scale
flyable prototype could be built and tested. The development cost of full-scaled
HyperSoar aircraft is estimated at about the same as spent to develop the Boeing
Company's new 777, or nearly $10 billion.
S-3B Viking
S-3B Aircraft are tasked by the Carrier Battle Group Commanders to provide Anti-
Submarine Warfare (ASW) and Anti-Surface Warfare (ASUW), surface surveillance and
intelligence collection, electronic warfare, mine warfare, coordinated search and rescue,
and fleet support missions, including air wing tanking.
The S-3B Aircraft is manned and operated by an aircrew of four. The aircrew consists of
a pilot, Copilot Tactical Coordinator (COTAC), acoustic Sensor Station Operator
(SENSO), and Tactical Coordinator (TACCO). The S-3B Aircraft carries surface and
subsurface search equipment with integrated target acquisition and sensor coordinating
systems which can collect, process, interpret, and store ASW and ASUW sensor data. It
has a direct attack capability with a variety of armament.

The S-3B's high speed computer system processes information generated by the acoustic
and non-acoustic target sensor systems. This includes a new Inverse Synthetic Aperture
Radar (ISAR) and ESM systems suites. To destroy targets, the S-3B Viking employs an
impressive array of airborne weaponry. This provides the fleet with a very effective
airborne capability to combat the significant threat presented by modern combatants and
submarines. Additionally, all S-3B aircraft are capable of carrying an inflight refueling
"buddy" store. This allows the transfer of fuel from the Viking aircraft to other Naval
strike aircraft, thus extending their combat radius.

The S-3B Aircraft is a modified S-3A Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) aircraft, with
increased ASW and new Anti-Surface Warfare capabilities through improvements to
various mission avionics and armament systems. It has increased capabilities through
improvements to the general purpose digital computer, acoustic data processor, radar,
sonobuoy receiver, sonobuoy reference system, and electronic support measures, and
includes the installation of an electronic countermeasures dispensing system and the
Harpoon Missile System. It also encompasses provisions for the Joint Tactical
Information Distribution System. The Communications Control Group [CCG] provides
improved communication capability and greatly improved reliability over the Switching
Logic Unit and Intercommunication System used in the S-3A. The Global Positioning
System [GPS] modification replaces the Tactical Air Navigation (TACAN) portion of the
S-3B Aircraft TACAN Inertial Navigation System once TACAN is phased out. This new
navigation system will also comply with the requirement for the S-3B Aircraft to have
Federal Aviation Administration certifiable GPS Radio Navigation capability. The GPS
will provide increased operational capability and mission effectiveness by providing
precise navigation position information during all phases of aircraft operations. The
AN/USH-42 Mission Recorder Reproducer Set [MR/RS] replaces the obsolete and
unsupportable RO457 Video Signal Recorder. It allows for multi-channel recording of S-
3B Aircraft Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar, Forward Looking Infrared, and mission
avionics data. The capability for in-flight video recording, in-flight and post-flight
playback, analysis, and duplication are also new features.
Between July 1987 and July 1991, all east coast S-3A Aircraft were modified by a
contractor field team at the Naval Air Station (NAS) Cecil Field, Florida. In March 1992,
a contractor field team at NAS North Island, California, began modifying west coast S-
3A Aircraft to the S-3B Aircraft configuration and completed modifications in September
1994. In early 1995, CCGs were installed in approximately 40 of the S-3B Aircraft at
NAS North Island. Installation of the remaining CCGs began in March 1997 and is
scheduled to be completed first quarter FY00. The GPSs and AN/USH-42s are scheduled
for concurrent installation beginning first quarter FY98 and continuing through the first
quarter FY01. The S-3B Aircraft is in Phase III, Production, Fielding, Deployment, and
Operational Support phase of the Weapon System Acquisition Process.

In fiscal year 1992, ten aircraft S-3B squadrons were reduced to six aircraft. In 1993,
aircraft assets for deployed squadrons were increased to eight, to meet increased
operational requirements caused by retirement of the A-6E from the Navy inventory. All
S-3B squadrons are currently configured and manned for eight aircraft.
The Undersea Warfare Systems (USW) have been removed from the S-3B Viking
aircraft. This provides an ideal opportunity for improved technologies to be developed in
the S-3B aircraft. The capabilities being tested provide real time tactical data to units on
the ground or onboard ships. In the summer of 1999, Commander Sea Control Wing
Atlantic (CSCWL) and Commander Sea Control Wing Pacific (CSCWP) embarked on a
joint demonstration of the Viking Surveillance System Upgrade (SSU). The Pacific Wing
aircraft was fitted with Ultra High Resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar (UHR/SAR)
imagery, Joint Tactical Information distribution System (JTIDS) Link-16, Real Time
Sensor Data Link (RTSDL) and the AN/AYK-23 Digital Computer. A long range Electro
Optical/Infra Red (EO/IR) sensor capable of real time data link to ground and airborne
stations was placed in an Atlantic Wing aircraft. The modifications were done at Naval
Air Warfare Center, Aircraft Division (NAWCAD), Patuxent River by Veridian contract
personnel at Force Aircraft Test Squadron and Naval Air Station, Jacksonville, Florida.
This joint effort minimized installation time and cost and maximized visibility.

Specifications
Primary Function Antisubmarine Warfare and Sea Surveillance
Contractor Lockheed-California Company
Unit Cost $27 million
Two General Electric TF-34-GE-400B turbofan
Propulsion
engines (9,275 pounds of thrust each)
Length 53 feet 4 inches (16 meters)
Wingspan 68 feet 8 inches (20.6 meters)
Height 22 feet 9 inches (6.9 meters)
Weight Max design gross take-off: 52,539 pounds (23,643 kg)
Speed 450 knots (518 mph, 828.8 kph)
Ceiling 40,000 feet
Range 2,300+ nautical miles (2,645 statute miles, 4232 km)
Up to 3,958 pounds (1,781 kg)
AGM-84 Harpoon
Armament AGM-65 Maverick missiles
torpedoes, mines, rockets and bombs.
Crew Four
IOC 1975
Common Support Aircraft (CSA)
The Common Support Aircraft (CSA) will serve as the Navy's carrier-based surveillance,
control, and support aircraft for the 21st century, replacing existing S-3B, ES-3A, E-2C,
and C-2A aircraft. Envisioned as a single aircraft design, the CSA will be able to carry
different mission suites of sensors and avionics in order to fulfill future mission
requirements and will possess significant capacity for logistics support and aerial
refueling. CSA will facilitate naval fires in the joint warfare battlespace with fuzed
tactical data obtained from both on- and off-board sensors and with its organic
warfighting capability.
In 1993, a Naval Aviation study concluded that a "neckdown" of follow-on aircraft was
the only affordable procurement strategy for future naval aircraft. Current investments in
E-2C production, ongoing C-2 service life extension, and service life extension plans for
the S-3 and ES-3 aircraft are needed to ensure that current airframes achieve the 2015
service life goal. Based on current fleet utilization rates and projected support aircraft
inventories, the CSA will require a 2012 initial operational capability at the latest. Efforts
are being explored to determine if an accelerated profile is feasible.
The study team has established CINC Coordination and Fleet User Teams to ensure the
operational concerns of U.S. warfighters are highlighted, and to provide a forum that
spans all warfare areas. Phase 1 defined future mission requirements by using top down,
strategy-task-technology and quality function deployment methodologies that were
rooted in joint military objectives. Phase 1 concluded in early 1997.
During Phase 2, the study will evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of a single
airframe vehicle. First, the mission concept of operations in tactical situations will
quantify performance values. Existing guidance will be used to examine the aircraft
design possibilities for a multi-place aircraft sharing a common airframe, engines, and
core avionics and having sufficient internal volume and carriage capability for mission-
specific avionics, sensors, stores and weapons. The study group is also working with
industry and examining advances in technology and the acquisition process to assess the
feasibility of the CSA.
The CSA initiative is to commence a baseline development effort for the air vehicle prior
to final weapon systems determination for the various mission variants. Based on the
current and future "worst case" avionics suite, the baseline aircraft will be sized around
the Hawkeye 2006 mission system which will provide growth potential for other mission
area requirements and avionics upgrades. Significant work in formulating plans, options
and contingencies are ongoing within the Fleet, acquisition community, and industry so
that a streamlined effort can be initiated that minimizes program risk while exploiting
commercial best practices and methodologies.

The Navy has deferred a formal acquisition plan for the Common Support Aircraft until
the critical issues of resources, requirements and program timing are resolved. It may be
more appropriate to call the program a Common Support Concept (CSC) which
accommodates efforts to tailor CVW missions to the battlespace of the future. The
support solutions of the future may not all entail a new aircraft. Current S-3 and C-2
airframe test articles will further define service life limits and SLEP alternatives. Support
aircraft program initiatives such as the E-2 MYP, vertically cutting the ES-3A, and
shedding S-3B mission areas have succeeded in pushing the requirement for a Common
Support Aircraft further to the right than initially projected. Test article results will help
to define our path and options in meeting support requirements. The vision for CSA is to
use POM02 funds to start analysis of alternatives and roles and missions studies to
solidify the requirements for a CSA platform. The conclusions of the analysis will be
used to establish a roadmap and then move forward with the modernization of naval
aviation's support aircraft inventories.

Lockheed Martin Aeronautical Systems examined four basic CSA concepts. These
comprised the CSA-101, a low-risk solution similar in appearance to the S-3 and
embodying a fin-mounted rotodome; the CSA-201, a more advanced design, with a
triangular fin-mounted radome, and some low-observable features, such as faceting; the
CSA-301, with full low-observability and conformal sensor arrays integrated into
leading- and trailing-edges of a diamond planform; and a UAV design similar in
appearance to Northrop's Tacit Blue stealth-technology demonstrator, but with a twin-
boom tail.

Although the CSA project is still active, the requirements for the CSA have been delayed
by the US Navy. Lockheed Martin has been pursuing a number of modernisation
initiatives to extend service life of the S-3B Viking, which is a candidate for eventual
replacement by CSA.
P-3 Orion
The P-3C is a land-based, long range anti-submarine warfare (ASW) patrol aircraft. It has
advanced submarine detection sensors such as directional frequency and ranging
(DIFAR) sonobuoys and magnetic anomaly detection (MAD) equipment. The avionics
system is integrated by a general purpose digital computer that supports all of the tactical
displays, monitors and automatically launches ordnance and provides flight information
to the pilots. In addition, the system coordinates navigation information and accepts
sensor data inputs for tactical display and storage. The P-3C can either operate alone or
supporting many different customers including the carrier battlegroup and amphibious
readiness group. The aircraft can carry a variety of weapons internally and on wing
pylons, such as the Harpoon anti-surfacemissile, the MK-50 torpedo and the MK-60
mine.
Each Maritime Patrol Aviation (MPA) squadron has nine aircraft and is manned by
approximately 60 officers and 250 enlisted personnel. Each 11-person crew includes both
officer and enlisted personnel. The MPA squadrons deploys to sites outside the United
States for approximately six months, and generally spends one year training at home
between deployments.
In February 1959, the Navy awarded Lockheed a contract to develop a replacement for
the aging P-2 Neptune. The P-3V Orion entered the inventory in July 1962, and over 30
years later it remains the Navy's sole land-based antisubmarine warfare aircraft. It has
gone through one designation change (P-3V to P-3) and three major models: P-3A, P-3B,
and P-3C, the latter being the only one now in active service. The last Navy P-3 came off
the production line at the Lockheed plant in April 1990.
Since its introduction in 1969, the P-3C has undergone a series of configuration changes
to implement improvements in various mission and aircraft systems through updates to
the aircraft. These changes have usually been implemented in blocks referred to as
"Updates." Update I, introduced in 1975, incorporated new data processing avionics and
software, while Update II in 1977 featured an infrared detection system, a sonobuoy
reference system, the Harpoon antiship missile and a 28-channel magnetic tape
recorder/reproducer.
Technical Evaluation (TECHEVAL) for P-3C Update III Aircraft began in March 1981,
and was completed in second quarter 1982. Force Warfare Test Directorate, Naval Air
Warfare Center Aircraft Division (NAVAIRWARCENACDIV), at Patuxent River,
Maryland, conducted the TECHEVAL. Air Test and Evaluation Squadron One (VX-1)
began Operational Test and Evaluation (OT&E) of the P-3C Update III Aircraft at
NAVAIRWARCENACDIV Patuxent River in September 1981, and completed this phase
of testing in January 1982. Provisional approval for service use was granted in July 1982.
Approval for full production was received in January 1986 following Follow-on
Operational Test and Evaluation (FOT&E). The Update III Program was enhanced by a
Channel Expansion (CHEX) Program. CHEX doubled the number of sonobuoy channels
that can be processed and has been installed in all P-3C Update III Aircraft. The CHEX
Program began in 1983 and the tested aircraft was delivered in April 1986. CHEX
TECHEVAL was accomplished from March through June 1988.
The P-3C Update III Aircraft is manned by an 11-man crew composed of five officers
and six enlisted. Enlisted crewmembers are selected from the following aviation ratings:
Aviation Machinist's Mate (AD), Aviation Electrician's Mate (AE), Master Chief Aircraft
Maintenanceman (AF), Senior Chief Aviation Structural Mechanic (AM), Aviation
Structural Mechanic (Safety Equipment) (AME), Aviation Structural Mechanic
(Hydraulics) (AMH), Aviation Structural Mechanic (Structures) (AMS), Aviation
Electronics Technician (AT), and Aviation Warfare Systems Operator (AW). The
operational concept for the P-3C Update III and P-3C Update III AIP Aircraft remains the
same as previous updates to the P-3C Aircraft, to provide tactical surveillance,
reconnaissance, strike support, fleet support and warning, and monitoring of
electromagnetic signals of interest for intelligence analysis. Patrol squadrons operate with
nine aircraft from established Naval Air Stations (NASs) world wide. The P-3C Update
III and P-3C Update III AIP Aircraft continue the P-3C's capability of operating one or
more aircraft from remote airfields with no organizational or intermediate support for
short periods of time.
The P-3C Update III was introduced into the fleet during early 1985, and Aircraft Initial
Operating Capability (IOC) was achieved in 1986. The P-3C Update III Aircraft is in the
Production, Fielding, Deployment, and Operational Support Phase of the Weapon System
Acquisition Process. The noteworthy additions and changes which comprised Update III,
enhanced acoustic data processing capabilities and improved the sonobuoy
communications suite. These changes included the Single Advanced Signal Processor
System, Advanced Sonobuoy Communications Link Receiver, Adaptive Controlled
Phased Array System, Electronic Support Measure (ESM) Set, Acoustic Test Signal
Generator, CP-2044 Digital Data Computer, and changes to the Environmental Control
System.

 The Harpoon Stand-Off Land Attack Missile (SLAM) launched from the P-3C
Orion aircraft provides commanders with the ability to immediately deploy a long
range responsive platform that can remain on-station for extended periods of time,
retask targets in flight, and deliver up to four over-the-horizon precision weapons
in minutes. The same aircraft can then remain on station and continue to target
other platforms' missiles by the use of its Electro-Optical, Rapid Targeting
System (RTS) and real time data link capabilities.
 The AN/ALQ-158(V) Adaptive Controlled Phased Array System [ACPA] VHF
sonobuoy receiving antenna system amplifies reception of sonobuoy signals. The
ACPA now consists of: Two AS-3153/ALQ-158(V) Blade Antennas are installed;
only omni-directional reception is provided; AM-6878/ALQ-158(V) Radio
Frequency Amplifier equipment receives and amplifies the signals sent from the
blade antennas and passes these amplified signals on to the AN/ARR-78 ASCL
receiver.
 AN/ARR-78(V)1 Advanced Sonobuoy Communications Link [ASCL] Receiver
contains 20 receiver modules, each capable of accepting RF operating channels 1-
99 (those sonobuoy channels now in use and those being developed for future
use). All 20 receiver modules may be tuned to any one of the sonobuoy operating
frequencies. The ASCL consists of a Radio Receiver, Receiver Control/On-Top
Position Indicator (OTPI), Control Indicator, and Receiver Indicator. Two R-
2033/ARR-78(V)1 Radio Receiver units receive acoustic data for the SASP. Each
has four auxiliary function channels which allow the TACCO to monitor the
sonobuoy audio channels, BT light off detection, and OTPI reception. The C-
10127/ARR-78(V)1 Receiver Control unit provides manual control of the OTPI
receiver only, permitting the pilot to select the OTPI receiver and tune it to any
one of the 99 channels. The C-10126/ARR-78(V) Control Indicator is the primary
manual control for the ASCL Set is the control indicator. Each of the two units
installed allows the operator to select and program any of the 20 receiver
modules. Each of the two ID-2086/ARR-78(V)1 Receiver Indicator units
simultaneously displays the status of all 20 receiver modules on a continuous
basis.
 The AN/UYS-1(V) Single Advanced Signal Processor System [SASP] is a digital
processor designed for the conditioning, analysis, processing, and display of
acoustic signals. The SASP System is comprised of two basic elements. The TS-
4271/UYS-1(V)10 Analyzer Detecting Set, also called the AU, is installed with a
primary function of processing acoustic signals through the use of a Spectrum
Analyzer TS-4271/UYS-1(V). It is protected from power transients by a PP-
7467/UYS-1(V) Power Interrupt Unit (PIU). The CP-1808/USQ-78(V) SASP
Display Control Unit (DCU), contains a programmable, modularity expandable
system containing two independent computer subsystems, a System Controller,
and a Display Generator (DG) and is also protected by a PIU. The DG also
provides hardware interface to two Commandable Manual Entry Panels (CMEPs)
C-11808/USQ-78(V), and two Multi-Purpose Displays (MPDs) IP-1423/ USQ-
78(V). The two manual entry panels provide the operator an interface to control
system operating modes and MPD visual presentations.
 With the AN/ALQ-78A Countermeasures Set the existing Countermeasures Set
(AN/ALQ-78) is modified by an ECP which improved both maintainability and
performance. This ECP was first introduced in the P-3C Update II (ECP-955 for
production aircraft and ECP-966 for retrofit aircraft).
 The AN/ARS-5 Receiver-Converter Sonobuoy Reference System, a 99 Channel
SRS, permits the continuous monitoring of a sonobuoy location from a stand-off
position. The SRS provides "fly to" reference data to the CP-2044. It was fit into
Lockheed I-9 aircraft serial 5812 Bureau Number 163005 and subsequent
production aircraft and was retrofit into production P-3C Update III Aircraft.
 The AN/ARC-187 Ultra High Frequency Radio Set provides for a satellite
communications capability. The two installed AN/ARC-143 UHF Radios were
replaced by two AN/ARC-187 UHF Radios with the incorporation of ECP-988.
This ECP is applicable to all P-3C Update III Aircraft. The AN/ARC-187 was
installed in the P-3C Update III production aircraft delivered in May 1988 and
subsequent. Retrofit installation by Lockheed Martin field teams has been
completed.
 The CP-2044 Digital Data Computeris a single cabinet airborne computer
equipped with high-throughput microprocessors, increased memory capacity, a
dual bus system, and built-in diagnostics. Improvements to the CP-901 have
resulted in a design which dramatically increases performance while maintaining
the CP-901 footprint and significantly reduces weight and power requirements.
Main shared memory is increased to one megaword, with an additional one
megaword available for memory growth. In addition, each of the processor
modules contain one megaword of local memory. These design improvements
and the use of Ada language will accommodate future processing requirements
and keep the system viable throughout the 1990s. Performance improvements are
made possible by 15 new six by nine inch printed circuit cards. The CP-2044
features three Motorola 68030 microprocessors and card slots for four additional
processors. Functions of the previously external AN/AYA-8 or OL-337(V)/AY
Logic Units and the CV-2461A/A are incorporated in the CP-2044.
 The AN/ARN-151(V)1 Global Positioning System [GPS] provides highly
accurate navigation information. The five-channel receiver processor unit
continuously tracks and monitors four satellites simultaneously, while the fifth
channel tracks another satellite for changeover to maintain an acceptable
geometry between satellites.
 The AN/ALR-66A/B(V)3 Electronic Support Measures [ESM] Set provides
concurrent radar warning receiver data (threat data) along with ESM data (fine
measurement of classical parametric data). The AN/ALR-66B(V)3 Set provides
increased sensitivity and processing improvements over its predecessor, the
AN/ALR-66A(V)3. Further refinements to the operational flight program and the
library will provide an operator tailorable library. The AN/ALR-66B(V)3
provides inputs to the EP-2060 Pulse Analyzer to detect, direction find, quantify,
process, and display electromagnetic signals emitted by land, ship, and airborne
radar systems.

The P-3C Update III Anti-Surface Warfare Improvement


Program [AIP] Aircraft will provide improvements in Command,
Control, Communications, and Intelligence; surveillance and OTH-
T capabilities; and survivability, to include the Maverick Missile
System. Delivery of the P-3C Update III Anti-Surface Warfare
(ASUW) Improvement Program (AIP) Aircraft to the fleet began 29
April 1998 and is scheduled to be complete at the close of FY00.
The P-3C Update III AIP will be accomplished through the retrofit
of P-3C Update III Aircraft that have the CP-2044 Digital Data Computer and AN/ALR-
66B(V)3 Electronic Support Measures Set installed. Transition to the P-3C Update III
AIP Aircraft began in April 1998. Since, as currently envisioned, squadrons will initially
operate both the P-3C Update III and P-3C Update III AIP Aircraft, aircrew and
maintenance personnel will require training for both aircraft configurations. Training
track lengths will increase with the inclusion of the P-3C Update III AIP Aircraft
information into existing training tracks. The P-3C Update III AIP Aircraft equipment
includes:

 The IR Maverick Missile is an infrared-guided, rocket-propelled, air-to-ground


missile for use against targets requiring considerable warhead penetration prior to
detonation. The missile is capable of two pre-flight selectable modes of target
tracking. The armor or land track mode is optimized for tracking land-based
targets such as tanks or fortified emplacements. The ship track mode is optimized
for tracking seaborne targets. The missile is capable of launch-and-leave
operation. After launch, automatic missile guidance is provided by an imaging
infrared energy sensing and homing device.
 The AN/AAS-36A Infrared Detecting Set [IRDS] provides passive imaging of
infrared wavelength radiation to visible light emanating from the terrain along the
aircraft flight path for stand-off detection, tracking, and classification capability.
The IRDS update will primarily consist of an improved A-focal lens.
 The AN/AVX-1 Electro-Optical Sensor System [EOSS] is an airborne stabilized
electro-optical system that provides video for surveillance and reconnaissance
missions. The AN/AVX-1 EOSS has the capability to detect and monitor objects
during the day from exceptionally clear to medium hazes, dawn and dusk, and
during the night from a full moon to starlight illumination.
 The AN/APS-137B(V)5 Radar is capable of multimode operation to provide
periscope and small target detection, navigation, weather avoidance, long range
surface search and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and ISAR imaging modes.
SAR provides detection, identification, and classification capability of stationary
targets. ISAR provides detection, classification, and tracking capability against
surface and surfaced submarine targets. The AN/APS-137B(V)5 ISAR provides
range, bearing, and positional data on all selected targets, and provides medium or
high resolution images for display and recording.
 The EP-2060 Pulse Analyzer works in conjunction with the AN/ALR-66C(V)3 to
detect, direction find, quantify, process, and display electromagnetic signals
emitted by land, ship, and airborne radar systems.
 Three Color High Resolution Display [CHRD] general purpose, dual channel,
closed circuit units provide the operator with improved Operator-Machine-
Interface and 1024 X 1280 pixel landscape orientation, improved response time to
operator commands, and an increase of 300 percent in the video refresh rate to
minimize display flicker. Five types of data may be displayed on the CHRD:
cursors, cues, tableau, alerts, and raw video.
 The Pilot Color High Resolution Display [PCHRD] provides the ability to display
complex tactical and sensor information to the pilot station.
 The Over-the-Horizon Airborne Sensor Information System [OASIS] III data is
received and prepared for transmission via the OASIS III Tactical Data Processor
(TDP). OASIS III processes and correlates all data provided via MATT and Mini-
DAMA. The OASIS III TDP provides an Officer in Tactical Command
Information Exchange System (OTCIXS) message link, coupled with GPS-aided
targeting using the AN/APS-137B(V)5 Radar.
 The OZ-72(V) Multi-Mission Advanced Tactical Terminal [MATT] system will
provide Tactical Receive Equipment (TRE) capability to receive and decrypt three
simultaneous channels of Tactical Data Information Exchange Subsystem
(TADIXS-B), Tactical Related Applications (TRAP), and Tactical Information
Broadcast Service (TIBS) information. The system will route the received
broadcast data to the OASIS III for further processing.
 The AN/USC-42(V)3 Miniaturized Demand Assigned Multiple Access [Mini-
DAMA] will provide for secure voice communications. Mini-DAMA provides for
the transmission, reception, and decryption of OTCIXS data and the subsequent
routing of that data to the OASIS III TDP.
 The AN/AAR-47 Missile Warning System [MWS] is a passive electro-optical
system designed to detect surface-to-air and air-to-air missiles. Upon detection of
an incoming missile, the MWS will report the impending threat to the
Countermeasures Dispensing System (CMDS).
 The AN/ALE-47 Countermeasures Dispensing System [CMDS] will be used for
dispensing flares, chaff, non-programmable expendable jammers, and
programmable jammers.
 The AN/ALR-66C(V)3 Electronic Support Measures Set provides all the same
features as an AN/ALR-66B(V)3 ESM Set. However, the ALR-66C(V)3 Set
incorporates the AS-105 spinning DF antenna and the Operational Flight Program
is modified to accommodate this configuration difference. Also included is the
EP-2060 Pulse Analyzer, an upgrade to the ULQ-16.

NATO's Operation Allied Force marked the combat debut of the P-3C Antisurface
Warfare Improvement Program (AIP). The Mediterranean maritime patrol force for these
operations included ten P-3Cs, five of the AIP variant, and 14 crews from Patrol
Squadrons 1, 4, 5 and 10 from Naval Air Stations Whidbey Island, Barbers Point,
Jacksonville and Brunswick, respectively. On March 22, two days before the start of
hostilities, P-3C AIP aircraft began flying around-the-clock armed force protection
surveillance flights in the Adriatic Sea in direct support of afloat Tomahawk Land Attack
Missile (TLAM) shooting ships. For the next 94 days, Maritime Patrol Aircraft (MPA)
provided 100 percent of the Surface Combat Air Patrols (SUCAP) for the USS Theodore
Roosevelt Carrier Battle Group and other allied ships operating in the area. This marked
the first time surface combat air patrols during actual combat operations have been
performed exclusively by non-carrier organic aircraft.

CTF-67 AIP-equipped P-3’s were able to directly observe commercial contraband ships
as well as Yugoslav boats and ships moored at coastal sites and underway. The images
were downlinked to the USS Theodore Roosevelt battle group commander, giving the
battle group an unprecedented real-time and near real-time view of the tactical situation.
In all, CTF-67 aircraft detected and reported over 3,500 surface contacts. In another first,
AIP-equipped P-3’s fired a total of 14 Standoff Land Attack Missiles (SLAMs) at Serb
targets. Because of the P-3’s ability to stay on-station for hours at a time, battle group
commanders had the flexibility to hit mobile targets on short notice. This in-flight
planning/re-targeting ability for SLAM strikes validated the importance of the P-3’s
strike role.

The Counter Drug Update Equipment update is a Chief of Naval Operations (CNO)
identified urgent requirement to equip a limited number of active and reserve P-3C
Update III Aircraft with a RORO capability to install all or selected systems to counter
narcotic trafficking operations. Counter Drug Update systems include:

 Air-to-Air Radar System AN/APG-66


 EOSS AN/AVX-1(V)1
 Project Rigel Communications Equipment

ECP-315 addresses the design, manufacture, and installation of aircraft wiring provisions
for AFC-563 kits in 32 aircraft (18 active and 14 reserve). Ten active and five reserve
RORO kits are provided for AN/AVX-1 and 10 RORO kits for AN/APG-66 (active duty
aircraft only). ECP-391, Project Rigel, addressed the design, manufacture, and
installation of aircraft wiring provision kits in 18 active aircraft and eight RORO kits.

The Sustained Readiness Program (SRP) provides for the preemptive replacement of
airframe components and systems identified as having potential for significant impact on
future aircraft availability because of excessive time to repair, obsolescence, component
manufacturing lead time, or cost impact. The SRP kit is comprised of a set of core
installations and repairs that must be performed on each aircraft and a set of conditional
installations and repairs. The need for the conditional installations and repairs will be
determined by inspections performed on each aircraft as it is inducted. In addition, the
fuel quantity system will be replaced with a Digital Fuel Quantity System (DFQS). The
first SRP aircraft under went modification and was completed in first quarter FY97.

The Electronic Flight Display System (EFDS) is an updated version of the Flight Display
System (FDS). It is defined as the flight instrument, associated controls, and its interface
to the aircraft, and is designed to provide the pilot, co-pilot, or
Navigation/Communication (NAV/COMM) Officer with a comprehensive, unambiguous
presentation of navigation information adequate for both worldwide tactical and non-
tactical navigation. The display unit uses a flat panel domestic Active Matrix Liquid
Crystal Display (AMLCD). The FDS functionally replaces the P-3 electro-mechanical
Horizontal Situation Indicator (ID-1540/A), electro-mechanical Flight Director Indicators
(FDI) (ID-1556), selected functions of the Navigation Availability Advisory Lights, and
integrates GPS navigation with the flight instruments. Additional information such as
navigational aid waypoint locations, GPS annunciation, and FDS status pages are also
displayed.

Due to the high operational expense of the Inertial Navigation Unit currently installed, a
Replacement Inertial Navigation Unit (RINU) has become necessary. The RINU will be
installed coincidental with the EFDS and training will be developed to include both
systems.

The Navy periodically conducts service life assessment programs to reevaluate its fatigue
damage accrual estimate, flight hour limits, and operational availability and reliability.
Based on these assessments, the P-3's service life limit hasincreased from 7,500 flight
hours to 20,000. Over the years, the Navy found that P-3 flying patterns were not as
severe as had been assumed.The original limit was based on conservative assumptions
about in-flight stresses (e.g. maneuvers and payload), while the higher limit
reflectedactual operating experience and more modern analysis of the original fatigue test
data. The Navy periodically reevaluates flight hour limits, or, more accurately, the fatigue
damage accrual rate from which it derives flight hour limits. Preliminary analysis in the
early 1990s indicated that the 20,000 hour limit for the P-3 could be extended to 24,000
hours or more, which represents an additional 6 years of service life atcurrent usage rates.
The extension may be lessened if other factors such as corrosion or cost of operation and
maintenancebecome unmanageable. Using the Navy's retirementprojection methodology
and assuming a 24,000 Right hour limit, the fleet size would remain at 249 aircraft
through the decade and drop to 239 by fiscal year 2005.
On 12 March 1999 Lockheed Martin Aeronautical Systems, Marietta GA, was awarded a
$30,205,495 cost-plus-incentive-fee contract to conduct Phase II and III of the service life
assessment program (SLAP) being conducted for the P-3C aircraft. The primary purpose
of the SLAP is to assess the fatigue life and damage tolerance characteristics of the P-3C
airframe, and to identify structural modifications required in an effort to attain the 2015
service life goal.

Specifications
Primary Function Antisubmarine warfare(ASW)/Antisurface warfare
(ASUW)
Contractor Lockheed
P-3A P-3B (L) P-3B (H) P-3C
Date Deployed August August
1962 1969
Power Plant Four T56- Four T56-A-14
A-10 Allison turbo prop
Allison 4,600 horsepower each
turbo prop
4,300
horsepower
each
Maximum gross weight 127,500 lbs 127,500 lbs 139,760 lbs 139,760 lbs
Endurance 10-13 hr 10-13 hr 10-13 hr 10-13 hr
Crew composition 5 - minimum flight crew
11 - normal crew
21 - maximum accomodation
Cruise speed (average) 330 knots 330 knots 330 knots 330 knots
Fuel capacity 60,000 lbs 60,000 lbs 60,000 lbs 60,000 lbs
(approximate)
Fuel consumption (lb/hr) 4000-5000 4000-5000 4000-5000 4000-5000
Unit Cost $36 million
(FY 1987)
Armament up to around 20,000 pounds (9 metric tons) internal
and external loads
Bomb Bay:
8 MK 46/50 Torpedoes
8 MK 54 Depth Bombs
3 MK 36/52 1000 lb Mines
3 MK 57 Depth Bombs
2 MK 101 Depth Bombs
1 MK 25/39/55/56 2000 lb Mine
Two Center-Section Pylons:
2 Harpoon (AGM-84)
2 Maverick (AGM 65)
2 MK 46/50 Torpedoes
2 2000 lb Mines
Three Under Outer Wing Pylons,
[Per Wing -Inboard to Outboard):
2 MK 46/50 Torpedo or 1000 lb Mine
2 MK 46/50 Torpedo or 1000 lb Mine or
Rockets
2 MK 46/50 Torpedo or 500 lb Mine or
Rockets
A total maximum weapon load includes
6 2,000 lb mines under wings
2 MK 101 depth bombs
4 MK 50 torpedoes
87 sonobuoys
pyrotechnics, signals,
P-3C TECHNICAL DATA:
Internal Dimensions
External Dimensions Cabin, excl flight deck and
30.37 electrical load center:
Wing span
m 21.06
Length
Wing chord (at root) 5.77 m m
Wing chord (at tip) 2.31 m Maximum width 3.30 m
Wing aspect ratio 7:5 Maximum height 2.29 m
35.61 Floor area m2
Length overall
m 120.6
Volume
10.27 m
Height overall
m
Fuselage diameter 3.45 m Areas
13.06 Wings, gross 3120.77 m 2
Tailplane span
m Ailerons (totals) 8.36 m 2
Wheel Track (c/l shock Trailing-edge flaps (total) 19.32 m 2
9.50 m
absorbers)
Fin, including dorsal fin 10.78 m 2
Wheel base 9.07 m Rudder, including tab 5.57 m 2
Propeller diameter 4.11 m Tailplane 22.39 m 2
Cabin door (height) 1.83 m Elevators, including tabs 7.53 m 2
Cabin door (width) 0.69 m
Weights and Loadings Performance
Weight empty 27,890 kg P-3B/C at maximum T-O
weight (except where
Maximum fuel weight 28,350 kg
indicated otherwise):
Maximum expendable load 9,071 kg
Maximum level speed at 411 knots
Maximum normal T-O 4,575 meters at AUW of
61,235 kg
weight 47,625 kg
Design zero-fuel weight 35,017 kg Econ cruising speed at 7,620 328 knots
Maximum landing weight 47,119 kg m at AUW of 48,895 kg

Maximum wing loading 507.0 kg/m Rate of


Patrol speed at 457 m at
climb at 457
4.18 AUW of 49,895 kg
Maximum power loading m
kg/kW
Time to 7,620 meters 594 min.
Service ceiling 30 min.
8,625
Service ceiling , OEI
meters
5,790
T-O run
meters
1,290
T-O to 15 miles meters
Landing from 15 meters at 1,673
design landing weight 1,673 meters
meters
Mission radius (3 h on 845 nautical
station at 457 m; 1,500 ft) miles
Maximum mission radius 1,345
(no time on station) at nautical
61,235 kg miles
2,070
Ferry range nautical
miles
Maximum endurance at 17 h 12 min
4,575 meters on two engines
Maximum endurance at 12 h 20 min
4,575 meters on four engines
P-7 Long Range Air ASW-Capable
Aircraft (LRAACA)
The P-7 Long Range Air ASW-Capable Aircraft (LRAACA) was intended to replace the
P-3 Orion as the primary land-based ASW patrol aircraft. The Navy selected Llockheed
in October 1988 to develop this next generation maritime patrol aircraft, a virtually a new
design derived from the P-3C.

In the mid-1980s, the Navy initiated efforts to replace the large number of P-3 aircraft
estimated to reach the end of their useful service lives during the 1990s. Over the years,
the P-3C, the Navy's latest model P-3aircraft, has lost some of its rangeand time on
station capabilitiesbecause of heavier required payloads. The Navy sought a replacement
plane with increased payload. and at least the original P-3C range. The Navy also sought
an aircraft with newer technology that could reduce support costs and provide enhanced
antisubmarine warfare capabilities.

The envisioned aircraft was a derivative of the P-3C and became known as the P-3G. It
was to include improved engines, reliability, maintain-ability, and survivability
enhancements, vulnerability reductions, andadvanced mission avionics. The Navy
planned to acquire 125 P-3G air-craft over a 5-year period. The Navy had been buying
various versions of the P-3 from Lockheed without competition for many years, and it
believed that introducing competition into further procurement would result in cost
savings. The Navy sent a request for information toindustry in May 1986. Using
information obtained from the respondents,the Navy developed a P-3G specification that
met its operationalrequirements. In August 1986, Office of the Secretary of Defense
(om)officials approved the P-3G program.

In January 1987, the Navy released a draft request for proposal (RFP) for the P-3G.
Following release of the draft RFP, no company other than Lockheed indicated an
interest in building a P-3C derivative. Unwilling to award a contract to Lockheed without
competition, the Navy expanded the scope of competition in March 1987 to include
modified commercial aircraft as well as aircraft based on the P-3C design.

In May 1987, OSD directed the Navy to conduct a patrol aircraft mission requirements
determination study (payload, range, speed, survivability,etc.). To complement this study
and enhance the RFP, the Navy released a draft RFP to industry soliciting comments on
the operational potential of commercial derivative aircraft to perform the patrol aircraft
mission. In September 1987, the Navy released a final RFP, incorporating the findings of
the OSD-directed study and the responses from industry.

Three proposals were received and evaluation began in February 1988. In October 1988,
the Navy selected Lockheed as the winner of the competition. Lockheed's proposal was
significantly lower in cost than proposals submitted by Boeing and McDonnell Douglas.
It was also judged to be technically superior, with a less risky technical approach.
On January 4, 1989, the Defense Acquisition Board,(DAB) recommended full-scale
development of the program. The next day, the Navy awarded a fixed-price incentive
contract to Lockheed to design, develop, fabricate, assemble, and test two prototype
aircraft, designated the P-7A. The contract had a target cost of $600 million and a ceiling
price ofabout $750 million. In March 1989, the Navy estimated acquisition of125 P-7A
aircraft at about $7.9 billion (escalated dollars). Of this total, development cost was
estimated at $915 million (escalated dollars). Procurement of each production version
aircraft was estimated at about $56.7 million.

In November 1989, Lockheed announced a $300-million cost overrun in its development


contract due primarily to schedule and design problems. In the following months, Navy
and Lockheed officials held extensive but unsuccessful discussions in an attempt to
address the contract issues. By letter dated July 20, 1990, the Navy terminated the P-7A
development contract for default, citing Lockheed's inability to make adequate progress
toward completion of all contract phases.

The bulk of funds in the amended FY1991 budget request for the P-3 modernization
program were for the P-7 LRAACA aircraft program. Continuation of the P-7A contract
was one option that was presented to the Defense Acquisition Board (DAB) in November
1990. Both the House and the Senate fully funded the request. In order to avoid
prejudicing the DAB decision process, the Congress decided to authorize an amount that
would fully fund the fiscal year 1991 effort of any of the alternatives to be considered by
the DAB.

The program was finally cancelled by the DAB at the end of 1990, on the grounds that it
had fallen behind schedule, which called for the two prototypes to be delivered in 1992.
Some 123 production P-7As had been planned. This decision left the Navy without a
program to replace its aging P-3 aircraft. The Boeing Update IV avionics upgrade, an
important element of the P-7A, was was initially to have been applied to 109 earlier US
Navy P-3Cs, but in 1992 this work was also cancelled.

The British Nimrod MR2P was to have been replaced by the P-7A, but cancellation of
that program forced the British Ministry of Defence to issue requirement SR(A)420 for a
replacement maritime patrol aircraft (RMPA).
Specifications
P-3C P-7A
Max Takeoff Gross Weight 139,760 lbs 171,350 lbs
Flight Design Gross Weight (3.0g) 135,000 lbs 165,000 lbs
Maneuver Weight (3.5g) 137,000 lbs
Design Zero Fuel Weight 77,200 lbs 105,000 lbs
Maximum Payload 22,237 lbs 38,385 lbs
Fuel Capacity 62,587 lbs 66,350 lbs
Maximum Landing Weight 114,000 lbs 144,000 lbs
Design Landing Weight 103,880 lbs 125,190 lbs
Sonouoy Capacity 84 150-300
Wing Span 99.6 ft 106.6 ft
Wing Area 1300 sq ft 1438 sq ft
Fuselage Length 116.8 ft 112.7 ft
Height 34.2 ft 32.9 ft
AH-1W Super Cobra
In 1966, the DOD contracted with Bell Helicopter, Inc. (BHI)
for 1,100 AH-1G aircraft, which logged more than 1 million
flight hours in Vietnam. Subsequently, the USMC desired a
twin engine AH-1G; thus, the SEA COBRA (AH-1J) was
developed. The United States Marine Corps (USMC) then
identified a need for more armaments; thus, the AH-1T upgrade
was initiated. This aircraft had an extended tailboom and
fuselage and an upgraded transmission and engines.

The AH-1 is fully capable of performing its attack mission in


all weather conditions. Additional missions include direct air
support, antitank, armed escort, and air to air combat. The
TOW missile targeting system uses a telescopic sight unit
(traverse 110º, elevation 60º/+30º), a laser augmented tracking
capability, thermal sights and a FLIR to allow for acquisition,
launch, and tracking of all types of TOW missiles in all
weather conditions. The Cobra also uses a digital ballistic
computer, a HUD, Doppler nav, and a low speed air data sensor on the starboard side for
firing, and has in-flight boresighting. External stores are mounted on underwing external
stores points. Each wing has two hardpoints for a total of four stations. A representative
mix when targeting armor formations would be eight TOW missiles, two 2.75-in rocket
pods, and 750x 20-mm rounds. The gun must be centered before firing underwing stores.
Armored cockpit can withstand small arms fire, and composite blades and tailboom are
able withstand damage from 23-mm cannon hits.small arms fire, and composite blades
and tailboom able to withstand damage from 23-mm cannon hits.

The Marines depend on attack helicopters to provide close-in fire support coordination in
serial and ground escort operations. Such support is required during amphibious ship-to-
shore movements and subsequent shore operations within the objective area. AH-1 is
designed for the following tasks:

 Armed escort for helicopters carrying personnel and cargo


 Landing zone fire suppression support
 Visual armed reconnaissance
 Target marking and direction for high-performance attack aircraft
 Convoy escort and fire suppression for ground units
 Operations from air capable ships
 Point target attack of threatening armor
 Self-defense and protection of helicopters carrying personnel and cargo from
threatening air-to-air weapon-equipped helicopters

By the early 1980s, USMC aircraft inventory was declining due to attrition; a fully
navalized helicopter was sought. In 1983, the USMC contracted with BHI for 44 AH-
1Ws. The AH-1W Super Cobra is a day/night marginal weather Marine Corps attack
helicopter that provides enroute escort for our assault helicopters and their embarked
forces. The AH-1W is a two-place, tandem-seat, twin-engine helicopter capable of land-
or sea-based operations. The AH-1W provides fire support and fire support coordination
to the landing force during amphibious assaults and subsequent operations ashore. The
AH-1W distinguished itself with its more powerful T700-GE-401 fully marinized engines
and advanced electronic weapons capability. The AH-1W can fire TOW, Hellfire, and
Sidewinder missiles and can be outfitted with Zuni rocket launchers.

The AH-1W is operated in eight composite HMLA squadrons composed of 18 AH-1 and
9 UH-1 aircraft. The AH-1W is curretnly being outfitted with a Night Targeting
System/Forward Looking Infrared Radar that provides laser rangefinding/designating and
camera capabilities.
The AH-1W is operated in eight composite HMLA squadrons composed of 18 AH-1 and
9 UH-1 aircraft. The Marine Corps deployed 4 of 6 active force squadrons (48 AH-1Ws)
to Southwest Asia during Operation Desert Shield/Desert Storm. These helicopters
destroyed 97 tanks, 104 armored personnel carriers and vehicles, 16 bunkers and 2
antiaircraft artillery sites without the loss of any aircraft. The deployment required no
additional augmentation to squadron support personnel and only one Bell Helicopter
technical representative.

AH-1Z

A four bladed version of the AH-1W, designated the AH-1Z, is also under development;
the addition of the extra blades dramatically improves the performance envelope of the
AH-1W. Currently, the AH-1W is being retrofitted with a Kollsman-manufactured Night
Targeting System (NTS). The aircraft is also undergoing a cockpit reconfiguration to
allow for easier copilot/gunner access to the NTS. The upgrade of the AH-1W, including
the new cockpit, is referred to as the Four Bladed AH-1W (4BW) and the upgrade of the
UH-1N drive train is referred to as the Four Bladed UH-1N (4BN). Collectively, the
4BN/4BW effort constitutes the USMC H-1 Upgrades Program.

The Marine Corps plans to upgrade 180 of the AH-1W gunships to the new AH-1Z
standard. The first flight is expected in October 2000, to be followed by low-rate initial
production beginning in February 2002, with deliveries running from 2004 through 2013.

This program combines upgrades of two USMC H-1 aircraft: the AH-1W Cobra attack
helicopter and the UH-1N light utility helicopter. The common element of the two will be
identical twin engines and drive trains, including a new four-bladed rotor previously
developed but not fielded. In addition, the AH-1 attack helicopter will gain a new
integrated cockpit and night targeting system. The upgrade will extend the life of the H-1
two models well into the 21st century. The AH-1 will contribute to precision engagement
and full-dimensional protection; the UH-1 will provide support to focused logistics.

Under the 4BW/4BN fully integrated cockpits will be phased into the development after
initial work on the drive system is underway. Initial work will consist of simultaneous
design efforts for the 4BW and 4BN. Major modifications include: a new rotor system
with semi-automatic bladefold of the new composite rotor system, a new performance
matched transmission, a new 4-bladed tail rotor and drive system, a more effective
stabilizer, upgraded landing gear, tail pylon structural modifications and common
cockpits. This remanufacture will add 10,000 flight hours to 4BW/4BN airframes. The
4BW will increase aircraft maneuverability, speed, and payload (ordnance) capability.
The fully integrated cockpits will reduce operator workload and improve situational
awareness, thus increasing safety. It will provide growth potential for future weapon
systems and avionics, which would increase mission effectiveness and survivability. As
discrete systems have previously been added to both aircraft, pilot workload has
progressively worsened. The cockpits will include integration of on-board mission
planning, communications, digital fire control, self navigation, night targeting, and
weapons systems in nearly identical crew stations reducing training requirements. The
4BN effort will incorporate the 4BW rotor system into the UH-1N aircraft, as well as a
fully integrated cockpit common with the 4BW, maximizing commonality between the
two aircraft and providing needed improvements in crew and passenger survivability,
payload, power available, endurance, range, airspeed, maneuverability and supportability.

The 4BN/4BW program was instituted in the summer of 1996 by combining several
lesser upgrades planned but not executed by the Marine Corps. Prior to entry into EMD
in September, 1996, DOT&E approved the program's alternative LFT&E plan and
USD(A&T) approved a waiver from full-up, system-level LFT&E. The AH-1W will be
tested full-up, system-level; the UH-1N received a waiver from full-up, system-level
testing. The H-1 Upgrade ORDs require that both helicopters be tolerant to impacts by
12.7mm rounds and have crashworthy enhancements. Additionally, the drive components
of the AH-1W should be tolerant to 23mm rounds.
The H-1 Upgrade has the most comprehensive and realistic aircraft LFT&E program
approved to date. The program will include full-up, system-level testing of an AH-1W
and testing of all but the tail (which is common to both aircraft) of the UH-1N. It will
explore in detail various potential kill mechanisms related to the expected threat. The
LFT&E program is integrated fully into the systems engineering effort and should yield a
reasonable opportunity to incorporate improvements if deficiencies are found.

VARIANTS

Most older Cobra variants still in operation have been upgraded to the AH-1F standard.
Also produced in Romania and Japan under license from Bell Textron in the U.S.

 AH-1G: Initial production model in 1966


 AH-1S: Upgraded 1960s produced aircraft in late 1980s to the standard TOW
carry-ing version.
 AH-1P: A set of AH-1S aircraft fitted with composite rotors, flat plate glass
cockpits, and NVG capabilities.
 AH-1E: A set of AH-1S aircraft upgraded with the Enhanced Cobra Armament
System incorporating the universal turret, 20-mm gun, automatic compensation
for off-axis gun firing, and weapon management system.
 AH-1F: Current standard Cobra. Also referred to as the “Modernized Cobra”.
Incorporated all past upgrades.

Specifications
Contractor: Bell Helicopter TEXTRON, Inc. (Prime), General
Electric, Kollsman Inc.
Power Plant: Two General Electric T700-GE-401 Turboshaft
engines
Each engine delivers 1,690 horsepower.
Accommodations: Two seats, in tandem (pilot in rear, copilot/gunner in
front)
Performance: Climb rate: 1,925 feet per minute
Maximum altitude: 14,750 feet
Maximum attainable speed: 170 knots (195 mph)
Maximum cruising speed: 152 knots (173 mph)
Countermeasures: AN/ALE-39 Chaff system and SUU-4/1 Flare
dispensers
Armament: One M197 three barrel 20 mm gun (mounted under
the nose with 750 round ammo container)
Underwing attachments for four TOW missiles, eight
Hellfire missiles, or one AIM-9L Sidewinder missile
Can also be equipped with Zuni rocket launchers
External Dimensions Areas
2
Main rotor diameter 14.63 m Main rotor blades (each) 006.13 m
Main rotor blad e chord 00.84 m Tail rotor blades (each) 000.45 m 2
2
Tail rotor diameter 02.97 m Main rotor disc 168.11 m
Tail rotor blade chord 00.305 m Tail rotor disc 006.94 m 2
Distance between rotor centers 08.89 m Vertical fin 002.01 m 2
2
Wing span 03.28 m Horizontal tail surfaces 001.41 m
Wing aspect ratio 03.74
Length: overall, rotors turning 17.68 m
Length: fuselage 13.87 m
Width overall 03.28 m
Height (to top of rotor head) 04.11 m
Overall height 04.44 m
Ground clearance, main rotor, turning 02.74 m
Elevator span 02.11 m
Width over skids 02.24 m

Performance (At Maximum T-O


weight, ISA)
Weights and Loadings Never exceed speed (Vne) 190 knots

Weight empty 004.634 kg Maximum level speed at S/L 152 knots

Mission fuel load (usable) 946 kg Rate of climb at S/L, OEI 244 m/minute

Maximum useful load (fuel and More than


002.065 kg Service ceiling
disposable ordinance) 4,720 m

Maximum Takeoff and landing weight 006.690 kg More than


Service ceiling, OEI
3,660 m
039.80
Maximum disc loading
kg/m2 Hovering ceiling
004.42 IGE 4, 495 m
Maximum power loading
kg/kW
OGE 915 m
Range at S/L with standard fuel, no 317 nm
reserves
Airborne Laser
The ABL weapon system consists of a high-
energy, chemical oxygen iodine laser (COIL)
mounted on a modified 747-400F (freighter)
aircraft to shoot down theater ballistic missiles
in their boost phase. A crew of four, including
pilot and copilot, would be required to operate
the airborne laser, which would patrol in pairs
at high altitude, about 40,000 feet, flying in
orbits over friendly territory, scanning the
horizon for the plumes of rising missiles. Capable of autonomous operation, the ABL
would acquire and track missiles in the boost phase of flight, illuminating the missile
with a tracking laser beam while computers measure the distance and calculate its course
and direction. After acquiring and locking onto the target, a second laser - with weapons-
class strength - would fire a three- to five-second burst from a turret located in the 747's
nose, destroying the missiles over the launch area.

The airborne laser would fire a Chemical Oxygen Iodine Laser, or COIL, invented at
Phillips Lab in 1977. The laser's fuel consists of the same chemicals found in hair bleach
and Drano - hydrogen peroxide and potassium hydroxide - which are then combined with
chlorine gas and water. The laser operates at an infrared wavelength of 1.315 microns,
which is invisible to the eye. By recycling chemicals, building with plastics and using a
unique cooling process, the COIL team was able to make the laser lighter and more
efficient while - at the same time - increasing its power by 400 percent in five years. The
flight-weighted ABL module would be similar in performance and power levels to the
multi-hundred kilowatt class COIL Baseline Demonstration Laser (BDL-2) module
demonstrated by TRW in August 1996. As its name implies, though, it would be lighter
and more compact than the earlier version due to the integration of advanced aerospace
materials into the design of critical hardware components. For the operational ABL
system, several modules would be linked together in series to achieve ABL's required
megawatt-class power level.

Atmospheric turbulence, which weakens and scatters the laser's beam, is produced by
fluctuations in air temperature [the same phenomenon that causes stars to twinkle].
Adaptive optics rely on a deformable mirror, sometimes called a rubber mirror, to
compensate for tilt and phase distortions in the atmosphere. The mirror has 341 actuators
that change at a rate of about a 1,000 per second.

The Airborne Laser is a Major Defense Acquisition Program. After the Concept Design
Phase is complete, the ABL will enter the Program Definition and Risk Reduction
(PDRR) Phase. The objective of the PDRR phase is to develop a cost effective, flexible
airborne high energy laser system which provides a credible deterrent and lethal
defensive capabilities against boosting theater ballistic missiles.
The ABL PDRR Program is intended to show high confidence system performance
scalable to Engineering and Manufacturing Development (EMD) levels. The PDRR
Program includes the design, development, integration, and testing of an airborne high-
energy laser weapon system.

In May 1994, two contracts were awarded to develop fully operational ABL weapon
system concepts and then derive ABL PDRR Program concepts that are fully traceable
and scaleable EMD. A single contract team was selected to proceed with the development
of the chosen PDRR concept beginning in November 1996. Successful development and
testing of the laser module is one of the critical 'exit criteria' that Team ABL must satisfy
to pass the program's first 'authority-to-proceed' (ATP-1) milestone, scheduled for June
1998. Testing of the laser module is expected to be completed by April 1998. The PDRR
detailed design, integration, and test will culminate in a lethality demonstration in the
year 2002. A follow-on Engineering Manufacturing and Development/Production (EMD)
effort could then begin in the early 2003 time frame. A fleet of fully operational EMD
systems is intended to satisfy Air Combat Command's boost-phase Theater Air Defense
requirements. If all goes as planned, a fleet of seven ABLs should be flying operational
missions by 2008.

Performance requirements for the Airborne Laser Weapons System are established by the
operational scenarios and support requirements defined by the user, Air Combat
Command, and by measured target vulnerability characteristics provided by the Air Force
lethality and vulnerability community centered at the Phillips Laboratory. The ABL
PDRR Program is supported by a robust technology insertion and risk reduction program
to provide early confidence that scaling to EMD performance is feasible. The technology
and concept design efforts provide key answers to the PDRR design effort in the areas of
lethality, atmospheric characterization, beam control, aircraft systems integration, and
environmental concerns. These efforts are the source of necessary data applied to exit
criteria ensuring higher and higher levels of confidence are progressively reached at key
milestones of the PDRR development.

The key issues in the program will be effective range of the laser and systems integration
of a Boeing 747 aircraft.
A-4 Skyhawk
The Marine Corps A-4 Skyhawk is a lightweight, single engine attack aircraft. The
mission of an A-4 attack squadron is to attack and to destroy surface targets in support of
the landing force commander, escort helicopters, and conduct other operations as
directed. Developed in the early 1950s, the A-4 Skyhawk was originally designated the
A-4D as a lightweight, daylight only nuclear capable strike aircraft for use in large
numbers from aircraft carriers. There are numerous models of the A-4 in use. The A-4M
and the TA-4F are currently used by Marine Corps Reserve squadrons. All models have
two internally mounted 20mm (.8 inch) cannons, and are capable of delivering
conventional and nuclear weapons under day and night visual meteorological conditions.
The A-4M uses a heads-up display and computer aided delivery of its bomb load with the
angle rate bombing system. The Marine Reserve has two squadrons of A-4s with 12
aircraft each. Additionally, each squadron has two TA-4 aircraft.

Specifications
Summary: Cantilever Low Wing Monoplane, with 33 degree
swept back wings
Single seat, high performance, light attack and
ground support aircraft
Outstanding low speed control and stability during
takeoff and landing
Wingspan: 26 ft 6 in
Length (excluding IFR Probe): 40 ft 3-1/4 in
Height: 15 ft
Deliveries began in November 1962
765 A-4 aircraft worldwide.
Pound for pound, the A-4 aircraft is one of the most
effective and versatile light attack aircraft produced.
The Skyhawk is 34 years old; yet export models are
still highly regarded and undergoing modern avionics,
weapons, and engine upgrades to maintain their flying
prowess into the next century.
Contractor: McDonnell Douglas
Power Plant: Single, Pratt & Whitney, J-52-P-408A non-
afterburning, turbojet engine that develops 11,220
pounds of thrust
Accommodations: One pilot
Performance: Maximum speed: 586 knots (with a 4,000 pound
bomb load)
Initial climb rate: 8,440 ft/min
Maximum ferry range: 2,000 nautical miles
Countermeasures: Not applicable
Armament: Mounts two 20 mm guns internal to the wing
structure
Has one fuselage and four wing racks and carries a
variety of external stores.
May be provisioned for Sidewinder, Shrike, and
Walleye missiles and 1,000 pound bombs.
Mission and Maximum takeoff weight: 24,500 pounds
Capabilities: Six "G" load maximum
Fuel capacity of both wing and fuselage internal and
three external tanks: 1,800 U.S. gallons
Typical dry weight: 10,465 pounds
Primary avionics systems include: UHF-ARC-159,
VHF-ARC-114, RAD/ALT-APN-194, TACAN-ARN-
118, ILS/VOR-ARA-63/ARN-14, CHAFF-ALE-39,
IFF-APX-72, RADAR-APG-53-A, Secure Comm-
KY28/58, AN/ALQ-126, Countermeasures AN/ALQ-
162, HUD AN/AVQ-24 and Navigational Computer
AN/ASN-41.
External Dimensions Areas
Wing span 8.38m Wings, gross 24.16m 2
Wing span over Ailerons (total)
missiles Leading-edge flaps
Wing chord at root 4.72m (total)
Wing chord at tip Trailing-edge flaps
(total)
Wing aspect ratio
Vert Tail Services
Width, wings folded 4.65m 2
(total)
Length overall 12.29m
Horz Tail Services
Height overall 4.57m 4.54m 2
(total)
Tailplane span 3.45m Tailerons (total)
Distance between fin
tips
Wheel track 2.37m
Wheelbase

Performance (At Maximum


Takeoff Weight)
Weights and Loadings
561
Max level speed
Weight empty 4,899kg knots
Maximum fuel weight Max speed,
intermediate power
Internal (JP5)
Approach speed
External: (JP5)
Maximum external Acceleration from 460
stores load knots to 920 knots
at 10,670 m
Take off weight 11,113kg
Combat ceiling
(normal)
T-O run @ 23,000lbs 832m
Fighter mission
take-off weight
Attack mission
Minimum wind over
Maximum deck:
Maximum wing Launching
loading (attack
Recovery
mission)
Combat radius,
interdiction, hi-lo-lo-hi
Combat endurance,
CAP 150 nm
from aircraft carrier
Ferry range, unrefueled 1,740nm
OH-6A Cayuse
AH-6J Little Bird
Defender 500
The Boeing (McDonnell Dougles) (formerly Hughes model 369) OH-6A, was designed
for use as a military scout during the Vietnam war to meet the U.S. Army's need for an
extremely maneuverable light observation helicopter (LOH program). The Hughes OH-
6A Cayuse was quite effective when teamed with the AH-1G Cobra attack helicopter as
part of what were known as "Pink Teams". The OH-6A "Loach" would find targets by
flying low, "trolling" for fire, and lead in a Cobra, or "Snake", to attack. The OH-6A
could be armed with the M27 armament subsystem, the M134 six-barrel 7.62mm
"minigun" or the M129 40mm grenade launcher on the XM8 armament subsystem.

Army Special Operations variants

Two special operations versions of the OH-6A are the "Little Bird" AH-6C armed
variant, and the MH-6B transport/utility version, which can carry up to six personnel for
quick insertion and extraction missions. A previous version, the EH-6B, was used for
command, control and radio relay. The MH-6 Little Bird is the only light assault
helicopter in the Army inventory. It provides assault helicopter support to special
operations forces and can be armed with a combination of guns and folding fin aerial
rockets. It has an unrefueled range of 250 nautical miles. The AH-6 Little Bird Gun, a
light attack helicopter, has been tested and proven in combat. Armed with guns, Hellfire
missiles, and 2.75-inch FFAR, it provides armed helicopter support to both ground and
air special operations. The unrefueled range of the AH-6 is 250 nautical miles. These
versions were all powered by a single Allison T-63 252 SHP engine.
Later versions are based on the successful Boeing (McDonnell Douglas) MD-500/MD-
530 series helicopters. The latest versions of these aircraft, the AH-6J attack helicopter
and MH-6J insertion and extraction transport, based on the MD-530F, feature a more
powerful engine and improved avionics, including an embedded GPS/inertial navigation
system and forward-looking infrared (FLIR). The AH-6J can be armed with two seven-
tube 2.75 inch rocket launchers and two 7.62mm M134 "miniguns". The "Little Bird" can
also be armed with .50 Cal. machine guns, MK19 40mm grenade machine gun, Hellfire
missiles, and Air-to-Air Stinger (ATAS) missiles.

