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A person is required before he holds himself out to the 4.

public as criminologists to pass an examination given by
      Passive Security Measures
the Board of Examiners for Criminologists.
      1.Those that will deter man from committing such act for
fear of being caught charged in court or get dismissed
The examination shall cover the following       2.Security education programs, investigation, fire
prevention seminars, personal security checks.
     Company Guard Force – (CGF) a security force
1. Law Enforcement Administration maintained and operated by any private company/corporation
    a. Police Organization and Administration with Police utilizing any of its employees to watch, secure or guard its
Planning business establishment premises, compound or properties.
    b. Industrial Security Management
Duty Detail Order - is a written order/schedule issued by a
    c. Police Patrol Operations with Police superior officer usually the private security agency/branch
Communication System manager or operations officer assigning the performance of
    d. Police Intelligence private security/detective services duties.
    e. Police Personnel and Record Management
    f. Comparative Police System Factors that Bring About Unsecured Conditions
2. Criminalistics 1. Threats - an activity that could lead to a loss.
2. Hazards - a condition that could lead to a loss.
    a. Personal Identification 3. Vulnerability - a weakness that can be used to gain access to
    b. Police Photography an asset.
    c. Forensic Ballistics (Firearms and Ammunition) 4. Risk - a potential loss or damage to an asset.
    d. Questioned Documents Examinations
    e. Polygraph (Lie Detection) Government Guard Unit – (GGU) a security unit maintained
    f. Legal Medicine and operated by any government entity other than military or
police, which is established and maintained for the purpose of
3. Criminal Jurisprudence,Procedure and Evidence securing the office or compound and/or extension of such
     a. Criminal Law Book 1 government entity.
     b. Criminal Law Book II
     c. Criminal Procedure Government Security Personnel – shall be natural persons
     d. Evidence which include government security guards, detectives, security
     e. Court TestimonY consultants and security officers except those of the AFP,
PNP, or BJMP  rendering or performing security and/or
4. Crime Detection and Investigation detective services as employed by government entities.
     a. Fundamentals of Criminal Investigation
     b. Traffic Management and Accident Investigation License to Exercise Profession – shall mean any document
     c. Special Crime Investigation issued by the Chief, PNP or his duly authorized epresentative
     d. Organized Crime Investigation recognizing aperson to be qualified to perform his duties as
     e. Drug Education and Vice Control private security ortraining personnel.
     f. Fire Technology and Arson Investigation
License to Operate – (LTO) is a License Certificate
     document, issued by the Chief, Philippine National Police or is
5. Correctional Administration uly authorized representative, authorizing a person to engage
    a. Institutional Correction in employing securityguard or detective, or a juridical erson to
    b. Non-Institutional Correction establish, engage, direct,manage or operate an individual or a
6. Sociology of Crimes and Ethics private detective agency orprivate security gency/company
security force after payment of theprescribed dues or fees.
   a. Introduction to Criminology
   b. Criminal Justice       Note:New applicants for license to operate shall be
   c. Ethics and Values required
   d. Juvenile Delinquency       to obtain a minimum capitalization of one million pesos
   e. Human Behavior and Crisis Management       (P1,000,000.00) with a minimum bank deposit of five
   f. Criminological Research and Statistics hundred
      thousand (P500, 000.00) pesos in order to start its business

      No regular license shall be granted to any private security

      agency unless it has a minimum of two hundred (200)
      private security personnel under its employ.
ADMINISTRATION       No regular license shall be granted to any company guard
Industrial Security Management       or private detective agency unless it has a minimum of
Reviewer       (30) licensed private security personnel under its employ.

Industrial Security Management Reviewer       The maximum number of private security personnel that a
Active Security Measures        PSA/CGF/PDA may employ shall be one thousand (1000).
1. Physical Barriers
2. Security lighting PADPAO – Philippine Association of Detective and
3. Vaults Protective Agency Operators. Is an association of all licensed
ecurity agencies andcompany security forces in the person
Philippines.          whose jurisdiction is in relation with the business of the
         agency or the employees thereof, or of the Chief of the
Person - shall include not only natural persons but also PNP
juridical persons such as corporation, partnership, company or          or his duly authorized representative or any peace
association duly registered with the Securities and Exchange officer.