Defender 500
This foreign military sales helicopter is offered with either a four- or five-blade main
rotor, depending on the model, with a weapons platform mounted on the lower rear body.
This light utility commercial helicopter could seat five passengers in comfort, and is used
mainly by the military, being very flexible and offering good all round capabilities. Other
missions include: direct air support, antitank, reconnaissance, observation, and light
utility. A single engine is mounted inside the body with air intakes on top of the cabin
and a blackhole exhaust. The fuselage is teardrop-shaped a features a round, glassed-in
cockpit and landing skids. External stores are mounted on weapons racks on each side of
the fuselage. Each rack has one hardpoint. The tail fin is boomerang-shaped, swept-back,
and tapered. The tail flats are back-tapered with small fins attached to the tips, with the
flats high-mounted on the fin forming a T. The rotor is moutned on the lower left of the
tail boom.
On 12 February 1998 the Boeing Company announced its intention to sell its commercial
helicopter business. Boeing built commercial helicopters -- the MD 500 Series, MD 600,
and MD Explorer -- in Mesa, Ariz., where it also produces the AH-64D Apache
Longbow. As of early 1998 the facility employed 5,300, of which 350 were dedicated to
the production of commercial helicopters. On 25 February 1998 Bell Helicopter Textron
announced a plan to acquire the Boeing MD 500 and MD 600 series product lines,
However, the transaction was dis-approved by competition authorities at the Federal
Trade Commission (FTC) in June 1998. Subsequently, on 19 January 1999 McDonnell
Douglas Helicopter Co., the indirect subsidiary of The Boeing Company, and MD
Helicopters Holding, Inc., an indirect subsidiary of the Dutch company RDM Holding,
Inc., signed an agreement on an asset purchase of Boeing's MD 500, MD 600N® and MD
Explorer® series of light commercial helicopter product lines. Included in the product
line are the MD 500E and MD 530F® single-engine helicopters with conventional tail
rotors, the MD 520N® and MD 600N single-engine helicopters with Boeing's exclusive
NOTAR® no tail rotor system for anti-torque and directional control, and the MD
Explorer series of twin-engine, eight-place helicopters. RDM is a European-based
industrial group with aerospace activities. The company designs and builds diesel-electric
submarines and builds and repairs ships, manufactures and overhauls military vehicles,
and produces defense and aerospace products, including landing gear and transmissions
for aircraft and helicopters. It is a subcontractor to Boeing for landing gear and fuselage
assemblies for Apache helicopters.

VARIANTS

 OH-6A/Cayuse: Developed initially by the Hughes Aircraft company (later


McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Company) in the mid-1960s for the US Army.
Fitted with 1x 253-shp Allison T63-A-5A turboshaft, 4 bladed main rotor, and an
offset “V” tail.
 Hughes 500M: Military export version of OH-6 in mid-1970s with upgraded 278-
shp Allison 250-C18 turboshaft engine, “V” tail. A recontoured nose allowed for
greater leg and head room. Modifications were also made to the rotor assembly by
way of a five blade main rotor which increased stability.
 MD-500MD/Scout and TOW Defender: Improved military version of the model
500 with 5 main rotor blades, 375-shp Allison 250-C20B turboshaft engine, and
T-tail.
 MD-500E/MD-500MG/Defender II: Had a more elongated nose for streamlining,
and an optional 4x blade tail rotor for reduced acoustic signatures. Possible mast-
mounted sight.
 OH-6A/MD-530F Super Cayuse/Lifter: Upgraded engine to a 425-shp Allison
250- C30 turboshaft, and avionics in 1988 for the US Army.
 MD-530MG/Defender: Has a mast-mounted sight, and incorporated upgrades of
all previous variants.
 AH/MH-6J: US Army Special Operations variant derived from the MD-530MG.

Specifications
Variants in “( )”
Country of Origin USA
Builder McDONNELL DOUGLAS
Role ASW, scout, antitank, multimission
Similar Aircraft BO 105, Alouette II
Main rotor: 4 or 5 (see VARIANTS)
Blades Tail rotor: 2 or 4 (see VARIANTS)
Rotor diameter 26 ft, 4 in (8 m)
Length (rotors turning): 9.4 m (500), 9.8 m (530)
Length
Length (fuselage): 7.6 m (500), 7.3 m (530)
Height 2.6 m (500), 3.4 m (530 over mast-mounted sight)
Width 1.9 m
Main Rotor Diameter: 8.0 (500), 8.3 (530)
Rotor Diameter Tail Rotor Diameter: 1.4
Floor Length: 2.4 m
Cargo Compartment
Width: 1.3 m
Dimensions Height: 1.5 m
Maximum Gross: 1,361 kg (500), 1,610 kg (530)
Weight Normal Takeoff: 1,090 kg
Empty: 896 kg
Engine see VARIANTS
Fuel Internal: 240 liters
Internal Aux Tank: 80 liters
Maximum (level): 241 km/h (500), 282 km/h (530)
Speed
Cruise: 221 km/h (500), 250 km/h (530)
Range Normal Load (est.): 485 km (500), km 430 (530)
Service: 4,635 m (500), 4,875 m (530)
Hover (out of ground effect): 1,830 m (500), 3,660 m
Ceiling (530)
Hover (in ground effect): 2,590 m (500), 4,360 m (530)
Vertical Climb Rate 8.4 m/s (500), 10.5 m/s (530)
Internal load: INA
External load: 550 kg
Standard Payload
Transports 2 or 3 troops or cargo internally, or 6 on
external platforms in lieu of weapons.
Armament 2 - M134 7.62-mm 6x barrel, Gatling type twin MG
pods
2 - M260 2.75-in Hydra 70 rocket pods (7 or 12
each)
2 - .50 cal MG pods
2 - M75 40-mm grenade launchers
2 - MK19 40-mm grenade launcher
2 - TOW missile pods (2 each)
2 - Hellfire ATGM
2 - Stinger AAM
Most Probable Armament
MD-500MD/Scout Defender: Fitted with guns,
rockets, grenade launchers, or a combination on 2x
fuselage hardpoints.
MD-500MD/TOW Defender: Twin TOW missile
pods on 2x fuselage hardpoints; mounts missile sight in
lower-left front windshield.
Survivability Some models have radar warning receivers.
Chaff and flare systems available.
Infrared signature suppressors can be mounted on
engine exhausts.
AVIONICS The MD-500 allows for the mounting of a stabilized,
direct-view optical sight in the windshield. Options
exist to fit a mast-mounted, multiple field of view
optical sight, a target tracker, a laser rangefinder,
thermal imager, a 16x FLIR for night navigation and
targeting, and autopilot.
Optional avionics include GPS, ILS and full
instrument weather conditions packages. The more
advanced variants are fully capable of performing all
missions under any conditions.
Crew 1 or 2 (pilots)
Cost
User Countries At least 22 countries -- Argentina, Bahrain, Bolivia,
Colombia, Costa Rica, Denmark, Dominican Republic,
El Salvador, Honduras, Indonesia, Iraq, Israel, Jordan,
Kenya, North Korea, South Korea, Spain, Taiwan, USA
Some 200 McDonnell Douglas 500-MD helicopters
were produced under license by Korean Air between
1976 and 1984. At least fifty of these helicopters were
equipped with TOW antitank weapons. The remainder
were used as transports and for other support missions.
North Korea acquired at least 60 Defender 500
helicopters during the mid- 1980s, reportedly through
US dealers.

OH-6A
Defender 500
A-6E Intruder
The A-6E was an all-weather, two seat, subsonic, carrier-based attack aircraft. It was
equipped with a microminiaturized digital computer, a solid state weapons release
system, and a single, integrated track and search radar. The target recognition/attack
multi-sensor (TRAM) version of the A-6E was introduced to the fleet in 1979. It was
equipped with a chin turret containing a forward-looking infra-red (FLIR) system and a
laser designator and receiver.
The A-6E proved once again that it was the best all-weather precision bomber in the
world in the joint strike on Libyan terrorist-related targets in 1986. With Air Force FB-
111s, A-6E Intruders penetrated the sophisticated Libyan air defense systems, which had
been alerted by the high level of diplomatic tension and by rumors of impending attacks.
Evading over 100 guided missiles, the strike force flew at low levels in complete
darkness, and accurately delivered laser-guided and other ordnance on target. Composite
wing replacement and systems/weapons improvement programs maintained full A-6E
combat systems capability, with initial operational capability realized in FY 88 with VA-
75 deployment onboard USS John F. Kennedy (CV 67).

The 19 December 1996 launch of an A-6E Intruder from the aircraft carrier USS
Enterprise (CVN 65) marked the last Intruder squadron to fly from the deck of an aircraft
carrier. The Intruder Attack Squadron 75 of Carrier Air Wing 7, known as the Sunday
Punchers, was decommissioned in early 1997.

Specifications
Length: 54 feet 8 inches
Wing Span: 53 feet
Height: 15 feet 6 inches
Take-off max gross: 60,400 pounds;
Weight: take-off max gross (carrier): 58,600 pounds;
empty weight: 28,000 pounds
Speed: 563 knots
Ceiling: 40,600 feet
Two Pratt & Whitney J52-P8B engines (9,300 pounds
Propulsion:
thrust each)
Crew: Two
10 2.75" Rocket Pod
10 5" Zuni Rocket Pod
Armament: 28 Mk-20 Rockeye
Mk-77 Napalm
28 Mk-81 (250 lbs)
28 Mk-82 Snakeye
13 Mk-83 (1,000 lbs)
5 Mk-84 (2,000 lbs)
20 Mk-117 (750 lbs)
28 CBU-78
GBU-10E Laser Guided Bomb
GBU-12D Laser Guided Bomb
GBU-16B Laser Guided Bomb
AGM-123A Skipper II
AGM-45 Shrike
AGM-62 Walleyes
AIM-9 Sidewinders
System Weapon Improvement Program, SWIP
AGM-88 HARMs
AGM-84E SLAMs
AGM-65 Maverick Anti-Ship Missile
AIM-120A AMRAAM
Contractor: Grumman Aerospace Corporation
Unit cost $FY98 $43 million.
[Total Program]
Current Inventory None. Withdrawn from service in early 1997
EA-6B Prowler
The EA-6B Prowler is included in
every aircraft carrier deployment.
The EA-6B's primary mission is to
protect fleet surface units and
other aircraft by jamming hostile
radars and communications. The
EA-6B is an integral part of the
fleet's first line of defense, and will
remain so well into the next
century. As a result of
restructuring DoD assets in 1995,
the EF-111 Raven was retired, and
the EA-6B was left as the only
radar jammer in DoD. Five new squadrons were stood up. Four of these squadrons are
dedicated to supporting USAF Aerospace Expeditionary Force wings.

The EA-6B Prowler electronic warfare aircraft - which played a key role in suppressing
enemy air defenses during Operation Desert Storm - enhances the strike capabilities not
only of carrier air wings but of U.S. Air Force and allied forces as well. The decision to
retire the Air Force EF-111A Raven and to assign all Department of Defense radar
jamming missions to the Prowler adds to the significance of the EA-6B in joint warfare.
With its jamming and High-Speed Anti-Radiation Missile (HARM) capability, the
Prowler is a unique national asset that will be deployed from land bases and aircraft
carriers. Its ability to monitor the electromagnetic spectrum and actively deny an
adversary's use of radar and communications is unmatched by any airborne platform
worldwide.

In the wake of DOD budgetary decisions to retire the F-4G Wild Weasel and phase out
the EF-111 Raven, there will be increased reliance by the Joint Force Commander (JFC)
on the EA-6B Prowler for the joint suppression of enemy air defenses (J-SEAD) role. It is
understood that SEAD is much more than jamming and anti- radiation missiles. All
services bring complementary capabilities to the overall J-SEAD effort, and all services
reap the benefits of the resulting air superiority.

The Prowler is not optimized to provide a safe haven by virtue of an "umbrella of


electrons". However, if used efficiently and effectively, this limited asset can provide the
JFC with a decisive tactical advantage. The EA-6B is a multi-mission capable platform,
that couples human interface with a sophisticated electronic warfare package. Whether
the crew of four is assigned to a carrier-based Navy VAQ squadron, Marine Corps
VMAQ squadron, or a newly formed, jointly manned Navy land-based squadron (also
VAQ), they will come to the "battlefield" as a highly standardized crew that completed
centralized training at NAS Whidbey Island, WA.
The Prowler is derived from the
two-seater A-6 Intruder attack
aircraft. The basic airframe was
stretched and strengthened to
accommodate a four-seat
cockpit. Another distinguishing
feature is the pod-shaped
fairing at the top of the vertical fin.

The heart of the EA-6B is the AN/ALQ-99 Tactical Jamming System. The Prowler can
carry up to five pods (one belly mounted and two on each wing). Each pod is integrally
powered and houses two jamming transmitters that cover one of seven frequency bands.
The EA-6B can carry any mix of pods, fuel tanks and/or HARM anti-radiation missiles
depending on mission requirements.
The EA-6B's tail fin pod houses sensitive surveillance receivers, capable of detecting
hostile radar emissions at long range. Emitter information is processed by the central
mission computer. Detection, identification, direction-finding, and jammer-set-on-
sequence may be performed automatically or by the crew.
The crew of the Prowler consists of the pilot and three electronic countermeasures
officers (ECMOs). The ALQ-99 jammers are operated by the two ECMOs in the aft
cockpit. The ECMO in the right front seat is responsible for navigation, communications,
and defensive electronic countermeasures.

In the coming years, the Prowler fleet will be modernized and upgraded to keep the
aircraft and its systems abreast of evolving threats and to maintain aircraft safety. The
Block 89A upgrade program will address structural and supportability problems
associated with aging aircraft and includes numerous avionics improvements for safety of
flight and joint interoperability. Later improvements to the Prowler's AN/ALQ-99 tactical
jamming system, including the Improved Capabilities (ICAP) III upgrade, new high and
low frequency transmitters, and continuing structural enhancements, will ensure that the
EA-6B remains the world's premier tactical electronic warfare platform and a force
multiplier for years to come.

The Marine Corps EA-6B Prowler provides Airborne Command and Control (C2W)
support to Fleet Marine Forces to include electronic attack (EA), tactical electronic
support (ES), electronic protection (EP) and high speed anti-radiation missile (HARM).

The EA-6B's ALQ-99 OBS is used to collect tactical electronic order of battle (EOB)
data which can be disseminated through the command and control system while airborne,
and which can be recorded and processed after missions to provide updates to various
orders of battle. The ALQ-00 TJS is used to provide active radar jamming support to
assault support and attack aircrtaft, as well as ground units. Additional suppression of
enemy air defenses (SEAD) capability is available with the employment of HARM.

Marine Prowlers may be land-based from prepared airfields, or they can operate from
expeditionary airfields (EAF). They may also be sea-based, operating from aircraft
carriers. Marine Prowlers are unique in their integration with the Tactical Electronic
Processing and Evaluation System (TERPES). TERPES provides post-mission analysis
of EA-6B ES data for reporting and updating orders of battle. It also provides post-
mission analysis of jamming and HARM employment for reporting, assessing and storing
mission data.

Following the transition from the


EA-6A aircraft to the EA-6B,
Marine Tactical Electronic
Warfare Squadron 2 (VMAQ-2)
continued to provide detachments
to Carrier Air Wing Five on board
the USS Midway. In 1980
VMAQ-2 completed its
assignment aboard the Midway and began shore-based rotations with the 1st Marine
Aircraft Wing in Iwakuni, Japan. Detachments were subsequently sent back to sea duty
aboard the USS Saratoga and USS America. Marine Prowlers supported joint operations
against Libya in 1986 from the carrier.

During Operations Desert Storm and Desert Shield VMAQ-2 had one detachment (six
aircraft) deployed in Japan and the remainder of the squadron (12 aircraft) deployed to
the Persian Gulf. The Reserve squadron, VMAQ-4 (six aircraft), transitioned from the
EA-6A to the EA-6B and subsequently relieved the detachment in Japan. During Desert
Shield the squadron flew 936 sorties for over 2100 hours. Marine Prowlers flew 495
combat missions totaling 1622 hours, supporting the full spectrum of joint and combined
missions.

Effective Oct. 1, 1992, the Marine Prowler community reorganized its structure. VMAQS
are now structured into four active force squadrons (VMAQ-1, 2, 3, 4). Each squadron
now has at least five aircraft. This restructuring provides the flexibility necessary for
continuing to support peacetime requirements, as well as the capacity to concurrently
assign Marine EA-6B forces to commanders in different areas of operation. One
squadron was assigned to Carrier Airwing One on USS America (CV 66) in FY95, while
the others continue to support the Unit Deployment Program and CINC contingency
requirements.

Upgrades
The EA-6B Block 89A is supposed to IOC in 2000. The upgrade promises to be a
substantial improvement over previous Block aircraft. The communication system is
designed around two ARC-210's in the front and one ARC-182 in the back. In addition to
being capable of the same communication frequency ranges as the ARC-182, the ARC-
210's also have integrated HAVEQUICK and SINCGARS functions. Another really nice
feature about the ARC-210's is that they are integrated with the control display navigation
unit (CDNU) so that you can control the radios (all three of them) from a "Radio" page
on the CDNU. Navigation system upgrades are also very substantial. The primary
navigation sensor is the Litton CN-1649(V)4/ASN-172 Embedded GPS/INS (EGI). This
unit combines the Litton LN-100G strapdown inertial unit with a GPS receiver. The
result is that the system, or the aircrew, can select from four possible navigation solutions
from this one unit. You can select a pure inertial, GPS, filtered inertial, or filtered inertial
solution with GPS aiding. Most of the testing used the filtered inertial solution with GPS
aiding, called Blended/Coupled, because it was typically the most accurate. This mode
allowed the Prowler to navigate with an accuracy of about 16 m (52 ft), a big
improvement! The ASN-130 is still in the aircraft as the secondary attitude and
navigation source with all the capability it has always had. The 89A also features an
improved databus structure that allows the CDNU to integrate many things like the
radios, RADAR cursor, both navigation sensors, route control, HARM control, WRA
BIT, and current navigation and attitude information.
Software improvements to the AGM-88 High-Speed Antiradiation Missile (HARM) have
created the Block IIIA and V missile from the Block III and IV hardware. To ensure
continued EA-6B compatibility, OFP's SSA 5.2 and 89A 1.0 have been developed by the
Weapons System Support Activity, Point Mugu, California. Both are baselined from 5.1
COD, will include HARM III/IIIA/IV/V, and are supported by the same TEAMS release.
Two successful live fires of IIIA and V missiles from Block 89A aircraft were made in
September 1998 and will be followed this winter by Block 82/89 live fires. The
differences in the OFP software will be nearly transparent to the fleet when Block 89A's
start arriving. The 89A 1.0 OFP has been optimized for the Block 89A avionics
architecture that includes a second 1553 navigation bus and CDNU bus control.

The Multimission Advanced Tactical Terminal (MATT) and Improved Data Modem
(IDM), a program originally called the Connectivity Modification, is a miniaturized,
airborne UHF receiver providing detection, decryption, and correlation of contact
information obtained through the TRAP, TADIXS-B, and TIBS broadcasts. The contact
data arrives in near-real-time from national asset sensors and can give an over-the-
horizon look at both friendly and hostile platforms and emitters. The MATT is a single
WRA installed above the port wing shoulder, with associated satellite receive antenna
and filter, replacing the ADF antenna on the “turtleback.” The IDM is a device that
formats digital data for transmission using the existing ARC-159, radio No. 3. In a
perfect world, incoming MATT data can be examined, selected, and digitally transmitted
using the IDM to F-16's as HARM target packages. Information can also be exchanged
with other IDM-equipped EA-6B's or Rivet Joint aircraft.

The flip side of the new capabilities is that both the MATT and IDM are controlled using
a commercially ruggedized laptop computer in a Windows 95 environment, connected by
a cable to the center console in the rear cockpit. This less-than-optimum solution of
system engineering will be solved when both MATT and IDM systems are integrated into
the aircraft displays on the future ICAP III model of the EA-6B.
The USQ-113(V)3 Radio Countermeasures Set, also known as Phase III, was designed to
detect, analyze, monitor, and/or jam voice and data link signals. Block 89 has undergone
extensive ground testing for the USQ-113, following resumption of testing in September
1998. Ground testing was stopped due to software immaturity and BIT reliability
problems. Anechoic chamber testing included finishing electromagnetic compatibility,
TEMPEST, precipitation-static, and system performance. Electromagnetic vulnerability
testing took place in mid February 1999, and flight testing began at the end of the month.
The USQ-113 is controlled primarily by the same ruggedized laptop computer that is
used for the MATT/IDM systems, or by an improved operator control panel in the front
cockpit.

The EA-6B will begin retirement in the 2010 timeframe, after a career that exceeded 40
years of deployments in support of USN, USMC, and USAF strike forces. As of early
2000, Defense Department planning for replacing the EA-6B Prowler include a scheme
under which the Navy would buy an F/A-18G "Growler" -- an F/A-18E/F modified for
escort and close-in jamming. The Air Force would provide standoff jamming with
modified EB-52s or EB-1s, and close-in jamming with unmanned air vehicles such as the
Northrop Grumman Global Hawk or General Atomics Predator.

Specifications
Manufacturer: Grumman Aircraft Corporation
Power plant: Two Pratt & Whitney J52-P408 turbofan engines
Thrust: 11,200 pounds (4,767 kilograms) per engine
Length: 59 feet (17.98 meters)
Height: 15 feet (4.57 meters)
Wing span: 53 feet (16.15 meters)
Speed: Maximum .99 mach; cruise .72 mach
40,000 feet - maximum (12,186 meters)
Ceiling:
37,600 feet - Service ceiling
Performance 2,750 ft - Minimum take-off distance
2,185 ft - Minimum landing distance
33,600 lbs - Empty
61,500 lbs - Maximum TOGW (27,921 kilograms)
Weight 15,422 lbs - Internal fuel
10,000 lbs - External fuel
4,000 lbs - External fuel (typical)
Unrefueled in combat configuration: 850 nautical miles
(977.5 miles)
Range: Ferry range (5 drop tanks) 1,747 nm
Refueled: unlimited (crew fatigue factor -
approximately 8 hours)
ALQ-99 Tactical Jamming System (TJS);
Armament: High Speed Anti-Radiation Missile (HARM)
Sensors: ALQ-99 On-board System (OBS)
Crew: 4
ICAP configuration, 1977; current ICAP II
Introduction date:
configuration, 1984
Unit Replacement
$52,000,000
Cost:
100 PAA
Inventory:
120 total
Related Programs

 Tactical Electronic Reconnaissance Processing and Evaluation System [TERPES]


AN/TSQ-90D(V)
 Intelligence Analysis System Marine Air-Ground Intelligence System (MAGIS)

Operating Units

 VMAQ-1 Banshees
 VMAQ-2 Panthers [ex-Playboys]
 VMAQ-3 Moon Dogs
 VMAQ-4 Seahawks

Facilities

 MCAS Cherry Point NC


 MCAS Iwakuni, Japan
A-7 Corsair II
Built originally on the airframe of the F-8U Crusader, the A-7 underwent a number of
modifications since its 1965 introduction. The A-7 Corsair II, which is retired, was used
by TAC for close air support attack missions.
The A-7E was the final fleet version of the A-7. After more than two decades of service,
however, it was replaced by the F/A-18 Hornet.The A-7E had a 20mm gun and can carry
payloads of up to 15,000 pounds of bombs and missiles. Eight ordnance stations were
available. A-7E Corsair IIs were part of the two-carrier battle group that conducted a joint
strike on selected Libyan terrorist-related targets in 1986. Together with carrier-based
F/A-18s, A-7s used anti-radiation missiles to neutralize Libyan air defenses.

F/A-18s replaced A-7Es in the carrier air wing mix. The last two squadrons transitioned
in FY 1992. Replacing A-7s with F/A-18s gave operational commanders more flexibility
by allowing them to employ the F/A-18s in either the fighter or attack role. Also, a
smaller number of aircraft (85) are needed in an F/A-18 equipped carrier air wing than in
an A-7E equipped carrier air wing (94).

Specifications
Ling-Temco-Vought (Prime, now Northrop Grumman
Contractor
Corp.)
Single Allison/Rolls Royce TF41-A-400 non-
Power Plant afterburning turbofan engine with a static thrust rating
of 15,000 pounds
A-7E Pilot only
Accommodations
TA-7C Two seats
Performance (A- Maximum speed at 20,000 feet Mach .94
7E/TA/7C) Range greater than 1,900 nautical miles
APQ-126 multi-mode nav/attack radar [Texas
Instruments]
AVQ-7 raster HUD
ASN-91 INS, ASN-190 Doppler navigation system
ASU-99 projected map display
Avionics & ALR-45 RWR
Countermeasures ALR-50 SAM warning system [Magnavox]
ALQ-126 ECM [ Sanders]
APR-43 tactical radar warning system [Loral]
ALQ-119 ECM [Westinghouse]
ALQ-131 ECM [Westinghouse]
ALQ-123 IR countermeasures [Xerox]
ALQ-126 DECM [Sanders]
ALQ-162 tactical communications jammer [Eaton
AIL]
ALQ-162 radar jammer Northrup
One internally mounted M61A1 20 mm six barrel
cannon
Six wing pylons
Two fuselage launch stations
Armament (A-7E/TA- Pylons can carry a large single weapon, multiple
7C) racks capable of six weapons per rack, or triple racks
with three weapons per rack.
Can carry 15,000 pounds of payload
Compatible with practically all first line ordnance
used by the U.S./USAF/NATO.
Modern, sophisticated, integrated, highly versatile
airborne weapon system platform
Capable of performing a variety of search,
surveillance, and attack missions
Can carry four externally wing-mounted 300 gallon
fuel tanks, coupled with a variety of ordnance on
remaining stations.
Can conduct in-flight refueling operations
Capable of transferring more than 12,000 pounds of
fuel
Fully integrated digital navigation/weapon delivery
system is common to all current USN/USAF attack
aircraft.
Avionics system—which is based on state-of-the-art
Mission and electronics, digital computing techniques, and an
Capabilities automation philosophy—provides unparalleled mission
effectiveness and flexibility.
The Forward Looking Infrared (FLIR) capability
means the A-7's night attack accuracy is equivalent to
day attack accuracy.
Consistently capable of delivering bombs with an
accuracy of less than 10 mils Circular Error Probable
(CEP) and guns at less than 5 mils CEP.
During Desert Storm, demonstrated more than 95%
operational readiness and did not miss a single combat
sortie.
Has flown more than 120,000 combat sorties and
provided unprecedented response in Vietnam, Libya,
Grenada, Panama, and Desert Storm.
Survivability is enhanced via armor plating in critical
areas and a state-of-the art DECM.
Modernized with a new solid-state rate gyro
assembly in the Automatic Flight Control System and a
wing enhancement program that virtually eliminates
flight hours as a constraint for measuring aircraft
service life.
Average scheduled/unscheduled direct maintenance
man hours per flight hour is 11.
External Dimensions: Areas:
Wing Span 11.8m Wings, gross 34.83m 2
Wing span over missiles Ailerons (total) 1.85m 2
Wing chord: at root 4.72m Leading-edge flaps
3.46m 2
(total)
Wing chord: at tip 1.18m
Trailing-edge flaps
Wing aspect ratio 4 4.04m 2
(total)
Width, wings folded 7.24m
Vert Tail Services
Length overall 14.06m (total)
Height overall 4.90m Horz Tail Services
Tailplane span 5.52m (total)

Distance between fin tips Tailerons (total)

Wheel track 2.90m


Wheelbase

Weights and Loadings: Performance (At Maximum


Takeoff Weight of 19,050kg):
Weight empty 8,676kg
Max level speed @
Maximum fuel weight 600 knots
S.L.
Maximum external
Max speed,
stores load
intermediate power
Take off weight
Approach speed
(normal)
T-O run @ maximum
Fighter mission
take-off weight of
Attack mission 1,705m
Maximum Minimum wind over
Maximum wing loading deck:
(attack mission) Launching
Recovery
Combat radius,
interdiction, hi-lo-lo-hi
Combat endurance,
CAP 150 nm
from aircraft carrier
Ferry range, unrefueled
2,485nm
w/max internal &
external fuel
AV-8B Harrier
The AV-8B V/STOL strike aircraft was designed to replace the AV-8A and the A-4M
light attack aircraft. The Marine Corps requirement for a V/STOL light attack force has
been well documented since the late 1950's. Combining tactical mobility, responsiveness,
reduced operating cost and basing flexibility, both afloat and ashore, V/STOL aircraft are
particularly well-suited to the special combat and expeditionary requirements of the
Marine Corps. The AV-8BII+ features the APG-65 Radar common to the F/A-18, as well
as all previous systems and features common to the AV-8BII.

The mission of the VMA STOVL squadron is to attack and destroy surface and air
targets, to escort helicopters, and to conduct other such air operations as may be directed.
Specific tasks of the AV-8B HARRIER II include:

 Conduct close air support using conventional and specific weapons.


 Conduct deep air support, to include armed reconnaissance and air interdiction,
using conventional and specific weapons.
 Conduct offensive and defensive antiair warfare. This includes combat air patrol,
armed escort missions, and offensive missions against enemy ground-to-air
defenses, all within the capabilities of the aircraft.
 Be able to operate and deliver ordnance at night and to operate under instrument
flight conditions.
 Be able to deploy for extended operations employing aerial refueling.
 Be able to deploy to and operate from carriers and other suitable seagoing
platforms, advanced bases, expeditionary airfields, and remote tactical landing
sites.

Operation Desert Storm in 1991 was highlighted by expeditionary air operations


performed by the AV-8B. The Harrier II was the first Marine Corps tactical strike
platform to arrive in theater, and subsequently operated from various basing postures.
Three squadrons, totaling 60 aircraft, and one six-aircraft detachment operated ashore
from an expeditionary airfield, while one squadron of 20 aircraft operated from a sea
platform. During the ground war, AV-8Bs were based as close as 35 nautical miles
(40.22 miles) from the Kuwait border, making them the most forward deployed tactical
strike aircraft in theater. The AV-8B flew 3,380 sorties for a total of 4,083 flight hours
while maintaining a mission capable rate in excess of 90%. Average turnaround time
during the ground war surge rate flight operations was 23 minutes.

Specifications
Contractor: McDonnell Douglas Aircraft (Airframe Prime), Rolls
Royce (Engine Prime)
Power Plant: TAV-8B/AV-8B Day Attack (DA): One Rolls Royce
Pegasus F402-RR-406 turbofan engine with
approximately 20,280 pounds of thrust
AV-8B Night Attack (NA)/AV-8B Radar: One Rolls
Royce Pegasus F402-RR-408A turbofan engine with
approximately 22,200 pounds of thrust
Accommodations: AV-8B DA/NA/Radar Aircraft: Pilot only
TAV-8B Trainer: Two seats
Performance: Maximum airspeed: 550 KCAS
Range greater than 142 nautical miles high speed/low
altitude combat radius
Maximum range: 900 nautical miles
Countermeasures: Not applicable
Armament: One fuselage-mounted 25 mm gun system
Standard Air-to-Ground (A/G) load: Six Mk 82, 500
pound bombs
Standard Air-to-Air (A/A) load: Four AIM-9L/M
Sidewinder missiles
Provisions for carrying up to 9,000 pounds of
ordnance on seven stations
Mission and The AV-8B single seat Vertical/Short Takeoff and
Capabilities: Land (V/STOL) aircraft is the primary close air
support/intermediate range intercept/attack mission
fixed-wing aircraft for the USMC and the Spanish and
Italian navies.
The AV-8B can carry and deliver an assortment of
conventional stores such as the Mk 83 1,000 pound GP
bomb, GBU-12 500 pound LGB, GBU-16 1,000 LGB,
CBU-99/100 Cluster Bomb Units, and 2.75" and 5"
rockets.
The NA configuration includes: night vision goggle-
compatible cockpit controls and displays, a wide-field-
of-view HUD, a Navigation Forward Looking Infrared
(NAVFLIR) system, a Digital Map Unit (DMU), and
an Angle Rate Bombing System (ARBS) with laser
spot tracker, which provides first pass day or night
target strike capability at low altitude/high speed.
The Radar aircraft retains all night attack capability
but integrates the AN/APG-65 radar system to extend
the tracking capabilities of the aircraft for A/G delivery
and A/A defense modes.
V/STOL capability allows the AV-8B to be deployed
with ground units using amphibious shipping and/or
forward basing for rapid close air support response.
Program Summary: All three variants of the AV-8B are in service with
the USMC (deployed in WestPac and the
Mediterranean).
The Spanish Navy has DA/Radar AV-8Bs.
The Italian Navy has Radar AV-8Bs only.
The U.S., Italy, and Spain are partners in a
collaborative international program.
The original DA AV-8B was replaced by the NA
variant in 1990, which incorporated the F402-RR-408A
engine and expanded night fighting systems such as
NAVFLIR, DMU, night vision goggle capability, and
wide-field-of-view HUD.
In 1993, the Radar AV-8B was fielded with the full
night fighting capability and an AN/APG-65 Radar set
to improve A/G and A/A tactical effectiveness.
In 1994, the U.S. began a remanufacturing process to
convert DA AV-8Bs to the Radar configuration
(REMAN); deliveries began in 1996.
Currently, a NA/Radar AV-8B upgrade program is
underway to incorporate an Automatic Target Handoff
System (ATHS) and Global Positioning System (GPS)
capability into the aircraft.
ATHS allows direct digital target/mission data
exchange between the pilot and ground units. GPS
integration improves navigational and weapons
delivery accuracy.
The AV-8B has seen service in the Persian Gulf
(Desert Storm), Somalia (both U.S. and Italian AV-
8Bs), and Bosnia (peacekeeping operations).
A total of 51 Radar Aircraft are authorized for
procurement by the U.S., Italy, and Spain.
The U.S. has a planned procurement/delivery
program for 73 REMAN AV-8Bs (FY 1996 - 2002).
External Areas
Dimensions:
Wings, excl LERX, 21.37
9.25
Wing Span gross m2
m
LERX (total): Pegasus 0.81
Length 11-21 m2
overall
(flying 1.24
Pegasus 11-61
attitude) m2
AV- 5.58 1.39
100 percent
8B m m2
TAV- 15.32 1.15
Ailerons (total)
8B m m2
GR. 14.36 Trailing-edge flaps 2.88
Mks m (total) m2
5/7 Ventral fixed strakes 0.51
T. 15.79 (total) m2
Mk m Ventral retractable 0.24
10 fence (LIDs) m2
Height 3.55 0.42
overall m Ventral airbrake
m2
Tailplane 4.24 2.47
span m Fin
m2
Outrigger 5.18 0.49
wheel track m Rudder, excl tab
m2
4.51
Tailplane
m2

Weights and Loadings Performance


(Single-Seaters, Except
Maximum
Where Indicated)
mach
Operating number in
weight empty level flight
(including 875 knots
At
pilot and used S/L
fuel)
6,336 kg
At 0.98
AV-8B altitu
GR. 7,050 kg de
Mk 7 STOL
TAV- 6,451kg takeoff run at
8B maximum
takeoff
Maximum fuel
weight:
Internal 3,519 kg
ISA 435 m
only
At 518 m
Internal 7,180 kg
32° c
and
external Operational
radius with
Maximum
external
external stores
loads shown:
Pegasus 6,003 kg
Short 90
11-61
takeo nautical
Pegasus 4,899 kg ff miles
11- (366
21/Mk m, 12
105* Mk
Maximum 82
useful load Snake
(include fuel, ye
stores, Bomb
weapons, s,
ammunition intern
and water al
injection for fuel,
engine) 1
hour
Vertical Approximately loiter)
takeoff 3,062, kg
Hi-lo- 594
More than hi, nautical
STO
7,710 kg short miles
Basic flight 10,410 kg take
design gross off
weight for 7g (366
operation m,
seven
Maximum T-O Mk
weight 82
435 14,061 kg Snake
meters ye
STO Bomb
s, two
S/L VTO, ISA:
300
AV- 9,342 kg US
8B/Peg gallo
asus n
11-61 exter
nal
GR. 8,700 kg
fuel
Mk 7
tanks
S/L 8,142 kg no
VTO, loiter
32°C
Deck 627
Design 11,340 kg launc nautical
maximum h miles
landing weight interc
Maximum 9,043 kg 205 ept
vertical kg less in missi
landing weight TAV-8B on,
two
AIM-
9
missil
es
and
two
exter
nal
fuel
tanks
Unrefueled
ferry range
Tanks 1,965
dropp nautical
ed miles
Tanks 1,638
retain nautical
ed miles
Combat air 3 hr.
patrol
endurance at
100 nautical
miles from
base.
"G" force +8/-3
limits
A-9A
The Northrop A-9A was a large ground-attack aircraft which was designed in
competition with the A-10. Although it was not chosen for production, it was a
formidable aircraft in its own right. Like the A-10, it carried many "hard points" for
weaponry beneath its wings.
One A-9A is currently in the March Field Museum at March Air Force Base. The other is
on display at the Castle Air Museum in California.

Specifications
Manufacturer: Northrop
Type: Attack Bomber (Light)
Length: 53 feet 6 inches [16.3 meters]
Height: 17 feet 10 inches [5.4 meters]
Wingspan: 57 feet [17.4 meters]
No. of Engines: 2
Powerplant: Avco/Lycoming ALF-502
Thrust (each): 6000
Speed: 837km/h
Ceiling:
Range:
1 30mm gun,
Armament:
8,350 kg armament
A-10/OA-10 Thunderbolt II
The A-10 and OA-10 Thunderbolt IIs are the first Air Force aircraft specially designed
for close air support of ground forces. They are simple, effective and survivable twin-
engine jet aircraft that can be used against all ground targets, including tanks and other
armored vehicles.

The primary mission of the A-10 is to provide day and night close air combat support for
friendly land forces and to act as forward air controller (FAC) to coordinate and direct
friendly air forces in support of land forces. The A-10 has a secondary mission of
supporting search and rescue and Special Forces operations. It also possesses a limited
capability to perform certain types of interdiction. All of these missions may take place in
a high or low threat environment.

The A/OA-10 aircraft was specifically developed as a close air support aircraft with
reliability and maintainability as major design considerations. The Air Force
requirements documents emphasized payload, low altitude flying capability, range and
loiter capability, low speed maneuverability and weapons delivery accuracy. The aircraft
is capable of worldwide deployment and operation from austere bases with minimal
support equipment.

Specific survivability features include titanium armor plated cockpit, redundant flight
control system separated by fuel tanks, manual reversion mode for flight controls, foam
filled fuel tanks, ballistic foam void fillers, and a redundant primary structure providing
“get home” capability after being hit. Design simplicity, ease of access and left to right
interchangeable components make the A/OA-10 aircraft readily maintainable and suitable
for deployment at advanced bases.

The A-10/OA-10 have excellent maneuverability at low air speeds and altitude, and are
highly accurate weapons-delivery platforms. They can loiter near battle areas for
extended periods of time and operate under 1,000-foot ceilings (303.3 meters) with 1.5-
mile (2.4 kilometers) visibility. Their wide combat radius and short takeoff and landing
capability permit operations in and out of locations near front lines. Using night vision
goggles, A-10/ OA-10 pilots can conduct their missions during darkness.

The A/OA-10 is a single place, pressurized, low wing and tail aircraft with two General
Electric TF-34-100/A turbo-fan engines, each with a sea level static thrust rating of
approximately 9000 pounds. The engines are installed in nacelles mounted on pylons
extending from the fuselage just aft of and above the wing. Two vertical stabilizers are
located at the outboard tips of the horizontal stabilizers. The forward retracting tricycle
landing gear incorporates short struts and a wide tread. The nose wheel retracts fully into
the fuselage nose. The main gear retracts into streamlined fairing on the wing with the
lower portion of the wheel protruding to facilitate emergency gear-up landings. The
General Electric Aircraft Armament Subsystem A/A49E-6 (30 millimeter Gun System) is
located in the forward nose section of the fuselage. The gun system consists of the 30mm
Gatling gun mechanism, double-ended linkless ammunition feed, storage assembly and
hydraulic drive system.

Avionics equipment includes communications, inertial navigation systems, fire control


and weapons delivery systems, target penetration aids and night vision goggles. Their
weapons delivery systems include head-up displays that indicate airspeed, altitude and
dive angle on the windscreen, a low altitude safety and targeting enhancement system
(LASTE) which provides constantly computing impact point freefall ordnance delivery;
and Pave Penny laser-tracking pods under the fuselage. The aircraft also have armament
control panels, and infrared and electronic countermeasures to handle surface-to-air-
missile threats.

The Thunderbolt II's 30mm GAU-8/A Gatling gun can fire 3,900 rounds a minute and
can defeat an array of ground targets to include tanks. Some of their other equipment
includes an inertial navigation system, electronic countermeasures, target penetration
aids, self-protection systems, and AGM-65 Maverick and AIM-9 Sidewinder missiles.

Thunderbolt IIs have Night Vision Imaging Systems (NVIS), compatible single-seat
cockpits forward of their wings and a large bubble canopy which provides pilots all-
around vision. The pilots are encircled by titanium armor that also protects parts of the
flight-control system. The redundant primary structural sections allow the aircraft to
enjoy better survivability during close air support than did previous aircraft. The aircraft
can survive direct hits from armor-piercing and high-explosive projectiles up to 23mm.
Their self-sealing fuel cells are protected by internal and external foam. Their redundant
hydraulic flight-control systems are backed up by manual systems. This permits pilots to
fly and land when hydraulic power is lost.

The Thunderbolt II can be serviced and operated from bases with limited facilities near
battle areas. Many of the aircraft's parts are interchangeable left and right, including the
engines, main landing gear and vertical stabilizers.

The first production A-10A was delivered to Davis-Monthan Air Force Base, Ariz., in
October 1975. It was designed specially for the close air support mission and had the
ability to combine large military loads, long loiter and wide combat radius, which proved
to be vital assets to America and its allies during Operation Desert Storm. In the Gulf
War, A-10s, with a mission capable rate of 95.7 percent, flew 8,100 sorties and launched
90 percent of the AGM-65 Maverick missiles.

Service Life
The original service life of the A/OA-10 was 8,000 hours, equating to approximately to
FY2005. The revised service life was projected out to 12,000 hours, equating to
approximately FY2016. The most recent long range plan has the A/OA-10 in the fleet
through FY2028, which equates to approximately 18,000-24,000 hours.
A/OA-10 modifications are aimed at improving the A/OA-10 throughout the its service
life. All modifications are integrated between ACC, AFRC, and ANG, with the Guard
and Reserve often funding non-recurring engineering efforts for the modifications and
ACC opting for follow-on production buys. Budgetary constraints are often best
overcome by this type of arrangement. Two types of modifications are conducted on the
A/OA-10, those to systems, structures and engines, and those to avionics. Structure,
system and engine modifications aim at improving reliability, maintainability and
supportability of the A/OA-10 and reducing the cost of ownership. Avionics
modifications continue the metamorphosis of the A/OA-10 from a day visual flight rules
(VFR) fighter to a night-capable integrated weapon system.

A/OA-10 avionics modifications provide for greater interoperability between the Army
and Air Force by improving situational awareness, tactical communication, navigation
and weapon system accuracy, and providing additional capabilities in the areas of threat
detection and avoidance, low-level flight safety, stores management and employment of
“smart” weapons. In addition, modifications are sought to reduce cost of ownership and
to remove supportability quagmires such as obsolete parts. Modifications to the A/OA-10
are nearly always interdependent—interdependence maximizes combat capability of the
A/OA-10 by interconnecting modifications in distributed avionics architecture. Integral to
the improvement of the A/OA-10 is a new acquisition strategy centered on a recently
acquired prime contractor for the weapon system. The prime contractor will be the
integrator of all major weapon system modifications and provide the continuity necessary
to accommodate the downward trend in organic manpower and relocation of the System
Program Office.

A large portion of the systems sustaining engineering is for contingency use throughout
the fiscal year and is utilized to investigate mishaps, resolve system deficiencies, develop
engineering change proposals, or to establish new operational limits. Specific
requirements cannot be forecast, but general needs can be predicted based on actual
occurrences since the A/OA-10 program management responsibility transferred to SM-
ALC in 1982. The objectives of the sustaining engineering and configuration
management programs are to reduce spares utilization, reduce hazard potentials and to
increase the weapon system's effectiveness. Sustaining Engineering is mission critical
and will be used to obtain the non-organic engineering services needed to maintain and
improve the design and performance.

The A/OA-10 weapon system was originally designed for manual pilot operation and
control. In 1990, the aircraft was modified to incorporate the Low Altitude Safety and
Targeting Enhancements (LASTE) System. This system provided computer-aided
capabilities including a Ground Collision Avoidance System (GCAS) to issue warnings
of impending collision with the ground, an Enhanced Attitude Control (EAC) function
for aircraft stabilization during gunfire and a Low Altitude Autopilot system, and
computed weapon delivery solutions for targeting improvements. The LASTE computer
system installation added the requirement for an Operational Flight Program (OFP) to
provide the computer control software necessary to perform the above functions.
Commencing in 1999, the A/OA-10 fleet was additionally upgraded with the installation
of an Embedded Global Positioning System/Inertial Navigation System (EGI). In
conjunction with this aircraft modification, a replacement Control Display Unit (CDU)
will be installed with its own separate OFP software.

Operational capability changes, mission changes, latent system deficiencies, and


additional user requirements dictate the necessity of periodic OFP block change cycles
(BCC) to maintain the weapon system operational requirements. The current BCC
includes the LASTE OFP changes, but will additionally require the CDU OFP updates to
be accomplished concurrently following the installations of EGI/IDM Modification.
Following installation of the original LASTE System, corrections to original system
deficiencies, added user requirements, and now the pending EGI modification program
have increased the total requirements for the LASTE computer hardware to its maximum
design capability. Implementation of the current OFP software change will result in
maximum utilization of the computer's memory and throughput, precluding any further
operational change requirements from being implemented. In anticipation of this
hardware limitation, engineering Reliability and Maintainability (R&M) project was
initiated in 1993 to develop options to correct this deficiency. This project is developing
an engineering hardware unit, along with an updated OFP software program, for test and
evaluation.

The addition of the LASTE system and the pending installation of the EGI/CDU system
have greatly increased the complexity of the A/OA-10 weapon system, including the
troubleshooting and maintenance requirements. Also, the implementation of the 2-level
maintenance system, eliminating the intermediate-level maintenance capabilities at the
operating units, has necessitated improved troubleshooting capabilities at the unit levels
to maintain the aircraft operational readiness requirements. An Operational Test System
(OTS) has been developed to provide a computer test aid for the organizational
maintenance units to expedite their maintenance actions. The OTS contains a software
test program that requires periodic updates to maintain compatibility with the LASTE and
CDU systems, as well as other A/OA-10 avionics systems.

TF-34 engines are essentially two level maintenance via user Queen Bee sites at
Barksdale, Davis-Monthan and Shaw AFBs. All ACC aircraft TF-34 engines are repaired
at Davis-Monthan or Shaw AFB. Shaw AFB also supports USAFE. PACAF uses a
combination of two and three level maintenance; Osan AB utilizes regional support
provided at Kadena AB, while Eielson AFB performs Jet Engine Intermediate
Maintenance (JEIM) on-sight. Barksdale AFB regionally supports AFRC. The ANG
remains entirely supported by base field JEIM shops. Depot level engine maintenance is
accomplished by the Navy at Jacksonville NAS, FL. The A/OA-10 has 51 avionics line
replaceable units that transitioned to two level maintenance.

The A/OA-10 was designed for user maintenance in all normal maintenance inspections
and tasks. This design has been very successful for this aspect and there is every
expectation this will continue for the life of the weapon system. The only depot level
requirements are Analytical Condition Inspection (ACI) and unscheduled depot level
repair.

ACI is a specialized inspection to check areas, sub-systems or parts that are not checked
on any periodic basis during normal maintenance. The purpose of the ACI is to find
developing problems that might affect the mission or ensure such conditions do not exist.
Problems discovered during ACI result in engineering studies that determine appropriate
corrective action. There are 11 ACI aircraft selected (by usage, age, flight hours and
environment) from different bases and MAJCOMs that are scheduled per fiscal year. The
ACIs are accomplished at OO-ALC.

Unscheduled depot repair occurs when an aircraft incident, accident or other unusual
occurrence creates a problem beyond the users ability to correct. Such occurrences result
in a request from the MAJCOM for depot assistance. Depending on the situation, the
aircraft may be inducted into a depot or contractor facility, or a depot or contractor field
team may be dispatched to the location of the aircraft.

The A/OA-10 has a requirement for repaint every eight years. The fleet size sets the
current requirement to approximately 65 per fiscal year. While this is not strictly a depot
requirement, the need for a fixed, specialized and environmentally contained facility
limits the user in his choices. The A/OA-10 is primarily painted atOO-ALC; however,
Daimler-Benz AG in Germany paints USAFE aircraft. For economic reasons the 11 ACI
aircraft inducted into OO-ALC each year are also painted.
Specifications
Primary A-10 -- close air support, OA-10 - airborne forward air control
Function
Contractor Fairchild Republic Co.
Power Plant Two General Electric TF34-GE-100 turbofans
Thrust 9,065 pounds each engine
Length 53 feet, 4 inches (16.16 meters)
Height 14 feet, 8 inches (4.42 meters)
Wingspan 57 feet, 6 inches (17.42 meters)
Speed 420 miles per hour (Mach 0.56)
Ceiling 45,000 feet (13,636 meters)
Maximum
Takeoff 51,000 pounds (22,950 kilograms)
Weight
Range 800 miles (695 nautical miles)
One 30 mm GAU-8/A seven-barrel Gatling gun;
up to 16,000 pounds (7,200 kilograms) of mixed ordnance on
eight under-wing and three under-fuselage pylon stations,
including infrared countermeasure flares; electronic
countermeasure chaff; jammer pods; 2.75-inch (6.99 centimeters)
rockets; illumination flares and:
MK-82 (500 pound bomb)
MK-84 (2000 pound bomb)
MK77 incendiary
10 MK20 Rockeye II (4 - 6 standard load)
10 CBU-52 (4 - 6 standard load)
10 CBU-58 (4 - 6 standard load)
10 CBU-71 (4 - 6 standard load)
10 CBU-87 (4 - 6 standard load)
10 CBU-89 (4 - 6 standard load)
CBU-97
10 BL755 (4 - 6 standard load)
AGM-65 Maverick missiles
GBU-10 laser-guided bomb
Armament GBU-12 laser-guided bomb
AIM-9 Sidewinder missiles
MK AGM CBU CBU CBU 2.75 GBU AIM LUU LUU 30
82 65 87 89 97 RX 12 9 1 2 MM
12 2 1000
4 2 1000
6 2 2 1000
2 4 2 1000
6 2 1000
2 4 2 1000
6 2 1000
6 2 1000
2 14 2 8 8 1000
4 14 2 8 8 1000
2 4 2 1000

AN/ALE-40
Systems
AN/ALQ-119
Crew One
Date March 1976
Deployed
Unit Cost
$FY98 $13 million
[Total
Program]

A-10 OA-10
PAI TAI PAI TAI
Inventory Active Duty 114 128 66 85
As of Sept.
30, 2001 Air National Guard 72 76 18 26
Air Force Reserve 39 44 6 8
Totals 225 248 90 118
A-12 Avenger II
Plans for the Navy's A-12 combat aircraft called for incorporating more advanced
stealthy characteristics than were used in the F-117A, as well as significantly greater
payload capabilities. The Navy's A-12 Avenger Advanced Technology Aircraft (ATA)
was slated to replace current A-6s on aircraft carriers in the mid-1990's.

But on 7 January 1991, Secretary of Defense Richard Cheney canceled the program, in
the largest contract termination in DoD history. By one estimate the A-12 had become so
expensive that it would have consumed up 70 percent of the Navy's aircraft budget within
three years.

The Navy originally planned to buy 620 of the McDonnell Douglas/General Dynamics
aircraft, with the Marine Corps purchasing an additional 238 planes. And the Air Force at
one point considered buying 400, at an average cost that was estimated at close to $100
million each. The A-12 was designed to fly faster and further than the A-6E, and carry a
large bomb-load in internal bomb-bays to reduce drag and maintain a low radar cross-
section. As with the Advanced Tactial Fighter (ATF), the A-12 was expected to have
greater reliability than current aircraft (double that of the A-6E), and require half the
maintenance manhours.

At first blush, the A-12's performance capabilities would have been in roughly the same
class as existing aircraft. The key improvement over existing aircraft, not inherently
obvious when comparing specifications, was stealth. While today's radar can detect
existing naval aircraft at a range of 50 miles, the A-12 was designed to remain undetected
until approximately 10 miles away. This would result in significant operational and
survival benefits for the A-12 since defenders would have little opportunity to engage the
aircraft once detected so close to the target. The A-12's reduced radar cross section would
have been derived, in part, from carrying its ordnance internally. While the top speed of
the more visible F/A- 18 and A-6 would be significantly reduced by the drag induced by
external weapons carriage, the internal weapons bay on the A-12 would provide no
impediment to speed.

The A-12 proved to be the most troubled of the new American stealth aircraft in large
part because of problems found in the extensive use of composites in its structure. These
composites did not result in anticipated weight savings, and some structural elements had
to be replaced with heavier metal components. The weight of each aircraft exceeded 30
tons, 30% over design specification, and close to the limits that could be accommodated
on aircraft carriers. The program also experienced problems with its complex Inverse
Synthetic Aperture Radar system, as well as delays in its advanced avionics components.

The full scope of these problems were not appreciated at the time of Defense Secretary
Cheney's Major Aircraft Review, which slowed the production rate and dropped 238
Marine Corps aircraft, leaving the original total Navy buy of 620 aircraft. Cheney also
decided to delay for over 5 years the Air Force buy (from 1992 to 1998), which was
decoupled from the Navy project. Subsequently, the A-12 contractors revealed that the
project faced serious engineering problems and a $2 billion cost overrun, which would
delay the first flight by over a year, to the fall of 1991, and raised the unit cost
substantially.

According to the 1990 administrative inquiry conducted for the Secretary of the Navy,
the cost performance data from the A-12 contractors clearly indicated significant cost and
schedule problems. The results of an oversight review of the cost performance reports
disclosed that the A-12 contract would probably exceed its ceiling by $1 billion.
However, neither the contractors nor the Navy program manager relied upon this data;
instead, they used overly optimistic recovery plans and schedule assumptions. The
inquiry concluded that the government and contractor program managers lacked the
objectivity to assess the situation and they disregarded financial analysts who surfaced
the problems.

The U.S. Navy on January 7, 1991, notified McDonnell Douglas and General Dynamics
Corporation (the Team) that it was terminating for default the Team's contract for
development and initial production of the A-12 aircraft, and demanded repayment of the
amounts paid to the Team under such contracts. The Department of Defense terminated
the contract after the contractors failed to deliver a single airplane after receiving more
than $2 billion in payments. Instead, the contractors refused to continue with the contract
unless they received extraordinary relief in the form of relaxed terms and extra funds. At
the same time, they would or could not assure delivery of an aircraft by a time certain,
specify the aircraft's performance capabilities, or commit to a specific price for the
aircraft. The Team filed a legal action to contest the Navy's default termination, to assert
its rights to convert the termination to one for "the convenience of the Government," and
to obtain payment for work done and costs incurred on the A-12 contract but not paid to
date.

On December 19, 1995, the U.S. Court of Federal Claims ordered that the Government's
termination of the A-12 contract for default be converted to a termination for
convenience of the Government. On December 13, 1996, the Court issued an opinion
confirming its prior no-loss adjustment and no-profit recovery order. In an early 1997
stipulation, the parties agreed that, based on the prior orders and findings of the court,
plaintiffs were entitled to recover $1.071 billion. Furthermore, on January 22, 1997, the
court issued an opinion in which it ruled that plaintiffs are entitled to recover interest on
that amount.

The government appealed the United States Court of Federal Claims ruling in of 20
February that awarded $1.2 billion to Boeing and General Dynamics. The Department of
Defense argued that the court incorrectly ruled in favor of the contractors and that the
award provides unwarranted relief from a failure to produce the aircraft for which the
contractors werefully responsible. The Federal Claims Court decision was fully expected
based upon earlier rulings by the trial judge; the government has made clear its belief that
those earlier rulings were fundamentally flawed. A US Appeals Court overturned the
award to Boeing and General Dynamics in July 1999, ruling that trial judge used the
wrong legal test before issuing the damgage awards. The trial judge reversed himself in
September 2001, ruling that the government was justified in cancelling the A-12
program. The issue remains unsettled, interrupting the Navy's FY 2003 procurement
agenda because lawmakers want the case settled before awarding an $810 million
contract fora third DDG-51 destroyer to Bath Iron Works (BIW), a subsidiary of Boeing.
Specifications
Function Carrier-based land-attack
Contractor
Unit Cost
Propulsion
Thrust
Length 37 feet 3.0 inches
70 feet 3.2 inches
Wingspan
36 feet 3.2 inches with wings folded
11 feet 3.4 inches
Height
12 feet 6.2 inches with wings folded
Maximum Takeoff
Weight
Ceiling
Speed
Crew Two
Armament
Date Deployed
First flight
Inventory
A-X
The A-X was a joint program with participation by the Navy and the Air Force to replace
current strike aircraft that are completing their service lives. The A-X would replace the
Navy A-6 and the Air Force F-111, F-15E, and F-117. The A-X would offer major
advantages over both the F-111 and A-6, some of which will be as much as 42 years old
by the time the first A-X squardron was to become active with the Navy or the Air Force.
The multi-mission capability of the A-X would provide the tools necessary to execute
successfully any mission assigned. Its technology would be state-of-the-art, designed to
neutralize future threats and to provide superb weapons delivery capability. The A-X was
intended to be fast, highly maneuverable, and able to conduct a wide variety of
autonomous missions. It was to be able to employ air-to-air missiles, antiradiation
missiles, precision guided munitions, and unguided or dumb bombs. It was to have the
latest survivability upgrades.
The Navy launched the AX program -- successor to the A-12 which was terminated for
default by Secretary of Defense Cheney -- with a design competition planned for the
concept exploration and definition phase. According to the Secretary of Defense, the AX
was expected to possess a significant air-to-air and air-to-ground capability for both
offensive and defensive purposes. The degree to which the AX could perform both air-to-
air, as well as air-to-ground, missions, was an important consideration being defined
during 1992. The specific mix of combat capabilities and airframe performance
parameters was defined in the concept exploration phase of the AX program in 1992, as
competing industry design teams formulated their specific proposals to meet the Navy's
broad set of tentative operational requirements. That phase was to be followed by the
selection of one contractor for the crucial demonstration and validation [DemVal] phase.
The Navy rejected the idea of competitive prototypes for the AX as too expensive. The
AX program, while intended to develop a less costly successor to the A-12, was
nevertheless expected to cost at least $14,000,000,000.

The 1993 budget request contained $165.6 million to continue concept development of
the AX medium attack aircraft for the Navy and the Air Force. During action in 1992 on
this request, the House authorized $760.6 million for development of the AX, and
required a competitive prototype strategy for the AX aircraft emphasizing current
generation stealth technology and existing engines, radars, and avionics, with the
competitive prototype phase be completed by no later than 1996. The Senate authorized a
total of $50.0 million for AX development, and also endorsed a competitive prototype
acquisition strategy. The Congress approved the $165.6 million as requested, and directed
that that the Department of Defense should utilize current generation stealth technology
and, to the maximum feasible extent, engines, radars, and avionics systems that exist or
are in development.

In early 1993 the Congressional Budget Office estimated that canceling the Navy's AX
tactical aircraft program would save $3.6 billion over 5 years. And in late 1993 it was
decided to cancel the AX attack aircraft program, under the theory that the FA-18E/F was
adequate for another decade.
AH-64 Apache
The Boeing (McDonnell Douglas) (formerly Hughes) AH-64A
Apache is the Army's primary attack helicopter. It is a quick-
reacting, airborne weapon system that can fight close and deep to
destroy, disrupt, or delay enemy forces. The Apache is designed to
fight and survive during the day, night, and in adverse weather
throughout the world. The principal mission of the Apache is the
destruction of high-value targets with the HELLFIRE missile. It is
also capable of employing a 30MM M230 chain gun and Hydra 70
(2.75 inch) rockets that are lethal against a wide variety of targets.
The Apache has a full range of aircraft survivability equipment and
has the ability to withstand hits from rounds up to 23MM in critical
areas.
The AH-64 Apache is a twin-engine, four bladed, multi-mission attack helicopter
designed as a highly stable aerial weapons-delivery platform. It is designed to fight and
survive during the day, night, and in adverse weather throughout the world. With a
tandem-seated crew consisting of the pilot, located in the rear cockpit position and the co-
pilot gunner (CPG), located in the front position, the Apache is self-deployable, highly
survivable and delivers a lethal array of battlefield armaments. The Apache features a
Target Acquisition Designation Sight (TADS) and a Pilot Night Vision Sensor (PNVS)
which enables the crew to navigate and conduct precision attacks in day, night and
adverse weather conditions.
The Apache can carry up to 16
Hellfire laser designated missiles.
With a range of over 8000 meters,
the Hellfire is used primarily for
the destruction of tanks, armored
vehicles and other hard material targets. The Apache can also deliver 76, 2.75" folding
fin aerial rockets for use against enemy personnel, light armor vehicles and other soft-
skinned targets. Rounding out the Apache’s deadly punch are 1,200 rounds of
ammunition for its Area Weapons System (AWS), 30MM Automatic Gun.
Powered by two General Electric gas turbine engines rated at 1890 shaft horsepower
each, the Apache’s maximum gross weight is 17,650 pounds which allows for a cruise
airspeed of 145 miles per hour and a flight endurance of over three hours. The AH-64 can
be configured with an external 230-gallon fuel tank to extend its range on attack
missions, or it can be configured with up to four 230-gallon fuel tanks for ferrying/self-
deployment missions. The combat radius of the AH-64 is approximately 150 kilometers.
The combat radius with one external 230-gallon fuel tank installed is approximately 300
kilometers [radii are temperature, PA, fuel burn rate and airspeed dependent]. The AH-64
is air transportable in the C-5, C-141 and C-17.

An on-board video recorder has the capability of recording up to 72 minutes of either the
pilot or CPG selected video. It is an invaluable tool for damage assessment and
reconnaissance. The Apache's navigation equipment consists of a doppler navigation
system, and most aircraft are equipped with a GPS receiver.

The Apache has state of the art optics that provide the capability to select from three
different target acquisition sensors. These sensors are

 Day TV. Views images during day and low light levels, black and white.
 TADS FLIR. Views thermal images, real world and magnified, during day, night
and adverse weather.
 DVO. Views real world, full color, and magnified images during daylight and
dusk conditions. >

The Apache has four articulating weapons pylons, two on either side of the aircraft, on
which weapons or external fuel tanks can be mounted. The aircraft has a LRF/D. This is
used to designate for the Hellfire missile system as well as provide range to target
information for the fire control computer's calculations of ballistic solutions.
Threat identification through the FLIR system is extremely difficult. Although the AH-64
crew can easily find the heat signature of a vehicle, it may not be able to determine friend
or foe. Forward looking infrared detects the difference in the emission of heat in objects.
On a hot day, the ground may reflect or emit more heat than the suspected target. In this
case, the environment will be "hot" and the target will be "cool". As the air cools at night,
the target may lose or emit heat at a lower rate than the surrounding environment. At
some point the emission of heat from both the target and the surrounding environment
may be equal. This is IR crossover and makes target acquisition/detection difficult to
impossible. IR crossover occurs most often when the environment is wet. This is because
the water in the air creates a buffer in the emissivity of objects. This limitation is present
in all systems that use FLIR for target acquisition.

Low cloud ceilings may not allow the Hellfire seeker enough time to lock onto its target
or may cause it to break lock after acquisition. At extended ranges, the pilot may have to
consider the ceiling to allow time for the seeker to steer the weapon onto the target. Pilot
night vision sensor cannot detect wires or other small obstacles.

Overwater operations severely degrade navigation systems not upgraded with embedded
GPS. Although fully capable of operating in marginal weather, attack helicopter
capabilities are seriously degraded in conditions below a 500-foot ceiling and visibility
less than 3 km. Because of the Hellfire missile's trajectory, ceilings below 500 feet
require the attack aircraft to get too close to the intended target to avoid missile loss.
Below 3 km visibility, the attack aircraft is vulnerable to enemy ADA systems. Some
obscurants can prevent the laser energy from reaching the target; they can also hide the
target from the incoming munitions seeker. Dust, haze, rain, snow and other particulate
matter may limit visibility and affect sensors. The Hellfire remote designating crew may
offset a maximum of 60 degrees from the gun to target line and must not position their
aircraft within a +30-degree safety fan from the firing aircraft.
The Apache fully exploits the vertical dimension of the battlefield. Aggressive terrain
flight techniques allow the commander to rapidly place the ATKHB at the decisive place
at the optimum time. Typically, the area of operations for Apache is the entire corps or
divisional sector. Attack helicopters move across the battlefield at speeds in excess of 3
kilometers per minute. Typical planning airspeeds are 100 to 120 knots during daylight
and 80 to 100 knots at night. Speeds during marginal weather are reduced commensurate
with prevailing conditions. The Apache can attack targets up to 150 km across the FLOT.
If greater depth is required, the addition of ERFS tanks can further extend the AH-64's
range with a corresponding reduction in Hellfire missile carrying capacity (four fewer
Hellfire missiles for each ERFS tank installed).
Apache production began in FY82 and the first unit was deployed in
FY86. As of November 1993, 807 Apaches were delivered to the
Army. The last Army Apache delivery is scheduled for December
1995. Thirty-three attack battalions are deployed and ready for
combat. The Army is procuring a total of 824 Apaches to support a
new force structure of 25 battalions with 24 Apaches for each unit
(16 Active; 2 Reserve; 7 National Guard) under the Aviation
Restructure Initiative. The Apache has been sold to Israel, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, the UAE,
and Greece.

The Russian-developed Mi-24 HIND is the Apache's closest couterpart. The Russians
have deployed significant numbers of HINDs in Europe and have exported the HIND to
many third world countries. The Russians have also developed the KA-50 HOKUM as
their next generation attack helicopter. The Italian A-129 Mangusta is the nearest NATO
counterpart to the Apache. The Germans and French are co-developing the PAH-2 Tiger
attack helicopter, which has many of the capabilities of the Apache.

AH-64A

The AH-64 fleet consists of two aircraft models, the AH-64A and the newer Longbow
Apache (LBA), AH-64D. AH-64A model full-scale production began in 1983 and now
over 800 aircraft have been delivered to the U.S. Army and other NATO Allies. The U.S.
Army plans to remanufacture its entire AH-64A Apache fleet to the AH-64D
configuration over the next decade. The AH-64A fleet exceeded one million flight hours
in 1997, and the median age of today's fleet is 9 years and 1,300 flight hours.
The AH-64A proved its capabilities in action during both Operation Restore Hope and
Operation Desert Storm. Apache helicopters played a key role in the 1989 action in
Panama, where much of its activity was at night, when the AH-64's advanced sensors and
sighting systems were effective against Panamanian government forces.

Apache helicopters also played a major role in the liberation of Kuwait. On 20 November
1990, the 11th Aviation Brigade was alerted for deployment to Southwest Asia from
Storck Barracks in Illesheim Germany. The first elements arrived in theater 24 November
1990. By 15 January 1991 the unit had moved 147 helicopters, 325 vehicles and 1,476
soldiers to the region. The Apache helicopters of the Brigade destroyed more than 245
enemy vehicles with no losses.
During Operation Desert Storm, AH-64s were credited with destroying more than 500
tanks plus hundreds of additional armored personnel carriers, trucks and other vehicles.
They also were used to destroy vital early warning radar sites, an action that opened the
U.N. coalition's battle plan. Apaches also demonstrated the ability to perform when called
upon, logging thousands of combat hours at readiness rates in excess of 85 percent during
the Gulf War.

While recovery was ongoing, additional elements of the 11th Aviation Brigade began the
next chapter of involvement in the region. On 24 April 1991 the 6th Squadron, 6th
Cavalry’s 18 AH-64 helicopters began a self-deployment to Southwest Asia. The
Squadron provided aerial security to a 3,000 square kilometer region in Northern Iraq as
part of the Combined Task Force of Operation Provide Comfort.

And the AH-64A Apache helped to keep the peace in Bosnia. April of 1996 saw the
beginning of the 11th Regiment’s involvement in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Elements of 6-6
Cavalry served as a part of Task Force Eagle under 1st Armored Division for 7 months.
In October of 1996, Task Force 11, consisting of the Regimental Headquarters, 2-6
Cavalry, 2-1 Aviation and 7-159 Aviation (AVIM) deployed to Bosnia-Herzegovina in
support of Operation Joint Endeavor/Operation Joint Guard for 8 months. In June of 1998
the Regimental Headquarters, 6-6 Cav and elements of 5-158 Aviation were again
deployed to Bosnia-Herzegovina in support of Operations Joint Guard and Joint Forge for
5 months. The AH-64A’s advanced sensors and sighting systems proved effective in
removing the cover of darkness from anti-government forces.

Army National Guard units in North and South Carolina, Florida, Texas, Arizona, Utah
and Idaho also fly Apache helicopters. The Army has fielded combat-ready AH-64A
units in the United States, West Germany and in Korea, where they play a major role in
achieving the US Army's security missions.

By late 1996, McDonnell Douglas Helicopters delivered 937 AH-64A Apaches -- 821 to
the U.S. Army and 116 to international customers, including Egypt, Greece, Israel, Saudi
Arabia and the United Arab Emirates.

The Apache is clearly one of the most dynamic and important programs in aviation and
the Army, but it is not without limitations. Due to the possibility of surging the engines,
pilots have been instructed not to fire rockets from in-board stations. According to current
doctrine, they are to fire no more than pairs with two outboard launchers every three
seconds, or fire with only one outboard launcher installed without restrictions (ripples
permitted). These are the only conditions permitted. Other firing conditions will be
required to be approved via a System Safety Risk Assessment (SSRA).
The improvement of aircraft systems troubleshooting is a high priority issue for O&S
Cost reduction. Because of funding cuts, the level of contractor support to the field has
been reduced. This results in higher costs in no fault found removals, maintenance man
hours, and aircraft down time. The Apache PM, US Army Aviation Logistics School, and
Boeing are currently undertaking several initiatives. Upgrading and improving the
soldier's ability to quickly and accurately fault isolate the Apache weapons system is and
will continue to be an O&S priority until all issues are resolved.
Prime Vendor Support (PVS) for the entire fleet of AH-64s is a pilot program for the
Army, and may become a pilot program for the Department of Defense. PVS will place
virtually all of Apache's wholesale logistic responsibility under a single contract. The
Apache flying hour program will provide upfront funding for spares, repairables,
contractor technical experts, and reliability improvements. Starting at the flight line there
will be contractor expert technicians with advanced troubleshooting capability assigned
to each Apache Battalion. At the highest level, PVS represents a single contractor focal
point for spares and repairs. The intent is to break the current budget and requirements
cycle that has Apache at 67% supply availability with several thousand lines at zero
balance.
Modernization Through Spares (MTS) is a spares/component improvement strategy
applied throughout the acquisition life cycle and is based on technology insertion to
enhance systems and extend useful life while reducing costs. The MTS initiative seeks to
leverage current procurement funds and modernize individual system spares thereby
incrementally improving these systems. MTS is accomplished via the "spares"
acquisition process. MTS, a subset of acquisition reform, seeks to improve an end item's
spare components. The emphasis is on form, fit and function, allowing a supplier greater
design and manufacturing flexibility to exploit technology used in the commercial
marketplace.
Apache MTS focuses on the insertion of the latest technology into the design and
manufacture of select spares. This is to be accomplished without government research
and development (R&D) funds, but rather, uses industry investment. Industry, in turn,
recoups this investment through the sale of improved hardware via long term contracts.
Modernization efforts continue to improve the performance envelope of the AH-64A
while reducing the cost of ownership. Major modernization efforts within the AH-64A
fleet are funded and on schedule. GG Rotor modifications were finished in April 1998,,
and future improvements such as a Second Generation FLIR, a High Frequency Non-
Line of Sight NOE radio, and an internal fully crashworthy auxiliary fuel tank are all on
the verge of becoming a reality for the Apache.
The Aviation Mission Planning System (AMPS) and the Data Transfer Cartridge (DTC)
are tools for the Embedded Global Positioning Inertial Navigation Unit (EGI) equipped
AH-64A aircraft that allow aircrews to plan missions and download the information to a
DTC installed in the Data Transfer Receptacle (DTR). This saves the pilots a lot of "fat
fingering" and eliminates the worry of everyone being on the same "sheet of music".
Other features of the DTC include; saving waypoints and targets and troubleshooting.
The EGI program is a Tri-service program with the Army, Air Force and Navy.
AH-64A Apache Multi-Mission Configurations
Primary Starboard M230 Port Rate of
Duration
Mission Wing Gun Wing Climb
Combat 320 rds 4
(Anti-armor) 4 Hellfire 30mm Hellfire 1450 fpm 1.8 hours
4
Multi-role
4 Hellfire 1200 rds Hellfire
(Covering 860 fpm 2.5 hours
19 FFAR * 30mm 19
force)
FFAR *
Close-support 1200 rds 8
8 Hellfire 990 fpm 2.5 hours
(Anti-armor) 30mm Hellfire
Ground-
support 1200 rds 38
38 FFAR * 780 fpm 2.5 hours
(Airmobile 30mm FFAR *
escort)
* FFAR = 70mm (2.75 inch) Folding-Fin Aerial Rockets

AH-64D Longbow
The AH-64D Longbow Apache is a remanufactured and upgraded version of the AH-64A
Apache attack helicopter. The primary modifications to the Apache are the addition of a
millimeter-wave Fire Control Radar (FCR) target acquisition system, the fire-and-forget
Longbow Hellfire air-to-ground missile, updated T700-GE-701C engines, and a fully-
integrated cockpit. In addition, the aircraft receives improved survivability,
communications, and navigation capabilities. Most existing capabilities of the AH-64A
Apache are retained.
Transportability requirements were initially identified in the ORD and further defined in
the AH-64D System Specification. Both configurations of the AH-64D, including any
removed items and appropriate PGSE, shall be capable of being transported aboard C-
141B, C-5A, or C-17 aircraft. The aircraft shall also be capable of being transported and
hangar stored below decks in the landing platform helicopter (LPH) type carrier, Fast
SeaLift ships, Roll-on/Roll-off, LASH, SEABEE ships, and Military Sealift Command
(MSC) dry cargo ships. Additionally, the aircraft shall be transportable by military M-
270A1 trailer and commercial "Air-Ride" trailer or equivalent. For aerial recovery, the
AH-64D with MMA will be externally transportable by CH-47D aircraft using the Unit
Maintenance Aerial Recovery Kit. Two AH-64D plus one FCR aircraft will be
transportable by C-141, six AH-64Ds (with a minimum of three FCR mission kits) are
transportable by C-5, and three AH-64Ds and three FCR mission kits are transportable by
C-17.

The AH-64D is being fielded in two configurations. The full-up AH-64D includes all of
the improvements listed above. In addition, a version of the AH-64D without the FCR
will be fielded. This version will not receive the new Radar Frequency Interferometer
(RFI) or the improved engines, but will retain the other Longbow modifications. The AH-
64D without FCR is capable of launching the Longbow Hellfire missile.
All AH-64A Apaches in the fleet are to be upgraded to the AH-64D configuration: 227
will be equipped with the FCR, and the remaining 531 will not. Each attack helicopter
company will receive three aircraft with FCRs and five without.
McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Systems is under contract for the first 18 Longbow
Apaches and delivered the first remanufactured Longbow Apache in March 1997. The
Army and McDonnell Douglas agreed to a five-year, multi-year agreement that will give
the Army 232 Longbow Apaches in the first five years of production. The multi-year
purchase increases the Longbow Apache production rate in the first year to 24 aircraft
and 232 for the five-year period. Under the multi-year contract, the Army will field two
additional combat-ready Longbow Apache battalions. The contract also includes funding
for McDonnell Douglas to train pilots and maintenance personnel for the first two
equipped units, development of interactive electronic technical manuals, development of
training devices, first article testing of the production aircraft, initial spares, and a variety
of program support tasks for the first production lot. The U.S. Army plans to
remanufacture its entire AH-64A Apache fleet of more than 750 aircraft over the next
decade.

During Army operational testing in 1995, all six Longbow Apache prototypes competed
against standard AH-64A Apaches. The threat array developed to test the combat
capabilities of the two Apache designs was a postulated 2004 lethal and digitized force
consisting of heavy armor, air defense and countermeasures. The tests clearly
demonstrated that Longbow Apaches:

 Are 400 percent more lethal (hitting more targets) than the AH-64A, already the
most capable and advanced armed helicopter in the world to enter service.
 Are 720 percent more survivable than the AH-64A.
 Meet or exceed Army requirements for both target engagement range and for
probability of acquiring a seleted target. The specific requirements and results are
classified.
 Easily can hit moving and stationary tanks on an obscured, dirty battlefield from a
range of more than 7 kilometers, when optical systems are rendered ineffective.
 Can use either its Target Acquisition Designation Sight or fire control radar as a
targeting sight, offering increased battlefield flexibility.
 Have the ability to initiate the radar scan, detect and classify more than 128
targets, prioritize the 16 most dangerous targets, transmit the information to other
aircraft, and initiate a precision attack -- all in 30 seconds or less.
 Require one third less maintenance man hours (3.4) per flight hour than the
requirement.
 Are able to fly 91 percent of the time -- 11 percent more than the requirement.

One issue uncovered during the Initial Operational Test that requires follow-on testing
involves the method of employment of the Longbow Hellfire missile. During the force-
on-force phase, Longbow flight crews frequently elected to override the system's
automatic mode selection logic and fire missiles from a masked position. This powerful
technique can significantly increase the helicopter's survivability, but has not been
validated with live missile firings during developmental or operational testing. DOT&E is
currently working with the Army to develop a test plan that will confirm system
performance using this firing technique. This test program will include computer
simulation of the missile's target acquisition and fly-out as well as live missile firings at
moving armored vehicles.
With the addition of a new and highly sophisticated fire control radar (FCR), more
commonly called the Longbow Fire Control Radar, the AH-64D has become the most
advanced aerial fighting vehicle in the world. The FCR provides the Apache with the
ability to detect, classify and prioritize stationary and moving targets both on the ground
and in the air. With state of the art fire control, digital communications, automatic target
classification and many other up to date features, the AH-64D Longbow Apache will
dominate the battlefield for years to come.
The AH-64D Apache Longbow increases combat effectiveness over the AH-64A by
providing a more flexible digital electronics architecture and integrating computer-based
on-board Built-In Test Equipment (BITE), Automatic Test Equipment (ATE), and hard
copy operator or Interactive Electronic Technical Manual (IETM)
troubleshooting/maintenance manuals that will easily accommodate changes resulting
from system growth. In addition, upgrades to electrical power and cooling systems and
the expansion of the forward avionics bays to accommodate the installation of the FCR,
and provide for future growth. Navigation system accuracy is improved through
integration of a miniaturized integrated Embedded Global Positioning System
(GPS)/Inertial Navigation Unit (INU) (EGI), and an improved DOPPLER Velocity Rate
Sensor (DVRS).
The fully integrated AH-64D without Longbow Mission Kit incorporates greater
ordnance capability and flexibility than the AH-64A by utilizing the family of Semi-
Active Laser (SAL) missiles (including the HELLFIRE II) and Longbow HELLFIRE RF
Missile. The AH-64D without Longbow Mission Kit can operate in harmony with the
FCR-equipped AH-64D and can accept a target hand over and fire the Longbow missile
with minimum exposure to hostile forces.
The AN/APG-78 FCR is a multi-mode Millimeter Wave (MMW) sensor integrated on
the Apache Longbow with the antenna and transmitter located above the aircraft main
rotor head. It enhances Longbow system capabilities by providing rapid automatic
detection, classification, and prioritization of multiple ground and air targets. The radar
provides this capability in adverse weather and under battlefield obscurants. The FCR has
four modes: (1) the Air Targeting Mode (ATM) which detects, classifies, and prioritizes
fixed and rotary wing threats; (2) the Ground Targeting Mode (GTM) which detects,
classifies, and prioritizes ground and air targets; (3) the Terrain Profiling Mode (TPM)
which provides obstacle detection and adverse weather pilotage aids to the Longbow
crew; (4) and the Built in Test (BIT) Mode which monitors radar performance in flight
and isolates electronic failures before and during maintenance.

The Longbow RF missile and the Longbow HELLFIRE Launcher (LBHL) are referred to
as the LBHMMS. The system incorporates a fire-and-forget missile that accepts primary
and/or secondary targeting information from the FCR and single targeting information
from TADS or another aircraft to acquire and engage targets. Similar to the FCR, the RF
missile provides the capability to engage threats in adverse weather and through
battlefield obscurants. Two acquisition modes, lock-on-before-launch (LOBL) and lock-
on-after-launch (LOAL), allow engagement of ground and rotary wing threats at
extended ranges. In the LOBL mode, the missile will acquire and track moving or short
range stationary targets prior to leaving the launch platform. In the LOAL mode, the
missile will acquire long range stationary targets shortly after leaving the launch
platform.

The combination of the integrated FCR, LBHMMS and the Apache aircraft enhances
battlefield awareness by providing coverage of the battle area at extended ranges, by
reducing operational dependence on weather and battlefield conditions, and by rapid
display of detected targets. It further improves the Longbow system's war fighting
capability and survivability by providing rapid multi-target detection and engagement
ability, navigational aids, and a fire-and-forget weapon delivery system.
The addition of the Longbow FCR provides a second and completely independent target
acquisition sensor which may be operated by either crew member or combined to provide
a degree of multi-sensor synergy. When operated independently, the pilot could use the
FCR to search for air targets in the ATM mode while the copilot/gunner (CPG) searches
for ground targets using the Target Acquisition Designation Sight (TADS).

Using both TADS and the FCR together combines the unique advantage of each sight.
The rapid search, detection, classification, and prioritization of targets by the Longbow
FCR can then be quickly and positively identified by using the electro-optics of TADS.
The center of view can be focused on the location of the highest priority target and the
CPG, at the touch of a switch, can view either display. Alternately, the FCR centerline
can be cued to the TADS so that a rapid and narrow search could be made of a suspected
target area.

The RFI is an integral part of the Longbow FCR. It has sensitivity over an RF spectrum
to detect threat emitters when a threat radar is in a search and acquisition mode and also
when the threat emitter is "looking" directly at and tracking the Longbow system. The RF
band has been extended over that which was developed for the OH-58D Kiowa Warrior
at the low end of the RF spectrum to detect newly identified air defense threats. The RFI
has a programmable threat emitter library to allow additional threat signatures to be
stored and/or updated.
The Materiel Fielding Plan (MFP) is essentially a one-stop reference for all fielding
activity requirements. It shows who develops, fields, receives, and stores a piece of
equipment and its associated tools, test equipment, repair parts, and training devices. The
MFP will outline what the piece of equipment is used for, who uses it, who repairs it, the
maintenance and supply structure which will be in place to provide life cycle support, and
the training requirements inherent to the system. Several draft version MFPs are
published per the documents listed above in order to generate a dialogue between the
developer and the end user in order to simplify and expedite the fielding process.
The AH-64D Apache Longbow aircraft, Fire Control Radar (FCR), and Longbow
Hellfire Modular Missile System (LBHMMS) were fielded starting with the 1-227 Attack
Helicopter Battalion in July 1998. As this is a FORSCOM unit, the first MFP published
will be for FORSCOM. Other MFPs, each tailored to the specific Major Command
(MACOM) receiving the AH-64D, will be published at the appropriate time. Therefore,
FORSCOM, TRADOC, USAREUR, EUSA, USAR, and the ARNG will each receive
their own version of the MFP. Distribution varies with each subsequent draft prepared.
The Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations and Plans (ODCSOPS) makes the
decision as to what units receive the AH-64D and in what order. The AAH PMO
publishes and distributes MFPs based on ODCSOPS' schedule. The fielding schedules
change from time to time, and the schedule in the MFP is, therefore, current as of the
publishing date. The First Draft for each MACOM's MFP is published approximately 26
months before the first aircraft and equipment are fielded to a MACOM. A MACOM's
Final MFP is published approximately 8 months prior to its first-unit fielding. The
fielding schedule as of 1 June 1997, is attached. It does not include the aircraft destined
for the TRADOC training fleet at Ft. Rucker. Ft. Rucker begins receiving its AH-64Ds in
June 1999; the TRADOC First Draft MFP left the AAH PMO in May.
AH-64D APACHE LONGBOW FIELDING SCHEDULE

UNIT STAGE AT COLLECTIVE MISSION


FIELDING E-DATE
LOCATION 21ST CAV TRAINING READY

FEB- JUL 98 JUL-SEP


1 1-227 AVN HOOD OCT 98
APR 98 98

FEB- JUN 99 JUN-


2 2-101 AVN CAMPBELL SEP 99
APR 99 AUG 99

SEP- JUN 00 JUN-


3 1-2 AVN KOREA SEP 00
NOV 99 AUG 00

FEB- NOV 00 DEC 00-


4 1-101 AVN CAMPBELL MAR 01
APR 00 FEB 01

JUN- MAR 01 MAR-


5 1-3 AVN STEWART JUN 01
AUG 00 MAY 01

JAN- AUG 01 AUG-


6 6-6 CAV GERMANY NOV 01
MAR 01 OCT 01

JUN- MAR 02 MAR-


7 3-101 AVN CAMPBELL JUN 02
AUG 01 MAY 02

JAN- JUN 02 JUN-


8 4-3 ACR CARSON SEP 02
APR 02 AUG 02

JAN- NOV 02 NOV 02-


9 1-501 AVN GERMANY FEB 03
MAR 02 JAN 03
JUL-SEP APR 03 APR-JUN
10 1-229 AVN BRAGG JUL 03
02 03

NOV- AUG 03 AUG-


11 3-6 CAV KOREA NOV 03
DEC 02 OCT 03

APR- FEB 04 FEB-APR


12 3-229 AVN BRAGG MAY 04
JUN 03 04

SEP- JUL 04 JUL-SEP


13 1-1 AVN GERMANY OCT 04
NOV 03 04

MAR- NOV 04 NOV


14 1-111 AVN FLNG FEB 05
JUL 04* O4-JAN 05

MAY- MAR 05 MAR-


15 1-6 CAV KOREA JUN 05
JUL 04 MAY 05

NOV 04-
AUG 05 AUG-
16 1-130 AVN NCNG MAY NOV 05
OCT 05
05*

FEB- DEC 05 JAN-


17 2-6 CAV GERMANY APR 06
APR 05 MAR 05

OCT- APR 06 APR-JUN


18 1-4 AVN HOOD JUL 06
DEC 05 06

APR-
SEP 06 SEP-NOV
19 8-229AVN KYAR AUG DEC 06
06
06*
AUG- JAN 07 JAN-
20 1-151 AVN SCNG APR 07
DEC 06* MAR 07

JAN- MAY 07 MAY-


21 7-6 CAV TXAR AUG 07
APR 07* JUL 07

APR- OCT 07 OCT-


22 1-285 AVN AZNG JAN 08
JUL 07* DEC 07

JUL- FEB 08 FEB-APR


23 1-183 AVN IDNG MAY 08
OCT 07* 08

OCT 07- JUN 08 JUN-


24 1-211 AVN UTNG SEP 08
JAN 08* AUG 08

JAN- NOV 08 NOV 08-


25 1-149 AVN TXNG FEB 09
APR 08 JAN 09

*Bold dates indicate direct turn-in (No Staging)

Specifications
Boeing McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Systems(Mesa,
AZ)
Contractors
General Electric (Lynn, MA)
Martin Marietta (Orlando, FL)
Propulsion Two T700-GE-701Cs
Crew Two
AH-64A AH-64D
Length 58.17 ft (17.73 m) 58.17 ft (17.73 m)
Height 15.24 ft (4.64 m) 13.30 ft (4.05 m)
Wing Span 17.15 ft (5.227 m) 17.15 ft (5.227 m)
Primary Mission Gross 15,075 lb (6838 kg) 16,027 lb (7270 kg) Lot 1
Weight 11,800 pounds Empty Weight
15,895 ft (4845 m) 14,650 ft (4465 m)
Hover In-Ground [Standard Day] [Standard Day]
Effect (MRP) 14,845 ft (4525 m) 13,350 ft (4068 m)
[Hot Day ISA + 15C] [Hot Day ISA + 15 C]
12,685 ft (3866 m)
10,520 ft (3206 m)
[Sea Level Standard Day]
Hover Out-of-Ground [Standard Day]
11,215 ft (3418 m)
Effect (MRP) 9,050 ft (2759 m)
[Hot Day 2000 ft 70 F (21
[Hot Day ISA + 15 C]
C)]
2,175 fpm (663 mpm) 1,775 fpm (541 mpm)
[Sea Level Standard Day] [Sea Level Standard Day]
Vertical Rate of Climb
2,050 fpm (625 mpm) 1,595 fpm (486 mpm)
(MRP)
[Hot Day 2000 ft 70 F (21 [Hot Day 2000 ft 70 F (21
C)] C)]
2,915 fpm (889 mpm) 2,635 fpm (803 mpm)
[Sea Level Standard Day] [Sea Level Standard Day]
Maximum Rate of
2,890 fpm (881 mpm) 2,600 fpm (793 mpm)
Climb (IRP)
[Hot Day 2000 ft 70 F (21 [Hot Day 2000 ft 70 F (21
C)] C)]
150 kt (279 kph) 147 kt (273 kph)
[Sea Level Standard Day] [Sea Level Standard Day]
Maximum Level
153 kt (284 kph) 149 kt (276 kph)
Flight Speed
[Hot Day 2000 ft 70 F (21 [Hot Day 2000 ft 70 F (21
C)] C)]
150 kt (279 kph) 147 kt (273 kph)
[Sea Level Standard Day] [Sea Level Standard Day]
Cruise Speed (MCP) 153 kt (284 kph) 149 kt (276 kph)
[Hot Day 2000 ft 70 F (21 [Hot Day 2000 ft 70 F (21
C)] C)]
400 km - internal fuel
Range 1,900 km - internal and
external fuel
M230 33mm Gun
70mm (2.75 inch) Hydra-70 Folding-Fin Aerial
Rockets
Armament
AGM-114 Hellfire anti-tank missiles
AGM-122 Sidearm anti-radar missile
AIM-9 Sidewinder Air-to-Air missiles
Target Acquisition and Designation System /
Mission Equipment
Pilot Night Vision System
The general objective of aircraft readiness is to achieve
Reliability
75% Mission Capable.

Costs
AH-64D Longbow
RAH-66 Comanche
The Boeing-Sikorsky RAH-66
Comanche is the Army's next
generation armed
reconnaissance helicopter. It
also is the first helicopter
developed specifically for this
role. The Comanche will
provide Army Aviation the
opportunity to move into the
21st century with a weapon
system of unsurpassed
warfighting capabilities crucial
to the Army's future strategic
vision. The Comanche is intended to replace the current fleet of AH-1 and OH-58
helicopters in all air cavalry troops and light division attack helicopter battalions, and
supplement the AH-64 Apache in heavy division/corps attack helicopter battalions.

The first Boeing-Sikorsky RAH-66 Comanche prototype was rolled-out at Sikorsky


Aircraft, Stratford, Connecticut, May 25, 1995. The prototype's first flight was made on
04 January 1996. The second prototype is scheduled to fly in late March 1999. Six early
operational capability aircraft are scheduled to be delivered 2002 to participate in an
Army field exercise in 2002-2003, or possibly later in "Corps 04". The Comanche is
powered by two Light Helicopter Turbine Engine Co. (LHTEC) T800-801 engines.
These advanced engines and a streamlined airframe will be enable the Comanche to fly
significantly faster than the larger AH-64 Apache.

The RAH-66 Comanche helicopter's primary role will be to seek out enemy forces and
designate targets for the AH-64 Apache Attack helicopter at night, in adverse weather,
and in battlefield obscurants, using advanced infrared sensors. The helmet has FLIR
images and overlaid symbology that can be used as a headup display in nape-of-the-earth
(NOE) flight.

The aircraft has been designed to emit a low-radar signature (stealth features). The
Comanche will perform the attack mission itself for the Army's light divisions. The
RAH-66 will be used as a scout and attack helicopter to include an air-to-ground and air-
to-air combat capability. The Comanche is slated to replace the AH-1 Series Cobra light
attack helicopter, the OH-6A Cayuse, and the OH-58A/OH-58C Kiowa light observation
helicopters.

The Comanche mission equipment package consists of a turret-mounted cannon, night-


vision pilotage system, helmet-mounted display, electro-optical target acquisition and
designation system, aided target recognition, and integrated
communication/navigation/identification avionics system. Targeting includes a second
generation forward-looking infrared (FLIR) sensor, a low-light-level television, a laser
range finder and designator, and the Apache Longbow millimeter wave radar system.
Digital sensors, computers and software will enable the aircraft to track and recognize
advesarys long before they are aware of the Comanche's presence, a key advantage in
both the reconnaissance and attack roles.

Aided target detection and classification software will automatically scan the battlefield,
identifying and prioritizing targets. The target acquisition and communications system
will allow burst transmissions of data to other aircraft and command and control systems.
Digital communications links will enable the crew unparalleled situational awareness,
making the Comanche an integral component of the digital battlefield.

The armament subsystems consist of the XM301 20mm cannon, and up to 14 Hellfire
anti-tank missiles, 28 Air-to-Air Stinger (ATAS) anti-aircraft missiles, or 56 2.75 inch
Hydra 70 air-to-ground rockets carried internally and externally. Up to four Hellfire and
two Air-to-Air Stinger (ATAS) missiles can be stowed in fully-retractable weapons bays
and the gun can be rotated to a stowed position when not in use. This design feature
reduces both drag and radar signature.

Mission management, status, and control information is provided over the MIL-STD-
1553B databus between the mission equipment packages and the Turreted Gun System.
The Comanche will have enhanced maintainability through it's modular electronics
architecture and built-in diagnostics.

RAH-66 COMANCHE CAPABILITIES

Sensors and avionics. In the reconnaissance role, the Comanche will be equipped with a
new generation of passive sensors and a fully integrated suite of displays and
communications. Advance infrared (IR) sensors will have twice the range of OH-58D
Kiowa Warrior and AH-64 Apache sensors. The Comanche will be equipped with the
Apache Longbow fire control radar and the Helmet Integrated Display and Sight System
(HIDSS). The fully integrated avionics system will allow tactical data to be overlaid onto
a digital map, allowing the crew to devote more time for target detection and
classification. A triple-redundant fly-by-wire system can automatically hold the
helicopter in hover or in almost any other maneuver, reducing workload, allowing the
pilot to concentrate on navigation and threat avoidance. A hand-on grip permits one-
handed operation.
Stealth characteristics. The Comanche incorporates more low-observable stealth
features than any aircraft in Army history. The Comanche radar cross-section (RCS) is
less than that of a Hellfire missile. To reduce radar cross-section, weapons can be carried
internally, the gun can be rotated aft and stowed within a fairing behind the turret when
not in use, and the landing gear are fully-retractable. The all-composite fuselage sides are
flat and canted and rounded surfaces are avoided by use of faceted turret and engine
covers. The Comanche's head-on RCS is 360 times smaller than the AH-64 Apache, 250
times less than the smaller OH-58D Kiowa Warrior, and 32 times smaller than the OH-
58D's mast-mounted sight. This means the Comanche will be able to approach five times
closer to an enemy radar than an Apache, or four times closer than an OH-58D, without
being detected.

Noise suppression. The Comanche only radiates one-half the rotor noise of current
helicopters. Noise is reduced by use of a five-bladed rotor, pioneered by the successful
Boeing (McDonnell Douglas) MD-500 Defender series of light utility helicopters. The
fantail eliminates interaction between main rotor and tail rotor wakes. The advanced rotor
design permits operation at low speed, allowing the Comanche to sneak 40% closer to a
target than an Apache, without being detected by an acoustical system.

Infrared (IR) suppression. The Comanche only radiates 25% of the engine heat of
current helicopters, a critical survivability design concern in a low-flying tactical scout
helicopter. The Comanche is the first helicopter in which the infrared (IR) suppression
system is integrated into the airframe. This innovative Sikorsky design feature provides
IR suppressors that are built into the tail-boom, providing ample length for complete and
efficient mixing of engine exhaust and cooling air flowing through inlets above the tail.
The mixed exhaust is discharged through slots built into an inverted shelf on the sides of
the tail-boom. The gases are cooled so thoroughly that a heat-seeking missile cannot find
and lock-on to the Comanche.
Crew Protection. The Comanche features a crew compartment sealed for protection
against chemical or biological threats, an airframe resilient against ballistic damage,
enhanced crash-worthiness, and reduced susceptibility to electromagnetic interference.

Maintainability Comanche will be easily sustained, will require fewer personnel and
support equipment, and will provide a decisive battlefield capability in day, night and
adverse weather operations. Comanche has been designed to be exceptionally
maintainable and easily transportable. Through its keel-beam construction, numerous
access panels, easily accessible line-replaceable units/modules and advanced diagnostics,
the RAH-66 possesses "designed-in" maintainability. Comanche aircraft will be able to
be rapidly loaded into or unloaded from any Air Force transport aircraft.

Specifications
Boeing Helicopter Company and
Manufacturer
Sikorsky Aircraft Division (joint venture)
Length 46.78 feet (rotor turning)
Width 39.04 feet (rotor turning)
Height 11.0 feet (overall)
Air-to-air Stinger
Hellfire
20mm three-barrel turreted gun
Hydra-70 rockets

Armament

Empty 7,765 pounds


Weight Combat Mission 10,600 pounds
Centralized processing architecture with Ada
software
Target acquisition system with aided-target
Mission Equipment
detection/classification and automatic target tracking;
night vision pilotage system, wide field-of-view
(35ox52o) helmet-mounted display
Propulsion Two T800 1,440 SHP gas turbine engines
5-blade main rotor
Fantail anti-torque
Crew Two
330 km/hr / 172 knots - Dash speed 315 km/hr / 164
knots - Dash speed
Speed
(@ 4,000 feet/95 oF / with Longbow)
310 km/hr / 161 knots - Cruise speed
Vertical Rate of 500-850 feet per minute
Climb
262 nm Max Range (internal fuel)
Range 1,260 nm self-deployment range
F-111
The F-111 was a multipurpose tactical fighter bomber capable of supersonic speeds. The
aircraft was one of the more controversial aircraft ever to fly, yet it achieved one of the
safest operational records of any aircraft in USAF history and became a highly effective
all-weather interdiction aircraft. As a result of a poorly thought-out development
specification, both the Navy and Air Force had become committed, much against their
will, to a civilian-inspired "Tactical Fighter Experimental" (TFX) program. This called
for developing a single aircraft-the F-111-to fulfill a Navy fleet-defense interceptor
requirement and an Air Force supersonic strike aircraft requirement. In retrospect, this
was impossible to achieve, especially since planners placed priority upon the Air Force
requirement, and then tried to tailor this heavy landplane to the constraints of carrier-
based naval operations. The naval aircraft, the F-111B, was never placed in production.
The Air Force aircraft, which was produced in a variety of models, including the F-111A,
F-11D, F-11E, and F-11F, as well as an FB-111A strategic bomber version, had
numerous problems, and only the F-111F actually fulfilled the original TFX design
specification. This was less the fault of General Dynamics than of the civilian planners in
the Pentagon whose "cost effective" inclinations ironically produced the major
aeronautical fiasco of the 1960s-and a costly one at that.

The early F-111As had extremely bad engine problems, suffering from compressor surge
and stalls. NASA pilots and engineers wrung out the airplane in an attempt to solve its
problems, studying the engine inlet dynamics of the plane to determine the nature of inlet
pressure fluctuations that led to compressor surge and stall. Eventually, as a result of
NASA, Air Force, and General Dynamics studies, the engine problems were solved by a
major inlet redesign.

The F-111 could operate from tree-top level to altitudes above 60,000 feet (18,200
meters). The F-111 had variable-sweep wings that allow the pilot to fly from slow
approach speeds to supersonic velocity at sea level and more than twice the speed of
sound at higher altitudes. Wings angle from 16 degrees (full forward) to 72.5 degrees
(full aft). Full-forward wings gave the most surface area and maximum lift for short
takeoff and landing. The F-111 needed no drag chute or reserve thrust to slow down after
landing.

The two crew members sat side-by-side in an air-conditioned, pressurized cockpit module
that served as an emergency escape vehicle and as a survival shelter on land or water. In
emergencies, both crew members remained in the cockpit and an explosive cutting cord
separated the cockpit module from the aircraft. The module descended by parachute. The
ejected module included a small portion of the wing fairing to stabilize it during aircraft
separation. Airbags cushioned impact and help keep the module afloat in water. The
module could be released at any speed or altitude, even under water. For underwater
escape, the airbags raised the module to the surface after it has been severed from the
plane.
The aircraft's wings and much of the fuselage behind the crew module contained fuel
tanks. Using internal fuel only, the plane had a range of more than 2,500 nautical miles
(4,000 kilometers). External fuel tanks could be carried on the pylons under the wings
and jettisoned if necessary.

The F-111 could carry conventional as well as nuclear weapons. It could carry up to two
bombs or additional fuel in the internal weapons bay. External ordnance included
combinations of bombs, missiles and fuel tanks. The loads nearest the fuselage on each
side pivoted as the wings swept back, keeping ordnance parallel to the fuselage. Outer
pylons did not move but could be jettisoned for high-speed flight.

The avionics systems included communications, navigation, terrain following, target


acquisition and attack, and suppression of enemy air defense systems. A radar bombing
system was used for precise delivery of weapons on targets during night or bad weather.

The F-111's automatic terrain-following radar system flew the craft at a constant altitude
following the Earth's contours. It allowed the aircraft to fly in valleys and over
mountains, day or night, regardless of weather conditions. Should any of the system's
circuits fail, the aircraft automatically initiated a climb.

Variants

The F-111A first flew in December 1964. The first operational aircraft was delivered in
October 1967 to Nellis Air Force Base, Nev. A models were used for tactical bombing in
Southeast Asia.

Developed for the U.S. Navy, the F-111B was canceled before its production. F-111C's
are flown by the Royal Australian Air Force.

The F-111D has improved avionics with better navigation, air-to-air weapon delivery
systems, and newer turbofan engines. The F-111D's were flown by the 27th Fighter
Wing, Cannon Air Force Base, N.M.

The F-111E model had modified air intakes to improve the engine's performance at
speeds above Mach 2.2. Most F-111Es served with the 20th Fighter Wing, Royal Air
Force Station Upper Heyford, England, to support NATO. F-111E's were deployed to
Incirlik Air Base, Turkey, and were used in Operation Desert Storm. In the early morning
of Jan. 17, 1991, the F-111 went into combat again in the initial bombing raids of
Operation Desert Storm. More than 100 F-111 aircraft of different versions joined the
first strikes against Iraq both as bombers and radar jammers.

The F-111F had improved turbofan engines give F-111F models 35 percent more thrust
than previous F-111A and E engines. The avionics systems of the F model combine
features of the F-111D and E. The last F model was delivered to the Air Force in
November 1976. The F models were modified to carry the Pave Tack system in their
weapons bays. This system provides an improved capability to acquire, track and
designate ground targets at night for delivery of laser, infrared and electro-optically
guided weapons. The F-111F was proven in combat over Libya in 1986 and again over
Iraq in 1991. Although F-111F's flew primarily at night during Operation Desert Storm,
aircrews flew a particularly notable daytime mission using the Guided Bomb Unit (GBU-
15) to seal the oil pipeline manifold sabotaged by Iraq, allowing the oil to flow into the
Persian Gulf.

As a result of the Air Force decision to retire the F-111 weapon system, the 27th Fighter
Wing's 74 F-111E/F aircraft began retiring in late 1995 and were replaced with 54 F-
16C/D aircraft. All F-111s in the Air Force inventory have been retired to the Aerospace
Maintenance and Regeneration Center at Davis-Monthan AFB, Ariz. The center,
popularly know as the boneyard, was home to all the remaining F-111E and F models by
October 1996.

FB-111
Seventy-six were built as FB-111s and saw service with the Strategic Air Command until
1990 when they were converted to F-111Gs and assigned to Tactical Air Command. The
F-111G was assigned to the 27th Fighter Wing at Cannon Air Force Base and was used
in a training role only. The conversion made minor avionics updates and strengthened the
aircraft to allow its use in a more dynamic role as a fighter aircraft.

EF-111A Raven

Development of the EF-111A Raven began in January 1975 when the Air Force
contracted with Grumman Aerospace to modify two F-111As to serve as electronic
warfare platforms. The F-111”s high speed, long range, substantial payload and
reasonable cost made it the ideal candidate to protect allied tactical forces against enemy
radar defenses.
When converting the aircraft to its new electronic warfare role, the primary modification
was the ALQ-99 jamming system, N/ALQ-137 self-protection system, and an AN/ALR-
62 terminal threat warning system. To accommodate the 6,000 pounds of new
electronics, Grumman added a narrow, 16-foot long canoe-shaped radome under the
fuselage and a din-tip pod mounted on top of the vertical stabilizer.
Grumman’s EF-111A prototypes staged their first flights in 1977. After two years of
testing the Air Force gave the contractor the go-ahead to convert 42 F-111As into the EF-
111 configuration. The modifications cost approximately $25 million per aircraft, and the
total cost of the program was $1.5 billion. The first production EF-111 was delivered to
the 388th Tactical Electronic Squadron at Mountain Home AFB, Idaho, in November
1981 and the aircraft became fully operational in 1983.

The Avionics Modernization Program (AMP) included the installation of 10 new


subsystems including a doppler radar and internal navigation system. The modification,
installed in all 42 EF-111s, was completed in 1994. Prompted by a series of crashes
attributable to the failure of the F-111’s original analog flight control system, the
installation of Digital Flight Control System begann in 1990 and was completed in 1997.
The last squadron of EF-111s remaining in service, at Cannon AFB, NM, peformed the
Suppression of Enemy Air Defense [SEAD] mission. DOD decided to retire the EF-111A
jammer and replace it with a new Air Force system, the high speed anti-radiation missile
(HARM) targeting system on the F-16C, and the existing Navy electronic warfare
aircraft, the EA-6B. Recognizing that too few EA-6B aircraft may be available to meet
both Air Force and Navy needs, DOD retained these 12 EF-111s in the active inventory
through 1998, when additional upgraded EA-6Bs became available.

Specifications
Primary Function Multipurpose tactical fighter bomber.
Contractor General Dynamics Corporation.
Power Plant F-111A/E, two Pratt & Whitney TF30-P103 turbofans.
Thrust F-111A/E, 18,500 pounds (8,325 kilograms) each with
afterburners;
F-111D, 19,600 pounds (8,820 kilograms) with
afterburners;
F-111F, 25,000 pounds (11,250 kilograms) with
afterburners.
Length 73 feet, 6 inches (22.0 meters).
Height 17 feet, 1 1/2 inches (5.13 meters).
Wingspan 63 feet (19 meters) full forward; 31 feet, 11 1/2 inches
(11.9 meters) full aft.
Speed F-111F -- Mach 1.2 at sea level; Mach 2.5 at 60,000
feet.
Ceiling 60,000-plus feet (18,200 meters).
Range 3,565 miles (3,100 nautical miles) with external fuel
tanks.
Weight F-111F, empty 47,481 pounds (21,367 kilograms).
Maximum Takeoff F-111F, 100,000 pounds (45,000 kilograms).
Weight
Armament Up to four nuclear bombs on four pivoting wing pylons,
and two in internal weapons bay. Wing pylons carry
total external load of 25,000 pounds (11,250 kilograms)
of bombs, rockets, missiles, or fuel tanks.
20 CBU-52
20 CBU-59
20 CBU-71
8 CBU-87
8 CBU-89
20 MK-20
4 BL-755
Unit cost $FY98 $75 million.
[Total Program]
Crew Two, pilot and weapon systems officer.
Date Deployed October 1967.
Inventory None, retired in 1996
[formerly Active force, 225; ANG, 0; Reserve, 0]
In all 563 F-111s in several variants were built.

F-111
EF-111 Raven
F-117A Nighthawk
The F-117A Nighthawk is the world's first operational
aircraft designed to exploit low-observable stealth
technology. The unique design of the single-seat F-
117A provides exceptional combat capabilities. About
the size of an F-15 Eagle, the twin-engine aircraft is
powered by two General Electric F404 turbofan
engines and has quadruple redundant fly-by-wire flight
controls. Air refuelable, it supports worldwide
commitments and adds to the deterrent strength of the
U.S. military forces.

The F-117A can employ a variety of weapons and is


equipped with sophisticated navigation and attack
systems integrated into a state-of-the-art digital avionics suite that increases mission
effectiveness and reduces pilot workload. Detailed planning for missions into highly
defended target areas is accomplished by an automated mission planning system
developed, specifically, to take advantage of the unique capabilities of the F-117A.

Streamlined management by Aeronautical Systems Center, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio,


combined breakthrough stealth technology with concurrent development and production
to rapidly field the aircraft. The F-117A program has demonstrated that a stealth aircraft
can be designed for reliability and maintainability. The aircraft maintenance statistics are
comparable to other tactical fighters of similar complexity. Logistically supported by
Sacramento Air Logistics Center, McClellan AFB, Calif., the F-117A is kept at the
forefront of technology through a planned weapon system improvement program located
at USAF Plant 42 at Palmdale, Calif. The Air Force thinking today is that it will phase
out the Nighthawks after 2018.

The first F-117A was delivered in 1982, and the last delivery was in the summer of 1990.
The F-117A production decision was made in 1978 with a contract awarded to Lockheed
Advanced Development Projects, the "Skunk Works," in Burbank, Calif. The first flight
was in 1981, only 31 months after the full-scale development decision. Lockheed-Martin
delivered 59 stealth fighters to the Air Force between August 1982 and July 1990. Five
additional test aircraft belong to the company.

Air Combat Command's only F-117A unit, the 4450th Tactical Group, achieved
operational capability in October 1983. Since the F-117’s first Air Force flight in 1982,
the aircraft has flown under different unit designations, including the 4450th Tactical
Group and the 37th Tactical Fighter Wing at Tonapah Test Range, NV; the 57th Fighter
Weapons Wing, Nellis AFB, NV; the 410th Flight Test Squadron/410th Test Squadron,
Palmdale, CA; and Detachment 1, Test Evaluation Group, also at Holloman, which falls
under the 53rd Wing, Eglin AFB, FL.
The stealth fighter emerged from the classified world while stationed at Tonapah Airfield
with an announcement by the Pentagon in November 1988 and was first shown publicly
at Nellis in April 1990. The 4450th TG was deactivated in October 1989, and was
reactivated as the 37th Tactical Fighter Wing.

In 1992 the F-117A Nighthawk made its new home at Holloman Air Force Base. The
official arrival ceremony for the F-117 to Holloman AFB was conducted 09 May 1992.
The 49th Fighter Wing (49FW) at Holloman serves as the only F-117 Home Station. The
49th Operations Group operates and maintains the F-117A aircraft. The 7th CTS
"Screamin' Demons" serves as the transition training unit, preparing experienced Air
Force pilots for assignment to the F-117A Nighthawk. The 8th and 9th Fighter Squadrons
are designated to employ the F-117A Nighthawk in combat. Once an F-117 pilot has
successfully completed training, he is then assigned to one of only two operational
Nighthawk squadrons--the 8th FS "Black Sheep" and the 9th FS "Flying Knights." The
49FW provides full compliment of flightline maintenance capabilities as well as back-
shop support. The F-117 deploys in support of contingency operations, as directed by
National Command Authorities. Flightline maintenance support is deployed concurrent
with the aircraft. Depending on the deployment duration, varying levels of back shop
maintenance support may also be deployed.

The F-117A first saw action in December 1989 during Operation Just Cause in Panama.
The stealth fighter attacked the most heavily fortified targets during Desert Storm
(January-February 1991) , and it was the only coalition jet allowed to strike targets inside
Baghdad's city limits. The F-117A, which normally packs a payload of two 2,000-pound
GBU-27 laser-guided bombs, destroyed and crippled Iraqi electrical power stations,
military headquarters, communications sites, air defense operation centers, airfields,
ammo bunkers, and chemical, biological and nuclear weapons plants.
Although only 36 stealth fighters were deployed in Desert Storm and accounted for 2.5
percent of the total force of 1,900 fighters and bombers, they flew more than a third of
the bombing runs on the first day of the war. In all during Desert Storm, the stealth
fighter conducted more than 1,250 sorties, dropped more than 2,000 tons of bombs, and
flew more than 6,900 hours. More than 3,000 antiaircraft guns and 60 surface-to-air
missile batteries protected the city, but despite this seemingly impenetrable shield, the
Nighthawks owned the skies over the city and, for that matter, the country. The stealth
fighter, which is coated with a secret, radar-absorbent material, operated over Iraq and
Kuwait with impunity, and was unscathed by enemy guns.

In the opening phase of Allied Force, aimed primarily at Yugoslavia's integrated air
defense system, NATO air forces conducted more than 400 sorties. During the first two
night attacks, allied troops in the air and at sea struck 90 targets throughout Yugoslavia
and in Kosovo. F-117 Nighthawks from the 8th Expeditionary Fighter Squadron at
Holloman Air Force Base NM participated in air strikes against targets in the Balkans
during NATO operations. One F-117 fighter was lost over Yugoslavia on 27 March 1999.
A US search and rescue team picked up the pilot several hours after the F-117 went down
outside Belgrade. On 01 April 1999, Defense Secretary William Cohen directed 12 more
F-117 stealth fighters to join NATO Operation Allied Force, to join the total of 24 F-117s
that were participating in NATO Operation Allied Force.

Specifications
Primary Function Fighter/attack
Contractor Lockheed Aeronautical Systems Co.
Power Plant Two General Electric F404 engines
Length 65 feet, 11 inches (20.3 meters)
Height 12 feet, 5 inches (3.8 meters)
Weight 52,500 pounds (23,625 kilograms)
Wingspan 43 feet, 4 inches (13.3 meters)
Speed High subsonic
Range Unlimited with air refueling
Internal weapons carriage

Two each of:

2 MK84 2000-pound
Armament 2 GBU-10 Paveway II
2 GBU-12 Paveway II
2 GBU-27 Paveway III
2 BLU 109
2 WCMD
2 Mark 61
Unit Cost $FY98
$122 million
[Total Program]
Crew One
Date Deployed 1982
Inventory Active force, 54; ANG, 0; Reserve, 0
PMAI
Primary Mission
Aircraft Inventory
Only combat-coded
aircraft and not 36 aircraft
development/ test,
attrition reserve, depot
maintenance, or
training aircraft.
AC-130H Spectre
AC-130U Spooky
The AC-130H Spectre gunship's primary
missions are close air support, air interdiction
and armed reconnaissance. Other missions
include perimeter and point defense, escort,
landing, drop and extraction zone support,
forward air control, limited command and
control, and combat search and rescue.

These heavily armed aircraft incorporate side-


firing weapons integrated with sophisticated
sensor, navigation and fire control systems to
provide surgical firepower or area saturation
during extended periods, at night and in
adverse weather.

During Vietnam, gunships destroyed more than 10,000 trucks and were credited with
many life-saving close air support missions. AC-130s suppressed enemy air defense
systems and attacked ground forces during Operation Urgent Fury in Grenada. This
enabled the successful assault of Point Salines airfield via airdrop and airland of friendly
forces.

The gunships had a primary role during Operation Just Cause in Panama by destroying
Panamanian Defense Force Headquarters and numerous command and control facilities
by surgical employment of ordnance in an urban environment. As the only close air
support platform in the theater, Spectres were credited with saving the lives of many
friendly personnel.

During Operation Desert Storm, Spectres provided air base defense and close air support
for ground forces. AC-130s were also used during Operations Continue Hope and United
Shield in Somalia, providing close air support for United Nations ground forces. The
gunships have most recently played a pivotal role during operations in support of the
NATO mission in Bosnia-Herzegovina, providing air interdiction against key targets in
the Sarajevo area.

The AC-130 is an excellent fire support platform with outstanding capabilities. With its
extremely accurate fire control system, the AC-130 can place 105mm, 40mm and 25mm
munitions on target with first round accuracy. The crew of these aircraft are extremely
proficient working in military operations in urban terrain [MOUT] environments.

The Air Force commemorated the end of an era 10 September 1995 with the retirement
of the first C-130 aircraft to come off a production line. The aircraft, tail number 53-
3129, went into production at the Lockheed Aircraft Co. in Marietta, Ga., in 1953 and
was the original prototype of what was to become a long line of C-130 Hercules aircraft
designed and built by Lockheed. The aircraft, affectionately dubbed "The First Lady,"
was one of five AC-130A gunship aircraft retired during an official ceremony. While the
other four aircraft were sent to the Aerospace Marketing and Regeneration Center at
Davis-Monthan Air Force Base, the First Lady went on permanent display at the Eglin
Air Force Base Armament Museum. The 919th Special Operations Wing's gunships, all
around 40 years old, had reached the age of mandatory retirement. The only other
gunships in the Air Force inventory are employed by active-duty members at Hurlburt
Field, which has less than 20 gunships assigned.
The AC-130H ALQ-172 ECM Upgrade installs and modifies the ALQ-172 with low
band jamming capability for all AC-130H aircraft. It also modifies the ALQ-172 with
engineering change proposal-93 to provide increased memory and flight line
reprogramming capabilities. The Air Force [WR-ALC/LUKA] issued a sole source, fixed
price contract, to International Telephone & Telegraph (ITT) for development of low
band jammer and subsequent production. Issue a competitive, firm fixed price contract
for the Group A modifications (preparing aircraft to receive jammers).
Currently funded weight reduction and center of gravity (CG) improvements to the AC-
130H aircraft include: redesign of 40mm and 105mm ammo racks using lighter weight
materials; reverse engineering of 40mm and 105mm trainable gun mounts using lighter
weight material; and removal of non-critical armor. These efforts are performed by a sole
source contract awarded to Rock Island Arsenal.

AC-130U Spooky
Continuing the distinguished combat history of side-firing AC-130 gunships, the new
AC-130U Spectre gunship is being fielded as a replacement for the AC-130A aircraft.
This program acquires 13 new basic C-130H aircraft for modification and integration by
Boeing to the AC-130U Gunship configuration. The AC-130U gunship airframe is
integrated with an armor protection system (APS), high resolution sensors (All Light
Level Television (ALLTV), infrared detection set (IDS) and strike radar), avionics and
EW systems, a sophisticated software controlled fire control system, and an armament
suite consisting of side-firing, trainable 25mm, 40mm, and 105mm guns. The strike radar
provides the first gunship capability for all weather/night target acquisition and strike.

The acquisition program for this new gunship evolved from a Congressional mandate in
the mid-1980s to revitalize the special operations force capabilties. Following the
contract award to Rockwell in July 1987, the aircraft was first flown on 20 December
1990. FY92 procurement funding was increased to provide the 13th aircraft to replace the
AC-130H lost during Desert Storm. Upon completing an exhaustive flight test program at
Air Force Flight Test Center from 1991 to 1994 the first aircraft was delivered to AFSOC
on July 1, 1994. Boeing’s contract includes: concurrent development, aircraft production,
flight test, and delivery. All aircraft have been delivered and the program is transitioning
to the sustainment phase. A competitive contract for sustainment was awarded in July
1998.
The AC-130U is the most complex aircraft weapon system in the world today. It has
more than 609,000 lines of software code in its mission computers and avionics systems.
The newest addition to the command fleet, this heavily armed aircraft incorporates side-
firing weapons integrated with sophisticated sensor, navigation and fire control systems
to provide surgical firepower or area saturation during extended loiter periods, at night
and in adverse weather. The sensor suite consists of an All Light Level Television system
and an infrared detection set. A multi-mode strike radar provides extreme long-range
target detection and identification. It is able to track 40mm and 105mm projectiles and
return pinpoint impact locations to the crew for subsequent adjustment to the target. The
fire control system offers a Dual Target Attack capability, whereby two targets up to one
kilometer apart can be simultaneously engaged by two different sensors, using two
different guns. No other air-ground attack platform in the world offers this capability.
Navigational devices include the inertial navigation system (INS) and global positioning
system (GPS). The aircraft is pressurized, enabling it to fly at higher altitudes, saving fuel
and time, and allowing for greater range than the AC-130H. Defensive systems include a
countermeasures dispensing system that releases chaff and flares to counter radar
infrared-guided anti-aircraft missiles. Also infrared heat shields mounted underneath the
engines disperse and hide engine heat sources from infrared-guided anti-aircraft missiles.
The AC-130U P3I program develops and procures modifications that correct software
and hardware deficiencies of the AC-130U fleet discovered during flight tests and that
were outside the scope of the original FY86 contract. These modifications will include
the following: combine all necessary software requirements for the System Integration
Test (SIT) system and hardware and software improvements for the APQ-180 strike radar
system; upgrade the Tactical Situation Map; improve core avionics and computers
required for the multi-mission advanced tactical terminal/integrated defense avionics
system installation; upgrade the EW suite; and modify the software/hardware required for
the trainable gun mounts.
The AC-130H/U, AAQ-26 Infrared Detection Set (IDS) Upgrade program modifies the
optics on the AN/AAQ-17 Infrared Detection Set (IDS) currently installed on 13 AC-
130U and 8 AC-130H Gunship aircraft to the AN/AAQ-26 configuration. The AC-130U
wiring, Operational Flight Program (OFP), Control Displays Program (CDP),
Trackhandle, bus multiplier (BMUX), control panels, and variable slow rate feature will
be modified. The AC-130H will also be modified. Support equipment, spares, and tech
data for both aircraft will be modified as required to support the AN/AAQ-26
configuration. Mission requirements dictate a significant enhancement in target detection,
recognition, and identification ranges to decrease aircraft vulnerability. A sole source
fixed price incentive contract was awared to Raytheon for design, modification, and
installation; with directed sub to Lockheed Aerospace Systems Ontario (LASO) for
integration of the AN/AAQ-26 on the AC-130H and Rockwell for software integration of
the AN/AAQ-26 on the AC-130U.
The United States Special Operations Command (USSOCOM) has a requirement for a C-
130 engine infrared (IR) signature suppression system to provide Special Operations
Forces (SOF) C-130 aircraft with an IR signature reduction equal to or better than
existing systems at a lower cost of ownership. The primary difficulties with present
suppressor systems are low reliability and poor maintainability. This C-130 Engine
Infrared Suppression (EIRS) Program system will be used on AC-130H/U, MC-
130E/H/P, and EC-130E aircraft. The key requirements for the Engine IR Suppression
system are: (a) improved reliability and maintainability over existing systems to result in
lower total cost of ownership; (b) IR signature suppression levels as good as the current
engine shield system (aka. Tubs); (c) no adverse impacts to aircraft performance and
ability to accomplish SOF missions; (d) complete interchangeability between engine
positions and identified aircraft types. The suppressor is expected to be a semi-permanent
installation, with removal being primarily for servicing, allowing the aircraft to perform
all required missions with the suppressors installed. There will be up to two competitive
contracts awarded for the initial phases of development with a downselect to one
contractor for the completion of development and production. The contract will contain
fixed price options for procurement, installation, and sustainment of the system.
The Directional Infrared Countermeasures (DIRCM) program develops and procures 60
systems and provides 59 SOF aircraft (AC-130H/U, MC-130E/H) with a DIRCM system
capability. The DIRCM system will work in conjunction with other onboard self-
protection systems to enhance the aircraft’s survivability against currently deployed
infrared guided missiles. Growth is planned to add a capability to detect and counter
advanced threats. Execution of this program is in concert with a joint US/UK cooperative
development/ production effort with the UK as lead. Development and acquisition of the
DIRCM system will be in accordance with UK procurement laws/regulations. UK
designation for this program is "Operational Emergency Requirements 3/89."

Specifications
AC-130H Spectre AC-130U Spooky
Close air support, air interdiction and armed
Primary Function:
reconnaissance
Contractor: Lockheed Aircraft Corp.
Power Plant: Four Allison turboprop engines T56-A-15
Thrust: Each engine 4,910 horsepower
Length: 97 feet, 9 inches (29.8 meters)
Height: 38 feet, 6 inches (11.7 meters)
Maximum Takeoff 155,000 pounds (69,750 kilograms)
Weight:
Wingspan: 132 feet, 7 inches (40.4 meters)
1,500 statute miles
2,200 nautical miles
(1,300 nautical miles)
Range: Unlimited with air
Unlimited with air
refueling
refueling
25,000 feet (7,576
Ceiling: 30,000 ft.
meters)
Speed: 300 mph (Mach 0.40) (at sea level)
Armament: two M61 20mm Vulcan One 25mm GAU-12
cannons Gatling gun
with 3,000 rounds (1,800 rounds per minute)
one L60 40mm Bofors one L60 40mm Bofors
cannon cannon
with 256 rounds (100 shots per minute)
one M102 105mm one M102 105mm
howitzer cannon
with 100 rounds (6-10 rounds per minute)
AN/AAQ-24 Directional Infrared
Countermeasures (DIRCM)
AN/AAR-44 infrared warning receiver
AN/AAR-47 missile warning system
AN/ALE-47 flare and chaff dispensing system
Countermeasures
AN/ALQ-172 Electronic Countermeasure System
AN/ALQ-196 Jammer
AN/ALR-69 radar warning receiver
AN/APR-46A panoramic RF receiver
QRC-84-02 infrared countermeasures system
14 -- five officers (pilot, 13 total. Five officers
co-pilot, navigator, fire (pilot, copilot, navigator,
control officer, fire control officer,
electronic warfare electronic warfare
officer); nine enlisted officer); 8 enlisted (flight
Crew: (flight engineer, engineer, All Light Level
loadmaster, low-light TV TV operator, infrared-
operator, infrared detection set operator,
detection set operator, four airborne gunners,
five aerial gunners) loadmaster)
$46.4 million (1992
Unit Cost: $72 million
dollars)
Date Deployed: 1972 1995
13 aircraft assigned to
Active force, 8;
16th Special Operation
Inventory: Reserve, 0; Wing's 4th Special
ANG, 0
Operations Squadron.
X-45 Unmanned Combat Air Vehicle
(UCAV)
The objective of the joint DARPA/Air Force Unmanned Combat Air Vehicle (UCAV)
Advanced Technology Demonstration (ATD) program is to demonstrate the technical
feasibility for a UCAV system to effectively and affordably prosecute 21st century lethal
strike missions within the emerging global command and control architecture. The
operational UCAV system is envisioned as a force enabler that will conduct Suppression
of Enemy Air Defense (SEAD) and strike missions in support of post-2010 manned strike
packages. This SEAD/Strike mission will be the first instantiation of an UCAV vision
that will evolve into a broader range of combat missions as the concept and technologies
mature, and the UCAV affordability potential is realized.