Commission.       4. The PNP shall exercise general supervision over the
Physical Barrier -  any structure or physical device capable          of all private detective and privated detective agency.
of restricting, deterring, delaying, illegal access to an
installation.          The rules above applies to a Private Security Agency.

PNP - Philippine National Police, under the DILG, organized Private Security Guard - (watchman) shall include any
pursuant person who
to the provision of RA 6975 otherwise known as the National offers or renders personal service to watch or secure either a
Police residence, business establishment, or buildings, compounds,
Act of 1991. The PNP shall exercise general supervision over areas,
the operators of all security agencies and guards. or property, inspects/monitors bodily checks/searches
Powers and Duties of a Security Guard and/or baggage and other forms of security inspection,
1. To watch and secure the property of the client. Service shall physically/
   not extend beyond the property or compound of client. manually or scientifically electronic, including but not limited
         Exception: logging concessions and agricultural, mining or pasture lands,
         1. Escort duties transportation, for hire or compensation , or as an employee
         2. Hot pursuit of criminal offenders thereof,
including any employee of the national or local governments
2. Security Guard and Private Detective have no police or
authority. agencies or instrumentality’s thereof and or government
owned or
Private Detective - is any person who does detective work for controlled firm or corporations who is employed to watch or
hire, secure
reward or commission, other than members of the Armed government buildings, compounds, premises and other
Forces of the properties, other
Philippines, guards of the Bureau of Jail Management and than members of the Armed Forces of the Philippines, guards
Penology, of the
municipal or city jail guards, and members of the Philippine Bureau of Jail management and Penology, Municipal or City
National jail
Police or of any other law enforcement agency of the guards, and members of the Philippine National Police or of
government. any other
law enforcement agency of the Government.
      Qualifications of a Private Detective
      1. Must be a Filipino citizen       Qualifications of a Security Guard
      2. Must be a high school graduate       1. Must be a Filipino citizen
      3. Must be physically and mentally fit       2. Must be a high school graduate
      4. Must not be less than 21 nor more than 50 years of age       3. Must be physically and mentally fit
      5. Must be at least 5 feet and 4 inches in height       4. Must not be less than 21 nor more than 50 years of age
      6. Must not be suffering from any of the ff:       5. Must be at least 5 feet and 4 inches in height (RA 5487)
disqualifications       6. Must not be suffering from any of the ff:
               a. Dishonorably discharged or separated from the disqualifications
AFP                a. Dishonorably discharged or separated from the
               b. Mental incompetent AFP
               c. Addicted to the use of narcotic drug or drugs                b. Mental incompetent
               d. Habitual drunkard                c. Addicted to the use of narcotic drug or drugs
      7. Must not be convicted of any crime involving moral                d. Habitual drunkard
turpitude       7. Must have undergone a pre-licensing training course
        8. Must not be convicted of any crime involving moral
Private Detective Agency - is any person, who, for hire or turpitude
reward or
on commission, conducts or carries on or holds himself or                Moral Turpitude - A phrase used in Criminal Law
itself out to
as conducting or carrying on a detective agency, or detective                describe conduct that is considered contrary to
service.                community standards of justice, honesty, or good
      1. All person used in a private detective work must be                Crimes involving moral turpitude have an inherent
licensed quality
      2. All person employed solely for clerical or manual work                of baseness, vileness, or depravity with respect to a
need                person's duty to another or to society in general.
         no private detective license.