The Unmanned Combat Air Vehicle vision is an affordable weapon system that expands
tactical mission options for revolutionary new air power as an integrated part of a system
of systems solution. The UCAV weapon system will exploit the design and operational
freedoms of relocating the pilot outside of the vehicle to enable a new paradigm in
aircraft affordability while maintaining the rationale, judgment, and moral qualities of the
human operator. In our vision, this weapon system will require minimal maintenance, can
be stored for extended periods of time, and is capable of dynamic mission control while
engaging multiple targets in a single mission under minimal human supervision. The
UCAV will conduct missions from ordinary airfields as part of an integrated force
package complementary to manned tactical and support assets. UCAV controllers will
observe rules of engagement and make the critical decisions to use or refrain from using
force.

The initial operational role for the UCAV is a "first day of the war" force enabler which
complements a strike package by performing the SEAD mission. In this role, UCAVs
accomplish preemptive destruction of sophisticated enemy integrated air defenses (IADs)
in advance of the strike package, and enable the attacking forces by providing reactive
suppression against the remaining IADs. Throughout the remainder of the campaign,
UCAVs provide continuous vigilance with an immediate lethal strike capability to
prosecute high value and time critical targets. By effectively and affordably performing
those missions the UCAV system provides "no win" tactical deterrence against which an
enemy's defenses would be ineffective, thereby ensuring air superiority.

As a member of a tightly coupled system of systems, the UCAV will work cooperatively
with manned systems and exploit the emerging command, control, communications,
computer, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (C4ISR) architecture to enable
successful achievement of campaign and mission level objectives. Intelligence
preparation of the battlefield will provide an initial mission/threat database for mission
controllers. Controllers will exploit real-time data sources from the theater information
architecture to plan for, and respond to, the dynamically changing battlefield. The UCAV
will penetrate enemy IADs and external systems such as the Miniature Air Launched
Decoy (MALD) will stimulate potential targets. Sensor cueing and off-board targeting
can be provided by national systems or airborne assets in real time and/or UCAVs may
be part of multi-ship Time Difference of Arrival (TDOA) targeting architectures. The
system will create superior situation awareness by leveraging the many sources of
information available at both the tactical and theater levels.

Such a UCAV weapon system has the potential to fully exploit the emerging information
revolution and provide advanced airpower with increased tactical deterrence at a fraction
of the total Life Cycle Costs (LCC) of current manned systems. The government
envisions a UCAV Operational System (UOS) air vehicle with unit cost less then one-
third of the Joint Strike Fighter, and reduction in total life cycle of 50-80% compared to a
current tactical aircraft squadron.

A variety of cost and weight penalties are associated with the presence of a human pilot,
including constrained forebodies, large canopies, displays and environmental control
systems. The aircraft's maneuver capabilities are limited by the pilots physiological limits
such as g tolerance. Removing the pilot from the vehicle eliminates man-rating
requirements, pilot systems, and interfaces. The UCAV offers new design freedoms that
can be exploited to produce a smaller, simpler aircraft, about half the size of a
conventional fighter aircraft. Weighing about one-third to one-fourth of a manned
aircraft, at 10,000 pounds they would weigh two to three times more than a Tomahawk
missile.

Typically 80 percent of the useful life of today's combat aircraft is devoted to pilot
training and proficiency flying, requiring longer design lives than would be needed to
meet combat requirements. Without the requirement to fly sorties to retain pilot
proficiency, UCAVs will fly infrequently. A reduced maintenance design with condition
based maintenance, minimized on-board sensors, reduced fluid systems, maintainable
signature, and a modular avionics architecture will reduce touch labor in the fashion of
commercial aircraft.

Advances in small smart munitions will allow these smaller vehicles to attack multiple
targets during a single mission and reduce the cost per target killed. The Miniaturized
Munitions Technology Demonstration (MMTD) goal is to produce a 250-pound class
munition effective against a majority of hardened targets previously vulnerable only to
2,000-pound class munitions. A differential GPS/INS system will provide precision
guidance, and smart fusing techniques will aid in producing a high probability of target
kill.

The DARPA/Air Force/Boeing X-45A technology demonstration aircraft completed its


first flight on 22 May 2002. Multi-aircraft testing will begin in 2003 when a second X-
45A becomes operational, leading to joint UCAV and manned exercises in FY 2006.
F-4 Phantom II
F-4G Advanced Wild Weasel
The F-4 Phantom II was a twin-engine, all-weather, fighter-bomber. The aircraft could
perform three tactical air roles — air superiority, interdiction and close air support — as
it did in southeast Asia. First flown in May 1958, the Phantom II originally was
developed for U.S. Navy fleet defense and entered service in 1961. The USAF evaluated
it for close air support, interdiction, and counter-air operations and, in 1962, approved a
USAF version. The USAF's Phantom II, designated F-4C, made its first flight on May 27,
1963. Production deliveries began in November 1963. In its air-to-ground role the F-4
could carry twice the normal bomb load of a WW II B-17. USAF F-4s also flew
reconnaissance and "Wild Weasel" anti-aircraft missile suppression missions. Phantom II
production ended in 1979 after over 5,000 had been built--more than 2,600 for the USAF,
about 1,200 for the Navy and Marine Corps, and the rest for friendly foreign nations,
including to Israel, Iran, Greece, Spain, Turkey, South Korea, West Germany, Australia,
Japan, and Great Britain. Used extensively in the Vietnam War, later versions of the
aircraft were still active in the U. S. Air Force inventory well into the 1990s. F-4s are no
longer in the USAF inventory but are still flown by foreign nations.

The F-4C first flew for the Air Force in May 1963 and the Air National Guard began
flying the F-4C in January 1972. The Air Force Reserve received its first Phantom II in
June 1978. The F-4D model, with major changes that increase accuracy in weapons
delivery, was delivered to the Air Force in March 1966, to the Air National Guard in
1977, and to the Air Force Reserve in 1980.

The first F-4E was delivered to the Air Force in October 1967. The Air National Guard
received its first F-4E in 1985, the Air Force Reserve in 1987. This model, with an
additional fuselage fuel tank, leading-edge slats for increased maneuverability, and an
improved engine, also has an internally mounted 20mm multibarrel gun with improved
fire-control system.

Starting in 1973, F-4E's were fitted with target-identification systems for long-range
visual identification of airborne or ground targets. Each system is basically a television
camera with a zoom lens to aid in positive identification, and a system called Pave Tack,
which provided day and night all-weather capability to acquire, track and designate
ground targets for laser, infrared and electro-optically guided weapons. Another change
was a digital intercept computer that includes launch computations for all AIM-9
Sidewinder and AIM-7 Sparrow air-to-air missiles. Additionally, on F-4E/G models, the
digital ARN-101 navigation system replaced the LN-12 inertial navigation system.

With the introduction of newer, more capable weapons systems, the F-4 mission
narrowed to specializing in the suppression of enemy air defense. Following their 90-day
deployment supporting Operation Provide Comfort 15 December 1995, the F-4G
Phantoms assigned to the Idaho Air National Guard's 190th Fighter Squadron retired to
the Aerospace Maintenance and Regeneration Center, otherwise known as the
"boneyard," at Davis-Monthan AFB, Ariz.

F-4G Advanced Wild Weasel


The F-4G "Advanced Wild Weasel," was the last model still in the active Air Force
inventory, until it was replaced by the F-16CJ/DJ in the role of increasing the
survivability of tactical strike forces by seeking out and suppressing or destroying enemy
radar-directed anti-aircraft artillery batteries and surface-to-air missile sites. F-4G's were
E models modified with sophisticated electronic warfare equipment in place of the
internally mounted 20mm gun. The F-4G could carry more weapons than previous Wild
Weasel aircraft and a greater variety of missiles as well as conventional bombs. The
primary weapon of the F-4G, however, was the AGM-88 HARM (high speed anti-
radiation missile). Other munitions included cluster bombs, and AIM-65 Maverick and
air-to-air missiles.

The F-4G "Advanced Wild Weasel," which inherited most of the features of the F-4E,
was capable of passing real-time target information to the aircraft's missiles prior to
launch. Working in “hunter-killer” teams of two aircraft, such as F-4G and F-16C, the F-
4G “hunter” could detect, identify, and locate enemy radars then direct weapons that will
ensure destruction or suppression of the radars. The technique was effectively used
during Operation Desert Storm against enemy surface-to-air missile batteries. Primary
armament included HARM (AGM-88) and Maverick (AGM-65). F-4G's deployed to
Saudi Arabia also were equipped with ALQ-131 and ALQ-184 electronic
countermeasures pods.

Specifications
Primary Function All-weather fighter-bomber.
Contractor McDonnell Aircraft Co., McDonnell Corporation.
Power Plant Two General Electric turbojet engines with
afterburners.
Thrust 17,900 pounds (8,055 kilograms).
Length 62 feet, 11 inches (19.1 meters).
Height 16 feet, 5 inches (5 meters).
Wingspan 38 feet, 11 inches (11.8 meters).
Speed More than 1,600 mph (Mach 2).
Ceiling 60,000 feet (18,182 meters).
Maximum Takeoff 62,000 pounds (27,900 kilograms).
Weight
Range 1,300 miles (1,130 nautical miles).
Armament Four AIM-7 Sparrow and four AIM-9M Sidewinder
missiles, AGM-65 Maverick missiles, AGM-88 HARM
missile capability, and one fuselage centerline bomb
rack and four pylon bomb racks capable of carrying
12,500 pounds (5,625 kilograms) of general purpose
bombs.
15 CBU-52
15 CBU-58
15 CBU-71
15 CBU-87
15 CBU-89
12 MK-20
6 BL-755
Systems APQ-120 fire-control radar [Hughes]
AJB-7 bombing system
ASQ-91 weapon release system,
ASX-1 TISEO (Target Identification System Electro-
Optical) Northrup
ASN-63 INS
APR-36 RWR
ALQ-87 FM barrage jammer
ALQ-101 ECM pod Westinghouse noise/deception
jammer
ALQ-119 ECM pod Westinghouse noise/deception
jammer (covering three bands)
ALQ-130 ECM pod
ALQ-131 ECM pod
ALQ-140 IR countermeasures system [Sanders]
Cost $18.4 million.
Crew F-4G -- Two (pilot and electronic warfare officer).
Date Deployed May 1963.
Inventory None - retired December 1995
[formerly F-4G -- Active force, 24; ANG, 24; Reserve,
0.]
F-4 Phantom II
F-4G Advanced Wild Weasel
F-5 Freedom Fighter / Tiger
The development of the Northrop F-5 began in 1954 when a Northrop team toured
Europe and Asia to examine the defense needs of NATO and SEATO countries. A 1955
company design study for a lightweight supersonic fighter that would be relatively
inexpensive, easy to maintain, and capable of operating out of short runways. The Air
Force did not initially look favorably upon the proposal, since it did not need for a
lightweight fighter. However, it did need a new trainer to replace the Lockheed T-33, and
in June of 1956 the Air Force announced that it was going to acquire the trainer version,
the T-38 Talon.
On April 25, 1962, the Department of Defense announced that it had chosen the aircraft
for its Military Assistance Program (MAP). America's NATO and SEATO allies would
now be able to acquire a supersonic warplane of world-class quality at a reasonable cost.
On August 9, 1962 the aircraft was given the official designation of F-5A Freedom
Fighter. Optimized for the air-to-ground role, the F-5A had only a very limited air-to-air
capability, and was not equipped with a fire-control radar. The F-5B was the two-seat
version of the F-5A. It was generally similar to the single-seat F-5A but had two seats in
tandem for dual fighter/trainer duties.

Although all F-5A production was intended for MAP, in October 1965, the USAF
"borrowed" 12 combat-ready F-5As from MAP supplies and sent them to Vietnem with
the 4503rd Tactical Fighter Wing for operational service trials. This program was given
the code name of *Skoshi Tiger" ("little" Tiger). and it was during this tour of duty that
the F-5 picked up its Tiger nickname.

On November 20, 1970, the Northrop entry was declared the winner of the IFA
(International Fighter Aircraft) to be the F-5A/B's successor. The emphasis was be on the
air-superiority role for nations faced with threats from opponents operating late-
generation MiG-21s. An order was placed for five development and 325 production
aircraft. In January of 1971, it was reclassified as F-5E. The aircraft came to be known as
*Tiger II*

The US Navy Fighter Weapons School (the so-called "Top Gun" school) at NAS
Miramar acquired a total of ten F-5Es and three F-5Fs for dissimilar air combat training.
Because of the F-5's characteristics, which were similar to the MiG-21, was used as
'agressor' aircraft, equipping the FWS and VF-126 at NAS Miramar, plus VF-43 at NAS
Oceana. All three units later disposed of their Tiger IIs in favor of the General Dynamics
F-16N. These Tiger IIs were passed on to VF-95 at NAS Key West and VFA-127 at NAS
Fallon. During FY 1996, VFC-13 moved from NAS Miramar, CA, to NAS Fallon, NV,
and transitioned from 12 F/A-18 to 25 F-5 aircraft. VFC-13's flight hour program will
increase to offset the scheduled decommissioning of the two remaining Active
Component adversary squadrons, VF-45 and VFA-127. This transition to the F-5
adversary aircraft will provide Active and Reserve Navy pilots with air-to-air combat
training at significant savings to the taxpayer. Recent estimates show that the F-5 can be
operated at one third of what it costs to operate an F/A-18.
Specifications
F-5A Freedom Figher F-5E Tiger II
Two General Electric J85- Two General Electric
GE-13 turbojets, J85-GE-21A turbojets,
Engines
rated at 2720 lb.s.t., 4080 5000 lb.s.t. with
lb.s.t. with afterburning. afterburning.
925 mph (Mach 1.4) at Maximum cruising
36,000 feet.
speed without
Maximum speed Maximum cruising speed:
afterburning: Mach 0.98
640 mph (Mach 0.97) at
at 36,000 feet.
36,000 feet
Service ceiling 50,500 feet. 51,800 feet
with maximum fuel -- 1387
miles. with maximum fuel --
Combat radius with 1543 miles
maximum payload -- 195 Combat radius with
Range
miles maximum fuel and 2
Combat radius with Sidewinder missiles --
maximum fuel and two 530- 656 miles.
pound bombs 558 miles.
wingspan 25 feet 3 inches, 26 feet 8 inches
length 47 feet 2 inches, 48 feet 2 inches
height 13 feet 2 inches, 13 feet 4 inches
wing area 170 square feet. 186 square feet
8085 pounds empty, 9683 pounds empty,
11,477 pounds combat, 13,350 pounds combat,
Weights: 13,433 pounds gross, 15,745 pounds gross,
20,677 pounds maximum 24,676 pounds
takeoff maximum takeoff.
two 20-mm cannon
in the fuselage nose. Two
AIM-9 Sidewinderat the two 20-mm M39A2
wingtips cannon with 280 rpg
Five pylons carry up to 6200 two AIM-9 Sidewinder
Armament pounds of ordinance or fuel missiles at wingtips
tanks Five pylons can carry up
loads can include four air-to- to 7000 pounds of
air missiles, Bullpup air-to- ordnance or fuel
surface missiles, bombs, up
to 20 unguided rockets, or
external fuel tanks.
F-8 Crusader
The F-8 aircraft was originally built by LTV Aerospace, Dallas, Texas. Powerplant was a
Pratt and Whitney J57 turbojet. Wingspan is 35 feet 2 inches (350 square feet), and the
overall length is 54 feet 6 inches, and height is 15 feet 9 inches. The F-8 Crusader was the
last US fighter designed with guns as its primary weapon. The F-8A entered service in
March of 1957. The RF-8G Crusader aircraft, the "Eyes of the Fleet" operated by Photo
Reconnaissance Squadrons (VFP), featured camera ports on the side of the fuselage and a
forward firing camera in the blister below the intake. The RF-8's remained in service
longer than the fighters, equipping reserve units through late 1986.

The F-8E(FN) carrier-based interceptors of the French Navy, the last remaining
operational Crusaders, will be replaced at the end of 1999 by the new Rafale-M. As of
1994 20 of the carrier-based Crusaders remained from the 42 initially delivered.

RF-8G
F-8E(FN)
F-14 Tomcat
The F-14 Tomcat is a supersonic, twin-engine, variable sweep wing, two-place fighter
designed to attack and destroy enemy aircraft at night and in all weather conditions. The
F-14 can track up to 24 targets simultaneously with its advanced weapons control system
and attack six with Phoenix AIM-54A missiles while continuing to scan the airspace.
Armament also includes a mix of other air intercept missiles, rockets and bombs.
The Tomcat is a 2-seat, twin-engine fighter with twin tails and variable-geometry wings.
Its general arrangement consists of a long nacelle containing the large nose radar and 2
crew positions extending well forward and above the widely spaced engines. The engines
are parallel to a central structure that flattens towards the tail; butterfly-shaped airbrakes
are located between the fins on the upper and lower surfaces. Altogether, the fuselage
forms more than half of the total aerodynamic lifting surface.
The wings are shoulder-mounted and are programmed for automatic sweep during flight,
with a manual override provided. The twin, swept fin-and-rudder vertical surfaces are
mounted on the engine housings and canted outward. The wing pivot carry- through
structure crosses the central structure; the carry through is 22 ft (6.7 m) long and
constructed from 33 electron welded parts machined from titanium; the pivots are located
outboard of the engines. Normal sweep range is 20 to 68 deg with a 75-deg "oversweep"
position provided for shipboard hangar stowage; sweep speed is 7.5 deg per second.
For roll control below 57 deg, the F-14 uses spoilers located along the upper wing near
the trailing edge in conjunction with its all-moving, swept tailplanes, which are operated
differentially; above 57-deg sweep, the tailplanes operate alone. For unswept, low-speed
combat maneuvering, the outer 2 sections of trailing edge flaps can be deployed at 10 deg
and the nearly full-span leading-edge slats are drooped to 8.5 deg. At speeds above Mach
1.0, glove vanes in the leading edge of the fixed portion of the wing extend to move the
aerodynamic center forward and reduce loads on the tailplane.
The sharply raked, 2-dimensional 4-shock engine intakes have 2 variable-angle ramps, a
bypass door in the intake roof, and a fixed ramp forward; exhaust nozzles are
mechanically variable. Viewed from ahead, the top of the intakes are tilted toward the
aircraft centerline; from above, the engines are canted outward slightly to reduce
interference between intake airflow and the fuselage boundary layer. The engines exhaust
through mechanically variable, convergent-divergent nozzles.

Following the loss of three aircraft over a four week period in 1996, the CNO ordered a
safety stand down to review what was known in order to find out if there were any
operational restrictions that needed to be placed on the aircraft. The Navy placed interim
restrictions on the F-14 in the low altitude, high speed environment. Afterburner use was
prohibited for F-14Bs and F-14Ds at all altitudes except for operational emergencies.

The Grumman F-14, the world's premier air defense fighter, was designed to replace the
F-4 Phantom II fighter (phased out in 1986). F-14s provided air cover for the joint strike
on Libyan terrorist targets in 1986. The F-14A was introduced in the mid-1970s. The
upgraded F-14A+ version, with new General Electric F-110 engines, now widespread
throughout the fleet, is more than a match for enemy fighters in close-in, air combat.
The AWG-9 is a pulse-Doppler, multi-mode radar with a designed capability to track 24
targets at the same time while simultaneously devising and executing fire control
solutions for 6 targets. Designed in the 1960's and one of the oldest air-to-air radar
systems, the AWG-9 is still the most powerful and new software will increase its
capabilities for the 21st century.
The cockpit is fitted with a Kaiser AN/AVG-12 Head-Up Display (HUD) co-located with
an AN/AVA-12 vertical situation display and a horizontal situation display. A Northrop
AN/AXX-1 Television Camera Set (TCS) is used for visual target identification at long
ranges. Mounted on a chin pod, the TCS is a high resolution closed circuit television
system with two cockpit selectable Fields Of View (FOV), wide and narrow. The
selected FOV is displayed in the cockpit and can be recorded by the Cockpit Television
System. A new TCS, in development, will be installed in all three series aircraft.
Electronic Support Measures (ESM) equipment include the Litton AN/ALR-45 radar
warning and control system, the Magnavox AN/ALR-50 radar warning receiver, Tracor
AN/ALE-29/-39 chaff/flare dispensers (fitted in the rear fuselage between the fins), and
Sanders AN/ALQ-100 deception jamming pod.
The Tomcat has an internal 20-mm Vulcan Gatling-type gun fitted on the left side, and
can carry Phoenix, Sparrow, and Sidewinder AAMs. Up to 6 Phoenix missiles can be
carried on 4 fuselage stations between the engines and on 2 pylons fitted on the fixed
portion of the wing; 2 Sidewinder AAM can be carried on the wing pylons above the
Phoenix mount. Although the F-14 was tested with conventional "iron" bombs on its
external hardpoints in the 1960s, the BRU-10 ejection racks were not strong enough to
provide a clean separation. Tests in 1988-1990 showed that BRU-32 racks could drop Mk
80-series bombs safely. Later tests would qualify the AGM-88 HARM and the AGM-84
Harpoon.

Initial operational capability in 1973; first flight on 21 December 1970. 79 Tomcats were
delivered to Iran before the 1979 Revolution. They are normally grounded for lack of
parts; some were seen flying during December 1989 Iranian maneuvers. The US Navy
has 699 in service or on order, with deliveries continuing. (The aircraft was not procured
by the US Marine Corps.)

 The F-14A Aircraft is the basic platform of the F-14 series. It is equipped with
two TF30-P-414A engines. Sixty "core" F-14A Aircraft are being upgraded with
the AN/ALR-67 Countermeasure Warning and Control System, LANTIRN and
the Programmable Tactical Information Display (PTID). In all F-14 series aircraft,
the Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS) will be replaced by the Digital
Flight Control System (DFCS). In the late 1970s the Defense Department
experienced very substantial engine problems both with the F-14 with the TF-30
engine, and with the F-16 and the F-15 with F-100 engines. They were so serious
that there was consideration given to developing new engines for the aircraft,
which would have been an enormously difficult undertaking. It was decided
instead to make upgrades and improvements in the engines. The engines in the
later models of the F-14 are entirely adequate for the purpose. The engines in the
F-14As have been improved so that they are also effective, although they are not
the engine the Navy would have put in the airplane from the beginning if there
had been a more powerful engine design then. In the mid-1990s one change that
was made in the F-14 was the introduction of a Digital Flight Control System to
the F-14 to prevent the pilot from making an unsafe or unauthorized maneuver,
reducing the burden on the pilot to remember what cannot or should not be done
under certain conditions. Funding for the new Digital Flight Control System --
about $80 million -- was obtained by reprogramming money in Fiscal 1996. The
existing TARPS Pod System will be replaced with the TARPS Digital Imaging
System. The Bol Chaff System will be added as part of an integrated modification
program. The incorporation of these changes will not change the designation of
the F-14A.
 The F-14B is either a remanufactured F-14A or new production aircraft, both
equipped with F110-GE-400 engines, which replaced the TF30-P-414A engines.
The F110-GE-400 is a new design which emphasizes reliability, maintainability,
and operability. The new high technology engine improves capability and
maneuverability without throttle restrictions or engine trimming. Sixty-seven F-
14B Aircraft are being modified to extend the service life of the airframes and
improve the offensive and defensive posture of the platform. This includes the
F110-GE-400 engine, Fatigue Engine Monitoring System, AN/ALR-67
Countermeasure Warning and Control System, Gun Gas Purge Door Engineering
Change Proposal (ECP), Direct Lift Control/Approach Power Compensator ECP,
AN/AWG-15F ECP, and Engine Door Tension Fittings ECP. In addition, the
AN/ASN-92 Carrier Aircraft Inertial Navigation System (CAINS) I will be
replaced with the Embedded GPS Inertial (EGI) Navigation System. The F-14B
Upgrade includes a MIL-STD-1553B Digital Multiplex Data Bus (DMDB),
Programmable Multi-Display Indicator Group (PMDIG), PTID, the AN/AWG-
15H Fire Control System, AN/ALR-67D(V)2 Radar Warning Receiver, EGI, and
Mission Data Loader. Other survivability improvements were developed under
the F-14 Airframe Change Number 828, Multi-Mission Capability Upgrade. The
modified F-14B Aircraft is referred to as the F-14B Upgrade; modifications will
be completed in FY01.
 The F-14D is either a remanufactured F-14A or new production aircraft, both
equipped with F110-GE-400 engines, new radar, and new avionics systems. The
F-14D provides controls and displays that increase aircrew effectiveness through
automation and simplicity. Additionally, the F-14D provides changes to the radar,
airframe, electronic countermeasures systems, Naval Flight Officer (NFO)
armament control panel, pilot air combat maneuvering panel, and emergency
jettison panel which enhance the offensive and defensive posture of the platform.
The AN/APG 71 Radar replaces the AN/AWG-9 Radar used in the F-14A/B and
has fewer Weapon Replaceable Assemblies (WRAs), thereby reducing both
weight and space requirements. The functional expansion is achieved by
replacement of AN/AWG-9 analog processing hardware with more flexible
digital processing. Major changes were made in the following areas: Signal
Processor, Data Processor, Digital Display, Central Processor, Receivers, and
Antenna configuration. The Infrared Search and Track System (IRSTS) is a Navy
developed system which provides long range detection in the long wave infrared
spectrum of both subsonic and supersonic targets. The Air Force common Joint
Tactical Information Distribution System (JTIDS) terminal, when installed and
integrated, provides secure, jam resistant, high capacity digital data and voice
information distribution, and accurate relative navigation capabilities.

Production shifted to the F-14D in 1988, and Initial Operational Capability for the
F-14D Aircraft was in FY92. The original program schedules envisioned the first
D delivery in March 1990 with an all-D fleet achieved by 1998. Plans called for
127 new-production F-14D and modification of 400 F-14A and F-14A+ to D
configurations. The revised defense budget submitted in April 1989 proposed
cancelling the new-construction portion of the program, but Congress authorized
18 new F-14Ds for 1990 with the stipulation that these would be the last new
aircraft authorized--a total of 37. The first F-14D was delivered in February 1990.
The funding plans for remanufacturing F-14As into F-14D(R)s in the 1990-1994
period included 6 in 1990, 12 in 1991, 24 in 1992, 48 in 1993, and 60 in 1994; the
schedule was later scaled back to 18 in 1992, 20 in 1993, and 24 aircraft in 1994
and 1995. Further defense spending cutbacks eliminated almost all procurement
funding for 1991 and provided no money at all in 1992-1993. The final blow fell
in mid-February 1991 when the Navy cancelled an already-funded $780 million
contract for 12 remanufactured F-14, effectively ending further production.

Since the early 1980s F-14s have had provision for the attachment of the Tactical Air
Reconnaissance Pod System (TARPS), carrying optical and infrared cameras and
permitting the aircraft to perform the photo reconnaissance role without degrading its
performance in other roles. The only modifications required are wiring changes and
cockpit readouts. In 1989, the Navy decided to phase out the F-14's reconnaissance
mission in favor of using F/A-18 Hornets. During Operation Desert Storm in January-
February 1991, however, F-14s flew 781 TARPS missions.
In FY96, all active duty F-14 squadrons, except Fighter Squadron (VF)-154, were
relocated to Naval Air Station (NAS) Oceana, Virginia. VF-154 will remain at NAS
Atsugi, Japan, through FY03. The Reserve F-14A squadron, VF-201, was located at the
Joint Reserve Base Fort Worth, Texas and transitioned to F/A-18 Aircraft in FY99.

Upgrades

The original design airframe life for the F-14 was 6,000 hours, but was later extended to
7,200 hours. The Navy intends to retire the F-14A force by 2003-4, F-14B by 2007, and
the F-14D by 2008.
While the F-14 continues to meet current operational commitments, the Navy has been
working to improve those aircraft systems which are the highest readiness degraders;
which include the radar transmitter, inertial navigation system, and radar antenna.
The Navy made the decision not to upgrade the engines because they would be too
expensive to put in an aircraft which would be removed from service a few years after
being re-engined. Through extensive in-service engineering analysis, the Navy installed a
low cost, but very effective means of alerting aircrew of impending catastrophic TF30
engine failure. This cockpit warning light alerts the aircrew to a sudden rise in engine
breather pressure [an indication of impending engine failure] in time to reduce engine
power and safely land the aircraft. This new system greatly increases aircrew awareness
and further contribute to safe F-14A operations.

The Navy decided to incorporate the GEC Marconi Digital Flight Control System
(DFCS) into all F-14 aircraft to significantly improve flight safety. The system is
designed to protect aviators against unrecoverable flat spins and carrier landing mishaps.
DFCS also incorporates a lateral stick-to-rudder interconnect designed to improve less
than desirable flying qualities in the powered approach configuration. Pilots agree that
with the DFCS the Tomcat is more maneuverable and has crisp response to pilot control
inputs. The new system should improve performance and safety during carrier landings.
This modification affects 211 active duty and 16 reserve F-14 aircraft. The Foreign
Comparative Test (FCT) demonstrated that DFCS drastically decreases the chance of
entering out-of-control flight and improves the F-14's ability to recover, if a spin is
entered. Departure from controlled flight has been a primary causal factor in 35 F-14
mishaps. Also significant is its ability to improve carrier approach line-up control
addressing a problem often cited as a contributing factor in carrier landing mishaps. The
incorporation of DFCS increases safety, both during "edge-of-the-envelope" maneuvering
flight and carrier landings.

The new the Digital Flight Control System [DFCS] provides enhanced maneuverability
for the F-14. The DFCS control panel replaces the current AFCS panel in the front
cockpit, the analog system in use since the aircraft's inception. It contains the modified
SAS switches, and also displays maintenance codes for system failures identified during
IBIT and in flight. System (DFCS) that replaced.
The DFCS system has lived up to its promise of enhanced controllability and
performance in the high AOA regimes and in the landing configuration. However, the
structural issue raised by the enhanced roll rates achievable with the DFCS is a potential
factor affecting the crucial problem of F-14 fatigue life.
During validation of the existing NATOPS rolling G envelope, the primary F-14 test
asset sustained extensive structural damage to the starboard engine weekly doors and aft
fixed cowl when certain structural limits were exceeded. As it turned out, the problem
was not due to DFCS but was related to a NATOP’s operational envelope which had not
been previously verified. This resulted in the fleet-wide rolling G restrictions from
NAVAIR. The impact to the program is going to be felt in an initial envelope for DFCS
with reduced rolling g above and beyond the cutbacks for AFCS roll SAS-on, simply
because the Navy cannot support any further structural testing until the F-14 test aircraft
is repaired. Data is still being analyzed and the restrictions haven’t been fully defined yet,
but it was anticipated that the initial envelope would still include 6.5 g’s symmetric
throughout for gross weights of 49.5K or less. For the clean configuration: 4 g’s rolling to
570 KCAS, 3 g rolling to 700, and 1 g rolls/no abrupt stick inputs above 700/1.4 For
external tanks or Pylon mounted AIM-54s: the "region 3" from NATOPS will begin
above 570 KCAS/1.15 TMN at low alt, or 500 KCAS above 25K.

In late 1995 the F-14 Tomcat took on a new combat mission as part of Operation
Deliberate Force in Bosnia. Nicknammed "Bombcat's", they delivered laser-guided
bombs while other aircraft painted the targets with lasers. With the addition of the
precision strike mission for F-14 aircrews, there was a shift in the emphasis of training;
flight hours now have to be devoted to air-to-ground training as well as for air-to-air
training.

Precision Strike provides the F-14 the capability to deliver laser-guided bombs for air-to-
ground missions. It consists of the LANTIRN pod with laser designator and internal
navigation system, LANTIRN control panel and night vision capable displays. In
LANTIRN equipped F-14As and F-14Bs, the TID has been replaced with the PTID. In
1994 the Navy planned to spend over $2.5 billion to add limited ground attack capability
and other improvements to 210 F-14 Tomcat fighter aircraft (53 F-14Ds, 81 F-14Bs, and
76 F-14As). The ground attack capabilities were required to partially compensate for the
loss in combat capabilities during the period starting in 1997, when all of its A-6E
Intruder attack aircraft were retired, to the turn of the century when the F/A-18E/F, the
next generation strike fighter, was scheduled to arrive. The F-14 is undergoing two
upgrades.

The A/B initial upgrade, includes structural modifications to extend the F-14's fatigue life
to 7,500 hours, improved defensive capabilities and cockpit displays, and incorporation
of digital architecture and mission computers to speed data processing time and add
software capacity.
Block I adds a LANTIRN Forward-Looking Infrared (FLIR) pod with a built-in laser to
designate targets and allow F-14s to independently drop laser guided bombs (LGBs), a
modified cockpit for night attack operations (night vision devices and compatible
lighting), and enhanced defensive countermeasures. The A/B upgrade had to be
incorporated into 157 F-14 aircraft before the Block I upgrade could be added.
Concerned about the Navy's capability to maintain carrier-based power projection
without A-6Es and with only limited F-14 upgrades, the Joint Conference Committee on
the fiscal year 1994 Defense Authorization Act directed the Navy to add an F-15E
equivalent capability to its F-14D aircraft, including the capability to use modern air-to-
ground stand-off weapons. But the Navy, in a report submitted on May 20, 1994
outlining its plans for the F-14, reiterated the intent to add only the A/B and Block I
upgrades. The Navy estimated it would cost $1.8 billion to add F-15E-equivalent
capability to 53 F-14Ds and another $9 billion to upgrade 198 F-14A/Bs. According to
the Navy, an upgrade of that magnitude was not affordable.
Upgraded F-14s generally have greater range than the F/A-18C and could possibly reach
targets beyond the Hornet's range. But planned upgrades will not include an air-to-ground
radar for precision ground mapping that would permit crews to locate, identify, and
attack targets in adverse weather and poor visibility. In addition, no F-14s will be able to
launch current or planned precision munitions or stand-off weapons, except for LGBs.

The 157 F-14A/B models' AWG-9 radar is one of the most powerful US military aircraft
radars for detecting multiple air targets approaching at long range, but it does not provide
a ground mapping capability that permits crews to locate and attack targets in adverse
weather and poor visibility or to precisely update the aircraft's location relative to targets
during the approach, a capability that improves bombing accuracy. Only the 53 F-14Ds,
with their improved APG-71 synthetic aperture ground mapping radar, will have this
capability.

The Block I upgrade does not add any weapon capability new to the F-14, except the
ability to independently drop LGBs. No Block I F-14s can launch precision stand-off
attack weapons such as the High-speed Anti-Radiation Missile (HARM), Harpoon
antiship missile, Maverick anti-armor missile, Walleye guided bomb, and Stand-off Land
Attack Missile (SLAM). Block I aircraft will not be able to employ future precision
stand-off weapons, including the Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM) and the Joint
Stand Off Weapon (JSOW). The Navy does plan to add the capability to launch the
Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air Missile (AMRAAM) to F-14Ds when their
computer software is updated.

Specifications
Function Carrier-based multi-role strike fighter
Contractor Grumman Aerospace Corporation
Unit Cost $38 million
F-14: two Pratt & Whitney TF-30P-414A
turbofan engines with afterburners;
Propulsion
F-14B and F-14D: two General Electric F-110-GE-400
augmented turbofan engines with afterburners
F-14A: 20,900 pounds (9,405 kg) static thrust per
engine;
Thrust
F-14B and F-14D: 27,000 pounds (12,150 kg) per
engine
Length 61 feet 9 inches (18.6 meters)
Height 16 feet (4.8 meters)
Maximum Takeoff
72,900 pounds (32,805 kg)
Weight
64 feet (19 meters) unswept, 38 feet (11.4 meters)
Wingspan
swept
Ceiling Above 53,000 feet
Max Mach Number = 1.88
Speed Cruise Mach Number = .72
Carrier Approach Speed = 125 kts
500 nm Hi-Med-Hi strike profile
Mission Radius
380 nm Hi-Lo-Lo-Hi strike profile
Crew Two: pilot and radar intercept officer
Up to 13,000 pounds of
Air-to-Air Missiles (up to)
6 AIM-7 Sparrows
4 AIM-9 Sidewinder
6 AIM-54 Phoenix
air-to-ground ordnance
MK-82 (500 lbs.)
4 MK-83 (1,000 lbs.)
4 MK-84 (2,000 lbs.)
Armament
MK-20 cluster bomb
4 GBU-10 LGB
GBU-12 MK-82 LGB
4 GBU-16 MK-83 LGB
4 GBU-24 MK-84 LGB
one MK-61A1 Vulcan 20mm cannon

Selected F-14A and B are wired to carry TARPS


All F-14D's are wired to carry the TARPS
AN/ALR-45 radar warning receiver [Itek]
AN/ALR-67 radar warning receiver [F-14D]
Countermeasures
AN/ALQ-167 ECM Pod [F-14D]
AN/ALE-50 towed decoy [F-14D]
Date Deployed
First flight December 1970
157 F-14A/B
53 F-14D
Phasing out one squadron / year
All to be withdrawn by 2010
Inventory
F-14 orginally designed for 6,000 flight hours
Currently certified for 7,350 flight hours
Potential for extension to 8,000 or 9,000 flight hours
F-15 Eagle
The F-15 Eagle is an all-weather, extremely maneuverable, tactical fighter designed to
gain and maintain air superiority in aerial combat. The Eagle's air superiority is achieved
through a mixture of maneuverability and acceleration, range, weapons and avionics. The
F-15 has electronic systems and weaponry to detect, acquire, track and attack enemy
aircraft while operating in friendly or enemy-controlled airspace. Its weapons and flight
control systems are designed so one person can safely and effectively perform air-to-air
combat. It can penetrate enemy defense and outperform and outfight current or projected
enemy aircraft.

The F-15's superior maneuverability and acceleration are achieved through high engine
thrust-to-weight ratio and low wing loading. Low wing-loading (the ratio of aircraft
weight to its wing area) is a vital factor in maneuverability and, combined with the high
thrust-to-weight ratio, enables the aircraft to turn tightly without losing airspeed.

A multimission avionics system sets the F-15 apart from other fighter aircraft. It includes
a head-up display, advanced radar, inertial navigation system, flight instruments, UHF
communications, tactical navigation system and instrument landing system. It also has an
internally mounted, tactical electronic-warfare system, "identification friend or foe"
system, electronic countermeasures set and a central digital computer.

Through an on-going multistage improvement program the F-15 is receiving extensive


upgrade involving the installation or modification of new and existing avionics
equipment to enhance the tactical capabilities of the F-15.

The head-up display projects on the windscreen all essential flight information gathered
by the integrated avionics system. This display, visible in any light condition, provides
the pilot information necessary to track and destroy an enemy aircraft without having to
look down at cockpit instruments.

The F-15's versatile pulse-Doppler radar system can look up at high-flying targets and
down at low-flying targets without being confused by ground clutter. It can detect and
track aircraft and small high-speed targets at distances beyond visual range down to close
range, and at altitudes down to tree-top level. The radar feeds target information into the
central computer for effective weapons delivery. For close-in dog fights, the radar
automatically acquires enemy aircraft, and this information is projected on the head-up
display.

The APG-63 radar was developed over 20 years ago and has an average mean time
between failure less than 15 hours. APG-63 LRUs have become increasingly difficult to
support both in the field and at the depot. First, individual parts have become increasingly
unavailable from any source; incorporating newer technology parts often entails module
redesign and fails to address the root cause. Second, continuing reliability deterioration
impacts both sustainment, particularly during deployment, as well as ACC’s ability to
implement two-level maintenance. In addition, the APG-63 radar has virtually no
remaining processing and memory capacity to accommodate software upgrades to
counter evolving threats. The APG-63(V)1 radar has been designed for improved
reliability and maintainability to address user requirements. The radar incorporates
components designed for improved reliability and lower failure rates and enhanced
diagnostics for improved fault detection and fault isolation. Along with other design
features, these should improve radar reliability to 120 hours MTBM, an order of
magnitude better than the existing APG-63.

An inertial navigation system enables the Eagle to navigate anywhere in the world. It
gives aircraft position at all times as well as pitch, roll, heading, acceleration and speed
information.

The F-15's electronic warfare system provides both threat warning and automatic
countermeasures against selected threats. The "identification friend or foe" system
informs the pilot if an aircraft seen visually or on radar is friendly. It also informs U.S. or
allied ground stations and other suitably equipped aircraft that the F-15 is a friendly
aircraft.

The Fiber Optic Towed Decoy (FOTD) provides aircraft protection against modern radar-
guided missiles to supplement traditional radar jamming equipment. The device is towed
at varying distances behind the aircraft while transmitting a signal like that of a threat
radar. The missile will detect and lock onto the decoy rather than on the aircraft. This is
achieved by making the decoy’s radiated signal stronger than that of the aircraft.

A variety of air-to-air weaponry can be carried by the F-15. An automated weapon


system enables the pilot to perform aerial combat safely and effectively, using the head-
up display and the avionics and weapons controls located on the engine throttles or
control stick. When the pilot changes from one weapon system to another, visual
guidance for the required weapon automatically appears on the head-up display.

The Eagle can be armed with combinations of four different air-to-air weapons: AIM-
7F/M Sparrow missiles or AIM-120 Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air Missiles on its
lower fuselage corners, AIM-9L/M Sidewinder or AIM-120 missiles on two pylons under
the wings, and an internal 20mm Gatling gun (with 940 rounds of ammunition) in the
right wing root.

The current AIM-9 missile does not have the capabilities demonstrated by foreign
technologies, giving the F-15 a distinct disadvantage during IR dogfight scenarios. AIM-
9X integration will once again put the F-15 in the air superiority position in all arenas.
The F-15/AIM-9X weapon system is to consist of F-15 carriage of the AIM-9X missile
on a LAU-128 Air-to-Air (A/A) launcher from existing AIM-9 certified stations. The
AIM-9X will be an upgrade to the AIM-9L/M, incorporating increased missile
maneuverability and allowing a high off-boresight targeting capability.
Low-drag, conformal fuel tanks were especially developed for the F-15C and D models.
Conformal fuel tanks can be attached to the sides of the engine air intake trunks under
each wing and are designed to the same load factors and airspeed limits as the basic
aircraft. Each conformal fuel tank contains about 114 cubic feet of usable space. These
tanks reduce the need for in-flight refueling on global missions and increase time in the
combat area. All external stations for munitions remain available with the tanks in use.
AIM-7F/M Sparrow and AIM-120 missiles, moreover, can be attached to the corners of
the conformal fuel tanks.

The F-15 Eagle began its life in the mid 1960s as the Fighter Experimental (FX) concept.
Using lessons learned in Vietnam, the USAF sought to develop and procure a new,
dedicated air superiority fighter. Such an aircraft was desperately needed, as no USAF
aircraft design solely conceived as an air superiority fighter had become reality since the
F-86 Sabre. The intervening twenty years saw a number of aircraft performing the air-to-
air role as a small part of their overall mission, such as the primarily air-to-ground F-4
Phantom and the F-102, F-104 and F-106 interceptor designs. The result of the FX study
was a requirement for a fighter design combining unparalleled maneuverability with
state-of-the-art avionics and weaponry. An industry-wide competition ended on
December 23, 1969 when McDonnell Douglas was awarded the contract for the F-15.

 The first F-15A flight was made on 27 July 1972, culminating one of the most
successful aircraft development and procurement programs in Air Force history.
After an accident-free test and evaluation period, the first aircraft was delivered to
the Air Force on Novermber 14, 1974. In January 1976, the first Eagle destined
for a combat squadron was delivered to the 1st Tactical Fighter Wing at Langley
Air Force Base, Va. Three hundred and sixty-five F-15As were built before
production of the F-15C began in 1978. In January 1982, the 48th Fighter-
Interceptor Squadron at Langley Air Force Base became the first Air Force air
defense squadron to transition to the F-15. After twenty years of service, the F-
15A has recently been reassigned from active duty Air Force fighter squadrons to
Air National Guard units. The F-15A is flown by Air National Guard squadrons in
the states of Oregon, Missouri, Georgia, Louisiana, Hawaii, and Massachussets.
 The first flight of the two-seat F-15B (formerly TF-15A) trainer was made in July
1973. The first F-15B Eagle was delivered in November 1974 to the 58th Tactical
Training Wing, Luke Air Force Base, Ariz., where pilot training was
accomplished in both F-15A and B aircraft. The F-15B incorporates a tandem
seating configuration, with a second crewmember position aft of the pilot's seat.
The primary purpose of the F-15B is aircrew training, with an instructor pilot
occupying the rear seat while an upgrading pilot mans the front seat controls. The
rear seat pilot has a full set of flight controls and can fly the aircraft throughout
the envelope, including takeoff and landing. Even though space is sacrificed to
accomodate the second crew member, the F-15B retains the same warfighting
capability as the F-15A. In keeping with the trainer concept, however, the rear
seat is not equipped with controls for the combat avionics and weaponry. In fact,
the rear seat is not a mandatory crew position, and F-15Bs are often flown with
empty rear cockpits.
 The F-15C is an improved version of the original F-15A single-seat air
superiority fighter. Additions incorporated in the F-15C include upgrades to
avionics as well as increased internal fuel capacity and a higher allowable gross
takeoff weight. The single-seat F-15C and two-seat F-15D models entered the Air
Force inventory beginning in 1979. Kadena Air Base, Japan, received the first F-
15C in September 1979. These new models have Production Eagle Package (PEP
2000) improvements, including 2,000 pounds (900 kilograms) of additional
internal fuel, provision for carrying exterior conformal fuel tanks and increased
maximum takeoff weight of up to 68,000 pounds (30,600 kilograms). Externally,
the differences between the F-15A and F-15C are so slight as to make
identification difficult; the only reliable indicator is the aircraft serial number. All
F-15As have tail numbers starting with 73- through 77-, while F-15Cs have tail
numbers beginning with 78- through 86-. The F-15C is the Air Force's primary air
superiority fighter, serving with active duty units at Langley AFB, VA, Eglin
AFB, FL, Mountain Home AFB, ID, Elmendorf AFB, AK, Tyndall AFB, FL,
Nellis AFB, NV, Spangdahlem AB, Germany, Lakenheath AB, England and
Kadena AB, Okinawa. The operational F-15C force structure is approximately
300 aircraft assigned to operational units. In the mid-1990s the F-15C experienced
declining reliability indicators, primarily from three subsystems: radar, engines,
and secondary structures. A complete retrofit of all three subsystems could be
done for less than $3 billion.
 The F-15D is a two-seat variant of the single-place F-15C. The primary purpose
of the F-15D is aircrew training, with an instructor pilot occupying the rear seat
while an upgrading pilot mans the front seat controls.

F-15C's, D's and E's


were deployed to the
Persian Gulf in 1991 in
support of Operation
Desert Storm where
they proved their
superior combat
capability with a confirmed 26:0 kill ratio.

The F-15C has an air combat victory ratio of 95-0 making it one of the most effective air
superiority aircraft ever developed. The US Air Force claims the F-15C is in several
respects inferior to, or at best equal to, the MiG-29, Su-27, Su-35/37, Rafale, and EF-
2000, which are variously superior in acceleration, maneuverability, engine thrust, rate of
climb, avionics, firepower, radar signature, or range. Although the F-15C and Su-27P
series are similar in many categories, the Su-27 can outperform the F-15C at both long
and short ranges. In long-range encounters, with its superiorr radar the Su-27 can launch
a missile before the F-15C does, so from a purely kinematic standpoint, the Russian
fighters outperform the F-15C in the beyond-visual-range fight. The Su-35 phased array
radar is superior to the APG-63 Doppler radar in both detection range and tracking
capabilities. Additionally, the Su-35 propulsion system increases the aircraft’s
maneuverability with thrust vectoring nozzles. Simulations conducted by British
Aerospace and the British Defense Research Agency compared the effectiveness of the F-
15C, Rafale, EF-2000, and F-22 against the Russian Su-35 armed with active radar
missiles similar to the AIM-120 Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air Missile
(AMRAAM). The Rafale achieved a 1:1 kill ratio (1 Su-35 destroyed for each Rafale
lost). The EF-2000 kill ratio was 4.5:1 while the F-22 achieved a ratio of 10:1. In stark
contrast was the F-15C, losing 1.3 Eagles for each Su-35 destroyed.

F-15E Strike Eagle

Although the slogan of the F-15's original design team


was "Not a pound for air-to-ground," the F-15 has
long been recognized as having superior potential in
the ground attack role. In 1987 this potential was
realized in the form of the F-15E Strike Eagle. The
mission of the Strike Eagle is as succinct as that of its
air-to-air cousin: to put bombs on target. The F-15E is
especially configured for the deep strike mission,
venturing far behind enemy lines to attack high value
targets with a variety of munitions. The Strike Eagle accomplishes this mission by
expanding on the capabilities of the air superiority F-15, adding a rear seat WSO
(Weapon Systems Operator) crewmember and incorporating an entirely new suite of air-
to-ground avionics.

The F-15E is a two seat, two engine dual role fighter capable of speeds up to MACH 2.5.
The F-15E performs day and night all weather air-to-air and air-to-ground missions
including strategic strike, interdiction, OCA and DCA. Although primarily a deep
interdiction platform, the F-15E can also perform CAS and Escort missions. Strike Eagles
are equipped with LANTIRN, enhancing night PGM delivery capability. The F-15E
outbord and inboard wing stations and the centerline can be load with various armament.
The outboard wing hardpoint are unable to carry heavy loads and are assign for ECM
pods. The other hardpoints can be employed for various loads but with the use of multiple
ejection racks (MERs). Each MER can hold six Mk-82 bombs or "Snakeye" retarded
bombs, or six Mk 20 "Rockeye" dispensers, four CBU-52B, CBU- 58B, or CBU-71B
dispensers, a single Mk-84 (907 kg) bomb F- 15E can carry also "smart" weapons, CBU-
10 laser quided bomb based on the Mk 84 bomb, CBU-12, CBU-15, or another, laser,
electro-optical, or infra-red guided bomb (including AGM-G5 "Marerick" air-to-ground)
missiles.

Conformal Fuel Tanks were introduced with the F-15C in order to extend the range of the
aircraft. The CFTs are carried in pairs and fit closely to the side of the aircraft, with one
CFT underneath each wing. By designing the CFT to minimize the effect on aircraft
aerodynamics, much lower drag results than if a similar amount of fuel is carried in
conventional external fuel tanks. This lower drag translate directly into longer aircraft
ranges, a particularly desirable characteristic of a deep strike fighter like the F-15E. As
with any system, the use of CFTs on F-15s involves some compromise. The weight and
drag of the CFTs (even when empty) degrades aircraft performance when compared to
external fuel tanks, which can be jettisoned when needed (CFTs are not jettisonable and
can only be downloaded by maintenance crews). As a result, CFTs are typically used in
situations where increased range offsets any performance drawbacks. In the case of the F-
15E, CFTs allow air-to-ground munitions to be loaded on stations which would otherwise
carry external fuel tanks. In general, CFT usage is the norm for F15Es and the exception
for F-15C/D's.

The F-15E Strike Eagle’s tactical electronic warfare system [TEWS] is an integrated
countermeasures system. Radar, radar jammer, warning receiver and chaff/flare dispenser
all work together to detect, identify and counter threats posed by an enemy. For example,
if the warning receiver detects a threat before the radar jammer, the warning receiver will
inform the jammer of the threat. A Strike Eagle’s TEWS can jam radar systems operating
in high frequencies, such as radar used by short-range surface-to-air missiles, antiaircraft
artillery and airborne threats. Current improvements to TEWS will enhance the aircraft’s
ability to jam enemy radar systems. The addition of new hardware and software, known
as Band 1.5, will round out the TEWS capability by jamming threats in mid-to-low
frequencies, such as long-range radar systems. The equipment is expected to go into full
production sometime in late 1999.

The Defense Department plans to sustain production of the F-15E for at least two more
years, purchasing three aircraft in both FY 1998 and FY 1999. Without FY 1998
procurement, the F-15 production line would begin to close in the absence of new foreign
sales. These six additional aircraft, together with the six aircraft approved by Congress in
FY 1997, will sustain the present 132-plane combat force structure until about FY 2016.
Under current plans by 2030, the last F-15C/D models will have been phased out of the
inventory and replaced by the F-22.

Service Life

Designed in the 1960s and built in the 1970s, the F-15A - D aircraft has now been in
service for over twenty years. While the Eagle's aerodynamics and maneuverability are
still on a par with newer aircraft, quantum leaps in integrated circuit technology have
made the original F-15 avionics suite obsolete. The objective of the Multi-Stage
Improvement Program (MSIP) was to set the Eagle in step with today's vastly improved
information processing systems. Some F-15C/D aircraft (tail numbers 84-001 and higher)
came off the assembly line with MSIP in place. All F-15A/B/C/D aircraft produced
before 84-001 will receive the MSIP retrofit at the F-15 depot. Improvements
incorporated via MSIP vary between F-15A/B and F-15C/D aircraft; the C/D MSIP has
been completed. However, all air-to-air Eagles gain improved radar, central computer,
weapons and fire control, and threat warning systems.
The purpose of the F-15 Multi-stage Improvement Program (MSIP) was to provide
maximum air superiority in a dense hostile environment in the late 1990s and beyond. All
total, 427 Eagles received the new avionics upgrades. Along with later model production
aircraft, these retrofitted aircraft would provide the Combat Air Forces (CAF) with a total
MSIP fleet of 526 aircraft. The MSIP upgraded the capabilities of the F-15 aircraft to
included a MIL-STD-1760 aircraft/weapons standard electrical interface bus to provide
the digital technology needed to support new and modern weapon systems like
AMRAAM. The upgrade also incorporated a MIL-STD-1553 digital command/response
time division data bus that would enable onboard systems to communicate and to work
with each other. A new central computer with significantly improved processing speed
and memory capacity upgraded the F-15 from 70s to 90s technology, adding capacity
needed to support new radar and other systems. The original Eagle had less computer
capacity than a 1990s car. Some of the work prefaced the addition of the Joint Tactical
Information Distribution System, adding space, power, and cooling that would allow the
new avionics to run in the harsh environments in which the Eagle operates. The new
programmable armament control set (PACS) with a multi-purpose color display (MPCD)
for expanded weapons control, monitoring, and release capabilities featured a modern
touch screen that allowed the pilot to talk to his weapons. A data transfer module (DTM)
set provided pre-programmed information that customized the jet to fly the route the pilot
had planned using mission planning computers. An upgrade to the APG-63 Radar for
multiple target detection, improved electronic counter-countermeasures (ECCM)
characteristics, and non-cooperative target recognition capability enabled the pilot to
identify and target enemy aircraft before he was detected or before the enemy could
employ his weapons. An upgrade of the advanced medium range air-to-air missile
(AMRAAM), that carried up to eight missiles, represented an improvement that
complimented the combat-proven AIM-7 Sparrow by giving the pilot capability to
engage multiple targets to launch and leave, targeting and destroying enemy fighters
before they could pose a threat. The upgraded Radar Warning Receiver (RWR) and an
enhanced internal countermeasures set (ICS) on F-15C/D models improved threat
detection and self-protection radar jamming capability that allowed pilots to react to
threat and to maneuver to break the lock of enemy missiles.

The F-15 initial operational requirement was for a service life of 4,000 hours. Testing
completed in 1973 demonstrated that the F-15 could sustain 16,000 hours of flight.
Subsequently operational use was more severely stressful than the original design
specification. With an average usage of 270 aircraft flight hours per year, by the early
1990s the F-15C fleet was approaching its service-design-life limit of 4,000 flight hours.
Following successful airframe structural testing, the F-15C was extended to an 8,000-
hour service life limit. An 8,000-hour service limit provides current levels of F-15Cs
through 2010. The F-22 program was initially justified on the basis of an 8,000 flight
hour life projection for the F-15. This was consistent with the projected lifespan of the
most severely stressed F-15Cs, which have averaged 85% of flight hours in stressful air-
to-air missions, versus the 48% in the original design specification.

Full-scale fatigue testing between 1988 and 1994 ended with a demonstration of over
7,600 flight hours for the most severely used aircraft, and in excess of 12,000 hours on
the remainder of the fleet. A 10,000-hour service limit would provide F-15Cs to 2020,
while a 12,000-hour service life extends the F-15Cs to the year 2030. The APG-63 radar,
F100-PW-100 engines, and structure upgrades are mandatory. The USAF cannot expect
to fly the F-15C to 2014, or beyond, without replacing these subsystems. The total cost of
the three retrofits would be under $3 billion. The upgrades would dramatically reduce the
18 percent breakrate prevalent in the mid-1990s, and extend the F-15C service life well
beyond 2014.

The F-15E structure is rated at 16,000 flight hours, double the lifetime of earlier F-15s.

Foreign Military Sales


The Eagle has been chosen by three foreign military customers to modernize their air
forces. Japan has purchased and produces an air-to-air F-15 known as the F-15J. Israel
has bought F-15A, B, and D aircraft from USAF inventories and is currently obtaining an
air-to-ground version called the F-15I. Similarly, Saudi Arabia has purchased F-15C and
D aircraft and acquired the air-to-ground F-15S.

F-15I Thunder
Israel has bought F-15A, B, and D aircraft from USAF inventories and is currently
obtaining an air-to-ground version called the F-15I. The two seat F-15I, known as the
Thunder in Israel, incorporates new and unique weapons, avionics, electronic warfare,
and communications capabilities that make it one of the most advanced F-15s. The F-15I,
like the US Air Force's F-15E Strike Eagle, is a dual-role fighter that combines long-
range interdiction with the Eagle's air superiority capabilities. All aircraft are to be
configured with either the F100-PW-229 or F110-GE-129 engines by direct commercial
sale; Night Vision Goggle compatible cockpits; an Elbit display and sight helmet
(DASH) system; conformal fuel tanks; and the capability to employ the AIM-120, AIM-
7, AIM-9, and a wide variety of air-to-surface munitions.
F-15 production, which began in 1972, has been extended into 1999 by orders F-151
aircraft for Israel. Israel selected the F-15I in January, 1994 after evaluating a variety of
aircraft to meet its defense needs. The government of Israel initially ordered 25 F-15I
Thunders, powered by two Pratt & Whitney F100-PW-229 low bypass turbofan engine.
This foreign military sale was valued at $1.76 billion dollars. The Israeli Air Force
received the first two of 25 F-15I aircraft in January 1998. On 22 September 1998 the US
Department of Defense announced the sale to the Government of Israel of 30 F-15I
aircraft; 30 AN/APG-70 or AN/APG-63(V)1 radar; and 30 each LANTIRN navigation
and targeting pods. Associated support equipment, software development/integration,
spares and repair parts, flight test instrumentation, publications and technical
documentation, personnel training and training equipment, US Government and
contractor technical and logistics personnel services, and other related requirements to
ensure full program supportability will also be provided. The estimated cost was $2.5
billion.

F-15S Peace Sun IX

F-15 production has been extended into 1999 by orders for 72 F-15S aircraft for Saudi
Arabia. Peace Sun IX is an F-15 Foreign Military Sales production program, with
development, to deliver 72 F-15S aircraft including support equipment, spares, and
training to the Royal Saudi government. Saudi Arabia has purchased a total of 62 F-15C
and D aircraft and later procured the F-15S, which is a two-seater aircraft based on the F-
15E airframe, with downgraded avionics, downgraded LANTIRN pods, and a simplified
Hughes APG-70 radar without computerised radar mapping. Four F-15S Eagles were
delivered in 1995. On 10 November 1999 the last of 72 F-15S aircraft was delivered to
Saudi Arabia. In November 1995 Saudi Arabia purchased 556 GBU-15 Guided Bomb
Units (including six training units), 48 data link pods, personnel training and training
equipment and other related elements of logistics support. The estimated cost is $371
million. Saudi Arabia would use the GBU-15s to enhance the stand off attack capability
of the F-15S aircraft.

F-15J Peace Eagle

Japan has purchased and produced a total of 223 air-to-air F-15 known as the F-15J,
assembled in Japan from largely indigenously manufactured sub-assemblies and
equipment. The Mitsubishi F-15J/DJ Eagle is the principal air superiority fighter operated
by the JASDF. These differ from the F-15C/D with the deletion of sensitive ECM, radar
warning, and nuclear delivery equipment. The AN/ALQ-135 is replaced by indigenous
J/ALQ-8 and the AN/ALR-56 RHAWS is replaced by J/APR-4.

Specifications
Primary
Tactical fighter.
Function
Contractor McDonnell Douglas Corp.
Power Plant Two Pratt & Whitney F100-PW-100 turbofan engines with afterburners.
Thrust (C/D models) 25,000 pounds each engine ( 11,250 kilograms).
Length 63 feet, 9 inches (19.43 meters).
Height 18 feet, 8 inches (5.69 meters).
Wingspan 42 feet, 10 inches (13.06 meters)
Speed 1,875 mph (Mach 2.5-plus) at 45,000 ft.
Ceiling 65,000 feet (19,697 meters).
Maximum
Takeoff (C/D models) 68,000 pounds (30,600 kilograms).
Weight
3,450 miles (3,000 nautical miles) ferry range with conformal fuel tanks
Range
and three external fuel tanks.
Armament 1 - M-61A1 20mm multibarrel internal gun, 940 rounds of ammunition
4 - AIM-9L/M Sidewinder and
4 - AIM-7F/M Sparrow missiles, or
combination of AIM-9L/M, AIM-7-F/M and AIM-120 missiles.
F-15C Weapon Loads

AIM AIM AIM AGM 20


7 9 120 88 MM
4 4 900
4 2 2 900
2 2 4 900
4 4 4 900
4 4 4 900
8 900

F-15E Weapon Loads

12 CBU-52 (6 with wing tanks)


12 CBU-59 (6 with wing tanks)
12 CBU-71 (6 with wing tanks)
12 CBU-87 (6 with wing tanks)
12 CBU-89 (6 with wing tanks)
20 MK-20 (6 with wing tanks)
AG AG CB CB CB GB GB GB GB AI AI 20
M M U U U U U U U M M
JDA M
65 130 87 89 97 10 12 28 15 9 120
M M
4 4 500
1 4 500
8 4 500
8 4 500
8 4 500
4 4 500
8 4 500
2 4 500
1 4 500
4 4 500
4 4 500
2 6 500

Systems AN/APG-63 X-band pulsed-Doppler radar [Hughes]


AN/APG-70 X-band pulsed-Doppler radar [Hughes]
[ on F-15E, F-15C/D, F-15A/B MSIP]
AN/APX-76 IFF interrogator [Hazeltine]
AN/ALQ-135(V) internal countermeasures system
AN/ALQ-128 radar warning [Magnavox] suite
AN/ALR-56 radar warning receiver (RWR) [Loral]
AN/ALE-45 chaff/flare dispensers [Tracor]
AN/AVQ-26 Pave Tack
AN/AXQ-14 Data Link System
LANTIRN
Crew F-15A/C: one. F-15B/D: two.
Unit cost
$FY98
$43 million.
[Total
Program]
Date
July 1972
Deployed
360 F-15A/B
Production 408 F-15C
[for USAF] 61 F-15D
203 F-15E
275 F-15A/B
Total 410 F-15C/D
Inventory 203 F-15E
Approximately 100 F-15s are in storage @ AMARC
45 F-15A/B Air National Guard Air Defense Force
45 F-15A/B Air National Guard
126 F-15C/D Air Combat Command
90 F-15C/D Pacific Air Forces
PMAI
36 F-15C/D US Air Forces Europe
Primary
342 F-15A/C TOTAL
Mission
66 F-15E Air Combat Command
Aircraft 18 F-15E Pacific Air Forces
Inventory
48 F-15E US Air Forces Europe
132 F-15E TOTAL
Only combat-coded aircraft and not development/ test, attrition reserve,
depot maintenance, or training aircraft.
F-15E Strike Eagle
F-16 Fighting Falcon
Genesis of the successful F-16 fighter/attack aircraft lies in reaction to severe deficiencies
in US fighter design revealed by the Vietnam War.

Following the success of the small, highly maneuverable F-86 day fighter in the Korean
War, US fighter design changed to emphasize maximum speed, altitude, and radar
capability at the expense of maneuverability, pilot vision, and other attributes needed for
close combat. This trend reached its extremity in the McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom,
which was the principal fighter for both the US Air Force and Navy during the latter part
of the Vietnam War.

The F-4 was originally designed as an interceptor for defense of the fleet against air
attack - a mission neither it nor any other jet has ever executed, because no US fleet has
come under air attack since the beginning of the jet age. Be that as it may, the F-4
interceptor was designed to meet the fleet defense mission by using rapid climb to high
altitude, high supersonic speed, and radar-guided missiles to shoot down threat aircraft at
long distance.

Used as a fighter rather than as an interceptor in Vietnam, the F-4 was severely miscast.
Against very inferior North Vietnamese pilots flying small, highly maneuverable MiG-
21s, the air-to-air kill ratio sometimes dropped as low as 2 to 1, where it had been 13 to 1
in Korea. As the Vietnam War drew to a close, it was generally agreed that the F-4 had
prohibitive deficiencies including:

1. LARGENESS. F-4 pilots to frequently found themselves fighting at separation


distances at which they could not see the smaller MiG-21s, but the MiG-21 pilots
could see them.
2. POOR PILOT VISION. In order to minimize high-speed drag, the F-4, and all
combat aircraft before the F-14, does not have a bubble canopy. It is designed for
a pilot to look straight ahead. Vision down and to the sides is poor; vision to the
rear is nonexistent.
3. MANEUVERABILITY. While the F-4 can pull 7G in turns, which was
acceptable for that time, it can only do so by rapidly bleeding off energy (losing
speed and/or altitude).
4. TRANSIENT PERFORMANCE. Ability of the F-4 to change its maneuver
(that is, to roll rapidly while pulling high Gs) was poor.
5. COST. The large F-4 was an expensive aircraft to procure and maintain. This
meant that, compared to the MiG-21, fewer aircraft could be bought with a given
budget.
6. NO GUN. The F-4 was designed without a gun, and was thus not capable of very
close combat.
7. COMBAT PERSISTENCE. While the ferry range of the F-4 was acceptable, its
ability to engage in sustained hard maneuvering without running out of fuel was a
significant problem.
These various sacrifices were rationalized by the belief that visual dogfighting was
obsolete, and that in the supersonic age, air combat would be fought beyond visual range
(BVR) using radar-guided missiles. This concept failed in Vietnam for two reasons: First,
radar could detect and track aircraft but not identify them. Operating beyond visual range
created an unacceptable risk of shooting down one's own aircraft. Pilots were therefore
required to close to visually identify the target before shooting; this eliminated the
theoretical range advantage of radar-guided missiles. Second, the performance of the
Sparrow radar-guided missile in Vietnam was poor, generally yielding less than 10% kill
per shot.

Dissatisfaction with these deficiencies led to the US Air Force F-15 and US Navy F-14
designs. On this page we discuss only the Air Force programs.

The original F-15 had excellent pilot vision, including being able to see 360 degrees in
the horizontal plane. It had strong high-speed maneuverability and a 20mm cannon. In
addition to rectifying some of the F-4's deficiencies, it could fly higher and faster than the
F-4, and had dramatically better climb and acceleration.

It also had a powerful radar with advanced look-down shoot-down capability, and relied
on the Sparrow missile as its principal weapon.

Nevertheless, an informal but influential group called the "Fighter Mafia" objected to the
F-15 as moving in the wrong direction. (The most prominent Fighter Mafia spokesmen
were systems analyst Pierre Sprey, test pilot Charles E. Meyers, and legendary fighter
pilot John Boyd.)

The F-15, the Fighter Mafia objected, was even larger and more expensive than the F-4.
Much of that money went into creating high maximum speed (Mach 2.5) and altitude
(65,000 feet) and to serving as a launcher, under BVR conditions which couldn't be used
in real combat,. for the Sparrow missile which didn't work While recognizing that the F-
15 had phenomenal supersonic climb and maneuverability (it could sustain 6Gs at Mach
1.6), at such speeds it could not fight because its turn radius was so large that it could not
keep the enemy in sight.

What the Air Force needed, the Mafia argued, was a successor to the WWII P-51
Mustang and the Korean War F-86 Saber: an all-new small fighter that would be cheap
enough to buy in large numbers. (The F-104 was not considered a predecessor aircraft
because, while it had excellent climb and acceleration, its wings were too small, leaving
it deficient in range and maneuverability.) The new fighter would have revolutionary
maneuverability, transient performance, acceleration, and climb at the subsonic and
transonic speeds at which air combat is actually fought. It would have a gun and its
primary armament would be the infra-red guided Sidewinder missile that had proven
highly effective in Vietnam.

While Sidewinder's range was limited to about three miles, the Mafia argued that air
combat beyond that range was fantasy in any case. Some members of the Mafia even
suggested that the ideal small fighter would have no radar at all, although this was a
minority view.

In any case, the Air Force establishment wanted no part of a new small fighter, with or
without radar. It was regarded as a threat to the F-15, which was USAF's highest priority
program. But the Fighter Mafia gained considerable resonance in Congress and within
the Office of the Secretary of Defense. In 1971 Deputy Secretary of Defense David
Packard began a Lightweight Fighter (LWF) program to explore the concept.

The LWF was to be about 20,000 pounds, or half the weight of the F-15, and was to
stress low cost, small size, and very high performance at speed below Mach 1.6 and
altitude below 40,000 feet. Two competing designs would be chosen for prototyping.

Industry recognized, correctly, that regardless of USAF hostility, LWF variants had great
potential for profitable foreign military sales, including replacing the F-104. Single-
engine designs were put forward by Boeing, General Dynamics, LTV, Northrop, and
Rockwell. Northrop also proposed on a twin-engine design, in effect using Air Force
money to develop a replacement for its F-5 export fighter.

The Boeing and General Dynamics designs were the clear leaders from the beginning,
with the Northrop twin-engine design clearly the weakest of the six.

But midway through this stage of the competition, some potential foreign buyers
expressed concern over buying a new single-engine fighter. The previous single-engine
supersonic export fighter, the F-104, had a troublesome safety record that some buyers
were disinclined to repeat.

USAF, therefore, decided that one of the two down-selectees had to have two engines.
Since the last-place Northrop design was the only twin-engine contender, it became a
down-selection winner by default.

When the General Dynamics design was chosen the other selectee on merit, Boeing was
no doubt a bit miffed that its loss was caused by USAF changing the rules in mid-
competition. But it did not protest the decision.

Of the two surviving designs, now designated the General Dynamics YF-16 and the
Northrop YF-17., the YF-17 was a relatively conventional design, to some extent an
outgrowth of the F-5, while the YF-16 was an all-new design incorporating highly
innovative technologies that in many respects reached beyond those of the more
expensive F-15. These included -

1. FLY BY WIRE. From the outset, the YF-16 had no direct connection between
the pilot's controls and the aircraft's control surfaces. Instead, the stick and rudder
controls were connected to quadruple-redundant computers, which then told the
elevators, ailerons, and rudder what to do. This had several large advantages over
previous systems. It was quicker responding, automatically correcting for gusts
and thermals with no effort from the pilot. It could be programmed to compensate
for aerodynamic problems and fly like an ideal airplane. Most importantly, it
enabled, with full safety, a highly efficient unstable design.
2. NEGATIVE STABILITY. All previous aircraft designs had been
aerodynamically stable. That is, the center of gravity was well in front of the
center of lift and the center of pressure (drag).
a. To illustrate the difference between stable and unstable designs, take a
shirt cardboard and, holding it by the leading edge, pull it rapidly through
the air. It will stretch out behind your hand in a stable manner. This is a
stable design Now take it by the trailing edge push forward from there. It
will immediately flip up or down uncontrollably. That is an unstable
design.
b. The downside of aerodynamic stability is that the aircraft is nose-heavy
and always trying to nose down. The elevator must therefore push the tail
down to level the airplane. But in addition to rotating the airplane from
nose-down to level, the elevator is exerting negative lift; that is, it is
pushing the airplane down. In order to counteract this negative lift, the
wing needs to be made larger to create more positive lift. This increases
both weight and drag, decreasing aircraft performance. In pitch-up
situations including hard turns which are the bread and butter of aerial
combat, this negative effect is greatly magnified.
c. The YF-16 became the world's first aircraft to be aerodynamically
unstable by design. With its rearward center of gravity, its natural
tendency is to nose up rather than down. So level flight is created by the
elevator pushing the tail up rather than down, and therefore pushing the
entire aircraft up. With the elevator working with the wing rather than
against it, wing area, weight, and drag are reduced. The airplane was
constantly on the verge of flipping up or down totally out of control,. and
this tendency was being constantly caught and corrected by the fly-by-
wire control system so quickly that neither the pilot nor an outside
observer could know anything was happening. If the control system were
to fail, the aircraft would instantly disintegrate; however, this has never
happened.
3. HIGH G LOADS. Previous fighters were designed to take 7Gs, mainly because
it was believed that the human pilot, even with a G-suit, could not handle more.
The YF-16 seatback was reclined 30 degrees, rather than the usual 13 degrees.
This was to increase the ability of the pilot to achieve 9Gs by reducing the vertical
distance between head and heart. Additionally, the traditional center control stick
was replaced by a stick on the right side, with an armrest to relieve the pilot of the
need to support his arm when it weighed nine times normal.
4. PILOT VISION. In addition to allowing full-circle horizontal vision and
unprecedented vision over the sides, the YF-16 canopy was designed without
bows in the forward hemisphere.
5. GROWTH PREVENTION. Traditionally, room for growth has been considered
an asset. Fighter aircraft have averaged weight gain of about one pound per day as
new capabilities are added, cost increases, and performance declines. The F-15,
for example, was designed with about 15 cubic feet of empty space to allow for
future installation of additional equipment.. In a radical departure, the YF-16 was
intentionally designed with very little empty space, (about two cubic feet)., with
the explicit intention of preventing growth. One member of the House Armed
Services Committee actually wrote to the Secretary of the Air Force asking that
the F-16's empty space be filled with Styrofoam to insure that "gold-plated junk"
was not added to the design.
6. COMBAT RADIUS AND PERSISTENCE. General Dynamics chose a single
turbofan engine, essentially the same engine as one of the two that powered the F-
15. Use of a single engine helped minimize weight and drag; use of a turbofan
rather than a pure jet engine gave high fuel efficiency. Additionally, the YF-16
designers used a "blended body" design in which the wing gradually thickened at
the root and blended into the body contours without the usual visible joint. The
space thus created was filled with fuel. With such a high fuel fraction and a fuel-
efficient engine, the YF-16 was able to break the presumption that small aircraft
were necessarily short-ranged.
7. RADAR INTEGRATION. Because the YF-16 carried no radar-guided missiles,
it could only fight within visual range. Moreover, the small weight and space
available limited the range of its radar. Nevertheless, it was given a
technologically advanced small radar, with excellent look-down capability. Most
importantly, the radar was integrated with the visual combat mode. That is, the
radar projected an image of the target aircraft onto the Head Up Display so that,
by looking at that image, the pilot was looking exactly where the target would
become visible as he approached it.

The competing Northrop YF-17 design was somewhat larger than the YF-16, and used
two smaller pure jet engines. At the price of reduced range and persistence, the YF-17
avoided the main problem of the YF-16's turbofan: the inertia of the large fan required
too long - in some cases six seconds - to spool up from idle to full power. In other
respects, the YF-17 progressed better than expected, given its initial last place position.

Northrop argued that its twin-engine design added an essential safety factor, citing its
experience with the small twin-engine F-5 fighter as an example. USAF did not find this
persuasive, in part because a two engine plane with one engine out is useless in combat,
and the probability of an engine failure was nominally twice as high with two engines as
with one. The higher performance, better transient maneuverability, longer range, and
lower cost of the YF-16 carried the day, and in 1976 the F-16 was chosen over the F-17.

USAF was then in the uncomfortable position of having a lightweight fighter design that
could outmaneuver and outrange its pride and joy, the F-15 air superiority fighter. In real-
world combat conditions, which meant Mach 1.2 or below, the F-16s held a significant
edge over the F-15. To some extent this problem was solved by designating the F-16 as a
"swing fighter" to do both air-to-air and air-to-ground, while the F-15 was to continue its
aristocratic mission of pure air-to-air.
Probably the F-16's greatest asset during development was its unpopularity with the
USAF establishment. Knowing that their airplane was in constant threat of cancellation,
the General Dynamics designers were inspired to do everything possible and then some
to maintain performance and prevent cost growth. For example, while the F-15 was about
25% titanium, titanium in the F-16 was limited to 2%. As another example, a fixed
engine inlet was used to hold down cost, even though a variable inlet would have given
better performance above Mach 1.5.

The F-16 has been, by any standard, a success. USAF has used it heavily and successfully
for air-to-ground in the 1991 Gulf war and all subsequent conflicts. The Israeli Air Force
has also had great success with it.

With the benefit of hindsight, it is worthwhile to look back from the current (2003)
vantage point to see how the original concept has faired

1. FLY BY WIRE has been a clear success. It is now used in essentially all military
fixed wing aircraft and on many commercial aircraft.
2. NEGATIVE STABILITY, or at least reduced positive stability, has worked
without a failure - no F-16s have disintegrated in air from control system failure -
and is coming into increasing use.
3. HIGH G LOADS. The 9G standard pioneered by the F-16 is now universal for
new fighter designs, although it is achieved more by pilot training than by
hardware. Benefit of the 30-degree reclining seat back has not been clearly
established, and many pilots find it increases the difficult of checking their six
o'clock position while in hard maneuvers. So more recent designs have not copied
the F-16 seat. Similarly, the side stick has worked well but has not proven as
essential as its designers originally expected. One enduring controversy is
whether control systems should, as is the case with the F-16 be programmed to
unconditionally limit the aircraft to 9gs, or whether higher loads should be
permitted in emergencies. One eminent General Dynamics test pilot, a "super
pilot" who in his fifties was still able to sustain 9Gs for 45 seconds, published an
article on the subject in "Code One", the General Dynamics house organ, arguing
that there was not enough useful benefit in being able to exceed 9 Gs to justify the
strain on the airframe, particularly since few pilots could retain functionality
above 9Gs. Tragically and ironically, this pilot was killed when his plane, pulling
9Gs in a hard maneuver, was unable to pull up enough to avoid the impacting the
ground. This outstanding pilot might have been able to function with a brief
application of 10, 11, or even 12Gs. Could that have saved him and his aircraft?
Could it save others in the future?
4. PILOT VISION. Pilots like the F-16 canopy without front bows for its quietness
as well as its vision. One drawback is that in order to avoid optical distortion in
the bowless design, the conventional use of thick polycarbonate on the front to
protect against birdstrike, and thinner polycarbonate for the rest of the canopy,
cannot be used. Because the F-16 canopy uses thick polycarbonate throughout, it
is not possible to eject by using the seat to puncture through the canopy. The
canopy must first be blown off by small rockets, prolonging the ejection sequence
slightly. On balance, the F-16 canopy concept is considered successful and it is
continued in the F-22. On the other hand, neither Joint Strike Fighter candidate
used full-circle vision, much less a bowless canopy.
5. GROWTH PREVENTION. The original concept of a small day ait-to-air fighter
was lost before the first production aircraft. The fuselage was extended so that the
single-seat versions became as long as the two-seat version, and air-to-ground
capability was added. As its life progressed, the F-16 became progressively larger
and heavier as more capability, including the AMRAAM radar-guided missile,
chaff and flare dispensers, and more hard points were added. Still, weight gain has
been only about half the traditional pound per day, so the determination of the
original designers has not been in vain.
6. COMBAT RADIUS AND PERSISTENCE. The F-16 blended body has worked
well, but has not been emulated in most newer designs.
7. RADAR INTEGRATION. Integration of radar with visual systems has been
fully successful and is now standard fighter design.

Variants

In January 1972, the Lightweight Fighter Program solicited design specifications from
several American manufacturers. Participants were told to tailor their specifications
toward the goal of developing a true air superiority lightweight fighter. General
Dynamics and Northrop were asked to build prototypes, which could be evaluated with
no promise of a follow-on production contract. These were to be strictly technology
demonstrators. The two contractors were given creative freedom to build their own vision
of a lightweight air superiority fighter, with only a limited number of specified
performance goals. Northrop produced the twin-engine YF-17, using breakthrough
aerodynamic technologies and two high-thrust engines. General Dynamics countered
with the compact YF-16, built around a single F100 engine.

When the Lightweight Fighter competition was completed early in 1975, both the YF-16
and the YF-17 showed great promise. The two prototypes performed so well, in fact, that
both were selected for military service. On 13 January 1975 the Air Force announced that
the YF-16's performance had made it the winner of its Air Combat Fighter (ACF)
competition. This marked a shift from the original intention to use the two airplanes
strictly as technology demonstrators. General Dynamics' YF-16 had generally shown
superior performance over its rival from Northrop. At the same time, the shark-like
fighter was judged to have production costs lower than expected, both for initial
procurement and over the life cycle of the plane. At the same time, the YF-16 had proved
the usefulness not only of fly-by-wire flight controls, but also such innovations as
reclined seat backs and transparent head-up display (HUD) panels to facilitate high-G
maneuvering, and the use of high profile, one-piece canopies to give pilots greater
visibility. Thus, the Air Force had its lightweight fighter, the F-16.

The original F-16 was designed as a lightweight air-to-air day fighter. Air-to-ground
responsibilities transformed the first production F-16s into multirole fighters. The empty
weight of the Block 10 F-16A is 15,600 pounds. The empty weight of the Block 50 is
19,200 pounds. The A in F-16A refers to a Block 1 through 20 single-seat aircraft. The B
in F-16B refers to the two-seat version. The letters C and D were substituted for A and B,
respectively, beginning with Block 25. Block is an important term in tracing the F-16's
evolution. Basically, a block is a numerical milestone. The block number increases
whenever a new production configuration for the F-16 is established. Not all F-16s within
a given block are the same. They fall into a number of block subsets called miniblocks.
These sub-block sets are denoted by capital letters following the block number (Block
15S, for example). From Block 30/32 on, a major block designation ending in 0 signifies
a General Electric engine; one ending in 2 signifies a Pratt & Whitney engine.

The F-16A, a single-seat model, first flew in December 1976. The first operational F-16A
was delivered in January 1979 to the 388th Tactical Fighter Wing at Hill Air Force Base,
Utah. The F-16B, a two-seat model, has tandem cockpits that are about the same size as
the one in the A model. Its bubble canopy extends to cover the second cockpit. To make
room for the second cockpit, the forward fuselage fuel tank and avionics growth space
were reduced. During training, the forward cockpit is used by a student pilot with an
instructor pilot in the rear cockpit.

 Block 1 and Block 5 F-16s were manufactured through 1981 for USAF and for
four European air forces. Most Blocks 1 and 5 aircraft were upgraded to a Block
10 standard in a program called Pacer Loft in 1982.
 Block 10 aircraft (312 total) were built through 1980. The differences between
these early F-16 versions are relatively minor.
 Block 15 aircraft represent the most numerous version of the more than 3,600 F-
16s manufactured to date. The transition from Block 10 to Block 15 resulted in
two hardpoints added to the chin of the inlet. The larger horizontal tails, which
grew in area by about thirty percent are the most noticeable difference between
Block 15 and previous F-16 versions.

The F-16C and F-16D aircraft, which are the single- and two-place counterparts to the F-
16A/B, incorporate the latest cockpit control and display technology. All F-16s delivered
since November 1981 have built-in structural and wiring provisions and systems
architecture that permit expansion of the multirole flexibility to perform precision strike,
night attack and beyond-visual-range interception missions. All active units and many Air
National Guard and Air Force Reserve units have converted to the F-16C/D, which is
deployed in a number of Block variants.

 Block 25 added the ability to carry AMRAAM to the F-16 as well as


night/precision ground-attack capabilities, as well as an improved radar, the
Westinghouse (now Northrop-Grumman) AN/APG-68, with increased range,
better resolution, and more operating modes.
 Block 30/32 added two new engines -- Block 30 designates a General Electric
F110-GE-100 engine, and Block 32 designates a Pratt & Whitney F100-PW-220
engine. Block 30/32 can carry the AGM-45 Shrike and the AGM-88A HARM,
and like the Block 25, it can carry the AGM-65 Maverick.
 Block 40/42 - F-16CG/DG - gained capabilities for navigation and precision
attack in all weather conditions and at night with the LANTIRN pods and more
extensive air-to-ground loads, including the GBU-10, GBU-12, GBU-24 Paveway
laser-guided bombs and the GBU-15. Block 40/42 production began in 1988 and
ran through 1995. Currently, the Block 40s are being upgraded with several Block
50 systems: ALR-56M threat warning system, the ALE-47 advanced chaff/flare
dispenser, an improved performance battery, and Falcon UP structural upgrade.
 Block 50/52 Equipped with a Northrop Grumman APG-68(V)7 radar and a
General Electric F110-GE-129 Increased Performance Engine, the aircraft are
also capable of using the Lockheed Martin low-altitude navigation and targeting
for night (LANTIRN) system. Technology enhancements include color
multifunctional displays and programmable display generator, a new Modular
Mission Computer, a Digital Terrain System, a new color video camera and color
triple-deck video recorder to record the pilot's head-up display view, and an
upgraded data transfer unit. In May 2000, the Air Force certitified Block 50/52
[aka Block 50 Plus] F-16s to carry the CBU-103/104/105 Wind-Corrected
Munitions Dispenser, the AGM-154 Joint Stand-Off Weapon, the GBU-31/32
Joint Direct Attack Munition, and the Theater Airborne Reconnaissance System.
Beginning in mid-2000, Lockheed-Martin began to deliver Block 50/52 variants
equipped with an on-board oxygen generation system (OBOGS) designed to
replace the obsolete, original LOX system.
 Block 50D/52D Wild Weasel F-16CJ (CJ means block 50) comes in C-Model (1
seat) and D-Model (2 seat) versions. It is best recognized for its ability to carry
the AGM-88 HARM and the AN/ASQ-213 HARM Targeting System (HTS) in
the suppression of enemy air defenses [SEAD] mission. The HTS allows HARM
to be employed in the range-known mode providing longer range shots with
greater target specificity. This specialized version of the F-16, which can also
carry the ALQ-119 Electronic Jamming Pod for self protection, became the sole
provider for Air Force SEAD missions when the F-4G Wild Weasel was retired
from the Air Force inventory. The lethal SEAD mission now rests solely on the
shoulders of the F-16 Harm Targeting System. Although F-18s and EA-6Bs are
HARM capable, the F-16 provides the ability to use the HARM in its most
effective mode. The original concept called for teaming the F-15 Precision
Direction Finding (PDF) and the F-16 HTS. Because this teaming concept is no
longer feasible, the current approach calls for the improvement of the HTS
capability. The improvement will come from the Joint Emitter Targeting System
(JETS), which facilitates the use of HARM's most effective mode when launched
from any JETS capable aircraft.
 Block 60 - In May 1998 the UAE announced selection of the Block 60 F-16 to be
delivered between 2002-2004. The upgrade package consists of a range of modern
systems including conformal fuel tanks for greater range, new cockpit displays, an
internal sensor suite, a new mission computer and other advanced features
including a new agile beam radar.

The Common Configuration Implementation Program (CCIP) for the USAF's F-16C/D
fleet provides significant avionics upgrades to Block 40 and 50 F-16s, ensuring their
state-of-the-art capability well into the 21st century. A key
element of the upgrade is a common hardware and software
avionics configuration for these two blocks that will bring
together the Block 40/42 and 50/52 versions into a common
configuration of core avionics and software. The avionics changes
consist of the following systems: Link 16 Multifunctional
Information Distribution System (MIDS), Joint Helmet-Mounted
Cueing System (JHMCS), commercial expanded programmable
display generator, color multifunction display set, modular
mission computer, mux loadable data entry display set and an electronic horizontal
situation display. This package contains a number of systems being incorporated into
European F-16s in the F-16A/B Mid-Life Update program. The first aircraft upgraded
under CCIP were delivered to combat units in December 2001 (1).
The Air Force will soon be flying only Block 40/42 and Block 50/52 F-16s in its active-
duty units. Block 25 and Block 30/32 will be concentrated in Air National Guard and Air
Force Reserve units.

Service Life

The Falcon Up Structural Improvement Program program incorporates several major


structural modifications into one overall program, affecting all USAF F-16s. Falcon Up
will allow Block 25/30/32 aircraft to meet a 6000 hour service life, and allow Block
40/42 aircraft to meet an 8000 hour service life.

In view of the challenges inherent in operating F-16s to 8,000 flight hours, together with
the moderate risk involved in JSF integration, the Department has established a program
to earmark by FY 2000 some 200 older, Block 15 F-16 fighter aircraft in inactive storage
for potential reactivation. The purpose of this program is to provide a basis for
constituting two combat wings more quickly than would be possible through new
production. This force could offset aircraft withdrawn for unanticipated structural repairs
or compensate for delays in the JSF program. Reactivating older F-16s is not a preferred
course of action, but represents a relatively low-cost hedge against such occurrences.

Specifications
Primary
Multirole fighter
Function
Builder Lockheed Martin Corp.
F-16C/D:
Power
one Pratt and Whitney F100-PW-200/220/229 or
Plant
one General Electric F110-GE-100/129
Thrust F-16C/D, 27,000 pounds(12,150 kilograms)
Length 49 feet, 5 inches (14.8 meters)
Height 16 feet (4.8 meters)
Wingspan 32 feet, 8 inches (9.8 meters)
Speed 1,500 mph (Mach 2 at altitude)
Ceiling Above 50,000 feet (15 kilometers)
Maximum
Takeoff 37,500 pounds (16,875 kilograms)
Weight
740 nm (1,370 km) w/
2 2,000-lb bombs + 2 AIM-9 + 1,040 US gal external tanks
Combat
Radius [F- 340 nm (630 km) w/
4 2,000-lb bombs + 2 AIM-9 + 340 US gal external tanks
16C]
200 nm (370 km) + 2 hr 10 min patrol
w/ 2 AIM-7 + 2 AIM-9 + 1,040 US gal external tanks
Range Over 2,100 nm (2,425 mi; 3,900 km)
One M-61A1 20mm multibarrel cannon with 500 rounds; external
stations can carry up to six air-to-air missiles, conventional air-to-
air and air-to-surface munitions and electronic countermeasure
pods.
MK MK AGM AGM CBU CBU CBU GBU GBU AIM AIM 20
82 84 65 88 87 89 97 10 12 9 120 MM
6 2 2 500
2 2 2 500
Armament 2 2 2 500
2 2 2 500
4 2 2 500
4 2 2 500
4 2 2 500
2 2 2 500
6 2 2 500
2 4 500
6 500
Systems AN/APG-66 pulsed-Doppler radar
AN/AAQ-13 LANTIRN NAVIGATION POD
AN/AAQ-14 LANTIRN/SHARPSHOOTER
AN/AAQ-20 PATHFINDER NAVIGATION POD
AN/AAS-35 PAVE PENNY LASER SPOT TRACKER POD
AN/ASQ-213 HARM TARGETING SYSTEM POD
AN/ALQ-119 ECM POD
AN/ALQ-131 ECM POD
AN/ALQ-178 internal ECM
AN/ALQ-184 ECM POD
AN/ALR-56M threat warning receiver [F-16C/D Block 50/52]
AN/ALR-69 radar warning system (RWR)
AN/ALR-74 radar warning system (RWR) [replaces AN/ALR-
69]
AN/ALE-40 chaff/flare dispenser
AN/ALE-47 chaff/flare dispenser
Unit cost
$FY98
F-16C/D, $26.9 million [final order]
[Total
Program]
Crew F-16C: one; F-16D: one or two
Date
January 1979
Deployed

1-seat 2-seat TOTAL


F-16 A&C F-16 B&D
Block 1 21 22 43
Block 5 89 27 116
Block 10 145 25 170
Block 15 409 46 455
Block 25 209 35 244
Block 30 360 48 408
Block 32 56 5 61
Total Block 40 234 31 265
Production
[for USAF] Block 42 150 47 197
Block 50 175 28 203
Block 52 42 12 54

F-16A/B 674 121 795


F-16C/D 1,216 205 1,421
TOTAL 1,890 326 2,216
F-16C Block 50 currently in production
Final 3 aircraft ordered in FY1998
15 aircraft to be delivered after 01 Jan 99
Final aircraft of 2216 delivered March 2001
PAI TAI
Active Duty 638 735
Inventory
As of Sept. Air National Guard 462 576
30, 2001
Air Force Reserve 59 70
Totals 1159 1381

246 Air Combat Command


126 Pacific Air Forces
72 US Air Forces Europe
PMAI
60 Air Force Reserve
Primary
315 Air National Guard
Mission
105 Air National Guard Air Defense Force
Aircraft
924 TOTAL
Inventory
Only combat-coded aircraft
Excludes development/ test, attrition reserve, depot maintenance,
and training aircraft.

F-16 Mission Missile Configurations

F-16
Rail
Stores
Loadin Right Cente Left
gs Wing r Wing
7 5 5 3
Rail ID 9 8 7 a 6 R 5 L 4 a 3 2 1
Defens AMRA AMR Sidewi 37 37 Sidewi AMR AMRA
ive AM AAM nder 0g 0g nder AAM AM
Count Ta Ta
erair nk nk
37 37
0g 0g
Interdi AMRA GBU2 Ta LANT Ta GBU2 AMRA
ction 1 AM 4 nk IRN nk 4 AM
37 37
0g 0g
Interdi Sidewi AGM6 Ta ECM Ta AGM6 Sidewi
ction 2 nder 5 nk Pod nk 5 nder
Suppr
ess
Enemy 37 37
Air 0g 0g
Defens Sidewi Ta LANT Ta Sidewi
e nder Harm nk IRN nk Harm nder
F-16
Block 50D/52D F-16CJ Wild Weasel
YF-17 Cobra
The McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet traces its direct ancestry to the Northrop Cobra,
a twin engine multimission fighter design developed for the export market in the late
1960s.

In the early 1970s the Air Force pressed for development of a new generation of
lightweight fighters-single-seat jet aircraft "optimized" for agility and air combat
maneuvering, with high thrust-to-weight ratios (above 1 to 1), and good acceleration. Out
of this interest came the so-called "Lightweight Fighter" program. In January 1972, the
Lightweight Fighter Program solicited design specifications from several American
manufacturers. Participants were told to tailor their specifications toward the goal of
developing a true air superiority lightweight fighter. General Dynamics and Northrop
were asked to build prototypes, which could be evaluated with no promise of a follow-on
production contract. These were to be strictly technology demonstrators. The two
contractors were given creative freedom to build their own vision of a lightweight air
superiority fighter, with only a limited number of specified performance goals. Northrop's
entry was derived from the Cobra design. Northrop produced the twin-engine YF-17
using breakthrough aerodynamic technologies and two high-thrust General Electric
YJ101 engines. General Dynamics countered with the compact YF-16, built around a
single F100 engine.

Midway down the development path the stakes changed; what had been a technology
demonstration became a Department of Defense competition for a new fighter for both
the Air Force and Navy, and for allied nations as well. First flight of the YF-17 was in
June 1974. By this time, the Air Force had decided to proceed with Air Combat Fighter
(ACF) Program, based on flight testing of the YF-16 and YF-17 prototypes. The Navy
was also initiating a program to develop a new VFAX in this time period--a strike fighter
to replace both the F-4s and A-7s in its carrier air wings.
When the Lightweight Fighter competition was completed early in 1975, both the YF-16
and the YF-17 showed great promise. The two prototypes performed so well, in fact, that
both were selected for military service. The Air Force selected the F-16 to be produced
for the Tactical Air Command, and the Navy was directed by Congress to base the VFAX
on either the YF-16 or YF-17 designs. The Navy, unhappy with the outcome, proceeded
independently with a derivative of the YF-17 Cobra, this evolving into the Navy's
Northrop F-18 Hornet fighter program. To meet Navy requirements, considerable
improvements in areas such as combat radius and radar capability were incorporated, in
addition to carrier suitability features. The resulting redesign was extensive and, when the
McDonnell Douglas design was selected as winner in 1976, it was assigned the F-18A
designation.

After sitting briefly in storage, the two YF-17 prototypes flew again, this time as
development aircraft for the proposed F-18. At the request of the Navy, Dryden flew the
first YF-17 for base drag studies and to evaluate the maneuvering capability and
limitations of the aircraft. NASA pilots-all of whom got at least one flight in the plane-
and engineers examined the YF-17's buffet, stability and control, handling qualities, and
acceleration characteristics.
F/A-18 Hornet
The F/A-18 "Hornet" is a single- and two-seat, twin engine, multi-mission fighter/attack
aircraft that can operate from either aircraft carriers or land bases. The F/A-18 fills a
variety of roles: air superiority, fighter escort, suppression of enemy air defenses,
reconnaissance, forward air control, close and deep air support, and day and night strike
missions. The F/A-18 Hornet replaced the F-4 Phantom II fighter and A-7 Corsair II light
attack jet, and also replaced the A-6 Intruder as these aircraft were retired during the
1990s.

The F/A-18 has a digital control-by-wire flight control system which provides excellent
handling qualities, and allows pilots to learn to fly the airplane with relative ease. At the
same time, this system provides exceptional maneuverability and allows the pilot to
concentrate on operating the weapons system. A solid thrust-to-weight ratio and superior
turn characteristics combined with energy sustainability, enable the F/A-18 to hold its
own against any adversary. The power to maintain evasive action is what many pilots
consider the Hornet's finest trait. In addition, the F/A-18 was also the Navy's first tactical
jet aircraft to incorporate a digital, MUX bus architecture for the entire system's avionics
suite. The benefit of this design feature is that the F/A-18 has been relatively easy to
upgrade on a regular, affordable basis.

The F/A-18 has proven to be an ideal component of the carrier based tactical aviation
equation over its 15 years of operational experience. The only F/A-18 characteristic
found to be marginally adequate by battle group commanders, outside experts, and even
the men who fly the Hornet, is its range when flown on certain strike mission profiles.
However, the inadequacy is managed well with organic and joint tanking assets.

F/A-18A/B Hornet

While the general configuration of the YF-17 was retained, the F-18 became a completely
new airplane. To meet the single-place fighter and attack mission capability, full use was
made of new technology in digital computers. Coupled with cathode ray tubes for cockpit
displays and appropriate controls based on thorough pilot evaluations in simulators, a
single airplane and subsystems configuration for both missions was evolved
During development, two-place trainer versions were added, to be built in limited
numbers as TF/A-18s, intermingled with the basic F/As. Minimum changes were made to
incorporate the second cockpit, with the two-seat airplanes retaining the ability to
perform combat missions.
Making the first flight in November 1978, the F/A-18 and its two-place derivative
[subsequently redesignated the F/A-18B] underwent most of their development testing at
the Naval Air Test Center under the new single-site testing concept. While much
attention was focused on development problems, these were largely typical of those in
any new program, with their resolution being part of the development process. For the
most part, these occurred in the basic aircraft hardware rather than in the digital
electronic systems.
The original F/A-18A (single seat) and F/A-18B (dual seat) became
operational in 1983 replacing Navy and Marine Corps F-4s and A-7s.
It quickly became the battle group commander's mainstay because of
its capability, versatility and availability. Reliability and ease of
maintenance were emphasized in its design, and F/A-18s have
consistently flown three times more hours without failure than other
Navy tactical aircraft, while requiring half the maintenance time.

The Hornet has been battle tested and has proved itself to be exactly what its designers
intended: a highly reliable and versatile strike fighter. The F/A-18 played an important
role in the 1986 strikes against Libya. Flying from USS CORAL SEA (CV 43), F/A-18s
launched high-speed anti-radiation missiles (HARMs) against Libyan air defense radars
and missile sites, effectively silencing them during the attacks on Benghazi facilities.

F/A-18C/D Hornet
Following a successful run of more than 400 A and B models, the US Navy began taking
fleet deliveries of improved F/A-18C (single seat) and F/A-18D (dual seat) models in
September 1987. These Hornets carry the Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air Missile
(AMRAAM) and the infrared imaging Maverick air-to-ground missile. Two years later,
the C/D models came with improved night attack capabilities. The new components
included a navigation forward looking infrared (NAVFLIR) pod, a raster head-up
display, night vision goggles, special cockpit lighting compatible with the night vision
devices, a digital color moving map and an independent multipurpose color display.

F/A-18Cs have synthetic aperture ground mapping radar with a doppler beam sharpening
mode to generate ground maps. This ground mapping capability that permits crews to
locate and attack targets in adverse weather and poor visibility or to precisely update the
aircraft's location relative to targets during the approach, a capability that improves
bombing accuracy. New production F/A-18Cs received the APG-73 radar upgrade radars
starting in 1994, providing more precise and clear radar displays.

The F/A-18C Nigh Attack Hornet has a pod-mounted Hughes AN/AAR-50 thermal
imaging navigation set, a Loral AN/AAS-38 Nite Hawk FLIR targeting pod, and GEC
Cat's Eyes pilot's night vision goggles. Some 48 F/A-18D two-seat Hornets are
configured as the F/A-18D (RC) reconnaissance version, with the M61A1 cannon
replaced by a pallet-mounted electro-optical suite comprising a blister-mounted IR
linescan and two roll-stabilized sensor units, with all of these units recording onto video
tape.

On the first day of Operation Desert Storm, two F/A-18s, each carrying four 2,000 lb.
bombs, shot down two Iraqi MiGs and then proceeded to deliver their bombs on target.
Throughout the Gulf War, squadrons of U.S. Navy, Marine and Canadian F/A-18s
operated around the clock, setting records daily in reliability, survivability and ton-miles
of ordnance delivered.
The Navy announced 18 May 1998 that its East Coast F/A-18 squadrons will relocate to
Naval Air Station Oceana in Virginia Beach VA and Marine Corps Air Station Beaufort
in Beaufort, SC. The jets will move from Naval Air Station Cecil Field in Jacksonville
FL which was ordered closed by the 1995 Base Realignment and Closure Commission.
Nine operational squadrons and the Fleet Replacement Squadron -- a total of 156 planes -
- will move to Oceana. Two squadrons totaling 24 planes will move to Beaufort. The first
squadron will move in the fall of 1998 and all 11 fleet squadrons and the Fleet
Replacement Squadron completed their moves by October 1999.

Throughout its service, annual upgrades to F/A-18 weapon systems, sensors, etc.
continued. The latest lot of the F/A-18C/D has grown to be far more capable (night
attack, precision strike, low observable technologies, etc.) than the original F/A-18A/B;
however, by 1991, it was becoming clear that avionics cooling, electrical, and space
constraints would begin to limit future growth. Additionally, another operational
deficiency was beginning to develop. As the F/A-18C/D empty weight increased the
aircraft were returning to the carrier with less than optimal reserve fuel and/or
unexpended weapons. The additional range and "bring back" is not as essential to shore
based operations. F/A-18A/B/C/D aircraft will fly for years with the U.S. Marine Corps
and eight international customers: Australia, Canada, Finland, Kuwait, Malaysia, Spain,
Switzerland and Thailand. Although the F/A-18C/D's future growth is now limited, it will
also continue to fill a critical role in the U.S. Navy's carrier battle group for many years to
come and will be an excellent complement to the larger, longer range, more capable F/A-
18E/F Super Hornet.

F/A-18E/F "Super Hornet"


The multi-mission F/A-18E/F "Super Hornet" strike fighter is an upgrade of the combat-
proven night strike F/A-18C/D. The Super Hornet will provide the battle group
commander with a platform that has range, endurance, and ordnance carriage capabilities
comparable to the A-6 which have been retired. The F/A-18E/F aircraft are 4.2 feet
longer than earlier Hornets, have a 25% larger wing area, and carry 33% more internal
fuel which will effectively increase mission range by 41% and endurance by 50%. The
Super Hornet also incorporates two additional weapon stations. This allows for increased
payload flexibility by mixing and matching air-to-air and/or air-to-ground ordnance. The
aircraft can also carry the complete complement of "smart" weapons, including the
newest joint weapons such as JDAM and JSOW.

The Super Hornet can carry approximately 17,750 pounds (8,032 kg) of external load on
eleven stations. It has an all-weather air-to-air radar and a control system for accurate
delivery of conventional or guided weapons. There are two wing tip stations, four inboard
wing stations for fuel tanks or air-to-ground weapons, two nacelle fuselage stations for
Sparrows or sensor pods, and one centerline station for fuel or air-to-ground weapons. An
internal 20 mm M61A1 Vulcan cannon is mounted in the nose.

Carrier recovery payload is increased to 9,000 pounds, and its engine thrust from 36,000
pounds to 44,000 pounds utilizing two General Electric F414 turbo-fan engines.
Although the more recent F/A-18C/D aircraft have incorporated a modicum of low
observables technology, the F/A-18E/F was designed from the outset to optimize this and
other survivability enhancements.

The Hughes Advanced Targeting Forward-Looking Infra-Red (ATFLIR), the baseline


infrared system for the F/A-18 E/F, will also be deployed on earlier model F/A-18s. The
Hughes pod features both navigation and infrared targeting systems, incorporating third
generation mid-wave infrared (MWIR) staring focal plane technology.

Although 41% interdiction mission range increase may be the most notable F/A-18E/F
improvement, the ability to recover aboard with optimal reserve fuel and a load of
precision strike weapons, is of equal importance to the battle group commander. The
growth potential of the F/A-18E/F is more important to allow flexible employment
strategies in future years. If an electronically scanned array antenna or another
installation-sensitive sensor or weapon system becomes available, the F/A-18E/F has the
space, power and cooling to accommodate it. Although the more recent F/A-18C/D
aircraft have incorporated a modicum of low observables technology, the F/A-18E/F was
designed from the outset to optimize this and other survivability enhancements. The all-
F/A-18C/D/E/F air wing brings an increase in capability to the carrier battle group while
ensuring the potential to take advantage of technological advances for years to come.

Features of the F/A-18 E/F Super Hornet:

90% Common F/A-18C/D Avionics: Avionics and software have a 90 percent


commonality with current F/A-18C/Ds. However, the F/A-18E/F cockpit features
a touch-sensitive, upfront control display; a larger, liquid crystal multipurpose
color display; and a new engine fuel display.
34 in. Fuselage Extension: The fuselage is slightly longer - the result of a 34-
inch extension.
Two Additional Multi-Mission Weapons Stations: Super Hornet has two
additional weapons stations, bringing the total to 11. For aircraft carrier
operations, about three times more payload can be brought back to the ship.
25% Larger Wing: A full 25 percent bigger than its predecessor, Super Hornet
has nearly half as many parts.
35% Higher Thrust Engines: Increased engine power comes from the F414-GE-
400, an advanced derivative of the Hornet's current F404 engine family. The F414
produces 35 percent more thrust and improves overall mission performance.
Enlarged air inlets provide increased airflow to the engines.
33% Additional Internal Fuel: Structural changes to the airframe increase
internal fuel capacity by 3,600 pounds, or about 33 percent. This extends the
Hornet's mission radius by up to 40 percent.

Roll-out of the first Super Hornet occurred in September 1995, and it flew for the first
time in November 1995, ahead of schedule and nearly 1,000 pounds under specified
weight. In January 1997, the Super Hornet successfully conducted its initial sea trials on
board the Navy's newest aircraft carrier, USS JOHN C. STENNIS (CVN 74).

The Navy is planning to procure a minimum of 548 Super Hornets, and possibly as many
as 1,000. These numbers could vary depending on the progress of the Joint Strike Fighter
Program. As part of the Quadrennial Defence Review (QDR) production of the Super
Hornet was cut from 1000 to 548 units. Production of the aircraft commenced in FY
1997, and it is expected to attain initial operational capability (IOC) in FY 2001. Twelve
aircraft were funded in FY 1997; procurement numbers increase to 20 in FY 1998, 30 in
FY 1999, and reach a final maximum rate of 48 per year in FY 2001.

F/A-18G "Growler"

The EA-6B will begin retirement in the 2010 timeframe, after a career that exceeded 40
years of deployments in support of USN, USMC, and USAF strike forces. As of early
2000, Defense Department planning for replacing the EA-6B Prowler include a scheme
under which the Navy would buy an F/A-18G "Growler" -- an F/A-18E/F modified for
escort and close-in jamming. The Air Force would provide standoff jamming with
modified EB-52s or EB-1s, and close-in jamming with unmanned air vehicles such as the
Northrop Grumman Global Hawk or General Atomics Predator.

Specifications
Contractor Boeing [McDonnell Douglas Aerospace] and
Northrop Grumman (Airframe),
General Electric (Engines), and
Hughes (Radar)
F/A-18C/D F/A-18E/F
Hornet Super Hornet
Power Plant Two F404-GE-402 afterburning Twin F414-GE-400
engines, each in the 18,000 engines, each in the
pound thrust class, which results 22,000 pound thrust
in a combat thrust-to-weight class. On an
ratio greater than 1-to-1. interdiction mission,
Depending on the mission and the E/F will fly up to
loading, combat radius is 40 % further than the
greater than 500 nautical miles. C/D.
Accommodations The F/A-18C and F/A-18E are single seat aircraft.
The D and F models are flown by two crew
members.
The aft seat in the D and F may be configured with a
stick and throttle for the training environment (or
without when crewed with a Weapons System Officer).
Performance F/A-18C maximum speed at F/A-18E maximum
level flight in altitudes of speed at level flight
36,089 ft. in altitudes of 36,089
Mach 1.7 ft.
Mach 1.6
Armament F/A-18C/D can carry up to F/A-18E/F can
13,700 pounds of external carry up to 17,750
ordnance. pounds of external
Weapon stations include: two ordnance; two
wingtip stations for additional wing store
Sidewinders; two outboard wing stations have been
stations for air-to-air or air-to- added.
ground weapons; two inboard
wing stations for fuel tanks, air-
to-air, or air-to-ground
weapons; two nacelle fuselage
stations for AMRAAMs,
Sparrows, or sensor pods; and
one centerline station for fuel or
air-to-ground weapons.
M61 Vulcan 6-barrel rotary
cannon with 520 rounds of
20mm ammunition is internally
mounted in the nose
AIM-9 Sidewinder
AIM-7F Sparrow
AIM-120 AMRAAM
AGM-65E Maverick
AGM-84 Harpoon
AGM-88A HARM
MK82
10 CBU-87
10 CBU-89
GBU-12
GBU-24
JDAM
B-57 or B-61 Nuclear bomb
Mission and The F/A-18 Hornet can The E/F model will
Capabilities perform both air-to-air and air- be able to perform a
to-ground missions. strike tanker mission
Cockpit displays and mission while carrying a self-
avionics are thoroughly protection air-to-air
integrated to enhance crew missile loadout.
situational awareness and The E/F model will
mission capability in high also have greater
threat, adverse weather/night payload flexibility,
environments. increased mission
Cockpits are night vision radius, survivability,
goggle compatible. payload bring back,
Multi-Sensor Integration and and a substantial
advanced data link capabilities avionics growth
further enhance situational potential.
awareness.
Unit cost $FY98 $39.5 million. $60 million
[Total Program]
Program Summary F/A-18A/B first entered The first flight of the
operational service with the F/A-18E/F occurred
USN and USMC in 1982. in December 1995;
operational deliveries
Since 1982, more than 1,458 are scheduled for late
F/A-18s have been procured for 1999.
the USN and USMC and for the
armed services in Canada,
Australia, Spain, Kuwait,
Switzerland, Finland, and
Malaysia.

In 1987, the upgraded C/D


model (with enhanced mission
avionics) was introduced and
upgraded with a night/adverse
weather mission capability, On
Board Oxygen Generating
System, APG-73 Radar
Upgrade, enhanced performance
F404-GE-402 engines, and
upgraded mission computers.
External Dimensions
F/A-18C/D F/A-18E/F
Wing span 11.43 m Wing span over missiles 13.62 meters
Wing span over missiles 12.31 m Wing aspect ratio 4.00
Wing chord (at root) 4.04 m Width wings folded 9.32 m
Wing chord (at tip) 1.68 m Length overall 18.31 m
Wing aspect ratio 3.52 Height overall 4.88 m
Width, wings folded 8.38 m
Length overall 17.07 m
Height overall 4.66 m
Tailplane span 6.58 m
Distance between fin tips 3.60 m
Wheel track 3.11 m
Wheelbase 5.42 m

Areas
F/A-18C/D F/A-18E/F
2
Wings, gross 37.16 m Wings, gross 46.45 sq. meters
Ailerons (total) 2.27 m2
Leading-edge flaps (total) 4.50 m2
2
Trailing-edge flaps (total) 5.75 m
Fins (total) 9.68 m2
2
Rudders (total) 1.45 m
2
Tailerons (total) 8.18 m

Weights and Loadings


F/A-18C/D F/A-18E/F
Weight empty 10,810 kg Weight, empty

Maximum fuel weight: Design target 13.387 kg

Internal (JP5) 4,926 kg Specification limit 13.865 kg

External: F/A-18 (JP5) 3,053 kg Maximum fuel weight:

CF-18 (JP4) 4,245 kg Internal 6.531 kg


Maximum external stores load 7,031 kg External (JP5) 4.436 kg

Take off weight: Maximum external stores load (JP5) 8.051 kg

Fighter mission 16,651 kg T-O weight, attack mission 29.937 kg

Approx 23,541 Maximum wing loading 620.0 kg/m2


Attack mission
kg
Maximum power loading 147.1 kg /kN
Approx 25,401
Maximum
kg
Maximum wing loading (attack 156,80 kg/kN
mission)

Performance (At Maximum Takeoff


Weight)
F/A-18C/D F/A-18E/F
More than more than
Max level speed Maximum level speed at altitude
Mach 1.8 Mach 1.8
More than Combat ceiling 13,865 m
Max speed, intermediate power
Mach 1.0
Minimu m wind over deck:
Approach speed 134 knots
Launching 30 knots
Acceleration from 460 knots to 920 under 2 min
knots at 10,670 m Recovery 15 knots
approx 15,240 Combat radius specification: 390 nm
Combat ceiling
m
Less than 427 Interdiction with four 1,000 lb bombs,
T-O run
m two Sidewinders,
and two 1,818 liter (480 U.S. gallon:
Minimum wind over deck: 400 Imp gallon) external tanks,
navigation FLIR and targeting FLIR:
Launching 35 knots Forward Looking Infra-Red
hi-lo-lo-hi
Recovery 19 knots
Combat radius, interdiction, hi-lo-lo- 290 nm Fighter escort with two Sidewinders and 410 nm
two AMRAAMs
hi
Combat endurance: maritime air 2h 15 min
Combat endurance, CAP 150 nm 1 h 45 min
superiority, six AAMs,
from aircraft carrier
three 1,818 liter external tanks, 150 nm
More than from aircraft carrier.
Ferry range, unrefueled
1,800 nm
Weapons Loads FA-18E

MK AGM CBU CBU GBU GBU GBU AIM AIM 20


82 88 87 89 10 12 24 JDAM 9 120 MM
6 2 2 500
2 2 2 500
4 2 2 500
4 2 2 500
2 2 2 500
6 2 2 500
2 2 2 500
2 2 2 500
2 6 500
8 500
F/A-18
F/A-18E/F
F-20 Tigershark
Northrop developed the F-20 Tigershark in response to a U.S. Government call for the
private development of a tactical fighter specifically tailored to meet the security needs of
allied and friendly nations.

The first flight of the Tigershark was made August 30, 1982. The Mach 2 class F-20
Tigershark's basic single-seat configuration was formally designated the F-20A. The F-20
combined propulsion, electronics and armament technologies with improvements in
reliability to sustain high sortie rates in adverse weather.

The F-20 incorporated a combination of advanced technology features. The F-20 could
carry more than 8,300 pounds of external armaments and fuel on five pylons. It could
carry six Sidewinder missiles on air-to-air missions. For air-to-ground missions, more
than 6,800 pounds of armament could be carried. Two internally mounted 20mm guns
were standard equipment on the Tigershark.

The avionics system features a General Electric multimode radar, Honeywell laser
inertial navigation system, General Electric head-up display, Bendix digital display and
control set and Teledyne Systems mission computer.

The F-20 is powered by a General Electric F404 engine, with 17,000 pounds of thrust.
The F404 is recognized as one of the world's most reliable advanced technology engines.
It is also used to power the U.S. Navy/Marine Corps F/A-18A Hornet strike fighter.

Once airborne, the F-20 pilot utilized his multimode radar, which could detect and track
targets at ranges of up to 48 nautical miles "look up" and 31 nautical miles "look down."
The F-20 mission computer coordinated the aircraft's weapons systems. The head-up
display placed critical weapons, target and flight data at the pilot's eye level. This allowed
him to fight without having to look down. Northrop designed a new panoramic canopy
for the F-20 that gave the pilot a 50 percent increase in rearward visibility over previous
Northrop fighters. An improved seat and headrest design combined to substantially
expand over-the-shoulder visibility, which is critical in air-to-air combat.

Aerodynamic features of the F-20 included an enlarged leading edge extension to the
wing, which generated up to 30 percent of the lift maneuvers. The "shark-shaped" nose
allowed the F-20 to maneuver at much higher angles of attack than current operational
fighters. The F-20 airframe could withstand nine G's.

The F-20 was reliable and easy to maintain. Based on comparisons with the average of
contemporary international fighters, the F-20 consumed 53 percent less fuel, required 52
percent less maintenance manpower, had 63 percent lower operating and maintenance
costs and had four times the reliability.
Specifications
Maximum Speed Mach 2 class
Sea level rate-of-climb 52,800 feet/minute
Combat ceiling 54,700 feet
Takeoff distance 1,600 feet
Takeoff Distance 4,200 feet
Scramble order to
52 seconds
brake release
Scramble order to
2.5 minutes
29,000 feet
Time to 40,000 feet
2.3 minutes
from brake release
Acceleration Time 0.3M to 0.9M, at 10,000 feet 28 seconds
Sustained Turn Rate 0.8M at 15,000 feet 11.1 degrees/second
Maximum Load Factor 9g
Length 46 ft 6 in
Height 13 ft 10 in
Wing Span 26 ft 8 in
Internal Fuel 5,050 lbs
External Fuel 6,435 lbs
Takeoff Weight clean 18,005 lbs
Combat Thrust/Weight
1.1
ratio
Combat Weight 50% fuel, 2 AIM-9 missiles 15,820 lbs
Maximum Weight 27,500 lbs

Two AIM-9 missiles


Armament Five pylons, more than 8,300 lbs external armaments
F-22 Raptor
The F-22 program is developing the next-generation air superiority fighter for the Air
Force to counter emerging worldwide threats. It is designed to penetrate enemy airspace
and achieve a first-look, first-kill capability against multiple targets. The F-22 is
characterized by a low-observable, highly maneuverable airframe; advanced integrated
avionics; and aerodynamic performance allowing supersonic cruise without afterburner.

Stealth: Greatly increases survivability and lethality by denying the enemy critical
information required to successfully attack the F-22

Integrated Avionics: Allows F-22 pilots unprecedented awareness of enemy forces


through the fusion of on- and off-board information

Supercruise: Enhances weapons effectiveness; allows rapid transit through the


battlespace; reduces the enemy’s time to counter attack

The F-22's engine is expected to be the first to provide the ability to fly faster than the
speed of sound for an extended period of time without the high fuel consumption
characteristic of aircraft that use afterburners to achieve supersonic speeds. It is expected
to provide high performance and high fuel efficiency at slower speeds as well.

For its primary air-to-air role, the F-22 will carry six AIM-120C and two AIM-9 missiles.
For its air-to-ground role, the F-22 can internally carry two 1,000 pound-class Joint
Direct Attack Munitions (JDAM), two AIM-120C, and two AIM-9 missiles. With the
Global Positioning System-guided JDAM, the F-22 will have an adverse weather
capability to supplement the F-117 (and later the Joint Strike Fighter) for air-to-ground
missions after achieving air dominance.

The F-22's combat configuration is "clean", that is, with all armament carried internally
and with no external stores. This is an important factor in the F-22's stealth
characteristics, and it improves the fighter's aerodynamics by dramatically reducing drag,
which, in turn, improves the F-22's range. The F-22 has four under wing hardpoints, each
capable of carrying 5,000 pounds. A single pylon design, which features forward and aft
sway braces, an aft pivot, electrical connections, and fuel and air connections, is used.
Either a 600-gallon fuel tank or two LAU-128/A missile launchers can be attached to the
bottom of the pylon, depending on the mission. There are two basic external
configurations for the F-22:

 Four 600 gallon fuel tanks, no external weapons: This configuration is used when
the aircraft is being ferried and extra range is needed. A BRU-47/A rack is used
on each pylon to hold the external tanks.
 Two 600 gallon fuel tanks, four missiles: This configuration is used after air
dominance in a battle area has been secured, and extra loiter time and firepower is
required for Combat Air Patrol (CAP). The external fuel tanks, held by a BRU-
47/A rack are carried on the inboard stations, while a pylon fitted with two LAU-
128/A rail launchers is fitted to each of the outboard stations.

An all-missile external loadout (two missiles on each of the stations) is possible and
would not be difficult technically to integrate, but the Air Force has not stated a
requirement for this configuration. Prior to its selection as winner of what was then
known as the Advanced Tactical Fighter (ATF) competition, the F-22 team conducted a
54-month demonstration/ validation (dem/val) program. The effort involved the design,
construction and flight testing of two YF-22 prototype aircraft. Two prototype engines,
the Pratt & Whitney YF119 and General Electric YF120, also were developed and tested
during the program. The dem/val program was completed in December 1990. Much of
that work was performed at Boeing in Seattle, Lockheed (now known as Lockheed
Martin) facilities in Burbank, Calif., and at General Dynamics' Fort Worth, Texas,
facilities (now known as Lockheed Martin Tactical Aircraft Systems). The prototypes
were assembled in Lockheed's Palmdale, Calif., facility and made their maiden flight
from there. Since that time Lockheed's program management and aircraft assembly
operations have moved to Marietta, Ga., for the EMD and production phases.
The F-22 passed milestone II in 1991. At that time, the Air Force planned to acquire 648
F-22 operational aircraft at a cost of $86.6 billion. After the Bottom Up Review,
completed by DOD in September 1993, the planned quantity of F-22s was reduced to 442
at an estimated cost of $71.6 billion.

A $9.55 billion contract for Engineering and Manufacturing Development (EMD) of the
F-22 was awarded to the industry team of Boeing and Lockheed Martin in August 1991.
Contract changes since then have elevated the contract value to approximately $11
billion. Under terms of the contract, the F-22 team will complete the design of the
aircraft, produce production tooling for the program, and build and test nine flightworthy
and two ground-test aircraft.

A Joint Estimate Team was chartered in June 1996 to review the F-22 program cost and
schedule. JET concluded that the F-22 engineering and manufacturing development
program would require additional time and funding to reduce risk before the F-22 enters
production. JET estimated that the development cost would increase by about $1.45
billion. Also, JET concluded that F-22 production cost could grow by about $13 billion
(from $48 billion to $61 billion) unless offset by various cost avoidance actions. As a
result of the JET review the program was restructured, requiring an additional $2.2
billion be added to the EMD budget and 12 months be added to the schedule to ensure the
achievement of a producible, affordable design prior to entering production. The program
restructure allowed sourcing within F-22 program funds by deleting the three pre-
production aircraft and slowing the production ramp. Potential for cost growth in
production was contained within current budget estimate through cost reduction
initiatives formalized in a government/industry memorandum of agreement. The Defense
Acquisition Board principals reviewed the restructured program strategy and on February
11, 1997 the Defense Acquisition Executive issued an Acquisition Defense Memorandum
approving the strategy.
The Quadrennial Defense Review Reportwhich was released in mid-May 1997, reduced
the F-22 overall production quantity from 438 to 339, slowed the Low Rate Initial
Production ramp from 70 to 58, and reduced the maximum production rate from 48 to 36
aircraft per year.