      3. License (LTO) shall be displayed at all times in a                Examples of Crime Involving Moral Turpitude
conspicuous                1. Rape
         and suitable place in the agency office or headquarters of                2. Forgery
         the agency and shall be exhibited at the request of any                3. Robbery
               4. Prostitution                      d) Appointment Order of Branch/Detachment
                        Manager (if any)
Private Security Guard Agency - any person, association,       8. All applicants for license to operate shall be required to
partnership, or corporation, who recruits, trains, muster,          attend a private security agency/company guard force
furnishes,          operators and management seminar/workshop.
solicits individuals or business firms, private or government-       9. Prohibition on “KABIT SYSTEM” operators
owned                1. No licensed security agency shall operate, promote
or controlled corporations to engage his service or those of its                   and enter into an agreement of “merger“
watchmen.                   (kabit system) with any person or a group of
      Who May Organize a Security Agency                   for the purpose of organizing a branch unit or
      1. Any Filipino citizen                   subsidiary under separate control and ownership.
      2. Corporation                   Merger of security and detective agencies shall not
      3. Partnership                   be recognized without prior approval from the SEC
      4. Association                   with respect to their Articles of Incorporation and
                  the DTI, with regards their business name.
      Limitations/Disqualification/Prohibitions In                2. Any of the following circumstances or a
Organizing A  combination
      Security Agency                   thereof shall be considered prima-facie evidence
      1. Security Agency must be 100% Filipino owned                   of the existence of “Kabit System”.
      2. No person shall organize or have an interest in, more                      a) Maintaining a separate branch, unit or
than                         subsidiary office aside from the main office
         security agency                         of the agency situated within the same locality
      3. No agency shall offer, render or accept services in                      b) Receiving direct payments from the agency’s
gambling                         clientele and issuing officials receipt of
         dens or other illegal business establishments or                         their own distinct from that issued by the
enterprises.                         agency concerned
      4. Must not be an elective or appointive government                      c) Remitting directly Social Security System
employees                         premiums, Medicare contributions and other
         who may be called upon on account of the functions of                         premium for other policy insurance benefits
their                      d) Existence of an agreement between the
         respective offices in the implementation and licensee
enforcement of                         and a branch manager thereof, whereby the
         the Private Security Agency Law and any person related                         latter obligates himself to pay a certain
to                         percentage of his income to the former on the
         such government employees by affinity or consanguinity                         condition that the control and supervision of
in                         the guards posted by said branch shall course
         the third civil degree shall not hold any interest, directly                         on the manager thereof and that the licensee
         or indirectly in any security guard or watchman agency.                         shall be exempt from liabilities/ obligations
      5. The extent of the security guard service being furnished                         attendant to the operation of said branch.
by                      e) Keeping/maintaining separate payrolls for the
         the security agency shall not go beyond the compound                         branch employees signed and/or approved by
and/or                         the branch manager only
         property of the person or establishment contracting the                      f) Absence of record of monthly income
         security service except when the security guards is remittances
         escorting big amount of money or valuables.                         to the main office when said branch is
      6. Main Office - All agencies shall maintain a main office                         authorized to make collections from the clients
in                         of the licensee
         their registered addresses.                      g) All other similar acts tending to show separate
                        and distinct relationship/personality/
               Branch offices - may be established and maintained                         ownership/ management.
               other provinces/ cities where the security agency has       Qualifications of the Operator/Manager of a Security
               deployed security guards. Agency
      1. Must be at least 25 years of age
      7. Rules - Authority to operate outside principal offices.       2. Must be a College Graduate and/or No.3 below.
               1. No new or moribund but previously licensed       3. Must be a commissioned officer in the inactive service
private of
                  security agency shall be granted license to operate          the Armed Forces of the Philippines
                  unless its business viability is supported by       4. Must be of good moral character
                  evidence of assured clientele, adequate       5. Must have no previous record of any conviction of any
                  capitalization and the like. crime
         or offense involving moral turpitude
                  Moribund - (dying)(stagnant)(obsolescent) in       6. Must not be suffering from any of the following
                  terminal decline; lacking vitality or vigour.          disqualifications:
                        a. Dishonorably discharged or separated from the
               2. Private Security Agency operating at regions AFP
                  outside its main office shall be required to                b. Mental incompetent
                  register with the nearest Police Provincial Office                c. Addicted to the use of narcotic drug or drugs
                  and shall submit an authenticated machine copy of                d. Habitual drunkard
                  the following documents:       7. Must have taken a course/seminar on industrial Security
                     a) License to Operate          Management and/or must have adequate training or
                     b) License of the FA’s to be issued experience
                     c) List of the officers and security guards          in security business (IRR)
   material and document and to safeguard them against
      Note: One can not be a Commissioned officer in the espionage,
inactive    damage, loss and theft
      service of the AFP unless college graduate. The law used 2. Personnel Security - this is as important as physical
the security.