The F-22 EMD program marked a successful first flight on September 7, 1997. The flight
test program, which has already begun in Marietta, Georgia, will continue at Edwards
AFB, California through the year 2001. Low rate production is scheduled to begin in
FY99. The aircraft production rate will gradually increase to 36 aircraft per year in FY
2004, and will continue that rate until all 339 aircraft have been built (projected to be
complete in 2013). Initial Operational Capability of one operational squadron is slated for
December 2005.

The F-15 fleet is experiencing problems with avionics parts obsolescence, and the
average age of the fleet will be more than 30 years when the last F-22 is delivered in
2013. But the current inventory of F-15s can be economically maintained in a structurally
sound condition until 2015 or later. None of the 918 F-15s that were in the inventory in
July 1992 will begin to exceed their expected economic service lives until 2014.
Specifications
Function Air superiority fighter
Lockheed Martin Aeronautical Systems: F-22
program management, the integrated forebody (nose
section) and forward fuselage (including the cockpit
and inlets), leading edges of the wings, the fins and
stabilators, flaps, ailerons, landing gear and final
assembly of the aircraft.
Lockheed Martin Tactical Aircraft Systems: Center
fuselage, stores management, integrated navigation and
electronic warfare systems (INEWS), the
Contractors
communications, navigation, and identification (CNI)
system, and the weapon support system.
Boeing: wings, aft fuselage (including the structures
necessary for engine and nozzle installation), radar
system development and testing, avionics integration,
the training system, and flight-test development and
management.
Pratt & Whitney: F119-PW-100 engines that power
the Raptor.
Major Subcontractors (partial list): Northrop Grumman, Texas Instruments,
Kidde-Graviner Ltd., Allied-Signal Aerospace, Hughes
Radar Systems, Harris, Fairchild Defense, GEC
Avionics, Lockheed Sanders, Kaiser Electronics,
Digital Equipment Corp., Rosemount Aerospace,
Curtiss-Wright Flight Systems, Dowty Decoto, EDO
Corp., Lear Astronics Corp., Parker-Hannifin Corp.,
Simmonds Precision, Sterer Engineering, TRW, XAR,
Motorola, Hamilton Standard, Sanders/GE Joint
Venture, Menasco Aerospace.
Propulsion two Pratt & Whitney F119-PW-100 engines
Thrust 35,000 lbst
Length 62.08 feet, 18.90 meters
Height 16.67 feet, 5.08 meters
Wingspan 44.5 feet, 13.56 meters
Wing Area 840 square feet
Horizontal Tailspan 29 feet, 8.84 meters
Maximum Takeoff
Weight
Ceiling
Speed Mach 1.8 (supercruise: Mach 1.5)
Crew one
Two AIM-9 Sidewinders
six AIM-120C Advanced Medium-Range Air-to-Air
Missiles (AMRAAM)
Armament
one 20mm Gatling gun
two 1,000-pound Joint Direct Attack Munitions
(JDAM)
First flight: September 7, 1997
deliveries beginning in 2002
Date Deployed
operational by 2004

DOD's Projected
Unit
Prices Before and After
Restructuring
Unit Costs
Production
----------------
----------
Low-rate
Full-rate
------------ --
----------
Units Unit
Units Unit
Estimates cost
cost
-------------------------- ---- ------ --
-- ------
Before restructuring 76 $142.6
362 $102.8
Restructured without 70 $200.3
368 $128.2
initiatives
Restructured with 70 $200.8
368 $ 92.4
initiatives
--------------------------------------------
----------
SOURCE: GAO June 1997
YF-23 Black Widow II
Two YF-23 prototypes were designed and built by the contractor team of Northrop and
McDonnell Douglas as part of the demonstration and evaluation phase of the US Air
Force's Advanced Tactical Fighter selection program, which concluded in 1990.
According to the Air Force, factors in the selection for production of the F-22 were a
better designed for maintainability, greater potential for future development, and slightly
lower cost. A popular view is that the decision reflected a preference for maneuverability
over stealth, and it is universally held that the YF-23 was by far the better looking
aircraft.

During the ATF program, one YF-23 was powered by twin Pratt and Whitney YF119
turbofan engines, while two General Electric YF120 turbofan engines were installed in
the other prototype. Featuring a diamond-shaped planform, two large, sharply-canted
ruddervators, and a serrated aft profile, the high performance aircraft was larger than the
F-15 it was designed to replace. The YF-23 employed stealth characteristics and was
capable of supersonic cruise flight without afterburner.

Specifications
Contractor Northrop / McDonnell Douglas
Mission Competitor, along with YF-22, in the ATF competition
Length 67 feet, 5 inches (20.6 meters)
Wing span 43 feet, 7 inches (13.3 meters)
Height 13 feet, 11 inches (4.3 meters)
Maximum takeoff 64,000 pounds (29,029 kilograms)
weight
2 Pratt and Whitney YF119 turbofan engines, or
Propulsion
2 General Electric YF120 turbofan engines
Speed Mach 2
Range 865-920 miles (750-800 nautical miles) unrefuelled
4 AIM-9 Sidewinder - internal bays in engine intake
duct sides
-Armament
4 AIM-120 AMRAAM - internal bays underneath air
intakes
Crew One
Unit Cost Unknown
Inventory Two: 1 on display at Western Museum of Flight, in
Hawthorne, California

1 on display at USAF Museum USAF Test


Center Museum at Edwards Air Force Base,
California
F-35
Joint Strike Fighter (JSF)
The F-35 is the result of the Defense Department's Joint
Strike Fighter (JSF) program, which sought to build a
multirole fighter optimized for the air-to-ground role
with secondary air-to-air capability. The JSF
requirement was to meet the needs of the Air Force,
Navy, Marine Corps and allies, with improved
survivability, precision engagement capability, and
reduced life cycle costs. By using many of the same
technologies developed for the F-22, the F-35 has the
opportunity to capitalize on commonality and
modularity to maximize affordability.

The Lockheed Martin X-35 was chosen over the competing Boeing X-32 primarily
because of Lockheed’s lift-fan STOVL design, which proved superior to the Boeing
vectored-thrust approach. The lift fan, which is powered by the aircraft engine via a
clutched driveshaft, was technically challenging but DoD concluded that Lockheed has
the technology in hand. The lift fan has significant excess power which could be critical
given the weight gain that all fighter aircraft experience.

Lockheed Martin developed four versions of the Joint Strike Fighter to fulfill the needs of
the Navy, Marine Corps, Army, Air Force and the United Kingdom Royal Air Force and
Navy. All versions have the same fuselage and internal weapons bay, common outer
mold lines with similar structural geometries, identical wing sweeps, and comparable tail
shapes. The weapons are stored in two parallel bays located aft of the main landing gear.
The canopy, radar, ejection system, subsystems, and avionics are all common among all
different version as is the core engine which is based on the F119 by Pratt & Whitney.

Additional systems on the F-35 include:

1. Northrup Grumman advanced electronically scanned array (AESA) multi-


function radar
2. Snader/Litton Amecon electronic countermeasures equipment
3. Lockheed Martin electro-optical targeting system
4. Northrup Grumman distributed aperture infrared sensor (DAIRS) thermal imaging
system
5. Vision Systems International advanced helmet-mounted display

F-35 Variants

US Air Force
The Air Force expects that to purchase 1763 F-35s to complement the F-22 Raptor and
replace the F-16 as an air-toground strike aircraft. The Air Force variant includes an
internal gun, infrared sensors, and laser designator. This is the technologically simplest
version of the JSF, in that it does not require hover or aircraft carrier capability.
Therefore it does not require the vertical thrust or the handling qualities for catapult
launches, augmented control authority at landing approach speeds and strengthened
structure to handle arrested landings. At the same time, the Air Force F-35 will have to
improve upon the high standards created by the F-16. Since replacement of the F-16 by
the F-35 will entail a significant payload reduction, the F-35 faces a very demanding one
shot one kill requirement.

US Navy

The requirement for carrier operations creates the largest differences between the Air
Force and Navy version. The naval version has larger wing and tail control surfaces to
enable low-speed approaches to aircraft carriers. Leadingedge flaps and foldable wing tip
sections account for this increased wing area. The larger wing area also provides the
Navy version with an increased payload capability. To support the stresses of carrier
landings and catapult launches, the internal structure of this version is strengthened. In
addition, the landing gear has longer stroke and higher load capacity, and of course an
arresting hook is added. Compared to the F-18C, the F-35 has twice the range on internal
fuel.. The design is also optimized for survivability, which is a key Navy requirement.
Like the USAF version, the Navy version will incorporate an internal gun and sensors.
This new fighter will be used by the Navy as a first-day-of-war attack fighter in
conjunction with the F/A-18 Hornet. The Navy plans to purchase 480 JSF.

US Marine Corps

The distinguishing feature of the USMC version of the JSF is its short takeoff/vertical
landing capability (STOVL). There will not be an internally mounted machine gun, but
an external gun can be fitted. This version requires controllability on all axes while
hovering. Another critical design feature is its impact on the ground surface beneath it
during hover. The USMC expects their version of the JSF will replace the F/A-18 Hornet
and the AV-8 Harrier. The Marine Corps expects to purchase 480 STOVL versions of the
F-35.

United Kingdom Royal Navy and Air Force

This version will be very similar to the one procured by the United States Marine Corps
Images
Specifications
Function strike fighter
two competing teams:
Contractor Lockheed-Martin
Boeing
U.S. Air Force U.S. Marine U.S. Navy
Corps
Service
U.K. Royal
Navy
Conventional Short Takeoff Carrier-based
Takeoff and and Vertical (CV)
Variants Landing Landing
(CTOL) (STOVL)
Unit Cost FY94$ $28M $35M $38M
Baseline: Pratt & Whitney F119-PW-100
Propulsion derivative from F-22 Raptor
Alternate Engine: General Electric F120 core
Thrust
Empty Weight ~22,500 lbs ~24,000 lbs
Internal Fuel 15,000 lbs 16,000 lbs
Payload 13,000 lbs 17,000 lbs
Maximum Takeoff ~50,000 lbs
Weight
Length 45 feet
Wingspan 36 feet 30 feet
Height
Ceiling
Speed supersonic
Combat Radius over 600 nautical miles
Crew one
Armament
First flight 1999
Date Deployed 2008
U.S. Air Force U.S. Marine U.S. Navy
1,763 aircraft Corps 480 aircraft
480 aircraft
Inventory Objectives
U.K. Royal
Navy
60 aircraft
Joint Strike Fighter (JSF)
The Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) is a multi-role fighter
optimized for the air-to-ground role, designed to
affordably meet the needs of the Air Force, Navy,
Marine Corps and allies, with improved survivability,
precision engagement capability, the mobility necessary
for future joint operations and the reduced life cycle
costs associated with tomorrow’s fiscal environment.
JSF will benefit from many of the same technologies
developed for F-22 and will capitalize on commonality
and modularity to maximize affordability.
The 1993 Bottom-Up Review (BUR) determined that a
separate tactical aviation modernization program by
each Service was not affordable and canceled the Multi-
Role Fighter (MRF) and Advanced Strike Aircraft (A/F-X) program. Acknowledging the
need for the capability these canceled programs were to provide, the BUR initiated the
Joint Advanced Strike Technology (JAST) effort to create the building blocks for
affordable development of the next-generation strike weapons system. After a review of
the program in August 1995, DoD dropped the "T" in the JAST program and the JSF
program has emerged from the JAST effort. Fiscal Year 1995 legislation merged the
Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Advanced Short Take-off and
Vertical Landing (ASTOVL) program with the JSF Program. This action drew the United
Kingdom (UK) Royal Navy into the program, extending a collaboration begun under the
DARPA ASTOVL program.

The JSF program will demonstrate two competing weapon system concepts for a tri-
service family of aircraft to affordably meet these service needs:

USAF-Multi-role aircraft (primarily air-to-ground) to replace F-16 and A-10 and to


complement F-22. The Air Force JSF variant poses the smallest relative engineering
challenge. The aircraft has no hover criteria to satisfy, and the characteristics and
handling qualities associated with carrier operations do not come into play. As the biggest
customer for the JSF, the service will not accept a multirole F-16 fighter replacement that
doesn't significantly improve on the original.

USN-Multi-role, stealthy strike fighter to complement F/A-18E/F. Carrier operations


account for most of the differences between the Navy version and the other JSF variants.
The aircraft has larger wing and tail control surfaces to better manage low-speed
approaches. The internal structure of the Navy variant is strengthened up to handle the
loads associated with catapult launches and arrested landings. The aircraft has a carrier-
suitable tailhook. Its landing gear has a longer stroke and higher load capacity. The
aircraft has almost twice the range of an F-18C on internal fuel. The design is also
optimized for survivability.
USMC-Multi-role Short Take-Off & Vertical Landing (STOVL) strike fighter to replace
AV-8B and F/A-18A/C/D. The Marine variant distinguishes itself from the other variants
with its short takeoff/vertical landing capability.

UK-STOVL (supersonic) aircraft to replace the Sea Harrier. Britain's Royal Navy JSF
will be very similar to the U.S. Marine variant.

The JSF concept is building these three highly common variants on the same production
line using flexible manufacturing technology. Cost benefits result from using a flexible
manufacturing approach and common subsystems to gain economies of scale. Cost
commonality is projected in the range of 70-90 percent; parts commonality will be lower,
but emphasis is on commonality in the higher-priced parts.

The Lockheed Martin X-35


concept for the Marine and Royal
Navy variant of the aircraft uses a
shaft-driven lift-fan system to
achieve Short-Takeoff/Vertical
Landing (STOVL) capability. The
aircraft will be configured with a
Rolls-Royce/Allison shaft-driven
lift-fan, roll ducts and a three-
bearing swivel main engine
nozzle, all coupled to a modified
Pratt & Whitney F119 engine that
powers all three variants.
The
Boeing X-
32 JSF
short
takeoff and
vertical
landing
(STOVL) variant for the U.S.
Marine Corps and U.K. Royal
Navy employs a direct lift system
for short takeoffs and vertical
landings with uncompromised up-
and-away performance.
Key design goals of the JSF system include:

Survivability: radio frequency/infrared signature reduction and on-board


countermeasures to survive in the future battlefield--leveraging off F-22 air superiority
mission support

Lethality: integration of on- and off-board sensors to enhance delivery of current and
future precision weapons

Supportability: reduced logistics footprint and increased sortie generation rate to


provide more combat power earlier in theater

Affordability: focus on reducing cost of developing, procuring and owning JSF to


provide adequate force structure

JSF’s integrated avionics and stealth are intended to allow it to penetrate surface-to-air
missile defenses to destroy targets, when enabled by the F-22’s air dominance. The JSF is
designed to complement a force structure that includes other stealthy and non-stealthy
fighters, bombers, and reconnaissance / surveillance assets.

JSF requirements definition efforts are based on the principles of Cost as an Independent
Variable: Early interaction between the warfighter and developer ensures cost /
performance trades are made early, when they can most influence weapon system cost.
The Joint Requirements Oversight Council has endorsed this approach.

The JSF’s approved acquisition strategy provides for the introduction of an alternate
engine during Lot 5 of the production phase, the first high rate production lot. OSD is
considering several alternative implementation plans which would accelerate this
baseline effort.

Program Status

The focus of the program is producing effectiveness at an affordable price—the Air


Force’s unit flyaway cost objective is $28 million (FY94$). This unit recurring flyaway
cost is down from a projected, business as usual,cost of $36 million. The Concept
Demonstration Phase (CDP) was initiated in November 1996 with the selection of Boeing
and Lockheed Martin. Both contractors are: (1) designing and building their concept
demonstration aircraft, (2) performing unique ground demonstrations, (3) developing
their weapon systems concepts. First operational aircraft delivery is planned for FY08.

The JSF is a joint program with shared acquisition executive responsibilities. The Air
Force and Navy each provide approximately equal shares of annual funding, while the
United Kingdom is a collaborative partner, contributing $200 million to the CDP. CDP,
also known as the Program Definition and Risk Reduction (PDRR) phase, consists of
three parallel efforts leading to Milestone II and an Engineering and Manufacturing
Development (EMD) start in FY01:
Concept Demonstration Program. The two CDP contracts were competitively awarded to
Boeing and Lockheed Martin for ground and flight demonstrations at a cost of $2.2
billion for the 51-month effort, including an additional contract to Pratt & Whitney for
the engine. Each CDP contractor will build concept demonstrator aircraft (designated X-
32/35). Each contractor will demonstrate commonality and modularity, short take-off and
vertical landing, hover and transition, and low-speed carrier approach handling qualities
of their aircraft.

Technology Maturation. These efforts evolve key technologies to lower risk for EMD
entry. Parallel technology maturation demonstrations are also an integral part of the CDP
/ PDRR objective of meeting warfighting needs at an affordable cost. Focus is on seven
critical areas: avionics, flight systems, manufacturing and producibility, propulsion,
structures and materials, supportability, and weapons. Demonstration plans are
coordinated with the prime weapon system contractors and results are made available to
all program industry participants.

Requirements Definition. This effort leads to Joint Operational Requirements Document


completion in FY00; cost/performance trades are key to the process.

LockMart JSF Design - X-35


Boeing JSF Design - X-35

Specifications
Function strike fighter
two competing teams:
Contractor Lockheed-Martin
Boeing
U.S. Air Force U.S. Marine U.S. Navy
Corps
Service
U.K. Royal
Navy
Conventional Short Takeoff Carrier-based
Takeoff and and Vertical (CV)
Variants
Landing Landing
(CTOL) (STOVL)
Unit Cost FY94$ $28M $35M $38M
Propulsion Baseline: Pratt & Whitney F119-PW-100
derivative from F-22 Raptor
Alternate Engine: General Electric F120 core
Thrust
Empty Weight ~22,500 lbs ~24,000 lbs
Internal Fuel 15,000 lbs 16,000 lbs
Payload 13,000 lbs 17,000 lbs
Maximum Takeoff ~50,000 lbs
Weight
Length 45 feet
Wingspan 36 feet 30 feet
Height
Ceiling
Speed supersonic
Combat Radius over 600 nautical miles
Crew one
Armament
First flight 1999
Date Deployed 2008
U.S. Air Force U.S. Marine U.S. Navy
2,036 aircraft Corps 300 aircraft
642 aircraft
Inventory Objectives
U.K. Royal
Navy
60 aircraft
C-2A Greyhound
The C-2A Greyhound , twin-engine cargo aircraft designed to land on aircraft carriers,
provides critical logistics support to aircraft carriers. Its primary mission is carrier on-
board delivery. Powered by two T-6 turboprop engines, the C-2A can deliver a payload
of up to 10,000 pounds. The cabin can readily accommodate cargo, passengers or both. It
is also equipped to accept litter patients in medical evacuation missions.

Priority cargo such as jet engines can be transported from shore to ship in a matter of
hours. A cage system or transport stand provides cargo restraint for loads during carrier
launch or landing. The large aft cargo ramp and door and a powered winch allow straight-
in rear cargo loading and downloading for fast turnaround.

The C-2A's open-ramp flight capability allows airdrop of supplies and personnel from a
carrier-launched aircraft. This, plus its folding wings and an on-board auxiliary power
unit for engine starting and ground power self-sufficiency in remote areas provide an
operational versatility found in no other cargo aircraft.

The C-2A has a wide range of communications and radio navigation equipment that is
compatible with both military and civil airways on a worldwide basis. Communications
equipment includes HF, VHF, and UHF; radio navigation aids include GPS, OMEGA,
TACAN, dual VOR, UHF/DF, LF/ADF, weather radar, Doppler radar, and two carrier
approach systems. The crew consists of a Pilot, Copilot, Crewchief, and Loadmaster /
Second Crewman.

The original C-2A aircraft were overhauled, and their operational life extended, in 1973.
In 1984, a contract was awarded for 39 new C-2A aircraft to replace earlier the airframes.
Dubbed the Reprocured C-2A due to the similarity to the original, the new aircraft
include substantial improvements in airframe and avionic systems. All the older C-2As
were phased out in 1987, and the last of the new models was delivered in 1990.
The C-2A(R) retains the characteristics of the E-2C Aircraft in the areas of structures,
hydraulics, and power plants. The avionics block upgrades for the C-2A(R) provide
increased reliability and maintainability. A limited development test was conducted on
the C-2A(R), due to the minor differences to the previous C-2A. Development Test and
Evaluation (DT&E) and Operational Test and Evaluation (OT&E) were previously
completed on the original C-2A Production Acceptance Test and Evaluation on the C-
2A(R) was performed by the Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division (NAWCAD),
Patuxent River, Maryland, from June 1985 to February 1986.
The C-2A(R) provides tactical logistics support for deployed carrier battle groups. These
aircraft have a 10,000 pound payload capacity and operate from forward area air stations
in support of Atlantic and Pacific fleet operations. The aircraft's large aft door-ramp and
powered winch promote a fast turnaround time via straight-in rear loading and unloading.
Special missions have been developed which employ the C-2A. These missions include
personnel, Combat Rubber Raiding Craft (CRRC), and air cargo drops. The CRRC drops
entail disembarking a team of divers and their equipment while airborne.
During the period November 1985 to February 1987, VR-24, operating with seven
Reprocured C-2As, demonstrated exceptional operational readiness while delivering two
million pounds of cargo, two million pounds of mail and 14,000 passengers in support of
the European and Mediterranean theatres.
The C-2A is a Carrier Onboard Delivery (COD) transport aircraft assigned to Fleet
Logistics Support Squadrons (VRCs). Greyhounds serve 12 carriers from two primary
locations:

 VRC-30, which is based at Naval Air North Island, CA and currently operates 12
C-2A aircraft throughout the Pacific and Central Commands, including two C-2A
aircraft permanently forward deployed to Japan on the USS Kitty Hawk.
 VRC-40 is based at Naval Air Station Norfolk, Va.

C-2A Greyhounds with upgraded communications, navigation, instrumentation packages,


and a Critical Service Life Extension Program (SLEP) will provide cost-effective, carrier-
on-board delivery for the next 20 years.

Specifications
Primary Function Carrier-on-board delivery (COD) aircraft
Contractor Grumann Aerospace Corp.
Unit Cost $38.96 million
Two Allison T-56-A-425 turboprop engines; 4,600
Propulsion
shaft horsepower each
Length 57 feet 7 inches (17.3 meters)
Height 17 feet (5 meters)
Weight Max. gross, take-off: 57,000 lbs (25,650 kg)
Cruising Speed Max.: 300 knots (345 miles, 553 km, per hour)
Ceiling 30,000 feet (9,100 meters)
Range 1,300 nautical miles (1,495 statute miles)
Crew Four
C-5A/B Galaxy
The C-5 Galaxy is a heavy-cargo transport designed to provide strategic airlift for
deployment and supply of combat and support forces. The C-5 can carry unusually large
and heavy cargo for intercontinental ranges at jet speeds. The plane can take off and land
in relatively short distances and taxi on substandard surfaces during emergency
operations. The C-5 and the smaller C-141B Starlifter are strategic airlift partners.
Together they carry fully equipped, combat-ready troops to any area in the world on short
notice and provide full field support necessary to maintain a fighting force.

Using the front and rear cargo openings, the Galaxy can be loaded and off-loaded at the
same time. Both nose and rear doors open the full width and height of the cargo
compartment, allowing drive-through loading and unloading of wheeled and tracked
vehicles, and faster, easier loading of bulky equipment. A "kneeling" landing gear system
lowers the aircraft's cargo floor to truck-bed height. The entire cargo floor has a roller
system for rapid handling of palletized equipment. Thirty-six fully loaded pallets can be
loaded aboard in about 90 minutes.

The Galaxy's weight is distributed on its high flotation landing gear, which has 28
wheels. The landing gear system can raise each set of wheels individually for simplified
tire changes or brake maintenance.

An automatic trouble-shooting system constantly monitors more than 800 test points in
the various subsystems of the C-5. The Malfunction Detection Analysis and Recording
System uses a digital computer to identify malfunctions in replaceable units. Failure and
trend information is recorded on magnetic tape for analysis.

Four turbofan engines mounted on pylons under the wings power the C-5. Each engine
pod is nearly 27 feet (8.2 meters) long, weighs 7,900 pounds (3,555 kilograms) and has
an air intake diameter of more than 8 1/2 feet (2.6 meters). The Galaxy has 12 integral
wing tanks with a capacity of 51,150 gallons (194,370 liters) of fuel - enough to fill 6 1/2
regular-size railroad tank cars. The fuel weighs 322,500 pounds (145,125 kilograms) and
permits the C-5, carrying a 204,904-pound (92,207-kilogram) payload, to fly 2,150
nautical miles (3,440 kilometers), off-load, and fly another 500 miles (800 kilometers)
without aerial refueling.

Features unique to the C-5 include the forward cargo door (visor) and ramp and the aft
cargo door system and ramp. These features allow drive-on/drive-off loading and
unloading as well as loading and unloading from either end of the cargo compartment.
The C-5’s kneeling capability also facilitates and expedites these operations by lowering
the cargo com-partment floor by about 10 feet to 3 feet off the ground. This position
lowers cargo ramps for truck bed and ground loading and reduces ramp angles for
loading and unloading vehicles. The C-5’s floor does not have treadways. The “floor-
bearing pressure” is the same over the entire floor. The C-5A/B can carry up to thirty-six
463L pallets. The troop compartment is located in the aircraft’s upper deck. It is self-
contained with a galley, two lavatories, and 73 available passenger seats (CB at FS 1675).
Another 267 airline seats may be installed on the cargo compartment floor (maximum
combined total of 329 troops including air crew over water).

Except for emergencies or unusual circumstances, the C-5 does not carry troops in the
lower-deck cargo compartment; but 73 seats are available in the rear compartment of the
upper deck for personnel and operators of equipment being airlifted. The C-5 has carried
special loads, such as large missiles, that would require extra time, manpower and dollars
to transport via ship, rail or flatbed truck.

The forward upper deck accommodates a crew of six, a relief crew of seven, and eight
mail or message couriers. The flight deck has work stations for the pilot, co-pilot, two
flight engineers and two loadmasters. The upper deck's forward and rear compartments
have galleys for food preparation, as well as lavatories.

The Galaxy has sophisticated communications equipment and a triple inertial navigation
system, making it nearly self-sufficient. It can operate without using ground-based
navigational aids.

The electrical system has four engine-driven generators, each powerful enough to supply
the aircraft sufficient electricity. Each of the two main landing gear pods carries an
auxiliary power unit to supply electric and pneumatic power for engine starts and ground
air conditioning, heating, cooling and ventilation. Air turbine motors in the landing gear
pods also can power the hydraulic systems and the main landing gear kneeling motors.

The Galaxy is one of the world's largest aircraft. It is almost as long as a football field
and as high as a six-story building and has a cargo compartment about the size of an
eight-lane bowling alley. The C-5 is the only aircraft that can transport any of the Army's
combat equipment, including the 74-ton (66,600-kilogram) mobile scissors bridge, tanks
and helicopters.

The first C-5A was delivered to the Transitional Training Unit at Altus Air Force Base,
Okla., in December 1969. The first operational C-5s were delivered to the 437th Military
Airlift Wing, Charleston Air Force Base, S.C., in June 1970. In December 1984, the
433rd Tactical Airlift Wing (now the 433rd Military Airlift Wing) at Kelly Air Force
Base, Texas, became the first Air Force Reserve wing equipped with C-5 Galaxies.

The first C-5B incorporating significant improvements such as strengthened wings and
updated avionics was delivered to Altus Air Force Base in January 1986. C-5 production
concluded with delivery of the last "B" model aircraft in April 1989.

The C-5, with its massive payload capability, has opened unprecedented dimensions of
strategic airlift in support of national defense. For 20 years it has been involved in many
historic airlift missions, and is invaluable to the Air Force mission and humanitarian
efforts. For example, in December 1988, four C-5s participated in the delivery of more
than 885,000 pounds (398,250 kilograms) of earthquake relief supplies to the then-Soviet
Republic of Armenia. The C-5 also assisted with an Alaskan oil spill cleanup in March
1989, transporting nearly 2 million pounds (900,000 kilograms) of equipment to
Elmendorf Air Force Base, Alaska.

The most dramatic display of the Galaxy's capability and value was during operations
Desert Shield and Desert Storm. The C-5, along with other Air Force transport aircraft,
airlifted almost a half-million passengers and more than 577,000 tons (519,300 metric
tons) of cargo. This included 15 air-transportable hospitals and the more than 5,000
medical personnel to run them, and more than 211 tons (189.9 metric tons) of mail to and
from the men and women in the Middle East - each day.

On 04 August 2000 the CF6-80C2L1F turbofan engine has been selected by Lockheed
Martin Corporation to power the C-5 Galaxy transport aircraft Reliability Enhancement
and Re-engining Program (RERP). This engine is a model of the highly successful CF6-
80C2 engine family. The C-5 re-engining program is part of a multi-phase effort by the
U.S. Air Force (USAF) to modernize its fleet of 126 C-5 aircraft to achieve increased
mission effectiveness and readiness. If fully implemented, the C-5 RERP effort will lead
to sales of more than 500 CF6-80C2L1F propulsion systems, plus service support from
GE.

Service Life
The AF took delivery of the first C-5A in 1969. The force was then retrofitted with a new
wing in the mid 1980s. With a projected structural service life of over 50,000 hours, the
C-5 could last structurally well into the next century, depending on the model and other
factors. However, system obsolescence, reliability and maintainability, operating cost,
impacts of corrosion, and required repairs all factor in the service life of an aircraft.
Currently, the C-5 has the highest operating cost of any weapon system, and the trend is a
rise in tariff rates and reliability and maintainability costs for the C-5. The current
maintenance man hour per flying hour illustrates the difficulties in the C-5 force. The A
models consumed 46.0 maintenance man hours per flying hour, 16.7 for the B model
(CY96 data). With the retirement of the C-141 force, the C-5 will take a larger role in
peacetime movement of cargo over the next few years. This means our mobility
customers will face a more expensive option with the C-5. Our depot levels have
decreased for the second consecutive year in FY96 to 18 percent of our total aircraft.
However, this is still above the planned 15.4 percent BAI level. The daily mission
capable rate over the past years continues to improve. However, A-model MC rates
average about 10.1 percent below the B-model. These problems raise concern for the
economic life of the C-5A-model.

Specifications
Primary Function strategic airlift.
Contractor Lockheed-Georgia Co.
Power Plant Four General Electric TF39-GE-1C turbofan engines.
Thrust 41,000 pounds (18,450 kilograms), each engine.
Length 247 feet, 10 inches (75.3 meters).
Height At Tail 65 feet, 1 inch (19.8 meters).
Maximum Takeoff
769,000 pounds (346,500 kilograms).
Weight
Maximum Wartime
840,000 pounds (378,000 kilograms).
Takeoff Weight
Takeoff/Landing 12,200 feet (3,697 meters) takeoff fully loaded;
Distances 4,900 feet (1485 meters) land fully loaded.
Wingspan 222 feet, 9 inches (67.9 meters).
Stabilizer Span 68 feet, 9 inches (20.8 meters).
Height 13 feet, 6 inches (4.10 meters); width 19 feet
Cargo Compartment
(5.76 meters).
Range 5,940 miles (5,165 nautical miles) empty.
34,000 feet (10,303 meters) with a 605,000-pound
Ceiling
(272,250-kilogram) load.
Speed 541 mph (Mach 0.72)
291,000 pounds (130,950 kilograms) maximum
Load
wartime payload.
Upper deck seats 73 passengers; forward upper deck
seats six, a relief crew of seven, and eight mail or
message couriers. The flight deck has work stations for
Accommodations
the entire crew. The upper deck's forward and rear
compartments have galleys for food preparation and
lavatories.
An automatic trouble-shooting system constantly
monitors more than 800 test points in the various
subsystems of the C-5. The Malfunction Detection
Sensors Analysis and Recording System uses a digital computer
to identify malfunctions in replaceable units. Failure
and trend information is recorded on magnetic tape for
analysis by maintenance people.
Unit Cost C-5A, $163.4 million; C-5B, $167.7 million
Six (pilot, co-pilot, two flight engineers, two
Crew
loadmasters)
December 1969 (for training); June 1970 (operational);
Date Deployed
December 1984 (to Reserve).
Inventory Active-force, 70; ANG, 11; Reserve, 28.
C-9A/C Nightingale
The C-9 is a twin-engine, T-tailed, medium-range, swept-wing jet aircraft used primarily
for Air Mobility Command's aeromedical evacuation mission. The Nightingale is a
modified version of the McDonnell Douglas Aircraft Corporation's DC-9. It is the only
aircraft in the inventory specifically designed for the movement of litter and ambulatory
patients.

The C-9A's airlift capability to carry 40 litter patients, 40 ambulatory and four litter
patients, or various combinations thereof, provides the flexibility for Air Mobility
Command's worldwide aeromedical evacuation role. A hydraulically operated folding
ramp allows efficient loading and unloading of litter patients and special medical
equipment.

The plane has:

 Ceiling receptacles for securing intravenous bottles.


 A special care area with a separate ventilation system for patients requiring
isolation or intensive care.
 Eleven vacuum and therapeutic oxygen outlets, positioned in sidewall service
panels at litter tier locations.
 A 28 VDC outlet in the special care area.
 Twenty-two 115 VAC-60 hertz electrical outlets located throughout the cabin
permit the use of cardiac monitors, respirators, incubators and infusion pumps at
any location within the cabin.
 A medical refrigerator for preserving whole blood and biological drugs.
 A medical supply work area with sink, medicine storage section and work table,
fore-and-aft galleys and lavatories.
 Aft-facing commercial airline-type seats for ambulatory patients.
 A station for a medical crew director that includes a desk communication panel
and a control panel to monitor cabin temperature, therapeutic oxygen and vacuum
system.
 An auxiliary power unit that provides electrical power for uninterrupted cabin air
conditioning, quick servicing during stops, and self-starting for the twin-jet
engines.

The 375th Airlift Wing at Scott Air Force Base, Ill., operates C-9A Nightingales for Air
Mobility Command. C-9A's are assigned to the 374th Airlift Wing at Yokota Air Base,
Japan, for use in the Pacific theater. C-9s also are assigned to the 435th Airlift Wing at
Rhein-Main Air Base, Germany, for use in the European and Middle East theaters. The
C-9A Nightingale demonstrates its uniqueness and versatility daily by its ability to serve
not only military, but Department of Veterans Affairs and civilian hospitals throughout
the world, using military and commercial airfields.
The C-9 aircraft provides intra theater logistic support to Naval forces worldwide. The C-
9 aircraft was procured as a commercial derivative aircraft certified under an FAA Type
Certificate. Throughout its life, the aircraft have been operated and organically and
commercially supported by the Navy using a combination of Navy and FAA processes,
procedures and certifications. It continues to be maintained organically and commercially
and relies on COTS/NDI components to support airworthiness. Aircraft modification
efforts are turnkey projects (non-recurring engineering, procurement, installation, test and
certification) implemented as part of competitively awarded maintenance contracts.

Specifications
Primary Function Aeromedical evacuation
Contractor McDonnell Douglas Corporation
Power Plant Two Pratt & Whitney JT8D-9A turbofan engines
Thrust 14,500 pounds (6,525 kilograms) each engine
Length 119 feet, 3 inches (35.7 meters)
Wingspan 93 feet, 3 inches (27.9 meters)
Height 27 feet, 5 inches (8.2 meters)
Maximum Takeoff
108,000 pounds (48,600 kilograms)
Weight
Range More than 2,000 miles (1,739 nautical miles)
Ceiling 35,000 feet (10,606 meters)
565 mph (Mach 0.86) at 25,000 feet (7583.3 meters),
Speed with maximum takeoff weight
40 litter patients or four litters and 40 ambulatory
Load
patients or other combinations
Eight (pilot, co-pilot, flight mechanic, two flight nurses
Crew
and three aeromedical technicians)
Date Deployed August 1968
Unit Cost $17 million
Inventory Active force, 10; ANG, 0; Reserve, 0
C-12 Huron
The C-12 Huron, a twin turboprop passenger and cargo aircraft, is the military version of
the Beachcraft Super King Air. The C-12 aircraft, manufactured by Raytheon Aircraft
Company (RAC) (formerly Beech Aircraft Corporation), is a high-performance, fixed-
wing, T-tail, pressurized, twin engine turboprop that accommodates places for a pilot, co-
pilot, and passengers. It is powered by two Pratt and Whitney PT6A-41/42/65 turbo prop
engines. The Government’s C-12 aircraft fleet is similar to the Beech Super King Air 200
& 1900C, which is operated extensively around the world by many private and
commercial users. The aircraft provides operational support for military bases, sites, fleet
and shore units.
The C-12F can carry up to eight passengers and has a cargo capacity of 56 cubic feet. It
can be used to transport patients on medical evacuation litters. There are 19 C-12Fs in the
active duty Air Force. Delivery began in May 1984 and was completed by the end of that
year. The Air Force acquired the C-12F at the direction of Congress to support the
Defense Attaché and Security Assistance Offices.
The aircraft provides on-call, rapid response, modern air transport for high priority supply
and movement of key personnel. Specifically, it is used for VIP transport or to deliver
repair parts; equipment; and technical, crash investigation, and accident investigation
teams wherever needed. Its support role also includes such functions as range clearance,
medical evacuation, administrative movement of personnel, transportation connections,
and courier flights.
The support concept is total contractor support wherein a commercial Contractor
provides all FAA approved maintenance and material support. The contractor is solely
responsible for all materials (including acquisition, storage, configuration, repair,
packaging, and shipping) until they are consumed in support of the aircraft. The
Contractor also provides other maintenance functions such as: crash damage repair;
engine repair/overhaul; propeller repair/overhaul; and airframe and avionics overhaul,
repair, and modification. Aircraft modification efforts are "turnkey" projects
(procurement and installation) implemented as part of competitively awarded
maintenance contracts. Where extensive integration efforts are required, the non-
recurring engineering phase, including test and certification, is typically performed by the
aircraft OEM under a sole source engineering contract with the Navy.

Specifications
Primary Function Passenger and cargo airlift
Contractor Raytheon Aircraft (Beech)
Unit Cost $2 million
Two Pratt & Whitney PT-6A-42 turboprop engines;
Propulsion
850 shaft horsepower each
Length 43 feet 10 (13.3 meters)
Height 15 feet (4.57 meters)
Weight Max. gross, take-off: 15,000 lbs (6,750 kg)
Cruising Speed Max.: 294 knots (334 miles, 544 km, per hour)
Ceiling 35,000 feet (10,668 meters)
Range 1,974 nautical miles (3,658 km)
Crew Two
Armament None
Date deployed 1994
200 (A100-1 (U-21J)),
200C, 200CT, 200T, A200 (C-12A) or (C-12C),
A200C (UC-12B),
A200CT (C-12D) or (FWC-12D) or (RC-12D) or (C-
Variants 12F) or (RC-12G) or (RC-12H) or (RC-12K), or(RC-
12P)
B200C (C-12F) or (UC-12F) or (UC-12M), or (C-
12R),
1900C (C-12J),
C-17 Globemaster III
The C-17 is the newest airlift aircraft to enter the Air Force's inventory. The C-17 is
capable of rapid strategic delivery of troops and all types of cargo to main operating
bases or directly to forward bases in the deployment area. The aircraft is also able to
perform theater airlift missions when required.

The C-17's system specifications impose a demanding set of reliability and


maintainability requirements. These requirements include an aircraft mission completion
success probability of 93 percent, only 18.6 aircraft maintenance manhours per flying
hour, and full and partial mission capable rates of 74.7 and 82.5 percent respectively for a
mature fleet with 100,000 flying hours.

The C-17 measures approximately 174 feet long with a 170-foot wingspan. The aircraft is
powered by four fully reversible Pratt & Whitney F117-PW-100 engines (the commercial
version is currently used on the Boeing 757). Each engine is rated at 40,900 pounds of
thrust. The thrust reversers direct the flow of air upward and forward to avoid ingestion
of dust and debris.

The aircraft is operated by a crew of three (pilot, copilot and loadmaster). Cargo is loaded
onto the C-17 through a large aft door that accommodates military vehicles and palletized
cargo. The C-17 can carry virtually all of the Army's air-transportable, outsized combat
equipment. The C-17 is also able to airdrop paratroopers and cargo.

Maximum payload capacity of the C-17 is 170,900 pounds, and its maximum gross
takeoff weight is 585,000 pounds. With a payload of 130,000 pounds and an initial cruise
altitude of 28,000 feet, the C-17 has an unrefueled range of approximately 5,200 nautical
miles. Its cruise speed is approximately 450 knots (.77 Mach).

The design of this aircraft lets it operate on small, austere airfields. The C-17 can take off
and land on runways as short as 3,000 feet and as narrow as 90 feet wide. Even on such
narrow runways, the C-17 can turn around by using its backing capability while
performing a three-point star turn. Maximum use has been made of off-the-shelf and
commercial equipment, including Air Force standardized avionics.

The C-17 made its maiden flight on Sept. 15, 1991. The aircraft is operated by the Air
Mobility Command with initial operations at Charleston AFB, S.C., with the 437th Airlift
Wing and the 315th Airlift Wing (Air Force Reserve). The C-17 program is managed by
the Aeronautical Systems Center, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio.

Service Life

Based on a buy of 120 aircraft, the last C-17 delivery will be in November, 2004. The
original specification from McDonnell Douglas defined a service life of 30,000 hours.
Modification programs will keep the aircraft in line with current and future requirements
for threat avoidance, navigation, communications, and enhanced capabilities. These
modifications should include global air traffic management (GATM) and automatic
dependent surveillance to meet anticipated navigation requirements. Commercially
available avionics and mission computer upgrades are being investigated to reduce life-
cycle costs and improve performance. Also, upgraded communication systems to enhance
worldwide voice and data (including secure) transmission will support command and
control.

Specifications
Primary Function Cargo and troop transport
Prime Contractor Boeing [McDonnell Douglas Corp.]
Power Plant
Four Pratt & Whitney F117-PW- 100 turbofan engines
Manufacturer
Thrust (each engine) 40,900 pounds
Wingspan 170 feet 9 inches (to winglet tips) (51.81 meters)
Length 173 feet 11 inches (53.04 meters)
Height 55 feet 1 inch (16.79 meters)
Length - 85 feet 2 inches (26 meters);
width - 18 feet (5.48 meters);
Cargo Compartment height - 12 feet 4 inches (3.76 meters) forward of the
wing
and 13 feet 6 inches (4.11 meters) aft of the wing
Speed 500 mph (Mach .77)
Service Ceiling 45,000 feet at cruising speed (13,716 meters)
Range Unlimited with in-flight refueling
Crew Three (two pilots and one loadmaster)
Maximum Peacetime
585,000 pounds (265,306 kilos)
Takeoff Weight
102 troops/paratroops;
48 litter and 54 ambulatory patients and attendants;
Load
170,900 pounds (76,644 kilos) of cargo (18 pallet
positions)
Date Deployed June 1993
C-20
The various versions of the C-20 are military modifications of the commercial
Gulfstream aircraft. The C-20 aircraft provide distinguished visitor (DV) airlift for
military and government officials. They support the long range/low passenger load DV
airlift niche, offering worldwide access while including a communications suite which
supports worldwide secure voice and data communications for the DV and staff.

The C-20 was chosen in June 1983 as the replacement aircraft for the C-140B Jetstar, and
three A models were delivered to the 89th Airlift Wing at Andrews Air Force Base MD
under a cost-saving accelerated purchase plan. The three C-20As at Andrews were
subsequenty transferred to Ramstein Air Base, Germany, and all C-140Bs at both
locations were phased out of the Air Force inventory. Seven B-model C-20s fly special
air missions from Andrews. The primary difference between the C-20A and B model is
the electrical system and the avionics package.

C-20B aircraft will reach their 20,000-hour service life in about 2014. Gulfstream's
current production of G-IVs appears to secure the logistic support base for C-20s for the
foreseeable future. Although the C-20B is not Stage 3 compliant, the C-20H (G-IV) does
meet future FAA noise requirements. A Statement of Need and Operational
Requirements Document has been validated for a small VC-X aircraft. The 89th Airlift
Wing will receive two Gulfstream V aircraft in FY98 to be designated C-37As. AMC has
conducted a SAM modernization study, approved by the CSAF, which recommends
replacing C-20Bs with additional C-37As.

C-20D
The C-20D is a Gulfstream III aircraft capable of all-weather, long-range, high speed
non-stop flights between nominally suited airports. It is manufactured by Gulfstream
Aerospace Corporation (GAC) Savannah, Georgia and is powered by two Rolls-Royce
Limited Spey MK511-8 turbofan engines equipped with thrust reversers. The aircraft has
an executive compartment with accommodations for five passengers and a staff
compartment with accommodations for eight passengers. A walk-in baggage area of 157
cubic feet, fully pressurized, is accessible from the cabin. The C-20D aircraft are operated
by Fleet Logistics Support Wing Detachment at Naval Air Facility, Andrews Air Force
Base, Washington, DC.
The C-20D aircraft was procured as a commercial-derivative aircraft certified under an
FAA Type Certificate. Throughout its life, the aircraft has been operated and organically
and commercially supported by the Navy using Navy and FAA processes, procedures and
certifications. It continues to be maintained organically and commercially at all levels of
maintenance, and relies on COTS/NDI components and equipment to support
airworthiness. Aircraft modification efforts are "turnkey" projects (procurement and
installation) implemented as part of competitively awarded maintenance contracts. Where
extensive integration efforts are required, the non-recurring engineering phase, including
test and certification, is typically performed by Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation under
a sole-source engineering contract with the Navy.

C-20G
The C-20G is a Gulfstream IV aircraft capable of all-weather, long-range, high speed
non-stop flights between nominally suited airports. It is manufactured by Gulfstream
Aerospace Corporation Savannah, Georgia and is powered by two Rolls-Royce Limited
Tay MK611-8 turbofan engines equipped with thrust reversers. The aircraft may be
configured for cargo operations, passenger operations or combinations of the two. With
passengers seats removed the aircraft may be modified to the following configurations:
three pallets/no passengers, two pallets/eight passengers, and one pallet/fourteen
passengers. With a full complement of seats installed, the aircraft is capable of
accommodating up to twenty-six passengers and a crew of four. A hydraulically-operated
cargo door is installed on the starboard side of the aircraft to facilitate loading and
unloading of cargo. A ball roller cargo floor is capable of accommodating palletized
cargo. A walk-in baggage area of 157 cubic feet, fully pressurized, is accessible from the
cabin.
The C-20G aircraft are operated Fleet Logistics Support Squadron Four Eight (VR-48)
and Marine Air Support Detachment (MASD) at Naval Air Facility, Andrews Air Force
Base, Washington, DC and at Fleet Logistics Support Wing Detachment, Marine Corps
Base, Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii. The C-20G aircraft was procured as a commercial-
derivative aircraft certified under an FAA Type certificate. Throughout its life, the
aircraft has been operated and organically and commercially supported by the Navy using
a combination of Navy and FAA processes, procedures and certifications. It continues to
be maintained organically and commercially at all levels of maintenance, and relies on
COTS/NDI components to support airworthiness. Aircraft modification efforts are
"turnkey" projects (procurement and installation) implemented as part of competitively
awarded maintenance contracts. Where extensive integration efforts are required, the
non-recurring engineering phase, including test and certification, is typically performed
by Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation under a sole-source engineering contract with the
Navy.

Specifications
C-20A, operational support airlift; C-20B, special air
Primary Function
missions
Builder Gulfstream Aerospace Corp
Power Plant Two Rolls-Royce Spey MK511-8 turbofan engines
Thrust 11,400 pounds each engine
Length 83 feet, 2 inches
Height 24 feet, 6 inches
Wing Span 77 feet, 10 inches
Speed 576 mph (501 nautical miles) maximum
Maximum Takeoff
69,700 pounds.
Weight
Range 4,715 miles (4,100 nautical miles) long-range
Load 14 passengers
Crew Five
Unit Cost $22.2 million
Date Deployed 1983
Inventory Active force, 10
C-21A
The C-21A, the military version of the Learjet 35A, provides cargo and passenger airlift
and can transport litters during medical evacuations. The C-21A's turbofan engines are
pod-mounted on the sides of the rear fuselage. The swept-back wings have hydraulically
actuated, single-slotted flaps. The aircraft has a retractable tricycle landing gear, single
steerable nose gear and multiple-disc hydraulic brakes. The C-21A can carry eight
passengers and 42 cubic feet (1.26 cubic meters) of cargo. The fuel capacity of the C-21A
is 931 gallons (3,537.8 liters) carried in wingtip tanks. The safety and operational
capabilities of the C-21A are increased by the autopilot, color weather radar and tactical
air navigation (TACAN) system, as well as HF, VHF and UHF radios.

Delivery of the C-21A fleet began in April 1984 and was completed in October 1985.
Glasco, a subsidiary of Learjet, Inc., provides full contractor logistics support at 16
worldwide locations.

Specifications
Primary Function Passenger and cargo airlift.
Builder Learjet, Inc. (formerly Gates Learjet)
Power Plant Two Garrett TFE-731-2-2B turbofan engines.
Thrust 3,500 pounds (1,575 kilograms) each engine.
Length 48 feet, 7 inches (14.71 meters).
Height 12 feet, 3 inches (3.71 meters).
Maximum Takeoff 18,300 pounds (8,235 kilograms).
Weight
Wingspan 39 feet, 6 inches (11.97 meters)
Range 2,306 miles (2,005 nautical miles).
Speed 530 mph (Mach 0.81, 461 knots, 848 kph)
Unit Cost $2.8 million.
Crew Two (pilot and co-pilot).
Date Deployed April 1984.
Inventory Active forces, 70; ANG, 4; Reserve, 0.
C-22
The C-22B, a Boeing 727-100, is the primary medium-range aircraft used by the Air
National Guard and National Guard Bureau to airlift personnel. The C-22B's unique
arrangement of leading-edge devices and trailing-edge flaps permit lower approach
speeds, thus allowing operation from runways never intended for a 600-mph (Mach 0.82)
aircraft.

The aircraft has heated and pressurized baggage compartments - one on the right side
forward and the second just aft of the wheel well. The two compartments provide 425
cubic feet (12.75 cubic meters) of cargo space. The fuselage also incorporates a forward
entry door and hydraulically opened integral aft stairs in the tail cone.

The flight controls consist of a hydraulically powered dual-elevator control system with
control tab to assist during manual operation. Hydraulically powered rudders use two
main systems with a standby system for the lower rudder. The ailerons also are powered
by dual-hydraulic systems. They have balance tabs on the outboard and control tabs on
the inboard, which assures adequate maneuverability in the event of a total hydraulic
failure. The flight spoiler systems assist ailerons and also function as speed brakes. The
aircraft's tricycle landing gear consists of a dual-wheel nose gear, left and right dual-
wheel main gear, and a retractable tail skid which prevents damaging the aircraft in case
of overrotation. Nose wheel steering is hydraulically powered and controlled by a
steering wheel to approximately 78 degrees in either direction. Fuel is contained in three
main tanks inside the wing center section. Rapid pressure fueling and defueling is
accomplished at the fueling station on the right wing. The total fuel capacity is
approximately 50,000 pounds (22,500 kilograms) of JP-4. Fuel may be dumped down to
35,000 pounds (15,750 kilograms) from all tanks.

The C-22B requires four crew members and three or four in-flight passenger specialists
for passenger service and safety. The avionics package includes one UHF and two VHF
radio altimeters, variable instrument switching and two Collins FD-108 flight directors. A
third vertical gyro and an additional VHF transceiver are available in case of failure of
the primary systems.

The C-22B was introduced by the airline industry in 1963. It proved to be a major
innovative design with its three Pratt & Whitney JT8D turbofan engines, one on each side
of the rear fuselage and the third in the tail cone. Currently, there are three C-22B's in
use, all assigned to the 201st Airlift Squadron, District of Columbia Air National Guard.

The C-22Bs are modified Boeing 727-100 series aircraft, out of production since 1969.
Spare parts are increasingly costly and difficult to obtain as commercial operators phase
out this series of Boeing 727 and supply sources dwindle. The current fleet suffers from
numerous operational restrictions. The aircraft are aging and have high operating,
maintenance, and support costs. Communication and navigation systems are old and fail
to meet the new requirements for air traffic management and separation mandated by
Reduced Vertical Separation Minimums (RVSM) and Global Air Traffic Management
(GATM) requirements. The C-22B fleet fails to meet either FAA or International Civil
Aviation Organization (ICAO) Stage 3 noise and air pollution requirements. The Pratt &
Whitney (P&W) JT-8 engines, which power the C-22B, are out of production and no new
spare parts are being manufactured. The engines are expensive to operate, and emit more
pollutants than newer, more fuel-efficient engines. The aircraft are heavily dependent
upon ground support equipment, and are the only C-22Bs flying in the USAF.

The C-22 Replacement Program calls for a most probable quantity of four (one initial
plus three options) FAA certified commercial intercontinental passenger aircraft
reconfigurable to accommodate a minimum of 40 passengers and 7 crew (low volume,
office environment with DV area) or a minimum 70 passengers and 5 crew (high volume
passenger transport). The ability to reconfigure the interior for medical evacuation by
installing 1 to 7 Spectrum 500 beds is also required. The aircraft shall be capable of
dispatch on short notice to any suitable airfield in the world from operating locations at
Andrews AFB, Maryland and shall be capable of non-stop flight from Andrews AFB,
Maryland to Moscow, Russia and from Frankfurt, Germany to Andrews AFB, Maryland
with 7 crew and 40 passengers. Worldwide clear and secure voice, facsimile, and data
communications are required to support the passengers.

Specifications
Primary Function Passenger transportation
Builder Boeing Co.
Power Plant Three JT8D-7 turbofan engines
Thrust 14,000 pounds each engine
Length 133 feet, 2 inches (40.3 meters)
Height 34 feet, (10.3 meters)
Wingspan 108 feet (32.7 meters)
Maximum Take-off
170,000 pounds (76,500 kilograms)
Weight
Maximum Payload 20,000 pounds (9,000 kilograms)
Maximum Speed 619 mph (Mach 0.82)
Range 2,000 miles (1,739 nautical miles)
Endurance 5.5 hours
Pilot, co-pilot, flight engineer, flight mechanic, and
Crew three or four in-flight passenger specialists
Unit Cost No longer available.
Date Deployed 1963.
Inventory Active force, 0; ANG, 3; Reserve, 0.
C-23 Sherpa
The Sherpa is an all-freight version of the Shorts 330 regional airliner with a 5 ft-6 inch
square cabin section over an unimpeded hold length of 29 ft. Through-loading is provided
via a large forward freight door, and via a full width, hydraullically operated rear ramp
door with removable roller conveyors. The C-23 Sherpa is the Army National Guard’s
answer to missions requiring an aircraft that is capable of faster, higher-altitude and
longer-distance coverage than helicopters. The Sherpa comes with a low operating cost
due to its simple, robust construction, compared to that of other cargo aircraft.
The Army National Guard has procured 44 C-23B/B+ Sherpa light cargo aircraft to
support theater aviation, cargo, airdrop, and aeromedical evacuation for both state and
federal wartime missions. The C-23 multi-role utility airplane is the only cargo airplane
in the Army, and is organized into 4 theater airplane companies. Each company has four
detachments. The detachments are all located in different states. Each detachment has
two aircraft. In the Alaska Army National Guard the UV-18As have been replaced by the
C-23B+. Requirements exist to standardize C-23B/B+ systems to include global
positioning systems, high frequency radios, airdrop equipment, aeromedical evacuation,
and engine upgrades. A few of these aircraft are used as all-freight regional airliners by
Air Force Material Command.

The aircraft can carry up to 30 passengers in airline-type seats, along with palletized
cargo, four small pallets, and do airdrop of those pallets, or 18 litter patients plus their
medical personnel. It has a range of a thousand miles, cruises up to two hundred knots,
and it’s square because most of the things the Army has are square rather than round. It
has six-and-a-half feet of headroom. It is unpressurized, but if it flies above 10,000 feet
for an extended period of time, the crew wears oxygen masks. The Sherpa has a crew of
three, but sometimes flies with four man crews if there is a need for two flight engineers.

The C-23B Sherpa aircraft is a light military transport aircraft, designed to operate
efficiently, even under the most arduous conditions, in a wide range of mission
configurations. The large square-section hold, with excellent access at both ends, offers
ready flexibility to perform ordnance movement, troop & vehicle transport,
airborne/airdrop missions, medical evacuation and is suitable for conversion to other
specialist duties such as maritime or land surveillance.
Configured as a troop transport, the Sherpa provides comfortable, air-conditioned seating
for 30 passengers, features "walk about" headroom, a removable latrine unit, and has a
500 lb capacity / 345 cu. ft. baggage compartment located in the nose of the aircraft.
Additional space for a 600 lb capacity optional baggage pallet is provided on the rear
ramp of the aircraft.
During airborne operations, the aircraft accommodates 27 paratroopers. Optionally, it can
be outfitted to handle up to 18 stretchers plus 2 medical attendants. The airplane meets
Army Short Take-off & Landing guidelines (STOL), can operate from unpaved runways
and is equipped with self-contained ground handling equipment. Operational experience
with this remarkable aircraft has proven it to have low maintenance costs and low fuel
consumption.
The grey, 30-foot long Sherpa, begins life as a Shorts 360 Airliner. The Shorts Aviation
Company is located in Belfast, Northern Ireland, and is one of the oldest aircraft builders
in the world. The airplanes are then sent to Clarksburg, West Virginia, where each is
remanufactured into an Army Sherpa. The West Virginia Air Center (WVAC) operated
by Bombardier Defence Services Inc. provides Contractor Logistics Support (CLS) for
the C-23 Sherpa aircraft operated by the United States Army National Guard (USARNG)
and the US Air Force. This entails support of 27 C-23B and C-23B+ aircraft located at 19
different bases in the USA, Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands. Additionally, the
company provide CLS to the fleet of C-23A aircraft operated by the Air Force Test Pilot
School at Edwards Air Force Base CA.
US Army Aviation Technical Test Center (USAATTC) has a C-23A aircraft which has
been modified to acquire various electronic sensor data in support of the Program
Executive Officer (PEO) Intelligence and Electronic Warfare Programs. The Sherpa (C-
23A) is owned by Aviation Technical Test Center (ATTC), Ft. Rucker, AL. Originally
under the sponsorship of PM, Airborne Reconnaissance Low (PM ARL) and currently
being transitioned to PM NV/RSTA, it acts as a UAV surrogate for payload testing. The
C-23A Sherpa, with its on-board workstation and capability to carry observers, is ideal
for real-time evaluations of various sensor and target detection/recognition systems.

Specifications
Contractor Short Brothers PLC
C-23A Sherpa C-23B Super Sherpa
2 Pratt-Whitney PT6A- 2 Pratt-Whitney PT6A-
Power Plant 45R turboprops 65AR turboprops
Take-off power
[Sea level static, 1197 shp 1424 shp
uninstalled]
Design output shaft
1700 rpm 1700 rpm
speed
Speed 218mph at 10,000ft
770 miles with 5000lb
range
payload
Span 74ft 8in
length 58ft
height 16ft 3in
Weight Gross 25,500lb max
Crew of three
up to 7000lb of freight,
Accomodations
including 4 LD3
containers, and engines
the size of F100 series
Entered USAF inventory
Date Deployed
1984
C-26 Metroliner
The C-26 is operated exclusively by the Air and Army National Guard and was first
delivered in 1989. They have quick change passenger, medevac, or cargo interiors. The
C-26A is the civilian equivalent of the Fairchild Metro III with the C-26B being
equivalent to the Fairchild Metro 23. The C-26B(CD) [Counter Drug] and the UC-26 are
National Guard Bureau aircraft used to support the Air National Guard in drug control
operations. The UC-26C is a derivative of the Fairchild Merlin IVC. The C-26B provides
time-sensitive movement of personnel and cargo, as well as limited medical evacuation.
The UC-26C provides support to counter drug (CD) operations. Additionally, up to ten
ANG C-26Bs are being modified to carry specialized electronic equipment used to
support CD operations.
The C-26 aircraft, manufactured by Fairchild Aircraft Incorporated, is a high
performance, fixed wing, pressurized, twin engine turboprop that has accomodations for a
pilot and a co-pilot and 19 passengers and/or cargo or a combination of both. It is
powered by two Garrett TPE331-12URH engines, rated at 1100 shaft horsepower (820
kw) takeoff power and 1000 shaft horsepower (746 kw) maximum continuous power and
equipped with 106 inch (269 cm) diameter McCauly full feathering, reversible, constant
speed four bladed propellers.
The aircraft represents an on-call, rapid response, modern air transport for high priority
resupply and movement of key personnel to remote, unserviced or feeder sites.
Specifically, the aircraft is used to deliver repair parts, equipment, technical teams, crash
and accident investigation teams. In its role, such functions as range clearance, Medical
Evacuation (MEDEVAC), administrative movement of personnel, transportation
connections and courier flights are accomplished.
The C-26 Contractor Logistics Support (CLS) Follow-On Acquisition effort in 1997
focused on providing full CLS for 32 Air National Guard (ANG) and Army National
Guard (ARNG) C-26B aircraft and 1 ANG UC-26C aircraft. The C-26 Program Office
used acquisition streamlining initiatives to remove all Military Standards &
Specifications (MIL STDs/SPECs) from the RFP. The RFP Support Office was employed
to support the C-26 program. The team also reduced government-mandated Contract Data
Requirements Lists (CDRLs) from 22 to 4, and substituted a performance-based
Statement of Objectives (SOO) for a Statement of Work (SOW). The requirement was
designed to conform to Federal Aviation Administration certifications and standards,
creating a high level of interest and competition within the commercial industry. These
efforts resulted in program cost avoidance of approximately $33.4M.
On 23 January 1998 the US Air Force Aeronautical Systems Center Reconnaissance
Systems Program Office (ASC/RAKBL) awarded a $5,489,211 contract to Versatron
Corp. for a replacement Forward Looking Infrared (FLIR) System for the Air National
Guard C-26B Aircraft. The system is a third generation detector technology, non
developmental item consisting of eleven installed and fully integrated systems and two
complete spares. The FLIR system includes a Thermal Imaging System (TIS), color TV
and Laser Range Finder all co-located in a single gimbal turret, plus any separate
associated electronic units. The turret fits in the existing pod and weighs less than 145
pounds. The total system including the turret, electronic units and cabling weighs less
than 285 pounds. The turret rotates a full 360 degree in azimuth field of regard and
elevation coverage above 0 degree level elevation and beyond -90 degrees (NADIR). The
FLIR is able to receive azimuth and elevation cue commands. The Modulation Transfer
Function (MTF) and Noise Equivalent Temperature Difference (NETD) combined must
result in a Minimum Resolvable Temperature Difference (MRTD) that provides thermal
sensitivity and spatial resolution to detect and recognize a .5m x 2m man size target from
other thermal sources or the background at 30,000 feet slant range under clear visibility
weather conditions.

Specifications
MODEL C-26A C-26B UC-26C
Metro III Metro 23 Merlin IV-C
Model SA227-AC Model SA227-DC
Engines - number 2
Engines -Type TPE331-llU- TPE331-12UA- TPE331-
601G or -611G 701G 3U-303G
(with Dowty TPE331-
Rotol propellers) 12UAR-701G
TPE331-llU- TPE331-
602G or -612G 12UHR-701G
(with McCauley
propellers)
Engine Mfg. Garrett (AiResearch)
SHP 1100 1100 840
Length 42.17 ft 59.33 ft
Wing Span 46.25 ft 57.0 ft
Height 16.83 ft 16.67 ft
Crew Seats 2 2 2
Passengers 22 19 14
Ramp Weight 14,110 lbs 16,600 lbs 12,560 lbs
Takeoff Weight 14,000 lbs 16,500 lbs 12,500 lbs
Landing Weight 14,000 lbs 15,675 lbs 12,500 lbs
Zero Fuel Weight 13,130 14,500 lbs 8,320 lbs
Usable Fuel 652 gal 652 gal 544 gal
Usable Fuel
3,480 lbs 3,480 lbs 3,645 lbs
(@ 6.7 lb/gal.)
Max Range 2,025 nm 2040 nm 1,580 nm
(NBAA IFR reserves)
SPEED Max Oper 248 (ktas) 248 (ktas) 248 (ktas)
Ceiling 31,000 ft 25,000 ft 30,000 ft
C-27A Spartan
The C-27A Spartan is a twin turboprop engine aircraft designed to meet Air Force
requirements for a rugged, medium size airland transport. The aircraft is particularly
suited for short-to-medium range tactical operations into semi-prepared airfields as short
as 1,800 feet. The C-27A is an all-weather, day/night transport with capabilities to
perform medical evacuation missions. It can carry 24 litters and four medical attendants,
or 34 ground troops. The Spartan has a cargy capacity of more than 2,000 cubic feet, or
12,000 pounds. The C-27A operates with a three person crew of aircraft commander,
copilot and loadmaster. The Air Force C-27A fleet consists of 10 aircraft stationed with
the 24th Wing at Howard AFB, Panama, and flown by aircrews from 310th Airlift
Squadron.

The Spartan is modified from the G222 airframe manufactured in Naples, Italy, by
Alenia, S.P.A. Chrysler Technologies Airborne Systems, Inc., as prime contractor,
procured G222-710 aircraft from Alenia, and modified those aircraft by installing
upgraded navigation, communication, and mission systems required for C-27A operation.

Specifications
Primary Function Cargo/passenger transport
Power Two General Electric T64-P4D engines
Plant/Manufacturer
Shaft Horse Power 3,400 each
Dimension 74.5 feet long by 34.7 feet wide
Wingspan 94.2 feet
Speed 250 knots
Ceiling 25,000 feet
Takeoff Weight 56,878 pounds
(Typical)
Empty Weight 39,500 pounds
Range 1,500 nautical miles
Takeoff Distance 1,500 feet
Runway 1,800 feet by 45 feet
UC-35A
The UC-35A is a medium range executive and priority cago jet aircraft that is the
materiel solution for the C-XX (MR) requirement. It is a commercial Off-the-shelf
(COTS) Cessna Citation 560 Ultra V twin engined aircraft. Since its introduction, the
Citation V has been the world's fastest-selling business jet. The aircraft has a range of
1500 to 1800 nautical miles, a cruise speed of 330 to 450 knots true airspeed, a service
ceiling of FL450, and a gross weight of 16,300 pounds. The UC-35A can carry up to
eight passengers.

Specifications
MAXIMUM .755 MACH
CRUISE SPEED
MAXIMUM
45000 FEET
ALTITUDE
MAXIMUM GROSS
16500 POUNDS
WEIGHT
ENGINES P&W JT15D-5D
THRUST 3045 POUNDS/ENGINE
MAXIMUM RANGE 1800 NAUTICAL MILES
MAXIMUM LOAD 8 PASSENGERS
C-38
The C-38 replaces two C-21A transports currently operated by the 201st Air National
Guard based at Andrews AFB, Md. It holds 11 passengers and crew, is primarily for
operational support and distinguished visitor transport and can be configured for medical
evacuation and general cargo duties. The C-38, first acquired in 1997, is a US Air
National Guard staff transport version of the Israel Aircraft Industries Ltd. / Galaxy
Aerospace Corporation Astra SPX business jet. The Model Astra SPX is a derivative of
the Model 1125 Westwind Astra. The changes include: installation of AlliedSignal
(Garret) TFE 731-40R-200G engines; installation of winglets and minor structural
modifications to the wing; installation of Collins pro-line 4 avionics; and a new Airplane
Flight Manual to take credit for the aerodynamic and performance improvements.

The C-38A is an intercontinental passenger aircraft modified by Tracor Inc., the US


prime contractor. The C-38A normally carries a crew of two and has accommodations for
eight passengers. The C-38A is equipped for commercial flight operations under Federal
Aviation Administration guidelines. Converting the civil aircraft for its military role
involved modifications to its avionics suite. The Air Force transport was equipped with
US military versions of the global positioning system; tactical air navigation; secure
communications capability and an identification, friend or foe system. Because of its
specialized electronics and global positioning system, the C-38A can assist in command
control and communications in time of disaster or war.

The Air Force accepted the first of two C-38A aircraft 17 April 1998. The C-38A was
procured by Aeronautical Systems Center’s commercial aircraft integrated product team,
in partnership with the single program director at Oklahoma City Air Logistics Center,
Tinker AFB, Okla. The program’s logistics support includes a $5.2 million contract to
provide depot support and Contractor Operated and Managed Base Support functions.
The C-38A acquisition program used streamlined acquisition reform techniques focused
on saving time and funds. C-38As will be sustained by the integrated product team at
Tinker.

The designation was previously applied to the Douglas C-38, a C-33 with a DC-3 tail, of
which one was built built.

Specifications
Powerplant Two AlliedSignal TFE 731-40R-200G turbofans
Fuel capacity 4,247 kg.
Speed 867 km/h typical cruise speed
Maximum range 5,465 km.(IFR) 6,034 km.(VFR)
Maximum service 13,716 m.
ceiling
Wingspan 16.64 m.
Length 16.96 m.
Height 5.54 m.
Maximum take-off 11,179 kg.
weight
1,496 kg. useful load
Payload
4,247 kg maximum payload
Price $11,750,000
CT-39
The CT-39G aircraft is a twin-jet engined, pressurized, fixed wing , 8 passenger
monoplane manufactured by Rockwell International as the -60 Model aircraft. The
platform design was subsequently sold to Sabreliner Corporation of St. Louis, MO.
Sabreliner Corporation holds all level 3 drawings, but is not in production of aircraft or
even spares. Spares are sub-contracted. The aircraft is powered by two Pratt & Whitney
JT-12D jet engines. The JT-12D engine and spares are no longer in production. The
primary mission of the CT-39G is to provide V.I.P. airlift service at
COMFLELOGSUPPWING DET New Orleans, H&HS MCAS Futenma, and MCAS El
Toro.
The CT-39G aircraft was procured as a commercial off-the-shelf aircraft certified under
an FAA Type Certificate. Throughout its life, the aircraft has been operated and
commercially supported by the Navy using FAA processes, procedures, and
certifications. It continues to be maintained commercially at all levels of maintenance,
and relies on COTS/NDI components and equipment to support airworthiness. Aircraft
modification efforts are "turnkey" projects (procurement and installation) implemented as
part of competitively awarded maintenance contracts. Where extensive integration efforts
are required, the non-recurring engineering phase, including test and certification, is
typically performed by Sabreliner Corporation under a sole-source engineering contract
with the Navy.
C-40
The C-40A, a derivative of the 737-700C and manufactured by Boeing Information,
Space, and Defense Systems, is a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) certified, high
performance, fixed wing aircraft that will accommodate 120 passengers, eight pallets of
cargo, or a combination configuration consisting of 3 pallets and 70 passengers. It is
powered by two CFM56-7 engines developed jointly by General Electric and SNECMA.
The C-40A will have a state of the art flight deck, avionics that meet FAA safety
mandates, and engines that are Stage III noise compliant and certified for over-water
operations. The aircraft will have a range of 3,400 NM with 5,000 lbs. of cargo.
The C-40A will be a one-for-one replacement for the aging C-9B/DC-9 aircraft currently
flown by the Naval Reserves. The aircraft will provide long range, high priority logistical
airlift in support of Fleet activities. A contract for two C-40As was signed in August
1997, with an option for a third. Delivery of the first aircraft is scheduled for December
2000. On July 30, 1999, Boeing Defense and Space Group was awarded a $43,700,000
modification to the previously awarded contract for the procurement of one C-40A
aircraft, to be delivered by August 2001.

Specifications
Propulsion Two CFM56-7 SLST engines
Length 110 Ft 4 in (33.63 meters)
Height 41 Ft 2 in (12.55 meters)
Wingspan 112 Ft 7 in (34.3 meters)
Max Gross, take-off: 171,000 Lbs
Weight Landing: 134,000 Lbs
Empty: 126,000 Lbs
Cruising Speed 0.78 to 0.82 Mach (585 to 615 mph)
Ceiling 41,000 Ft
Range 3,000 Nautical miles (with 40,000 Lbs of cargo)
Crew Four
C-130 Hercules
The C-130 Hercules primarily performs the intratheater portion of the airlift mission. The
aircraft is capable of operating from rough, dirt strips and is the prime transport for
paradropping troops and equipment into hostile areas. Basic and specialized versions
perform a diversity of roles, including airlift support, DEW Line and Arctic ice resupply,
aeromedical missions, aerial spray missions, fire-fighting duties for the US Forest
Service, and natural disaster relief missions. In recent years, they have been used to bring
humanitarian relief to many countries, including Haiti, Bosnia, Somalia, and Rwanda.

Four decades have elapsed since the Air Force issued its original design specification, yet
the remarkable C-130 remains in production. The turbo-prop, high-wing, versatile "Herc"
has accumulated over 20 million flight hours. It is the preferred transport aircraft for
many US Government services and over 60 foreign countries. The basic airframe has
been modified to hundreds of different configurations to meet an ever-changing
environment and mission requirement. The C-130 Hercules has unsurpassed versatility,
performance, and mission effectiveness. Early C-130A, B, and D versions are now
retired.

C-130 Missions & Variants


Missions Specialized Variant
Tactical Airlift All
KC-130B, KC-130F, KC-13H, HC-130H(N), HC-130N, HC-
Aerial Tanker
130P, KC-130R, KC-130T
Command & Control EC-130E (ABCCC), EC-130G, & EC-130Q
Maritime Patrol C-130H-NP/PC-130H
Special Operations MC-130E & MC-130H
SC-130B/HC-130B, HC-130E, HA-130H, HC-130H(N), HC-
Search & Rescue
130N, & HC-130P
Humanitarian Relief All
Staff/VIP Transport VC-130B & VC-130H
Reconnaissance RC-130B
Airborne Hospital C-130E (AEH)
Arctic & Anarctic
C-130BL/LC-130F, C-130D, LC-130H, & LC-130R
Support
Drone Control GC-130A/DC-130A, DC-130E, & DC-130H
Electronic Warfare EC-130E (CL), EC-130E (RR), EC-130H
Space & Missile
JC-130A, JC-130B, & NC-130H
Operations
Test & Evaluation NC-13A, NC-130B, JC-130E, NC-130E, JC-130H, & RC-130S
Weather
WC-130B, WC-130E, WC-130H
Reconnaissance
Gunship AC-130A, AC-130E, AC-130H, & AC-130U

The initial production model was the C-130A, with four Allison T56-A-11 or -9
turboprops. Conceptual studies of the C-130A, were initiated in 1951. The first prototype
flight took place in 1954 and the first production flight followed on April 7, 1955. A total
of 219 were ordered and the C-130A joined the U.S. Air Force inventory in December
1956. Two DC-130A's (originally GC-130A's) were built as drone launchers/directors,
carrying up to four drones on underwing pylons. All special equipment was removable,
permitting the aircraft to be used as freighters, assault transports, or ambulances.

The C-130B introduced Allison T56-A-7 turboprops and the first of 134 entered Air
Force service in April-June 1959. The B model carries additional fuel in the wings, and
has upgraded engines and strengthened landing gear. C-130B's are used in aerial fire
fighting missions by Air National Guard and Air Force Reserve units. Six C-130B's were
modified in 1961 for snatch recovery of classified U.S. Air Force satellites by the 6593rd
Test Squadron at Hickam Air Force Base, Hawaii.

Several A models, redesignated C-130D, were modified with wheel-ski landing gear for
service in the Arctic and for resupply missions to units along the Distant Early Warning
line. The two main skis are 20 feet long, six feet wide, and weigh about 2,000 pounds
each. The nose ski is 10 feet long and six feet wide. The D model also has increased fuel
capacity and provision for jet -assisted takeoff. The D models were flown by the Air
National Guard and were recently replaced with C-130H models.

C-130E is an extended-range development of the C-130B, with two underwing fuel tanks
and increased range and endurance capabilities. A total of 369 were ordered for MAC
(now AMC) and TAC (now ACC), with deliveries beginning in April 1962. A wing
modification to correct fatigue and corrosion on USAF’s force of C-130Es has extended
the life of the aircraft well into the next century. Ongoing modifications include a Self-
Contained Navigation System (SCNS) to enhance navigation capabilities, especially in
low-level environments. The SCNS incorporates an integrated communications/
navigation management system that features the USAF standard laser gyro inertial
navigational unit and the 1553B data bus; installation began in 1990. Other modifications
include enhanced station-keeping equipment, 50 kHz VHF Omnirange/lnstrument
Landing System (VOR/ILS) receivers, secure voice capability, and GPS capability.
Another major modification installs a state-of-the-art autopilot that incorporates a Ground
Collision Avoidance System. Military Airlift Command is the primary user, with more
than 200 E models. The Air Force Reserve and Air National Guard also fly the E model.

Similar to the E model, the C-130H has updated T56-A-T5 turboprops, a redesigned
outer wing, updated avionics, and other minor improvements. The C-130E/H carries
6,700 gallons of fuel in six integral wing tanks. Under each wing of the C-130E/H is an
external pylon fuel tank with a capacity of 1,300 gallons. A pressure refueling point is in
the aft side wheel well fairing for ground refueling. As a response to the role played by
the tactical airlift fleet in Operation Just Cause and in the Persian Gulf War, Congress
approved the procurement of more C-130H's to replace the aging E models. Delivery
began in July 1974 [other sources state April 1975]. More than 350 C-130Hs and
derivatives were ordered for active and reserve units of the US services, including eight
funded in FY 1996. Production of the H has now ended. Units in Military Airlift
Command, the Air National Guard and Air Force Reserve are equipped with this model.
The Night Vision Instrumentation System was introduced from 1993; TCAS II in new
aircraft from 1994. ANG and AFRC C-130Hs are used in fire-fighting missions.
Specifically modified aircraft are used by the 757th AS, AFRC, based at Youngstown-
Warren Regional Airport ARS, Ohio, for aerial spraying, typically to suppress mosquito-
spread epidemics. Seven LC-130Hs, modified with wheel-ski gear, are operated by
ANG’s 109th AW in support of Arctic and Antarctic operations.

While continuing to upgrade through modification, the Air Force has budgeted to resume
fleet modernization through acquisition of the C-130J version. Compared to older C-
130s, the C-130J climbs faster and higher, flies farther at a higher cruise speed, and takes
off and lands in a shorter distance. This new model features a two-crew-member flight
system, 6,000 skip Allison AE 21 00D3 engines and all-composite Dowty R391
propellers, digital avionics and mission computers, enhanced performance, and improved
reliability and maintainability. Beginning in FY 1996, the Air Force started procuring C-
130Js as replacements for the older C-130Es and Hs. Priority for replacement will be
combat delivery aircraft. C-130J will ensure total force structure numbers are maintained,
while reducing costs of ownership. The current program procures 12 C-130Js, i.e., two
per year from FY96 to FY01. This program could be expanded in FY02 to procure 12 C-
130Js a year to replace the active duty and ARC C-130Es which are nearing the end of
their useable service life.
The WC-130E/H is used in weather reconnaissance and aerial sampling. The plane is
modified to penetrate hurricanes and typhoons to collect meteorological data that make
advanced warnings of such storms possible. Weather reconnaissance equipment gathers
information on movement, intensity and size of storms; outside air temperature;
humidity; dewpoint; and barometric pressure. WC-130s are assigned to active and
Reserve units at Keesler Air Force Base, Miss.

The HC-130 is an extended-range, combat rescue version of the C-130 transport aircraft.
Capable of independent employment in the no-to-low threat environment. Its primary
mission is to provide air refueling for rescue helicopters. The HC-130 can perform
extended searches in a permissive environment and has the capability to airdrop
pararescuemen and survival equipment to isolated survivors when a delay in the arrival of
a recovery vehicle is anticipated. Flights to air refueling areas or drop zones are
accomplished at tactical low altitude to avoid threats. NVG-assisted, low-altitude air
refueling and other operations in a low-threat environment are performed by specially
trained crews. The crew can perform airborne mission commander (AMC) duties in a no-
to-low threat environment when threat conditions permit. The maximum speed is 290
knots (at high altitude), with a low-altitude cruise speed of 210 to 250 knots. Range,
depending upon internal fuel tank configuration, is 3,000 to 4,500NM (no wind).

The C-130 Avionics Modernization Program (C-130X AMP) will modify approximately
525 aircraft to establish a common, supportable, cost effective baseline configuration for
AMC, ACC, ANG, AFRC, PACAF, USAFE and AFSOC C-130 aircraft. The contractor
will design, develop, integrate, test, fabricate and install a new avionics suite for
approximately thirteen variants of C-130 Combat Delivery and Special Mission models.
The installation schedule requires a throughput of between 65 and 85 aircraft per year
through 2010. The acquisition strategy is currently in development. The C-130 AMP is
being worked jointly by Warner-Robins ALC (GA) and Aero Systems Center (OH)
(virtual SPO) with the Development System Manager located at ASC.

C-130J

The C-130J incorporates state-of-the-art technology that significantly improves


performance and reduces ownership costs. Lockheed Martin projections show the C-
130J/J-30 will lower cost of ownership as much as 45% depending on the scenario used.
Early model C-130s require more than 20 maintenance manhours per flight hour
(MMH/FH). The C-130J/J-30 will require 10 or less MMH/FH. The C-130J/J-30
integrated digital technology provides the capability to airdrop in instrument conditions
without zone markers, as a baseline feature of the aircraft. When the high resolution
ground mapping capability of the APN-241 Low Power Color Radar is coupled with the
dual INS/GPS and digital mapping systems, the C-130J/J-30 provides single-ship or
formation all weather aerial delivery. This means the entire J/J-30 fleet will be all
weather airdrop capable. C-130Js will be delivered as weather (WC), electronic combat
(EC), and tanker (KC) configured aircraft.

The United States Marine Corps has chosen the KC-130J tanker to replace its aging KC-
130F tanker fleet. The new KC-130J offers increased utility and much needed
improvement in mission performance. As a force multiplier, the J tanker is capable of
refueling both fixed wing and rotary wing aircraft as well as conducting rapid ground
refueling. The refueling speed envelope has been widened from 100 to 270 knots
indicated airspeed, offering more capability and flexibility. Offload rates per refueling
pod can be up to 300 gallons / 2,040 lbs (1,135 liters / 925 kg) per minute simultaneously.
The J tanker's offload is significantly greater than previous Herc tankers. As an example,
at 1,000 nautical miles, the fuel offload is well over 45,000 lbs. Rapid ground refueling is
also a premium capability. In austere conditions/scenarios, the KC-130J can refuel
helicopters, vehicles, and fuel caches at 600 gallons / 4,080 lbs (2,270 liters / 1,850 kg)
per minute. Additionally, the unique prop feathering capability while the engines are still
running ("HOTEL Mode") offers safer and more hospitable conditions for ground
refueling than in the past.

The WC-130J Hercules is a special weather reconnaissance version of the new Lockheed
Martin C-130J cargo plane. Its mission is to fly into the eye of hurricanes to retrieve
critical information about active storms. The Air Force Reserve Command's 53rd
Weather Reconnaissance Squadron at Keesler Air Force Base, MS, a component of the
403rd Wing, is the only unit in the Department of Defense that flies this mission.
The standard C-130J has essentially the same dimensions as the C-130E/H but the J-30
(stretched version) is 15 feet longer. The J-30 incorporates two extension plugs, one
forward and one aft. The foward plug is 100 inches long while the rear plug is 80 inches
for a total of 180 inches or 15 feet. With its 3,000 nautical mile range, increased speed,
and air refueling capability, it complements the C-5/C-17 airlift team. The J-30 can work
in the strategic, as well as tactical or intratheater, environment. The J-30 can be an
effective force multiplier in executing the US Army Strategic Brigade Airdrop (SBA).
The J-30 can airdrop 100% of the SBA requirement. No longer is it necessary to expend
scarce heavy lift resources on strategic contingency requirements. Whether it's a channel,
special airlift, training, or contingency airdrop mission, the J-30 can handle it all at a
significantly reduced cost.

For the first time in the 40-plus year history of the popular Hercules transport, the US Air
Force and Lockheed Martin Aeronautical Systems signed a commercial practices contract
for the sale of C-130Js. Awarded on 06 November 1996, the basic contract includes an
initial order for two aircraft, associated data, and spares, funded in fiscal year 1996. The
contract also contains five years of options through the year 2000 for additional aircraft,
interim contractor support, data, training, and support. By late 1996 Aeronautical
Systems had completed assembly of the first "production" C-130J (Serial # 5440), one of
12 ordered by the Royal Australian Air Force.

Design Features

In its personnel carrier role, the C-130 can accommodate 92 combat troops or 64 fully
equipped paratroops on side-facing seats. For medical evacuations, it carries 74 litter
patients and two medical attendants. Paratroopers exit the aircraft through two doors on
either side of the aircraft behind the landing-gear fairings. Another exit is off the rear
ramp for airdrops.

The C-130 can deliver personnel, equipment or supplies either by landing or by various
aerial delivery modes. Three primary methods of aerial delivery are used for equipment.
 In the first, parachutes pull the load, weighing up to 42,000 pounds, from the
aircraft. When the load is clear of the plane, cargo parachutes inflate and lower
the load to the ground.
 The second method, called the Container Delivery System, uses the force of
gravity to pull from one to 16 bundles of supplies from the aircraft. When the
bundles, weighing up to 2,200 pounds each, are out of the aircraft, parachutes
inflate and lower them to the ground.
 The Low Altitude Parachute Extraction System is the third aerial delivery method.
With LAPES, up to 38,000 pounds of cargo is pulled from the aircraft by large,
inflated cargo parachutes while the aircraft is five to 10 feet above the ground.
The load then slides to a stop within a very short distance. Efforts are underway to
increase the maximum load weights for LAPES aerial delivery to 42,000 pounds.

The C-130's design maximum gross weight is 155,000 pounds (175,000 pounds wartime)
with a normal landing weight of 130,000 pounds. The operating weight is approximately
80,000 pounds. The airplane is capable of airlifting 92 ground troops, 64 fully equipped
paratroopers, or 74 litter patients. It can also carry 45,000 pounds of cargo.

FUSELAGE: The fuselage is a semimonocoque design and divided into a flight station
and a cargo compartment. Seating is provided for each flight station. The cargo
compartment is approximately 41 feet long, 9 feet high, and 10 feet wide. Loading is
from the rear of the fuselage. Both the flight station and the cargo compartment can be
pressurized to maintain a cabin pressure-altitude of 5000 feet at an aircraft altitude of
28,000 feet.

WINGS: The full cantilever wing contains four integral main fuel tanks and two bladder-
type auxiliary tanks. Two external tanks are mounted under the wings. This gives the C-l
30 a total usable fuel capacity of approximately 9680 U.S. gallons.

EMPENNAGE: A horizontal stabilizer, vertical stabilizer, elevator, rudder, trim tabs, and
a tail cone make up the empennage. This section consists of an all-metal full cantilever
semimonocoque structure. It is bolted to the aft fuselage section.

POWER PLANT: (prior to the C-130J) Four Allison turboprop engines are attached to
the wings. The engine nacelles have cowl panels and access doors forward of a vertical
firewall. Clam-shell doors are located aft of the vertical firewall. Air enters the engine
through a scoop assembly at the front of the nacelle.

PROPELLERS: (prior to the C-130J) Four Hamiliton Standard electro-hydromatic,


constant-speed, full feathering, reversible-pitch propellers are installed on each engine.

LANDING GEAR AND BRAKES: The modified tricycle-type landing gear consists of
dual nose gear wheels and tandem mains. Main gear retraction is vertically, into fuselage
fairings, and the nose gear folds forward into the fuselage. Power steering is incorporated
into the nose gear. The landing gear design permits aircraft operation from rough,
unimproved runways. The brakes are hydraulically operated, multiple-disc type. The
braking system incorporates differential braking and parking brake control. A modulating
anti-skid system is provided.

AUXILIARY POWER UNIT (APU) (C-130H): The APU supplies air during ground
operation for engine starting and air conditioning. One 40 KVA AC generator is mounted
on the APU as an additional AC power source. Emergency electrical power during flight
is also available up to 20,000 feet.

GAS TURBINE COMPRESSOR (GTC) AND AIR TURBINE MOTOR (ATM) (C-
130E): C-13OE model aircraft have a GTC which supplies bleed air for engine start, air
conditioning, and operation of an ATM. The ATM powers a 20 KVA electrical generator
to supply auxiliary electrical power on the ground only.

OIL: The C-130 has four independent oil systems with a 12 gallon capacity for each
engine. Oil is serviced through a filler neck located on the upper right engine cowling.

FUEL: The fuel system consists of a modified manifold-flow type incorporating fuel
crossfeed, single point refueling (SPR) and defueling, and fuel dumping. Latest USAF
versions incorporate blue foam for fire suppression.

ELECTRICAL: AC electrical power for the C-130H model is provided by five 40 KVA
generators, 4 driven by the engines and one driven by the APU. On the E model, the
power is supplied by four 40 KVA engine-driven generators, and a 20 KVA generator
driven by the ATM. DC power is provided from AC sources through four 200 ampere
transfomer rectifiers and one 24 volt, 36 ampere-hour battery.

HYDRAULIC: Four engine-driven pumps supply 3000 psi pressure to the utility and
booster systems. An electric AC motor-driven pump supplies pressure to the auxiliary
system and is backed up by a handpump. The hydraulic system maintains constant
pressure during zero or negative "g" maneuvers.

AIR CONDITIONING AND PRESSURIZATION: Two independent air conditioning


systems for the flight deck and cargo compartment are operated from engine bleed air in
flight and by the GTC/APU on the ground.

OXYGEN: Both models have a 25 liter liquid oxygen (LOX) type system which provides
for 96 man-hours of oxygen at 25,000 feet. It uses diluter-demand automatic pressure-
breathing regulators. Portable units are also provided. System pressure is maintained at
300 psi.

FLIGHT CONTROLS: The primary flight control system consists of conventional


aileron, elevator, and rudder systems. Hydraulic power boost is incorporated in each
system.
WING FLAPS: The wing flaps are high-lift, Lockheed-Fowler type and are of
conventional design and construction. Normal operation is by hydraulic motor.
Emergency operation is by manual crank.

ANTI-ICING: Engine bleed air is used for anti-icing the wing and empennage leading
edges, the radome, (radome anti-icing may be removed in some models, check with
aircraft forms) and engine inlet air ducts. Electrical heat provides anti-icing for the
propellers, windshield, and pitot tubes.

AIRCRAFT DIMENSIONS:

Wing Span: 132 feet


7 inches
Length:
97 feet
Height: 9 inches

Horizontal 38 feet
Stabilizer: 5 inches

52 feet
8 inches
Typical C-130 Cargo Dimensions:

Model First Delivery Last Delivery


C-130A 1956 Nov 1959
C-130B 1959 Mar 1963
C-130E 1962 Mar 1974
C-130H 1964 In Production
C-130H2 1978 1992
C-130H3 1992 1997
C-130J 1996 In Production
L-100 1964 Dec 1968
L-100-20 1968 Mar 1981
L-100-30 1970 In Production
C-130H-30 1980 1997

Service Life

Although service life computations are not used to determine grounding or airframe
restrictions, the Air Force does use service life estimates as a planning tool to anticipate
when major aircraft structural events can be expected. A key issue is the structural
service life of the C-130 airframes, which depends on mission severity, fatigue, and
corrosion factors.
A severity factor accounts for the difference between normal civilian flying and military
flying (low level, shortfield landings, etc.). Mission profile determines the severity factor,
which is averaged over the aircraft's most recent two year history. This translates airframe
clock hours into equivalent airframe damage hours which indicate the higher aging rate
of the military airframes. On average, Active C-130 aircraft fly approximately 600 hours
per year, while ARC C-130E and C-130H aircraft fly about 375 hours and 450 hours per
year, respectively.
Currently, the critical fatigue component for the C-130 fleet is the center wing box, which
is structurally more susceptible to the stresses of mission profile and payload. The center
wing box has a limit of 60,000 relative baseline hours (flight hours multiplied by the
mission severity factor).) A corrosion limit of 40,000 flight hours is based on historical
data and engineering judgment. It considers corrosion factors not considered in airframe
fatigue analysis. Actual airframe service life depends on which limit, fatigue or corrosion,
is reached first.
The average age of the active duty C-130 fleet is over 25 years old, while the average age
of Guard and Reserve C-130s is 15 years old. The average age of the C-130E model is
over 28 years and average flying time is approximately 19,800 hours; the newest E-model
being produced in 1972. Based on projected operations tempo and overall mission
severity, C-130E aircraft have an average remaining service life of 15 years. Material
solutions such as selective repair, a service life extension program (SLEP), or
procurement of new aircraft are several ways to influence and resolve aging of the C-130
fleet.
The service-life of the HC-130N/P is based upon the aircraft’s wing box and operations
tempo. Based on the current operations tempo, the fleet will begin to lose airworthiness in
2013.

Specifications
Primary Function Intratheater airlift.
Contractor Lockheed Aeronautical Systems Company.
Four Allison T56-A-15 turboprops; 4,300 horsepower,
Power Plant
each engine.
Length 97 feet, 9 inches (29.3 meters).
Height 38 feet, 3 inches (11.4 meters).
Wingspan 132 feet, 7 inches (39.7 meters).
Speed 374 mph (Mach 0.57) at 20,000 feet (6,060 meters).
33,000 feet (10,000 meters) with 100,000 pounds
Ceiling
(45,000 kilograms) payload.
Maximum Takeoff 155,000 pounds (69,750 kilograms).
Weight
Operating Weight: 83,000 Pounds
Maximum Useable
60,000 Pounds
Fuel:
Maximum Allowable
36,000 Pounds
Cabin Load:
Normal Passenger
Up to 92 troops or 64 paratroops or 74 litter patients.
Seats Available:
Maximum Number of
5
Pallets:
2,356 miles (2,049 nautical miles) with maximum
payload;
Range 2,500 miles (2,174 nautical miles) with 25,000 pounds
(11,250 kilograms) cargo;
5,200 miles (4,522 nautical miles) with no cargo.
Unit Cost $22.9 million (1992 dollars).
Five (two pilots, a navigator, flight engineer and
Crew loadmaster); up to 92 troops or 64 paratroops or 74
litter patients or five standard freight pallets.
Four
(two pilots, one flight engineer, and one loadmaster)
Minimum Crew Allows for a 16 hour crew duty day (12 hour for
Complement
airdrop crews) (from show at the aircraft to parking at
the final destination).
Six
Crew Complement crews will normally carry one navigator as well and an
[airdrop missions] extra loadmaster in addition to the minimum crew
complement.
Nine
(three pilots, two navigators, two flight engineers, and
Augmented Crew
two loadmasters)
Complement
Allows for a 18 hour crew duty day (from show at the
aircraft to parking at the final destination)
Date Deployed April 1955.
Active force, 98; ANG, 20 Bs, 60 E's and 93 H's;
Inventory
Reserve, 606.
The most significant issue for the C-130 entails the reassignment of CONUS-based active
duty C-130s from USACOM to USTRANSCOM. As the single manage for DoD
transportation, the consolidation of these air mobility assets under USTRANSCOM lends
further credence to USTRANSCOM’s single manager charter. Furthermore, as the Air
Force component of USTRANSCOM, AMC now exercises both service authority (i.e.,
train, organize, equip, and provide) and operational control over these forces. This
arrangement eliminates confusion and yields more effective and efficient service to the
air mobility customer. (Theater CINCs will continue to exercise combatant command and
operational control of overseas-assigned C-130 forces.)
C-135
Derived from Boeing's prototype 707 jet airliner in the early 1950s, the C-135 has been a
visible successful partner of the Air Force since the first one was acquired in August
1956. Although most of the 820 units have been KC-135A Stratotankers for the air
refueling mission, they have also performed numerous transport and special-duty
functions. The breakdown is as follows [individual numbers do not add to total of 820
airframes due to modifications between types:
15 - C-135A - (Model 707-157) - first flight May 19, 1961
30 - C-135B - (Model 707-158) - upgraded engines
39 - EC-135C - airborne control center
26 - NKC-135 - modified for experiments
732 - KC-135A - tanker
17 - KC-135B - tanker
161 - KC-135E - re-engined with salvaged 707 engines
12 - KC-135F - French AF for refuelling "Mirage" IVA
371 - KC-135R - CFM International F108-CF-100 engines
56 - KC-135Q - special tanker for SR-71
55 - KC-135T - special tanker for SR-71 - reengined
3 - OC-135 - Open Skies observation aircraft
4 - RC-135A - (Model 739-700) - reconnaisance aircraft
10 - RC-135B - (Model 739-445B) - electronic reconnaisance
aircraft
5 - VC-135B - VIP transport version of C-135B
10 - WC-135C - weather reconnaisance aircraft

- CC-137 - military transport for RCAF


- VC-137A - VIP transport version of Model 707-120
- VC-137B - VIP transport version of Model 707-320B

EC-135 Worldwide Airborne Command Post System (WWABNCP) variants, in 10


different configurations varying by communications equipment fitted; 39 aircraft
representing 7 versions made up the EC-135 family. Also some KC-135As were
converted to RC-135s aircraft such as RC-135Ds, and RC-135T. C-135Bs were
converted into RC-135Es, RC-135Ss and RC-135Ms which were later converted to RC-
135Ws.

C-135 aircraft transport senior military leaders such as the Commander-in-Chief, US


Pacific Command; Commander, Pacific Air Forces; and other high-ranking dignitaries.
The C-135C Speckled Trout communications aircraft, operated by the Edwards-based
412th Flight Test Squadron, is a modified C-135 that serves as a test bed for emerging
technologies. During the June 1996 Joint Warrior Interoperability Demonstration (JWID
'96), a full-scale prototype phased-array antenna communications system was installed on
board the Speckled Trout avionics testbed. The antenna system successfully was used to
receive satellite-transmitted television, military Global Broadcast System (GBS) video
and other data. Developmental tests using the C-135 Speckled Trout aircraft have
demonstrated the capability to fly precision approaches using a local area differential
GPS system. Speckled Trout has been fitted with a millimeter-wave camera and a new
radome this summer to test the camera's generation of video images of the forward scene
in low-visibility conditions. During the first Expeditionary Force Experiment conducted
in September 1998 [EFX 98], participants evaluated multiple onboard command-and-
control software tools that receive data through a new wide bandwidth phased array
antenna system. The new antenna and software allows the commander to communicate
with the rear and forward air operations centers while maintaining awareness of
battlefield events. The aircraft, which in the VIP transport role seats 14 passengers, gives
the Joint Forces Air Component commander a limited ability to plan and control the
simulated battle while in the air en route to the crisis area. Some of the equipment worked
and some didn't, particularly the connectivity required to move large amounts of data and
to maintain continuous contact.

A suite of electronic equipment has been outfitted in a modified NKC-135 aircraft, now
called the "Big Crow" EW Flying Laboratory, with the capability of generating electronic
warfare (EW) threat environments and performing realtime data analysis on DoD
materiel. : The Big Crow NKC-135 aircraft provides multi-Service electronic
countermeasures (ECM) testing and training support. During a nine-month Program
Depot Maintenance (PDM) overhaul of the Big Crow, a KC-135E was outfited and
configured to serve as a large ECM aircraft as an augmentation to the existing Big Crow
aircraft. Upon completion, this aircraft has essentially the same capabilities as the
existing Big Crow aircraft to provide high power, long range Stand-Off Jamming that is
required by DDG-51, AN/SPY-1 Radar, and SM-2 missile programs for testing in an
operationally realistic electronic warfare environment.
C-141B Starlifter
President John F. Kennedy's first official act after his inauguration was to order the
development of an all-jet transport to extend the reach of the nation's military forces.
Lockheed's C-141 StarLifter was the result.

The C-141 Starlifter is the workhorse of the Air Mobility Command. The Starlifter
fulfills the vast spectrum of airlift requirements through its ability to airlift combat forces
over long distances, inject those forces and their equipment either by airland or airdrop,
re-supply employed forces, and extract the sick and wounded from the hostile area to
advanced medical facilities.

The C-141B is a stretched C-141A with in-flight refueling capability. Stretching of the
Starlifter consisted of lengthening the plane 23 feet, 4 inches (53.3 centimeters), which
increased cargo capacity by about one-third - 2,171 extra cubic feet (65.13 extra cubic
meters). Lengthening of the aircraft had the same effect as increasing the number of
aircraft by 30 percent. The C-141 was the first jet aircraft designed to meet military
standards as a troop and cargo carrier.

A universal air refueling receptacle on the C-141B transfers 23,592 gallons (89,649.6
liters) of fuel in about 26 minutes, allowing longer non-stop flights and fewer fuel stops
during worldwide airlift missions. The C-141 force, nearing seven million flying hours,
has a proven reliability and long-range capability.

The Starlifter, operated by the Air Mobility Command, can airlift combat forces,
equipment and supplies, and deliver them on the ground or by airdrop, using paratroop
doors on each side and a rear loading ramp. It can be used for low-altitude delivery of
paratroops and equipment, and high-altitude delivery of paratroops. It can also airdrop
equipment and supplies using the container delivery system. It is the first aircraft
designed to be compatible with the 463L Material Handling System, which permits off-
loading 68,000 pounds (30,600 kilograms) of cargo, refueling and reloading a full load,
all in less than an hour.

The C-141 has an all-weather landing system, pressurized cabin and crew station. Its
cargo compartment can easily be modified to perform around 30 different missions.
About 200 troops or 155 fully equipped paratroops can sit in canvas side-facing seats, or
166 troops in rear-facing airline seats. Rollers in the aircraft floor allow quick and easy
cargo pallet loading. A palletized lavatory and galley can be installed quickly to
accommodate passengers, and when palletized cargo is not being carried, the rollers can
be turned over to leave a smooth, flat surface for loading vehicles.

In its aeromedical evacuation role, the Starlifter can carry about 103 litter patients, 113
ambulatory patients or a combination of the two. It provides rapid transfer of the sick and
wounded from remote areas overseas to hospitals in the United States.
The Air Force Reserve, through its associate units, provides 50 percent of the Starlifter's
airlift crews, 40 percent of its maintenance capability and flies more than 30 percent of
Air Mobility Command's peacetime worldwide missions.

The first Air National Guard and Air Force Reserve units to receive the C-141 as unit
equipment became operational in fiscal 1987. The units are located at Jackson, Miss., and
Andrews Air Force Base, Md.

During Desert Shield and Desert Storm, a C-141 from the 437th Military Airlift Wing,
Charleston AFB, S.C., was the first American aircraft into Saudi Arabia, transporting an
Airlift Control Element from the 438th Military Airlift Wing, McGuire Air Force Base,
N.J. In the following year, the C-141 completed the most airlift missions - 7,047 out of
15,800 - supporting the Gulf War. It also carried more than 41,400 passengers and
139,600 tons (125,690 metric tons) of cargo.

The first C-141A, delivered to Tinker AFB, Okla., in October 1964, began squadron
operations in April 1965. Soon, Starlifters made flights almost daily to Southeast Asia,
carrying troops, equipment and supplies, and returning patients to U.S. hospitals.

Several C-141s have been modified to carry the Minuteman intercontinental ballistic
missile in its special container, up to a total weight of 92,000 pounds (41,400 kilograms).
Some C-141s have been equipped with intraformation positioning sets that enable a flight
of two to 36 aircraft to maintain formation regardless of visibility. The C-141 was the
first jet transport from which U.S. Army paratroopers jumped, and the first to land in the
Antarctic. A C-141 established a world record for heavy cargo drops of 70,195 pounds
(31,587.7 kilograms).

Service Life
The first C-141B was received by the Air Force in December 1979. Conversion of 270 C-
141s from A to B models was completed in 1982. C-141 modifications aim to preserve
the remaining force by reliability and maintainability improvements and capability
improvements necessary for effective use through 2006. Thirteen aircraft will receive
additional SOLL II upgrades under the Special Operations Forces Improvement program.
Sixty-three aircraft in the current C-141 fleet will undergo major modification. Each will
receive the All Weather Flight Control System (AWFCS) consisting of a digital autopilot,
advanced avionics display, and Ground Collision Avoidance System (GCAS). Other
major improvements include a Defensive Systems (DS), Fuel Quantity Indicating
System, and GPS modifications. As a general rule, these 63 aircraft are the "youngest"
(fewest equivalent damage hours) in the fleet and will carry the weapon system through
programmed retirement in 2006.

 All Weather Flight Control System (AWFCS) The AWFCS modification is


necessitated to alleviate reliability and maintainability problems presently being
experienced due to the aging (or rather aged) avionics systems on the C-141. The
system's functionality includes: autopilot, autothrottle, yaw damping, ground
collision warning, primary flight instrument display, and warning display. LRUs
installed by this modification (4 6x8" AMLCD Display Units (DUs), 2 Automatic
Flight Control Processors (AFCPs), 2 Display Processor Units (DPUs), and 2
Display Avionics Management Units) replace approximately 19 antiquated LRUs,
Indicators, and Controls. Additionally, a new Ground Collision Avoidance
System (GCAS) and Multi-function Standby Airspeed/Attitude/Altitude Indicator
(w/independant airdata source) are installed during this modification.
 GPS Enhanced Navigation System (GPSENS) GPSENS integrates into the
AWFCS aircraft to provide GPS based navigation and centralized and
consolodated control of the majority of aircraft communication and navigation
equipment via 3 Multifunction Control Display Units and 2 Navigational
Processors. The Fuel Saving Advisory System (FSAS) LRUs are removed and
their functionality is rehosted within the Nav. Processors.
 Digital Fuel Quantity Indication System (FQIS) The new digital FQIS provides
a display of fuel quantity in the same manner as the old analog system - one
indicator for each tank and a totalizer to sum each individual tank reading (except
in a digital format vs the analog dail). All components and wiring of the old
system are replaced when the new system is installed. A complete aircraft kit
consists of 11 Digital Fuel Qauntity Indicators (one part number which is
interchangeable for all tank indicator positions and totalizer), 68 Full Height
Compensated (FHC) Fuel Probes, and associated wiring. BIT capabilities
facilitate ease of maintenance and trouble shooting.
 Airlift Defensive System (ADS) ADS provides C-141 aircraft with a common
self-protection capability against shoulder fired man portable Surface-to-Air
Missile threat.
 L-Band Satcom System Operating on the Inmarsat and GPS satellites with
interconnection to international telex, fax and switched data networks, the L-Band
Satcom system provides automatic (and manual) data reporting and message
transfer of position reports, performance data and operational messages on a 24
hour global basis. Coverage is provided from sea level to 55,000 feet from 70
degrees north to 70 degrees south.
 Interim GPS Provisions The C-141 aircraft is equipped with provisions to allow
the use of hand-held GPS equipment. Power and antenna access plugs are located
at the aft end of the center pedestal. Hand-held GPS units in use consist of the
Precise Lightweight GPS Receiver (PLGR) and the Bendix-King KLX-100
(Comm functions not allowed for on-aircraft use).
 Traffic Collision Aviodance System (TCAS) Current plans include the
installation of a TCAS on the C-141 aircraft.

Recently, the C-141 went through a series of major repairs. Wing Station 405, windshield
post crack repairs and center wing box repair/replacement are complete. As the aircraft
continues to age, it is quite possible new structural problems may limit the readiness of
the force. To slow aircraft aging of the active duty fleet, 56 PAI aircraft have been
transferred to the UE Guard and Reserve as of FY95. Additionally, the process of retiring
high flight hour equivalent aircraft will culminate with the retirement of the entire AMC
active duty fleet by FY03.
Specifications
Primary Function Long-range troop and cargo airlift.
Contractor Lockheed-Georgia Co.
Power Plant Four Pratt & Whitney TF33-P-7 turbofan engines.
Thrust 20,250 pounds (9,112.5 kilograms), each engine.
Length 168 feet, 4 inches (51 meters).
Height 39 feet, 3 inches (11.9 meters).
Wingspan 160 feet (48.5 meters).
Speed 500 mph (Mach 0.66).
Ceiling 41,000 feet (12,424 meters).
Maximum Takeoff
323,100 pounds (145,395 kilograms).
Weight
Range 2,500 miles (2,174 nautical miles).
Unit Cost $8.1 million (1992 dollars).
Six (pilot, co-pilot, two loadmasters, and two flight
Crew
engineers).
Date Deployed C-141A: May 1964; C-141B: December 1979.
Inventory Active force, 241; ANG, 16; Reserve, 12.
Advanced Theater Transport
In the long term (FY11-21) the Air Force plans to begin acquisition process for the
Advanced Theater Transport to replace C-130s as they retire. This long term replacement
aircraft for the C-130E/H includes enhanced reliability, maintainability, and availability;
advanced cargo handling features; super short takeoff and landing capability;
oversized/outsized cargo capability; high speed/low level airdrop capability; articulated
cargo ramp; high lift systems with externally blown flaps; fly-by-wire capability; off-the-
shelf derivative engines; cross-shafted propellers and rotors; off runway landing gear;
advanced cockpit design with autonomous landing capability and onboard mission
planning. Survivability features include IR suppression, reconfigurable flight controls,
damage tolerance, and California Bearing Ratio hardening. In addition, it must have at
least the same capabilities as C-130J.
New Strategic Aircraft (NSA)
The current USAF "Air Mobility Master Plan" calls for the retirement of the C-141
transport by the year 2006 and retirement of the KC-135 tankers to begin in 2013. These
700+ aircraft, 80% of the current mobility fleet, are now 25 to 30 years old and are
experiencing fatigue and corrosion problems leading to low availability rates. The C-
141B represents 35% of the current US strategic airlift capability while the KC-135
comprises 90% of the tanker fleet. Lockheed Martin Aeronautical Systems (LMAS) is
studying a new family of mid-size jet transport aircraft, called the New Strategic Aircraft
(NSA), to meet U.S. DOD, international, and commercial requirements for:

 military strategic airlift,


 military air refueling,
 military personnel and equipment airdrop,
 commercial cargo and package delivery,
 a commercially viable, military capable CRAF aircraft.

The goal of the NSA program is to develop the standard long range mobility aircraft for
the first half of the 21st century. The basic NSA airframe will be a commercially certified
aircraft with provisions for modular components and systems to allow the aircraft to
evolve to meet changing requirements and missions.

The aircraft will be able to perform airlift and tanker missions through the use of
integrated modular tanker systems. This will allow the use of one airframe, with the
resulting logistics and operational advantages, to fulfill AMC airlift, airdrop, and air
refueling missions. In the airlift role, the NSA can carry all the equipment of the Army's
light divisions over a 4,000 NM range. The aircraft can airdrop over 150 paratroops or
two 60,000 pound airdrop loads. For tanker missions, the aircraft can exceed the fuel
offload of the KC-135R while retaining its basic airlift capability.

LMAS Advanced Design engineers have studied over 40 aircraft concepts since the
initiation of the NSA project in 1994.
Current effort is focused on the joined wing configuration and the operational advantages
of a tanker aircraft with two refueling booms. Given that the USAF will not replace its
current tankers on a one-for-one basis, planners will face a "boom intensive environment"
in future conflicts
Global Range Aircraft
The notional Global Range Aircraft is based on the USAF Science Advisory Board
(SAB) "New World Vistas" global range mission of 150,000 pounds payload over a
12,000 NM range. Aircraft technologies that could give much better performance include
a large improvement in lift to drag (L/D) ratio of a wing coupled to evolutionary
improvement in engines. This next generation airlifter with a high lift/drag wing/airframe
design, engineered materials[5] , high temperature engine components, composite
fabrication and fastening, and next generation material for airframe and skin. Worldwide
coverage will require aircraft that can fly 12,000 miles, deliver cargo, and return without
refueling at the terminal point. Air refueling is a logistics intensive operation, and airlifter
refueling can be eliminated. Cargo capacity for airlifters of the 21st century should be
150,000 pounds. With improvements in aircraft and delivery methods, the gross takeoff
weight will be 1,000,000 pounds.
The Blended-Wing-Body (BWB) design approach is to maximize overall efficiency by
integrating the engines, wings, and the body into a single lifting surface. The BWB
synergistically combines a rigid, wide airfoil-shaped fuselage with high-aspect-ratio
wings and buried engines with a common integrated nacelle. The BWB concept houses a
wide double-deck payload compartment that blends into the wing. Adjacent to this
central section is ample room for baggage and cargo. Preliminary analyses indicate that
the BWB would outperform all conventional aircraft. An initial evaluation of this
configuration indicates significant cost and performance benefits over conventional
configurations: a 56-percent increase in lift-drag ratio, a 20-percent decrease in fuel burn,
and a 10-percent decrease in the operating-empty weight. The cargo aircraft, with a 280-
foot wingspan, could carry 231,000 pounds of payload more than 7,000 nautical miles at
a cruise speed of approximately 560 mph. This is almost twice the capacity of the Boeing
747-400. It would reduce fuel burn and harmful emissions per passenger mile by almost a
third in comparison to today's aircraft. Other potential benefits of the BWB include
increased aerodynamic performance, lower operating cost and reduced community noise
levels.
The BWB design uses ten intermediate chord-wise (front-to-back) ribs to connect the
upper and lower wing skins. These ribs separate the interior into ten bays. Advanced
composite material will be required to minimize the amount of structure needed to
withstand the pressurization loads and deflections in the skins. Today's aircraft fly at
speeds approaching 600mph. At these speeds, the thick wing of the BWB would
experience substantial aerodynamic drag without carefully designed control of the airflow
over the wing. Current transport aircraft wings are relatively thin compared to the airfoils
required for the BWB and do not experience this problem as severely.
Stability and control and ride quality are significant challenges to development of the
BWB. Normally, all-wing configurations are difficult to stabilize without resorting to
techniques that increase overall drag. The stability and control behavior of the Blended-
Wing-Body resembles that of a jet fighter rather than a commercial transport. Advanced
flight control systems will be required to control the aircraft at various flight conditions.
This approach allows the center-of-gravity to be located further aft, which helps reduces
drag for this type of design.
While the idea for "flying wing" airplanes is not new, no commercial transport of this
type has ever been created. The issues of high speed aerodynamics, propulsion
integration and noncircular pressurized cabins have yet to be addressed by today's aircraft
designers. Many challenges exist that will involve complex solutions requiring a
multidisciplinary design approach. Team members studying the Blended-Wing-Body
concept are McDonnell Douglas, Stanford University, the University of Southern
California, Clark Atlanta University, the University of Florida, and NASA Langley and
Lewis Research Centers.
Civil Reserve Air Fleet
The Civil Reserve Air Fleet is made up of US civil air carriers who are committed by
contract to provid-ing operating and support personnel for DOD. The CRAF program is
designed to quickly mobilize our nation’s airlift resources to meet DOD force projec-tion
requirements. CRAF airlift services are divided into four operational segments:

 Long-range international-strategic intertheater operations.


 Short-range international theater operations.
 Domestic CONUS-DOD supply distribution.
 Alaskan-Aerospace Defense Command support.

The CRAF airlift capability can be activated in three stages. These stages are as follows:

 Stage I. Stage I may be activated by the USCINCTRANSCOM,1 to perform


airlift services when the AMC airlift force cannot meet simultaneously both
deployment and other traffic requirements.
 Stage II. Stage II is an additional airlift expansion identified for an airlift
emergency which does not warrant national mobilization but may be activated by
authority of the SECDEF.
 Stage III. Stage III makes available the total CRAF airlift capability when
required for DOD operations during major military emergencies involving US
Forces. The SECDEF issues the order to activate CRAF stage III only after a
national emergency has been declared by the President or Congress.

CRAF was activated for the first time in its history on 17 August 1990 when stage I
aircraft were called up in response to Iraq's invasion of Kuwait. Despite a few minor
problems, which have since been addressed, the activation of the CRAF was very
successful. Commercial airlines are motivated to participate in the CRAF program in part
by the opportunity to compete for DoD peacetime business. In the past several years, the
volume of that available business base has been expanded by over a billion dollars. That
was a strong factor in overcoming resistance to CRAF participation in the wake of the
Gulf War. The possibility of opening up the DoD small package business to commercial
carriers--another $200-$400 million--is now also being considered. Military airfields are
being opened to CRAF carriers for operations and bad weather alternates as additional
incentives for CRAF participation.
Boeing B747. The Boeing B747 is a wide-body aircraft. The cargo-carrying versions
have a plan-ning cargo weight of about 180,000 pounds. The main deck can hold either
32 to 36 military or 28 commer-cial pallets. The passenger version carries about 364
passengers (only 237 on the B747SP).
Douglas DC-10 and Lockheed L-1011. The Douglas DC-10 and Lockheed L-1011 are
wide-body aircraft. The cargo-carrying version of the DC-10 has an average cargo weight
of about 120,000 pounds. The main deck can hold either 30 military or 22 commercial
pallets. The passenger version of the DC-10 can carry about 242 passengers. The L-1011
passenger version has a capacity of 246 to 330 seats.
Douglas DC-8 and Boeing B707. The Douglas DC-8 and Boeing B707 are narrow-body
aircraft. The DC-8 cargo version has a planning cargo weight that varies from 52,000 to
82,000 pounds. The main deck accommodates 14 to 18 pallets, depending on the aircraft
series. The cargo version of the B707 has a planning cargo weight of about 60,000
pounds, and the main deck can carry 13 military or commercial pallets. The passenger
DC-8 carries 165 to 219 passengers, and the B707, approximately 165 passengers. CRAF
aircraft are neither designed nor intended to carry litter patients.
PARTICIPANTS

The following air carriers are members of the Civil Reserve Air Fleet for Fiscal Year
1997:

Long-Range Short-Range Aeromedical Domestic Section Alaskan


International Section International Evacuation Section
Section
Air Transport Alaska Airlines Delta Airlines America West Alaska
International Express Airlines
American International American Trans Air Trans World Reno Air Northern Air
Airways Airlines Cargo
American Airlines Carnival Airlines USAir Southwest Airlines
American Trans Air Continental Airlines
Atlas Air DHL Airways
Burlington Air Express Evergreen
International Airlines
Continental Airlines Miami Air
International
Delta Airlines North American
Airlines
DHL Airways Omni Air Express
Emery Worldwide Southern Air
Transport
Evergreen Sun Country Airlines
International Airlines
Federal Express USAir Shuttle
Airlines
Fine Airlines
North American
Airlines
Northwest Airlines
Polar Air Cargo
Southern Air Transport
Sun Country Airlines
Tower Air
Trans Continental
Airlines
Trans World Airlines
United Airlines
United Parcel Service
World Airways
Zantop International
Airlines
KC-10A Extender
The United States Air Force/McDonnell Douglas KC-10A advanced tanker/cargo aircraft
is a version of the intercontinental-range DC-10 Series 30CF (convertible freighter),
modified to provide increased mobility for U.S. forces in contingency operations by:
refueling fighters and simultaneously carrying the fighters' support equipment and
support people on overseas deployments: refueling strategic airlifters (such as the USAF
C-5 and C-l4l) during overseas deployments and resupply missions; and augmenting the
U.S. airlift capability.

In most instances, the KC-10A performs these missions without dependence on overseas
bases and without depleting critical fuel supplies in the theater of operations. Equipped
with its own refueling receptacle, the KC-10A can support deployment of fighters, fighter
support aircraft and airlifters from U.S. bases to any area in the world, with considerable
savings in both cost and fuel compared to pre-KC-l0A capabilities.

The aerial refueling capability of the KC-10A nearly doubles the nonstop range of a
fully-loaded C-5 strategic transport. In addition, its cargo capability enables the U.S. to
deploy some fighter squadrons and their unit support people and equipment with a single
airplane type, instead of requiring both tanker and cargo aircraft. The Air Force is calling
the KC-10A the "Extender" because of its ability to carry out aerial refueling and cargo
mission without forward basing, thus extending the mobility of U.S. forces.

Although the KC-10A's primary mission is aerial refueling, it can combine the tasks of
tanker and cargo aircraft by refueling fighters while carrying the fighters' support people
and equipment during overseas deployments. The KC-10A can transport up to 75 people
and about 170,000 pounds (76,560 kilograms) of cargo a distance of about 4,400 miles
(7,040 kilometers). Without cargo, the KC-10A's unrefueled range is more than 11,500
miles.

CHARACTERISTICS

The KC-10A tanker can deliver 200,000 pounds (90,719 kg) of fuel to a receiver 2200
statute miles (3539.8 km) from the home base and return, or it can carry a maximum
cargo payload of 169,409 pounds (76,843 kg) a distance of 4370 statute miles (7031 km).
Unrefueled ferry range of the KC-lOA is 11,500 statute miles (18,503 km).

The KC-10A is powered by three General Electric CF6-50C2 high bypass-ratio turbofan
engines, each generating 52,500 pounds (23,814 kg) of takeoff thrust. Versions of the
CF6 engine family are installed on most of the DC-lOs in airline service and have
compiled an impressive reliability record. One of the engines is mounted at the base of
the tail above the aft fuselage of the KC-10A, and the other two are installed on pylons
beneath the wings, one on each side of the fuselage.
Like other intercontinental-range DC-lOs, the tanker/transport is 181 feet 7 inches (55.35
m) in length and has a wingspan of 165 feet 4 inches (50.42 m) and a tail height of 58
feet 1 inch (17.7 m). Gross takeoff weight of the KC-10A is 590,000 pounds (267,619
kg), up from 555,000 pounds (251,701 kg) for the standard intercontinental commercial
model.

Design fuel capacity is 356,065


pounds (161,508 kg), including a
maximum of 238,565 pounds
(108,211 kg) in the standad wing
tankage and a maximum of 117,500
pounds (53,297 kg) stored in seven
fuel cells below the main deck.

The KC-10A takes full advantage of


the inherent capability of the
commercial DC-10, retaining some 88
per cent commonality with the
commercial aircraft. KC-10A
modifications to the commercial DC-
10CF include: elimination of most
upper deck windows and lower deck
cargo doors; provisions for additional
crew; a flexible capability for
accommodating additional support
people; receptacle for in-flight
refueling of the KC-10A itself;
military avionics; director lights for
the receiver aircraft; supplemental
fuselage fuel tanks; modernized aerial refueling operator station; hose reel with drogue
for refueling Navy and oher probe-equipped aircraft; advanced aerial refueling boom, and
an improved cargo handling system.

The KC-10A supplementary fuel tankage system, selected after extensive studies,
includes seven unpressurized integral-body fuel cells, four aft of the wing and three
forward, all located in underdeck vented cavities. A crashworthy design makes use of
keel beams and strategically placed energy absorption material to protect the tanks.
Under-fuselage panels permit direct access to each cell for installation, removal, system
inspection and maintenance and structural inspection.

The KC-10A's boom operator controls refueling operations through a digital fly-by-wire
system. Sitting in the rear of the aircraft, the operator can see the receiver aircraft through
a wide window. During boom refueling operations, fuel is transferred to the receiver at a
maximum rate of 1,100 gallons (4,180 liters) per minute; the hose and drogue refueling
maximum rate is 470 gallons (1,786 liters) per minute. The KC-10A can be air-refueled
by a KC-135 or another KC-10A to increase its delivery range.
The advanced aerial refueling boom designed by McDonnell Douglas offers significant
advantages in operational safety, efficiency and fuel-flow rates. It features larger
disconnect and control envelopes, independent disconnect capability, an active control
system with digital fly-by-wire controls, automatic load alleviation, position rate sensing
to assure disconnect within control limits, precision hand controllers with low force
requirements and operator-selectable disconnect limits. An additional feature in the KC-
10A refueling system is the installation of the hose reel and the capability to change from
hose to boom refueling, and vice versa, while in flight.

The aerial refueling operator's station in the KC-10A, located aft of the rearward lower
fuselage fuel tanks, features improvements in comfort, viewing capability and
environment. Instead of assuming the prone position required in current tankers, the
refueling operator sits in an aft-facing crew seat. Station equipment includes handy
refueling controls, a wide viewing window facing the aft "customer" position and
additional periscopic viewing arrangements for traffic management. Accessible from the
upper deck, the station is pressurized and has independent thermal control, a quiet
environment and an arrangement suited for both training and operational missions. While
refueling requires only one operator, two additional seats are provided to accommodate
an instructor and an observer.

For its cargo-carrying assignments, the KC-10A has a total usable cargo space exceeding
12,000 cubic feet (346 cu m) in its spacious cabin. The cabin has a maximum width of
almost 19 feet (5.7 m), ceiling height of 8.5 feet (2.5 m) and a floor area of 2200 square
feet (304.25 sq m). In all-cargo configuration, the KC-10A acccommodates 25 standard
88 x 108-inch (223.5 by 274.3 cm) cargo pallets in the cabin with aisles down both sides,
or 27 pallets with a single aisle.

To facilitate the handling of cargo, the KC-10A is equipped with a versatile system to
accommodate a broad spectrum of loads. The system, adapted in part from the
commercial DC-10, has been enhanced with the addition of powered rollers, powered
winch provisions for assistance in fore and aft movement of cargo, an extended ball mat
area to permit loading of larger items, and cargo pallet couplers that allow palletizing of
cargo items too large for a single pallet. The features, plus the large 102 by 140-inch (259
by 355 cm) cargo door that swings upward on the left side of the forward fuselage for
loading and unloading, give the KC-10A the capability to transport a significant portion
of the tactical support equipment of fighter squadrons.

Several configurations exist for personnel and crew accommodations. One arrangement is
for the crew of five, plus six seats for additional crew and four bunks for crew rest, with
an environmental curtain between bunks and the cargo net. The same area also has space
for the installation of 14 more seats for support people. In another arrangement, the
bunks, environmental curtain and cargo net can be shifted rearward, making room for 55
more support people, along with the necessary utility, lavatory and stowage modules,
raising the personnel capacity to a total of 80 crew and support people. Although all eight
of the DC-10 upper deck passenger doors are installed as standard, three are deactivated.
Normal entry and exit are through the two forward passenger doors on each side, and the
aft right-hand door is available as a ground emergency exit for people in the aerial
refueling operator's station.

BACKGROUND
The Air Force announced the selection of McDonnell Douglas on December 19, 1977.
The selection was based on integrated assessment of capability, price, life-cycle costs and
technical features of the McDonnell Douglas DC-10. The initial contract of $28 million
funded production engineering, tooling and other non-recurring activities, with quantities
of aircraft to be determined by available funding in future years.

An additional logistics support sum of $429,000 was awarded to McDonnell Douglas as


part of a basic contract for logistics planning in preparation for subsequent total support
of the KC-l0A force, with annual options for spare parts and support equipment,
intermediate and depot-level maintenance, systems management and technical support.
McDonnell Douglas provides maintenance support under Federal Aviation
Administration ground rules. USAF personnel are responsible for accomplishing flight
line maintenance tasks, as well as maintenance management functions.

The commercial DC-10 entered airline service in 1971, the same year McDonnell
Douglas began engineering work on the USAF version that led to the KC-10A contract.
The commercial DC-10, chosen by 47 airlines, carries more passengers to more cities
worldwide than any other wide-cabin jetliner.

With the KC-10A program, the USAF is taking advantage of the nearly $2 billion
invested by McDonnell Douglas and its subcontractors in development of the DC-10 and
of the huge investments by the airlines in establishing a worldwide support system, thus
reducing both the acquisition and operation costs of the KC-10A as compared to an all-
new military development. The U.S. Air Force and McDonnell Douglas signed contracts
totaling $148 million in November 1978 for production of the first two KC-l0s, for the
balance of the non-recurring engineering costs and for the initial spare parts and other
support for the KC-10 program. A second contract, calling for production of four
additional KC-l0s at a cost of $173 million, was signed November, 1979. At the same
time, a $10.1 million logistics support contract option to provide spares and support
equipment was signed.

A third contract, calling for production of six more KC-l0s at a cost of $284 million, was
signed in February of 1981. A $14 million logistics support contract for those aircraft
also was signed. A fourth contract, calling for production of four more KC-l0s at a cost of
$196 million was signed in January, 1982, along with a $21 million contract for logistic
support.

The first flight of the KC-10A took place on July 12, 1980. The first aerial refueling
occurred during testing on October 30, 1980, with the receiver aircraft a C-5.The first
KC-10A was delivered to the Air Force on March 17, 1981. The KC-10A force of 60
aircraft is based with the Air Combat Command at Barksdale AFB, La., and at March
AFB, CA, beginning in the fall of 1982.

During Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm, the KC-10 fleet provided in-flight
refueling to aircraft from all branches of the U.S. armed forces as well as those of other
coalition forces. In-flight refueling extended the range and capability of all U.S. and other
coalition fighter aircraft. Air operations continued without costly and time-consuming
ground refueling. In-flight refueling was key to the rapid airlift of material and forces. In
addition to refueling airlift aircraft, the KC-10A, along with the smaller KC-135, moved
thousands of tons of cargo and thousands of troops in support of the massive Persian Gulf
build-up. The KC-10A and the KC-135 conducted about 51,700 separate refueling
operations and delivered 125 million gallons (475 million liters) of fuel without missing a
single scheduled rendezvous.

The KC-10A acquisition program was directed by the Air Force Systems Command's
Aeronautical Systems Division (ASD) at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. Prime
contractor for the design, development and production of the KC-10A is the Long Beach,
California-based Douglas Aircraft Company division of McDonnell Douglas
Corporation, St. Louis, Missouri.

Service Life
As one of the newest aircraft in the AF inventory, the KC-10 requires little maintenance
and modifications when compared to older military systems. The KC-10 complies with
FAA Stage 3 noise standards. Designed with a service life of 30,000 hours, projected
structural service life of the KC-10 extends to 2043. State-of-the-art technology and
commonalty with commercial counterparts ensures operations in the near future will
remain economical. However, as the commercial fleet reaches maturity, major operators
will discontinue DC-10 use, leaving smaller airlines as the only remaining civil users.
The first round of commercial retirements by 2010 will undoubtedly impact the economy
of future Air Force KC-10 operations. Studies to assess that impact and to reevaluate the
economic and structural service life will be required.
Specifications
Primary Function: Aerial refueling/transport.
Contractor: Douglas Aircraft Co.
Power Plant: Three General Electric CF-6-50C2 turbofans
Thrust: 52,500 pounds (23,625 kilograms), each engine
Length: 181 feet, 7 inches (54.4 meters)
Height: 58 feet, 1 inch (17.4 meters)
Wingspan: 165 feet, 4 1/2 inches (50 meters)
Speed: 619 mph (Mach 0.825)
Ceiling: 42,000 feet (12,727 meters)
Maximum Takeoff 590,000 pounds (265,500 kilograms)
Weight:
Maximum Useable 342,000 Pounds
Fuel: All fuel is usable or transferable via either boom or
probe and drogue refueling
Fifteen aircraft are modified with two wing-mounted
air refueling pods which allow for simultaneous
operations with probe equipped aircraft.
Range: 4,400 miles (3,800 nautical miles) with cargo;
11,500 miles (10,000 nautical miles) without cargo
Unit Cost: $86.3 million (1992 dollars)
Crew: Four (aircraft commander, pilot, flight engineer and
boom operator)
Crew Ratio 3.5 crews per aircraft
2.0 crews per aircraft (active duty)
1.5 crews per aircraft (associate reserve)
Date Deployed: March 1981
Inventory: Active force, 59; ANG, 0; Reserve, 0
KC-130
The KC-130 is a multi-role, multi-mission tactical tanker/transport which provides the
support required by Marine Air Ground Task Forces. This versatile asset provides in-
flight refueling to both tactical aircraft and helicopters as well as rapid ground refueling
when required. Additional tasks performed are aerial delivery of troops and cargo,
emergency resupply into unimproved landing zones within the objective or battle area,
airborne Direct Air Support Center, emergency medevac, tactical insertion of combat
troops and equipment, evacuation missions, and support as required of special operations
capable Marine Air Ground Task Forces.
The KC-130 is equipped with a removable 3600 gallon (136.26 hectoliter) stainless steel
fuel tank that is carried inside the cargo compartment providing additional fuel when
required. The two wing-mounted hose and drogue refueling pods each transfer up to 300
gallons per minute (1135.5 liters per minute) to two aircraft simultaneously allowing for
rapid cycle times of multiple-receiver aircraft formations (a typical tanker formation of
four aircraft in less than 30 minutes). Some KC-130s are also equipped with defensive
electronic and infrared countermeasures systems. Development is currently under way for
the incorporation of interior/exterior night vision lighting, night vision goggle heads-up
displays, global positioning system, and jam-resistant radios.
The C-130 Hercules transport aircraft, which is still in production, first flew 42 years ago
and has been delivered to more than 60 countries. The C-130 operates throughout the
military services fulfilling a wide range of operational missions in both peace and war
situations. Basic and specialized versions perform a diversity of roles, including airlift
support, Distant Early Warning Line and Arctic Ice re-supply, aero-medical missions,
aerial spray missions, fire fighting duties for the U.S. Forest Service, and natural disaster
relief missions. The C-130E is an extended range development of the C-130B, with large
under-wing fuel tanks. A wing modification to correct fatigue and corrosion on C-130Es
has extended the life of the aircraft well into the next century.
The basic C-130H is generally similar to the C-130E model but has updated T56-A-T5
turboprops, a redesigned outer wing, updated avionics, and other minor improvements.
While continuing to upgrade through modification, the U.S. Air Force (USAF) has
budgeted to resume fleet modernization through acquisition of the C-130J version. This
new model features a two-crew member flight system, Skip Allison AE2100D3 engines,
all-composite Dowty R391 propellers, digital avionics and mission computers, enhanced
performance, and improved reliability and maintainability.
The new KC-130J, with its increase in speed, range, improved air-to-air refueling system,
night systems, and survivability enhancements, will provide the MAGTF commander
with a state-of-the art, multimission, tactical aerial refueler/transport well into the 21st
century. The KC-130J aircraft is a medium sized transport and tanker with capability for
intra-theater and inter-theater airlift and aerial refueling operations. The KC-130J is
capable of in-flight refueling of both fixed and rotary wing aircraft. The fuel system is a
common cross-ship manifold that serves as a refueling system, a fuel supply crossfeed, a
ground refueling system, and a fuel jettisoning system. It also retains the capability for
worldwide delivery of combat troops, personnel, and cargo by airdrops or airland to
austere, bare-base sites. The KC-130J is capable of day, night, and adverse weather
operations.
The KC-130J provides rapid logistic support to operating forces. It can be configured to
provide transportation of personnel or cargo. Delivery of cargo may be accomplished by
parachute, low level fly-by ground extraction, or landing. As a tactical transport, the KC-
130J can carry 92 ground troops or 64 paratroopers and equipment. It can be configured
as a medical evacuation platform capable of carrying 74-litter patients plus attendants.
The KC-130J can land and takeoff on short runways and can be used on primitive landing
strips in advanced base areas. The KC-130J is also capable of providing mission support
in emergency evacuation of personnel and key equipment, advanced party
reconnaissance, and special warfare operations.
The KC-130J Developmental and Operational Tests were completed by Lockheed Martin
Aeronautical Systems (LMAS). The Qualification Operational Test and Evaluation
(QOT&E) will be conducted at Naval Air Station (NAS) Patuxent River, Maryland, in
late FY00 through late FY01.
Beginning in FY96, the USAF started procuring the C-130J as the replacement for the
their older C-130E and C-130H. The U.S. Marine Corps (USMC) will receive five KC-
130Js through an ECP to the USAF contract. The USMC KC-130J is scheduled to
replace the KC-130F model aircraft. Although currently only five aircraft are under
contract, additional procurements in future years are planned, but no schedule has been
established. The initial procurement of five KC-130Js will replace the oldest F models.
These KC-130Js will be assigned to Marine Aerial Refueler Transport Training Squadron
(VMGRT)-253 at Marine Corps Air Station (MCAS) Cherry Point, North Carolina.
The KC-130J major enhancements include advanced, two-pilot flight station with fully
integrated digital avionics, MIL-STD 1553B data bus architecture, color multifunctional
liquid crystal displays, and head-up displays. Additional enhancements include state-of-
the-art navigation systems with dual embedded Global Positioning System, Inertial
Navigation System, mission planning system, low power color radar, digital map display,
and new digital autopilot. The KC-130J incorporates extensive Built-In Test (BIT)
integrated diagnostics with an advisory, caution, and warning system, and new higher
power turboprop engines with more efficient six-bladed all-composite propellers.

Specifications
Primary function In-flight refueling; tactical transport
Manufacturer Lockheed
Power plant Four Allison T56-A-16 engines
Power 4,910 shaft horsepower per engine
Aircraft: 97 feet, 9 inches (22.16 meters)
Length
Cargo compartment: 41 feet (12.49 meters)
Width of Cargo 10 feet, 3 inches (3.12 meters)
compartment
Aircraft: 38 feet, 4 inches (11.68 meters)
Height Cargo compartment: 9 feet (2.74 meters)
Wing span 132 feet, 7 inches (40.39 meters)
Maximum takeoff
175,000 pounds (79,450 kilograms)
weight
Ceiling 30,000 feet (9,140 meters)
Speed 315 knots (362.25 miles per hour)
Operating weight 83,300 pounds (37,818 kilograms)
KC-130T and KC-130: 13,280 gallons (50,331
liters)/86,320 pounds (32,715 liters)
Total fuel capacity
KC-130F: 10,183 gallons (38,594 liters)/ 66,190
pounds (25,086 liters)
Tanker mission: 1000 nautical mile (1150 mile) radius
with 45,000 pounds of fuel (20,430 kilograms) (KC-
130R/T)
Range Cargo mission: 2875 nautical miles (3306.25 miles)
with 38,258 pounds (17,369 kilograms) of cargo (KC-
130R/T) or 92 combat troops or 64 paratroopers or 74
litters
Landing distance Less than 2,600 feet
2 pilots, 1 navigator/systems operator, 1 flight engineer,
Crew 1 first mechanic, 1 loadmaster (total of 6)
In
KC-130F: 1962
troduction date KC-130R: 1976
KC-130T: 1983
Unit Replacement $37,000,000
Cost
Active: 37 KC-130Fs and 14 KC-130Rs (51 total)
Inventory
Reserve: 24 KC-130Ts
KC-135R Stratotanker
The KC-135 Stratotanker's primary mission is to refuel long-range bombers. It also
provides aerial refueling support to Air Force, Navy, Marine Corps and allied aircraft.

Four turbojets, mounted under wings swept 35 degrees, power the KC-135. Nearly all
internal fuel can be pumped through the tanker's flying boom, the KC-135's primary fuel
transfer method. A special shuttlecock-shaped drogue, attached to and trailed behind the
flying boom, is used to refuel aircraft fitted with probes. An operator stationed in the rear
of the plane controls the boom. A cargo deck above the refueling system holds
passengers or cargo. Depending on fuel storage configuration, the KC-135 can carry up
to 83,000 pounds (37,350 kilograms) of cargo.

The KC-135 tanker fleet made an invaluable contribution to the success of Operation
Desert Storm in the Persian Gulf, flying around-the-clock missions to maintain
operability of allied warplanes. The KC-135s form the backbone of the Air Force tanker
fleet, meeting the aerial refueling requirements of bomber, fighter, cargo and
reconnaissance forces, as well as the needs of the Navy, Marines and allied nations.

Background

Because the KC-135A's original engines are of 1950s technology, they don't meet
modern standards of increased fuel efficiency, reduced pollution and reduced noise
levels. By installing new, CFM56 engines, performance is enhanced and fuel off-load
capability is dramatically improved. In fact, the modification is so successful that two-re-
engined KC-135Rs can do the work of three KC-135As.

This improvement is a result of the KC-135R's lower fuel consumption and increased
performance which allow the tanker to take off with more fuel and carry it farther. Since
the airplane can carry more fuel and burn less of it during a mission, it's possible to
transfer a much greater amount to receiver aircraft.

The quieter, more fuel-efficient CFM56 engines are manufactured by CFM International,
a company jointly owned by SNECMA of France, and General Electric of the U.S. The
engine is an advanced-technology, high- bypass turbofan; the military designation is
F108-CF-100. Related system improvements are incorporated to improve the modified
airplane's ability to carry out its mission, while decreasing overall maintenance and
operation costs. The modified airplane is designated a KC-135R.

Because the KC-135R uses as much as 27 percent less fuel than the KC-135A, the USAF
can expect huge fuel savings by re-engining its fleet of KC-135s - about $1.7 billion over
15 years of operation. That's enough to fill the gas tanks of some 7.7 million American
cars each year for a decade and a half. Annual savings are estimated to be about 2.3 to 3.2
million barrels of fuel, about three to four percent of the USAF's annual fuel use. This
equals the fuel needed to provide electrical power for 145 days to a city of 350,000 to
400,000.

Re-engining with the CFM56 engines also results in significant noise reductions. Area
surrounding airports exposed to decibel noise levels is reduced from over 240 square
miles to about three square miles. This results in a reduction in the noise impacted area of
more than 98 percent. Maximum take-off decibel levels drop from 126 to 99 decibels.
This meets the tough U.S. Federal Air Regulation standards -- a goal for commercial
aircraft operated within the U.S. In addition, smoke and other emission pollutants are
reduced dramatically.

Boeing has delivered approximately 400 re-engined KC-135Rs and is under contract for
about 432 re-engine kits. Each kit includes struts, nacelles, 12.2 miles of wiring, and
other system modification components. Engines are purchased directly by the Air Force
from CFM International.

Boeing has completed work on a program to re-engine all KC-135As in the Air Force
Reserve and Air National Guard fleet -- a total of 161 airplanes. In that modification
program, which began in 1981, KC-135As were modified with refurbished JT3D engines
taken from used, commercial 707 airliners. After modification, the airplanes are
designated KC-135Es. This upgrade, like the KC-135R program, boosts performance
while decreasing noise and smoke pollution levels. The modified KC-135E provides 30
percent more powerful engines with a noise reduction of 85 percent.

The program included acquisition of used 707s, procurement of purchased parts and
equipment, basic engineering, some parts manufacturing, and refurbishment and
installation of the engines, struts and cowling. Kits also included improved brakes,
cockpit controls and instruments.

The Multi-Point Refueling System Program is an effort to enhance the efficiency and
flexibility of the Air Force’s air refueling fleet, 45 KC-135R Stratotanker aircraft are
being outfitted to accept wing-tip, hose-and-drogue and air refueling pods for refueling
NATO and US Navy aircraft. US Navy and many NATO aircraft cannot be refueled
using the boom and receptacle refueling method of Air Force aircraft, and instead use a
probe-and-drogue system where probes on the receiver aircraft make contact with a hose
that is reeled out behind a tanker aircraft. With the number of worldwide joint and
combined military operations on the rise, the Department of Defense directed the Air
Force to outfit part of its KC-135 fleet with the capability of refueling both probe-and-
drogue and boom receptacle aircraft on the same mission. This also allows refueling up to
two probe-and-drogue aircraft at the same time. Managed by the KC-135 Development
System Office at Aeronautical Systems Center, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio,
hte program completed the engineering, manufacturing and development portion of the
program in 1998 year and began follow-on operational test and evaluation early in 1999.

With projected modifications, the KC-135 will fly and refuel into the next century. A new
aluminum-alloy skin grafted to the underside of the wings will add 27,000 flying hours to
the aircraft. Aircraft corrosion presents a significant challenge to AMC. It is presently
difficult if not impossible to model this major life limiting factor over long periods of
time. Technologies required to deal with corrosion have not evolved, leaving AMC with
a deficiency that of not knowing exactly how long its older aircraft will operate
economically. At current use rates, the KC-135 aircraft structure should remain sound.
The fleet is projected to be in the Air Force service well into the next century. In fact,
calculations using a predicted structural service life of 70,000 hours (structural data only)
and based on current annual flight hours reveal that the structural life could extend into
the twenty-second century. However, these numbers taken alone are misleading as they
do not include the effects of corrosion.

Most experts agree that the R-model and T-model will continue to operate economically
well into the next century. The R-models maintenance capability and reliability rates are
among the highest of any weapon system AMC operates, and its operating cost is the
lowest. The E-model economic service life is markedly different because of the
difference in age and technology of some of its major components, most notably the
engines. The basic airframe should, in theory, last as long as the R-model, but the age of
the engines points to the likelihood that upkeep could become expensive (in terms of
parts and maintenance man-hours). The TF-33 (E-model) engines were previously used
but refurbished to an expected 6,000 hour service life. At current use rates, the TF-33 will
need another major overhaul around the turn of the century. Additionally, since the TF-33
does not meet FAA Stage III noise requirements for the year 2000, more time and money
must be expended to ensure compliance.
The U.S. Air Force has also acknowledged that the cockpit of the KC-135 must be
modernized. The Air Force issued a solicitation for PACER CRAG in May 1995. This
upgrade will provide new compass and radar and add global positioning system in the
KC-135 cockpit. PSD has submitted a proposal to be the prime contractor for this activity
which includes engineering, and manufacturing development, prototype installation, test
and evaluation, and kit production. Contract award was expected in October 1995.

Additional cockpit improvements beyond the PACER CRAG program, would maximize
crew efficiency and reduce operation and maintenance costs. With extensive experience
in avionics integration, Boeing could offer a new cockpit for the KC-135 that would
increase avionics reliability, while allowing the potential for reducing the number of crew
members. The newer cockpit would be part of an avionics modernization for the airplane.

The existing cockpit consists of electro-mechanical equipment of 1950s technology with


individual control panels and instrumentation distributed throughout. Failure rates are
high and repair capability has been restricted significantly as technology has changed.
Not only are repairs to the KC-135's existing avionics suite costly for the Air Force, but
they also mean more down-time for the tanker while repairs are made. Modem
commercial airplane avionics are much more reliable than those aboard the KC-135.

Boeing believes that an avionics modernization program is essential to assure the KC-135
has the technology to perform its mission well in the years ahead. An integrated avionics
system would be easier to operate and maintain. The new digital cockpit would include
an upgraded multiplex data bus and integration software, integrating global positioning,
ground collision avoidance, mission management and inertial navigation systems.
Controls would include multi functional electronic displays and centralized control
panels.

Specifications
Primary Function: Aerial refueling
Contractor: Boeing Military Airplanes
Power Plant: Four CFM-International F108-CF-100 turbofans
Thrust: 22,224 pounds (10,000.8 kilograms) each engine
Length: 136 feet, 3 inches (40.8 meters)
Height: 38 feet, 4 inches (11.5 meters)
Wingspan: 130 feet, 10 inches (39.2 meters)
Maximum speed at 30,000 feet (9,100 meters) 610 mph
Speed: (Mach 0.93)
Ceiling: 50,000 feet (15,152 meters)
Weight: 119,231 pounds (53,654 kilograms) empty
Maximum Takeoff
322,500 pounds (145,125 kilograms)
Weight:
11,192 miles (9,732 nautical miles) with 120,000
Range: pounds (54,000 kilograms) of transfer fuel.
Crew: Four or five; up to 80 passengers.
Date Deployed: August 1965.
KC-135R, $53 million; KC-135E, $30.6 million; KC-
Unit Cost:
135A, $26.1 million.
Inventory: Active force, 457; Reserve, 30; ANG, 158.
VC-25A - Air Force One
The mission of the VC-25A aircraft -- Air Force One -- is to provide air transport for the
president of the United States. The presidential air transport fleet consists of two specially
configured Boeing 747-200B's -- tail numbers 28000 and 29000 -- with the Air Force
designation VC-25A. When the president is aboard either aircraft, or any Air Force
aircraft, the radio call sign is "Air Force One."

Principal differences between the VC-25A and the standard Boeing 747, other than the
number of passengers carried, are the electronic and communications equipment aboard
Air Force One, its interior configuration and furnishings, self-contained baggage loader,
front and aft air-stairs, and the capability for inflight refueling.

Accommodations for the president include an executive suite consisting of a stateroom


(with dressing room, lavatory and shower) and the president's office. A conference/dining
room is also available for the president, his family and staff. Other separate
accommodations are provided for guests, senior staff, Secret Service and security
personnel, and the news media. Two galleys provide up to 100 meals at one sitting. Six
passenger lavatories, including disabled access facilities, are provided as well as a rest
area and mini-galley for the aircrew. The VC-25A also has a compartment outfitted with
medical equipment and supplies for minor medical emergencies.

These aircraft are flown by the presidential aircrew, maintained by the Presidential
Maintenance Branch, and are assigned to Air Mobility Command's 89th Airlift Wing,
Andrews Air Force Base, Md.

The first VC-25A -- tail number 28000 -- flew as "Air Force One" on Sept. 6, 1990, when
it transported President George Bush to Kansas, Florida and back to Washington, D.C. A
second VC-25A, tail number 29000 transported President Bill Clinton and former
Presidents Carter and Bush to Israel for the funeral of Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin. The
VC-25A will usher presidential travel into the 21st century, upholding the proud tradition
and distinction of being known as "Air Force One."
VC-25 aircraft are extensively modified B-747-200s with the basic airframe technology
of the 1960s. The aircraft incorporates state-of-the-art avionics and communications
equipment with Stage III compliant engines. Boeing is currently delivering B-747s
throughout the world, so the logistics support base appears secure for the foreseeable
future. With the continuing march of technology and the prestige attached to the U.S.
Presidential airlift fleet, Air Force plans recommend a system review date of 2010. At
this point, the aircraft will have been in service 20 years, and commercial operators will
have retired their B-747-200s counterparts from front-line service.
Specifications
Primary Function Presidential air transport
Contractor Boeing Airplane Co.
Power Plant Four General Electric CF6-80C2B1 jet engines
Thrust 56,700 pounds, each engine
Length 231 feet, 10 inches (70.7 meters)
Height 63 feet, 5 inches (19.3 meters)
Wingspan 195 feet, 8 inches (59.6 meters)
Speed 630 miles per hour (Mach 0.92)
Ceiling 45,100 feet (13,746 meters)
Maximum Takeoff
833,000 pounds (374,850 kilograms)
Weight
7,800 statute miles (6,800 nautical miles) (12,550
Range
kilometers)
Crew 26 (passenger/crew capacity: 102)
Dec. 8, 1990 (tail No. 28000); Dec. 23, 1990 (tail No.
Introduction Date
29000)
Sept. 6, 1990 (tail No. 28000); Mar. 26, 1991 (tail No.
Date Deployed
29000)
Inventory Active force, 2; ANG, 0; Reserve, 0
C-32A
The C-32A, a military versions of Boeing's 757-200, have replaced the VC-137 aircraft
that are being retired from the presidential airlift fleet. The new planes will carry cabinet
members, secretaries, and other dignitaries stateside and around the world. The first of
four C-32As left Boeing's Seattle plant 19 June 1998, and the second aircraft arrived at
Andrews three days later. The remaining two C-32As arrived in November and
December.
The Air Force purchased the new aircraft, known to the civilian world as the Boeing 757-
200, under a new streamlined acquisition procedure that saved money and allowed the
aircraft to be purchased from the existing Boeing production line. Under the plan, the Air
Force is treated the same as any commercial customer, from construction and painting to
test and evaluation. The new aircraft, flown by the 89th Airlift Wing, were acquired
through benchmark acquisition processes adopted as acquisition practices by other
military services and government agencies. Specifically, the Air Force streamlined its
acquisition techniques by developing requirements compatible with commercially
available aircraft and components. The acquisition team that managed procurement of the
C-32, with members from Aeronautical Systems Center's Mobility Mission Group, won
the Vice Presidential Hammer Award for significantly reinventing the way the Air Force
acquires aircraft.

The C-32A, configured for 45 passengers and 16 crew, is designed for a 4,150 nautical
mile mission, roughly the distance from Andrews to Frankfurt, Germany. The aircraft is
also Stage III noise level compliant. Inside the C-32A, communications take a front seat.
The vice president, heads of state and other decision-makers can conduct business
anywhere around the world using improved telephones, satellites, television monitors,
facsimiles and copy machines. Additional equipment on the C-32As includes Tacan
military navigation equipment, a military Identification Friend/Foe transponder, a UHF
satellite communications radio, secure voice and data transmission capability, and a
passenger flight information display system that airs videos and broadcasts real-time
global positioning on a moving world map. Increased storage was also a priority when
the designer included large storage areas in the overhead bins in the cabin and the cargo
compartments below. Like many high-standing aircraft it's easy to see under and around
the C-32A -- an important security factor for protecting the plane and its passengers.
Heading the safety equipment list is the Traffic Collision Avoidance System that gives
advance warning of possible air crashes.

The 757-200 is equipped with two wing-mounted Pratt & Whitney 2040 engines,
producing 41,700 pounds static thrust each. The aircraft is far more fuel efficient and
quieter than the 707-based C-137s they are replacing. Each engine of the C-32A has
40,000 pounds of thrust, compared to the VC-137 engine that delivers 14,000 pounds.
Yet, the C-32A's high-bypass-ratio engines, combined with an advanced wing design,
help make the plane one of the quietest, most fuel-efficient jetliners in the world.
Specifications
Length 155 feet 3 inches (47.3 m)
Wingspan 124 feet 10 inches (38.0 m)
Tail height 44 feet 6 inches (13.6 m)
Engines Pratt & Whitney PW2000
Maximum takeoff weight 220,000 pounds (99,790 kg)
Fuel capacity 11,526 U.S. gallons (43,625 L)
Maximum range 3,950 nautical miles; 4,550 statute
miles; 7,315 kilometers
Altitude capability 39,000 feet (11,885 m)
Cruise speed Mach 0.80
C-37A
The C-37A, a military version of the Gulfstream V business jet will, along with the 1st
Airlift Squadron's new C-32As, replace the wing's aging fleet of C-137s. The first C-37A,
Tail No. 70400, arrived at Andrews AFB in July 1998, and a second model arrived in
September. They will join the squadron's fleet of five C-20Bs, two C-20Hs and three C-
9Cs. On 06 January 1999 Gulfstream Aerospace Corp. was awarded a $38,530,875 face
value increase to a firm-fixed-price contract to provide for one C-37A aircraft and
associated training and data with an expected contract completion date of 30 June 30
2000.
The C-37A resembles the C-20H (Gulfstream IV), but is eight feet longer, with a wider
wing span, a more advanced avionics package and greater performance capabilities,
allowing the aircraft to carry up to 12 passengers a distance 50 percent greater than the C-
20B models. A typical C-37A mission will able to fly 5,500 nautical miles without
refueling, carrying Cabinet secretaries, congressional delegations or senior military
leaders.
First deliveries of the the ultra-long-range Gulfstream V to commercial customers began
at the end of 1996. On 05 May 1997 -- Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation announced
that the Gulfstream V, the world's first ultra-long range business jet, had been selected by
the United States Air Force (USAF) for the VC-X program to expand the mission
capability of the nation's Special Air Mission Wing. The selection by the USAF marked
the first sale of the ultra-long range Gulfstream V to the military and opened this market
worldwide for similar applications of this new aircraft. The initial contract is for two
Gulfstream V aircraft with options for up to four additional units before 2003. The initial
contract is valued at $68.9million. Including options, the total contract is valued at more
than $275 million. Gulfstream will provide technical and logistics support, spare parts
and overhaul services to the USAF for 10 years.
With this aircraft, the 89th Airlift Wing is capable of taking senior leadership nonstop to
areas of the world that previously required flying much larger aircraft. The key to C-
37A's performance is its state-of-the-art wing design, improved aerodynamics and more
powerful engines. The airframe is capable of low-speed, high-lift performance, high-
altitude maneuverability and turbulence tolerance. The BMW/Rolls-Royce BR710-48
engines moves the C-37A at a cruising speed of 600 mph. Civilian versions of the aircraft
have in a very short time set 15 world speed and distance records, including the first
nonstop flight from New York to Tokyo. The Gulfstream V is the first aircraft of its kind,
capable of cruising at altitudes up to 51,000 feet, high above most other air traffic,
weather and adverse winds.

Despite its more powerful engines, the C-37A is very fuel-efficient. Passengers can
comfortably travel in the aircraft at altitudes as high as 51,000 feet, taking advantage of
better fuel consumption rates, explained Bigler.

C-37As come equipped with a number of features not found on any other business jets.
The avionics system is a state-of-the-art Honeywell SPZ-8500 Flight Management
System with an integrated full-function Heads-Up Display. The FMS allows crews to
program computers to have the aircraft arrive at point in space at a specific time. They
also come equipped with enhanced Ground Proximity Warning System, and Microwave
Landing System. Other important features include Tacan military navigation equipment
and a military Identification Friend/Foe transponder. Full Authority Digital Engine
Controls ensure critical engine operating parameters are maintained. The C-37A, like
other Gulfstream Vs, meets the Extended Range with Two-Engine Airplanes standards, a
criterion previously only met by larger commercial aircraft operating over long stretches
of water.

Passengers will enjoy flying on what Gulfstream claims is the quietest aircraft in
production. The twin engines are located aft of the cabin bulkheads; titanium mufflers
and vibration isolators will eliminate hydraulic system noise. Insulated side panels, and
re-engineered windows further eliminate outside noise. The interior package includes a
passenger flight information display system that can feature real-time global positioning
on a moving world map, weather updates and other important information.

The 89th Airlift Wing is the only unit in the Air Force to operate C-37 and C-32 aircraft.

The CINC Support Aircraft Replacement Program calls for a most probable quantity of
five FAA certified commercial intercontinental passenger Aircraft accommodating a
minimum of 12 passengers and 5 Crew in a working office environment and capable of
dispatch on short notice to any suitable airfield in the world from operating locations at
MacDill AFB, FL and Hickam AFB, HI. This aircraft shall have a 5000 NM range, a
separate Distinguished Visitor (DV) area, and worldwide clear and secure voice,
facsimile, and PC data passenger communications.
Specifications
Performance
Maximum Range 6,500 nm 12,046 km
(Mach 0.80, 8 passengers, 4 crew, NBAA IFR
reserves)

Long Range Cruise Speed Mach 0.80, 459 ktas, 851 km/h
Mmo (Maximum Allowable Mach Number) Mach 0.885
Takeoff Distance (SL, ISA, MTOW) 5,990 ft 1,826 m
Landing Distance (SL, ISA, MLW) 3,170 ft 966 m
Initial Cruise Altitude 41,000 ft 12,497 m
Maximum Cruise Altitude 51,000 ft 15,545 m

Weights
Maximum Takeoff Weight 90,500 lb 41,051 kg
Maximum Landing Weight 75,300 lb 34,156 kg
Maximum Zero Fuel Weight 54,500 lb 24,721 kg
Basic Operating Weight (including 4 crew) 48,000 lb 21,773 kg
Maximum Payload 6,500 lb 2,948 kg
Payload with Maximum Fuel 1,600 lb 726 kg
Maximum Fuel Weight 41,300 lb 18,734 kg
Allowance for outfitting and operating 8,500 lb 3,856 kg
items

Design Standards
Engines (2) BMW Rolls-Royce BR710
Rated Takeoff Thrust ea. 14,750 lb 65.6 kN
Passengers (Maximum) 19
Passengers (Typical Outfitting) 13-15
Cabin Pressure Differential 10.17 psid, 6,000 ft cabin at 51,000
ft

Interior
Cabin Length 50 ft 1 in 15.3 m
Cabin Height 6 ft 2 in 1.9 m
Cabin Width 7 ft 4 in 2.2 m
Cabin Volume 1,669 cu ft 47.3 cu m
Baggage Compartment Volume 226 cu ft 6.4 cu m

Exterior
Length 96 ft 5 in 29.4 m
Height 25 ft 10 in 7.9 m
Wingspan 93 ft 6 in 28.5 m
VC-137B/C Stratoliner
The VC-137 provides transportation for the vice president, cabinet and congressional
members, and other high-ranking U.S. and foreign officials. It also serves as a backup for
Air Force One, the presidential aircraft.

The VC-137B/C Stratoliner is a modified version of the Boeing 707 commercial


intercontinental airliner that, for many years, was the presidential aircraft. Today, the
president's aircraft, is the VC-25A. The VC-137B/C body is identical to that of the
Boeing 707, but has different interior furnishings and electronic equipment. The
passenger cabin is divided into three sections:

 The forward area has a communications center, galley, lavatory and an eight-seat
compartment.
 The center section is designed as an airborne headquarters with conference tables,
swivel chairs, projection screen for films and two convertible sofa-bunks.
 The rear section of the cabin contains double reclining passenger seats, tables,
galley, two lavatories and closets. Partitions may be placed throughout the cabin
for added privacy.

Background
In 1962, the first jet aircraft to be specifically purchased for use as "Air Force One," a
VC-137B, entered service with the tail number 26000. It is perhaps the most widely
known and has the most historical significance of the presidential aircraft. Tail number
26000 is the aircraft that carried President John F. Kennedy to Dallas, Nov. 22, 1963, and
in which his body was returned to Washington, D.C., following his assassination. Lyndon
B. Johnson was sworn into office as the 36th president of the United States on board
26000 at Love Field in Dallas. This fateful aircraft also was used to return President
Johnson's body to Texas following his state funeral on Jan. 24, 1973. In 1972, President
Richard M. Nixon made historic visits aboard 26000 to the People's Republic of China in
February and to the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in May.

Tail number 27000, a G model VC-137, replaced 26000 and carved its place in history
when it was used to fly former Presidents Nixon, Ford and Carter to Cairo, Egypt, Oct.
19, 1981, to represent the United States at the funeral of Egyptian President Anwar Sadat.

C-137 aircraft are modified B-707 aircraft with 1950's airframe technology that do not
comply with FAA Stage 3 restrictions. Additionally, the FAA mandated aging aircraft
inspections requirements negatively affect the maintainability and availability of the C-
137 fleet. These aircraft are already expensive to fly, needing fuel stops and ground
support equipment, and the resultant additional security and time required. A Statement
of Need and Operational Requirements Document has been validated for replacing the C-
137 with a VC-X aircraft. Therefore the 89th Airlift Wing will receive four new Boeing
757-200 aircraft in 1998 to be designated C-32As and two Gulfstream V aircraft to be
designated C-37A.

Specifications
Transport high-priority personnel and backup
Primary Function
presidential airlift.
Builder Boeing Company.
Power Plant: Four
Pratt and Whitney
JT3D-3B turbofan
engines
Thrust: 18,000
pounds (8,100
kilograms) each engine
VC-137B, 144 feet, 6 inches (48.79 meters);
Length VC-137C, 152 feet, 11 inches (46.33 meters)
VC-137B, 41 feet, 4 inches (12.52 meters);
Height
VC-137C, 42 feet, 5 inches (12.91 meters)
Maximum Takeoff VC-137B, 258,000 pounds (116,100 kilograms)
Weight VC-137C, 322,000 pounds (144,900 kilograms)
Wingspan: VC-137B,
130 feet, 10 inches
(39.66 meters);
VC-137C, 145 feet, 9
inches (44.17 meters)
VC-137B, 5,000 miles (8,000 kilometers);
Range
VC-137C, 6,000 miles (9,600 kilometers)
Ceiling 42,000 feet (12,727 meters)
Speed 530 miles per hour (Mach 0.81)
VC-137B, 40 passengers;
Load VC-137C, 50 passengers
Unit Cost VC-137B, $36.6 million; VC-137C, $36.2 million
Crew 18 (varies with mission)
VC-137B, October 1962;
Date Deployed:
VC-137C, August 1972.
Active force, VC-137B, 3 and
Inventory VC-137C, 4;
ANG: 0; Reserve: 0.
C-130PC Quiet Knight
The Quiet Knight program uses maturing technology to
demonstrate and validate affordability, applicability to all
types of SOF platforms, and retrofit/forward fit of complete or
partial solutions for a SOF infiltration/exfiltration mission
scenario. Specific deficiencies addressed for the infil/exfil type
mission scenario include passive detection, situation awareness
of active threats, and crew workload. This effort will bring
detection avoidance technology closer to the operational user,
and allow end users to "fly before you buy." System
integration issues to be investigated include sensor/resource
management, fault tolerance/configuration, database management and high-speed data
distribution, retrofit with existing avionics platform architectures, and extensibility to
future high performance architectures.

The recent C-130PC Quiet Knight demonstrations advanced the state of the art in passive
ranging by exploiting emitter phenomena. Using data from recent flight tests on the Quiet
Knight program, Litton Amecom demonstrated techniques for air-to-ground ranging
using Doppler measurements on the emitter. The Quiet Knight program was sponsored
by Air Force Research Laboratory Advanced Architecture & Integration Branch [IFSC]
at Wright Patterson AFB, which develops and demonstrates advanced embedded system
architectures and system integration concepts for legacy and future platforms. The
Branch conducts research and development programs ranging from constructive to real-
time/hardware-in-the-loop simulation technology to support effectiveness evaluations and
demonstrations of the evolving technologies. The Quiet Knight Display Processor
provided by PortalSoft Technologies of Albuquerque NM included a Digital Map
Display (with HSD, flight plan, route/threat data overlay), Ridgeline display, and a
Terrain following/Terrain avoidance display.
MC-130P Combat Shadow
HC-130P/N Combat Shadow
HC-130P
The MC-130P (formerly the HC-130P/N) Combat Shadow flies clandestine or low
visibility, low-level missions into politically sensitive or hostile territory to provide air
refueling for special operations helicopters. The MC-130P primarily flies its single- or
multi-ship missions at night to reduce detection and intercept by airborne threats.
Secondary mission capabilities include airdrop of small special operations teams, small
bundles, and zodiac and combat rubber raiding craft; as well as night-vision goggle
takeoffs and landings, tactical airborne radar approaches and in-flight refueling as a
receiver.

MC-130P's were previously designated HC-130N/P. However, the "H" designation is a


rescue and recovery mission code and not representative of the aircraft's special
operations role. In February 1996, AFSOC's tanker fleet was redesignated MC-130P's,
aligning the Combat Shadow with other M-series special operations mission aircraft.

MC-130P Combat Shadows and MC-130E Combat Talon I aircraft have similar
missions, but the Combat Talon I's have more instruments designed for covert operations.
Both aircraft fly infiltration/exfiltration missions - airdrop or land personnel and
equipment in hostile territory. They also air refuel special operations helicopters and
usually fly missions at night with aircrews using night-vision goggles. The Combat Talon
I, however, has an electronic countermeasures suite and terrain-following radar that
enables it to fly extremely low, counter enemy radar and penetrate deep into hostile
territory.

Special operations forces improvements are being made to the MC-130P, with
modifications completed in FY2000 featuring improved navigation, communications,
threat detection and countermeasures systems. The fully modified Combat Shadow has a
fully integrated inertial navigation and global positioning system, and night-vision
goggle-compatible interior and exterior lighting. It also has a forward-looking infrared
radar, missile and radar warning receivers, chaff and flare dispensers and night-vision
goggle compatible heads-up display. In addition, it has satellite and data burst
communications, as well as in-flight refueling capability as a receiver.

The Combat Shadow can fly in the day against a reduced threat, however, crews normally
fly night, low-level, air refueling and formation operations using night-vision goggles. To
enhance the probability of mission success and survivability near populated areas, crews
employ tactics that include incorporating no external lighting or communications, and
avoiding radar and weapons detection.
Originally ordered in 1963 and first flown in 1964, the HC-130s have served in many
roles and missions. The aircraft was initially modified to conduct search and rescue
missions, provide a command and control platform, refuel helicopters and carry
supplemental fuel for extending range or air refueling. In the Vietnam War they were
used to refuel Jolly and Super Jolly Green Giant helicopters and, as an airborne command
post, to direct rescue efforts. Four aircraft were modified to deploy and control 10,000-
pound remotely piloted vehicles. It was initially modified to conduct search and rescue
missions, provide a command and control platform, air refuel helicopters and carry
supplemental fuel for extending range or air refueling.

In 1986, the active-force HC-130 aircraft changed to a special operations mission. MC-
130P's have been a part of the special operations mission since the mid-1980s. They
provided critical air refueling to Army and Air Force helicopters during Operation Just
Cause in Panama in 1989. They deployed to Saudi Arabia and Turkey in support of
Desert Storm in 1990 to provide air refueling of special operations forces helicopters over
friendly and hostile territory, as well as psychological operations and leaflet drops.

Since Desert Storm, the MC-130P has been involved in operations Northern and
Southern Watch, supporting efforts to keep Iraqi aircraft out of the no-fly zones.
Although MC-130P's left Southern Watch in 1993, they have returned periodically to
relieve Air Combat Command rescue forces. The aircraft also took part in Operation
Deny Flight in Yugoslavia in 1993, and Operations Restore Democracy and Uphold
Democracy in Haiti in 1994. The MC-130P has been involved in operations Deliberate
Force and Joint Endeavor in Bosnia since 1995. Additionally, the MC-130P took part in
Operation Assured Response in 1996, providing air refueling for the MH-53s shuttling
evacuees between Liberia and the rear staging area.

In March 1997, the MC-130P was diverted from Italy to provide combat search and
rescue during the evacuation of non-combatant Americans from Albania. Also in 1997,
the MC-130P provided command and control and refueling support during Operation
Guardian Retrieval, the evacuation of Americans from Zaire. In July 1997, the aircraft
provided aerial refueling for MH-53J's when U.S. forces prepared for possible
evacuations of noncombatants from Cambodia. The aircraft also was part of Operation
High Flight, the search to locate an American C-141 involved in a mid-air collision with
another aircraft off the coast of Angola in September 1997.

The HC-130P King deploys worldwide to provide combat search and rescue coverage for
US and allied forces. Combat search and rescue missions include flying low-level,
preferably at night aided with night vision goggles, to an objective area where aerial
refueling of a rescue helicopter is performed or pararescuemen are deployed. The
secondary mission of the HC-130P is peacetime search and rescue. HC-130P aircraft and
crews are uniquely trained and equipped for search and rescue in all types of terrain
including artic, mountain, and maritime. Peacetime search and rescue missions may
include searching for downed or missing aircraft, sinking or missing water vessels, or
missing persons. The HC-130P can deploy parascuemen to a survivor, escort helicopter
to a survivor, or airdrop survival equipment to a survivor.
Specifications
Primary Function Air refueling for special operations forces helicopters
Builder Lockheed Aircraft Corp.
Power Plant Four Allison T56-A-15 turboprop engines
Thrust 4,910 shaft horsepower each engine
Length 98 feet, 9 inches (30.09 meters)
Height 38 feet, 6 inches (11.7 meters)
Maximum Takeoff 155,000 pounds (69,750 kilograms)
Weight
Wingspan 132 feet, 7 inches (40.4 meters)
289 miles per hour (464 kilometers per hour) at sea
Speed
level
Ceiling 33,000 feet (10,000 meters)
Range Beyond 4,000 miles (3,478 nautical miles)
Four officers (pilot, co-pilot, primary navigator,
secondary navigator), and
Crew
four enlisted (flight engineer, communications systems
operator and two loadmasters)
Unit Cost $16.5 million (1992 dollars)
Date Deployed 1986
Inventory Active force, 23; ANG, 0; Reserve, 5
MC-130E/H Combat Talon I/II
The mission of the MC-130E Combat Talon I and MC-130H Combat Talon II is to
provide global, day, night and adverse weather capability to airdrop and airland personnel
and equipment in support of U.S. and allied special operations forces. The MC-130E also
has a deep penetrating helicopter refueling role during special operations missions. The
MC-130H conducts infiltrations into politically denied/sensitive defended areas to
resupply or exfiltrate special operations forces and equipment. These missions are
conducted in adverse weather at low-level and long range. The MC-130H is supported
with organic depots for the aircraft, radar, radome, and mission computer. All twenty-
four aircraft have been delivered.

Features

These aircraft are equipped with in-flight refueling equipment, terrain-following, terrain-
avoidance radar, an inertial and global positioning satellite navigation system, and a high-
speed aerial delivery system.

The special navigation and aerial delivery systems are used to locate small drop zones
and deliver people or equipment with greater accuracy and at higher speeds than possible
with a standard C-130. The aircraft is able to penetrate hostile airspace at low altitudes
and crews are specially trained in night and adverse weather operations.

Nine of the MC-130E's are equipped with surface-to-air Fulton air recovery system, a
safe, rapid method of recovering personnel or equipment from either land or water. It
involves use of a large, helium-filled balloon used to raise a 450-foot (136.5 meters)
nylon lift line. The MC-130E flies towards the lift line at 150 miles per hour (240
kilometers per hour), snags it with scissors-like arms located on the aircraft nose and the
person or equipment is lifted off, experiencing less shock than that caused by a parachute
opening. Aircrew members then use a hydraulic winch to pull the person or equipment
aboard through the open rear cargo door.

The MC-130H features highly automated controls and displays to reduce crew size and
work load. The cockpit and cargo areas are compatible with night vision goggles. The
integrated control and display subsystem combines basic aircraft flight, tactical and
mission sensor data into a comprehensive set of display formats that assists each operator
performing tasks.

The pilot and co-pilot displays on the cockpit instrument panel and the
navigator/electronic warfare operator console, on the aft portion of the flight deck, have
two video displays and a data-entry keyboard. The electronic warfare operator has one
video display dedicated to electronic warfare data.
The primary pilot and co-pilot display formats include basic flight instrumentation and
situational data. The display formats are available with symbology alone or with
symbology overlaid with sensor video.

The navigator uses radar ground map displays, forward-looking infrared display, tabular
mission management displays and equipment status information. The electronic warfare
operator's displays are used for viewing the electronic warfare data and to supplement the
navigators in certain critical phases.

During Desert Storm, the MC-130E Combat Talon I played a vital role. One third of all
airdrops in the first three weeks of the war were performed by MC-130s. Its primary role
was psychological operations, as it air-dropped 11 BLU-82/B general purpose bombs and
flew multiple missions air-dropping and dispersing leaflets. Its secondary role was
combat search and rescue. Following the Persian Gulf war, MC-130s flew extensively in
support of Operation Provide Comfort.

The MC-130E has an improved terrain following/terrain avoidance radar with increased
MTBF. The lack of spares and repairable assemblies for the current system has
complicated the management of it. An upgrade will significantly increase the reliability
and maintainability of the APQ-122 by increasing the MTBF to 40 hours. The acquisition
strategy is to award a sole source contract to Raytheon.
Reliability and maintainability upgrades for the APQ-170 radar include a package
compilation of fixes to field reported problems, qualifications testing and lab testing fixes
identified under the main MC-130H Combat Talon II production effort. Modifications are
form, fit and function replacements for current radar components. All 66 radar equivalent
ship sets will be retrofitted by the contractor. These 66 ship sets are comprised of 24
aircraft, six hot mock-ups, two sets in lab testing at the contractor facility, and 34 spare
sets. The program funds will be used to procure the upgrade kits and perform the actual
retrofit. The installation schedule will be driven by failure rates. This was originally a
single year buy, now spread over three years by OUSD. An ECP to Lockheed Martin
Federal Systems (APQ-170 contractor) will provide these upgrades.
The Comm/Nav Upgrade Program integrates narrow band SATCOM (NBS), Demand
Assigned Access (DAMA) modems, Single Channel Ground and Air Radio System
(SINCGARS), HF Automatic Communications Processor (ACP) including common area
fills, and SOF common 3.5" disk drive into Combat Talon II.

Another upgrade program modifies MC-130H aircraft to add aerial refueling capability,
internal fuel tanks and enlarged paratroop door window. The modification provides
plumbing and Operational Flight Program (OFP) update.

The United States Special Operations Command (USSOCOM) has a requirement for a C-
130 engine infrared (IR) signature suppression system to provide Special Operations
Forces (SOF) C-130 aircraft with an IR signature reduction equal to or better than
existing systems at a lower cost of ownership. The primary difficulties with present
suppressor systems are low reliability and poor maintainability. This C-130 Engine
Infrared Suppression (EIRS) Program system will be used on AC-130H/U, MC-
130E/H/P, and EC-130E aircraft. The key requirements for the Engine IR Suppression
system are: (a) improved reliability and maintainability over existing systems to result in
lower total cost of ownership; (b) IR signature suppression levels as good as the current
engine shield system (aka. Tubs); (c) no adverse impacts to aircraft performance and
ability to accomplish SOF missions; (d) complete interchangeability between engine
positions and identified aircraft types. The suppressor is expected to be a semi-permanent
installation, with removal being primarily for servicing, allowing the aircraft to perform
all required missions with the suppressors installed. There will be up to two competitive
contracts awarded for the initial phases of development with a downselect to one
contractor for the completion of development and production. The contract will contain
fixed price options for procurement, installation, and sustainment of the system.
The Directional Infrared Countermeasures (DIRCM) program develops and procures 60
systems and provides 59 SOF aircraft (AC-130H/U, MC-130E/H) with a DIRCM system
capability. The DIRCM system will work in conjunction with other onboard self-
protection systems to enhance the aircraft’s survivability against currently deployed
infrared guided missiles. Growth is planned to add a capability to detect and counter
advanced threats. Execution of this program is in concert with a joint US/UK cooperative
development/ production effort with the UK as lead. Development and acquisition of the
DIRCM system will be in accordance with UK procurement laws/regulations. UK
designation for this program is "Operational Emergency Requirements 3/89."

Specifications
Infiltration, exfiltration and resupply of special
Primary Function
operations forces
Builder Lockheed Aircraft Corp.
Power Plant Four Allison T56-A-15 turboprop engines
Thrust 4,910 shaft horsepower each engine
MC-130E, 100 feet, 10 inches (30.7 meters);
Length
MC-130H, 99 feet, 9 inches (30.4 meters)
Height 38 feet, 6 inches (11.7 meters)
Wingspan 132 feet, 7 inches (40.4 meters)
Speed 300 mph
Ceiling 33,000 feet (10,000 meters)
MC-130E, 53 troops or 26 paratroopers;
Load
MC-130H, 75 troops or 52 paratroopers
Maximum Takeoff
155,000 pounds (69,750 kilograms)
Weight
3,110 statute miles (2,700 nautical miles); unlimited
Range
with air refueling.
Crew MC-130E - five officers (two pilots, two navigators and
one electronic warfare officer) and four enlisted (one
flight engineer, two loadmasters and one
communications specialist)
MC-130H - four officers (two pilots, one navigator and
one electronic warfare officer) and three enlisted (one
flight engineer and two loadmasters)
MC-130E: $42 million (1994 dollars); MC-130H:
Unit Cost
$72.5 million (1994 dollars)
Date Deployed MC-130E in 1966; MC-130H in June 1991
Active force, 9 MC-130E's and 24 MC-130H's; ANG,
Inventory
0; Reserve, 5 MC-130E's
SOF Future Aircraft
This program funds RDT&E of an advanced technology aircraft capable of meeting
Special Operations Forces [SOF] long-range airlift requirements. It will provide
exfiltration capability on missions exceeding the effective range of SOF vertical lift
aircraft (including the CV-22) and additionally serves as a replacement for MC-130
Combat Talon Fleet in long-range infiltration and resupply roles. It builds upon future
SOF aircraft studies. The system should be able to self-deploy (2400nm), Combat Radius
(1000nm), STOL w/max fuel and 4000 lbs on standard day @ sea level (1500ft over 50 ft
obstacle), VTOL w/4000lbs @ mid-mission point (4000ft/85 degrees F), High speed
(250-400ktas) night adverse weather capable, low to moderate signature, have a system
reliability of 92% with an 85% fix rate (4hrs), capable of performing clandestine
missions, carrier operations, and with a survivable ground environment under hovering
aircraft.
E-2C Hawkeye
The E-2C Hawkeye is the U.S. Navy's all-weather, carrier-based tactical airborne
warning and control system platform. It provides all-weather airborne early warning and
command and control functions for the carrier battle group. Additional missions include
surface surveillance coordination, strike and interceptor control, search and rescue
guidance and communications relay.
An integral component of the carrier air wing, the E-2C carries three primary sensors:
radar, IFF, and a passive detection system. These sensors are integrated through a general
purpose computer that enables the E-2C to provide early warning, threat analyses, and
control of counter action against air and surface targets. The E-2C incorporates the latest
solid state electronics.
Carrier-based E-2C Hawkeye airborne early warning aircraft directed F-14 Tomcat
fighters that provided combat air patrol during the two-carrier battle group joint strike
against terrorist-related Libyan targets in 1986, and during the crisis period preceeding
and following the strike. E-2Cs and AEGIS cruisers, working together, provided total air
mass superiority over the American fleet. During this time, American aircraft made 153
intercepts of Libyan air force attempts to overfly the U.S. fleet, intercept the U.S. fighter
combat air patrol, or gather intelligence information. Not once did a Libyan aircraft get
into firing position before it was locked into the sights of a U.S. aircraft or AEGIS
platform missile.
There currently is one squadron of four Hawkeyes in each carrier air wing (CVW).
E-2 aircraft also have worked extremely effectively with U.S. law enforcement agencies
in drug interdiction operations. The E-2C replaces the E-2B, an earlier version. E-2C
aircraft entered U.S. Navy service with Airborne Early Warning Squadron 123 (VAW-
123) at NAS Norfolk, Va., in November 1973. Procurement of E-2Cs by the Navy is
planned at six per year for FY 1988-98.
The E-2C+ upgrade includes radar improvements, software upgrades, and more powerful
engines. Further plans include upgrading the whole E-2 fleet to Block I and II status,
which mean a new radar (APS-139 and APS-145, respectively) and overall improved
processing capability.
On 26 April 1999 Northrop Grumman was awarded a $1,305,400,000 multiyear
advanced acquisition contract for the procurement of 21 airborne early warning E-2C
aircraft in the Hawkeye 2000 configuration for the US Navy, and long lead material for
one aircraft for the government of France under the Foreign Military Sales Program.
Work will be performed in St. Augustine, Fla. (80%), and Bethpage, N.Y. (20%), and is
expected to be completed by July 2006.
Taiwan received four E-2T [for Taiwan] Hawkeyes as of September 1995 as part of a
$749.5 million deal with US firm Northrop Grumman. In conjunction with F-16 and
Mirage 2000 fighters, the E-2Ts will enhance Taiwan's air defence capability, increasing
attack warning times from five minutes to 25 minutes.
E-2C/E-2C+ AIRCRAFT DESCRIPTION

Contractor:

Northrop Grumman (Prime), Westinghouse


Type:

Early warning and control aircraft

Power Plant:

E-2C: Two Allison T56-A-425 turboprops; each has approximately 4,600


horsepower

E-2C+: Two Allison T56-A-427 engines; each has approximately 5,100


horsepower; since 1988

Accommodations:

Crew of five—two pilots and three operators.

Performance:

E-2C: maximum speed 350 knots; range 1,300 nautical miles

E-2C+: maximum speed 350 knots; range 1,500 nautical miles

Countermeasures:

Not applicable

Armament:

E-2C: Lockheed Martin Ocean, Radar, and Surveillance Systems [ex General
Electric Corporation] AN/APS-138 radar since 1984;
AN/APS-139 since 1988

E-2C+: Lockheed Martin Ocean, Radar, and Surveillance Systems [ex General
Electric Corporation] AN/APS-145 radar since 1991

All: AN/ALR-73 Passive Detection System, IFF

Mission and Capabilities:

 High-wing, all-weather, carrier-based airborne early warning and control


(AEW&C) aircraft that patrols task force defense perimeters
 Provides early warning of approaching enemy aircraft and vectors
interceptors into attack position
 In addition to its primary AEW function, can also provide strike and traffic
control, area surveillance, search and rescue guidance, navigational
assistance, communications relay, and drug interdiction.
 Group II upgrade to E-2C+ is the biggest advance in AEW technology in
two decades.
 AN/APS-145 radar provides fully automatic overland detection and
tracking and significantly extends the radar detection limits. The radar
capable of detecting targets anywhere within a three-million-cubic-mile
surveillance envelope while simultaneously monitoring maritime traffic.
 An Enhanced High-Speed Processor, which expands the active track file
by 400% over previous versions, is incorporated into the mission
computer. Each E-2C can maintain all-weather patrols, track, automatically
and simultaneously, more than 600 targets, and control more than 40
airborne intercepts.
 Enhanced Main Display Units provide operators with improved visual
representation.
 Joint Tactical Information Distribution System (JTIDS) incorporates several
anti-jam features to allow uninterrupted voice and data communications,
thereby enhancing interoperability.

Program Summary:

 In service with Naval Air Forces Atlantic and Naval Air Forces Pacific, as
well as the armed forces of Israel, Japan, Egypt, Singapore, and Taiwan
 Will be delivered to France in 1997
 Discussions with several other potential customers are ongoing.
 The Hawkeye entered service in 1961 as the E-2A and was updated in
1969 to the E-2B.
 E-2C was introduced in 1973.
 In 1978, the AN/APS-125 Advanced Radar Processing System was
introduced and was succeeded in 1984 by the AN/APS-138 (now referred
to as Group 0).
 Retirement has begun; only 53 of these aircraft remain in the inventory.
 In 1988, Group I version was introduced; this featured an upgraded T56-A-
427 engine, which eliminated operating restrictions imposed by growth in
the aircraft’s gross weight due to incorporation of new systems.
 Radar was updated to the AN/APS-139 with a High-Speed Processor that
doubled the track files maintained by the system.
 Eighteen Group I aircraft were built and are being upgraded to Group II
configuration.
 The AN/APS-145 radar alleviates saturation, track overload, and overland
tracking clutter.
 Group II increases radar and IFF range, radar volume, target track
capability, number of targets displayed, and target recognition capability
through the use of color displays.
 Group I and Group II aircraft are also referred to as E-2C+.

E-2 TECHNICAL DATA:

External Dimensions
Wing span 24.56 m
Wing chord: (at root) 3.96 m
Wing chord (at tip) 1.32 m
Wing aspect ratio 8.94 m
Length overall 17.54 m
Height overall 5.58 m
Diameter of rotodome 7.32 m
Tailplane span 7.99 m
Wheel track 5.93 m
Wheel base 7.06 m
Propeller diameter 4.11 m

Areas
2
Wings, gross 65.03 m
Ailerons (totals) 5.76 m2
Trailing-edge flaps (total) 11.03 m 2

Fins, include rudders and tabs:

Outboard (total) 10.25 m 2


Inboard (total) 4.76 m2
2
Tailplane 11.62 m
2
Elevators (total) 3.72 m

Weights and Loadings


Weight empty 17,859 kg
Maximum fuel (internal, usable) 5,624 kg
Maximum T-O weight 5,624 kg
Maximum power loading 3.18 kg/kW

Performance (at maximum Takeoff Weight)


Maximum level speed 338 knots
Cruising speed (ferry) 259 knots
Approach speed 103 knots
Stalling speed (landing configuration) 75 knots
Service ceiling 11,275 m
Minimum T-O run 564 m
T-O to 15 m 793 m
Minimum landing run 439 m
Combat Radius 1,500 Km
Ferry range 1,542 nm
Time on station, 175 nautical miles from base 4 hr. 24 min
Endurance with maximum fuel 6 hr. 15 min
E-3 Sentry (AWACS)

The E-3 Sentry is an airborne warning and control system (AWACS) aircraft that
provides all-weather surveillance, command, control and communications needed by
commanders of U.S. and NATO air defense forces. As proven in Desert Storm, it is the
premier air battle command and control aircraft in the world today.

The E-3 Sentry is a modified Boeing 707/320 commercial airframe with a rotating radar
dome. The dome is 30 feet (9.1 meters) in diameter, six feet (1.8 meters) thick, and is
held 11 feet (3.3 meters) above the fuselage by two struts. It contains a radar subsystem
that permits surveillance from the Earth's surface up into the stratosphere, over land or
water. The radar has a range of more than 200 miles (320 kilometers) for low-flying
targets and farther for aerospace vehicles flying at medium to high altitudes. The radar
combined with an identification friend or foe subsystem can look down to detect, identify
and track enemy and friendly low-flying aircraft by eliminating ground clutter returns
that co