      word and/or.    Personnel security starts even before the hiring of an
      RA 5487 is a law. In case of conflict between the law and    and remains to be maintained for as long as the person is
its employed.
      implementing rules and regulations promulgated by the    Its purpose is to insure that a firm hires those best suited to
chief    assist the firm in achieving its goals and objectives and once
      PNP, The law shall prevail.    hired assist in providing necessary security to the work force
      while carrying out their functions
Private Security Industry – shall cover those in the 3. Document and Information Security - this involves the
legitimate protection
business of providing private security and detective services.    of documents as classified papers from loss, access by
Private Security Personnel – shall be natural persons which    persons, damage, theft and compromise through disclosure
private security guards, private detectives, security Two Instances When  the Chief PNP may deputize any
consultants, security guard 
and security officers rendering/performing security and/or to assist the PNP in the performance of police duties.
detective 1. In case of emergency
services as employed by private security agencies and/or 2. In times of disaster or calamities
private firms.
Types of Security
Protective Security System - are those measures taken by an 1. Industrial Security - a type of security applied to business
installation or unit to protect itself against sabotage,    groups engaged in industries like manufacturing,
espionage or subversion. assembling,
          research and development, processing, warehousing and
RA 5487 - known as "The Private Security Agency Law." even
   agriculture. It may also mean the business of providing
Restricted Area - is any area in which personnel or vehicles security.
are 2. Hotel Security- a type of security applied to hotels where its
controlled for reasons of security. Restricted area is    properties are protected from pilferage, loss damage and the
established    function in the hotel restaurants are not disturbed and
to provide security for installation or facilities and to promote troubled
efficiency of security operations and economy in the use of    by outsiders or the guest themselves. This type of security
security personnel.    employs house detectives, uniforms guard and supervisor
SAGSD - Security Agency and Guard Supervision Division.    insures that hotel guests and their personal effects are
SAGSD is safeguarded.
under the PNP Civil Security Group. 3. Bank Security- this type of security is concern with the
Security - is the state or quality of being secured, freedom    operations.
from 4. VIP Security- a type of security applied for the protection of
fear or danger;assurance; certainty. To secure is to make safe    top-ranking officials of the government or private entity,
or    visiting persons of illustrious standing and foreign
be protected. From the Greek word SECUROS which means dignitaries.
safe, 5. School Security- a type of security that is concern with the
safety or secured.    protection of the students, faculty members, and school
Security Guard - (watchman) Any person who offers or 6. Supermarket or Mall Security- a type of security which is
renders concern
personal service to watch or secure either residential or    with the protection of the stores, warehouses, storage, its
business    immediate premises and properties as well as the
establishment, or both, or any building, compound, or area supermarket
including    personnel and customers. Security personnel are trained to
but not limited to logging concessions, agricultural, mining or detect
pasture lands for hire or compensation, or as an employee    shoplifter, robbery, and bomb detection and customer
thereof. relation.
7. Other Types- this includes all other security matters not
Security Hazards - is an act or condition which results in a covered
situation    in the above enumeration.
like a breach of the protection system and the subsequent loss
compromise of defense information, company secret or Police Patrol Reviewer
damage to
personnel, property or facilities. 1842 - the London Metropolitan Police established the first
Three Major Areas of Security branch.
1. Physical Security - this concern with the physical measures
   adopted to prevent unauthorized access to equipment, Bobbies - British police.
Boston Police - first public police force established in 1631.
Patrol Officer -  is the backbone of the police department.
Bow Street Patrols - a small body of police in London who
had been Patrol Supervision
organized in the mid-18th century by the novelist and       1. Hands on - supervisor involved in day to day activities.
magistrate       2. Command - supervisor shows up at incident sites and
Henry Fielding and his half brother, Sir John Fielding. gives
Compurgation - also called Wager Of Law,  in early English       3. Counsel - supervisor available and when requested
law, method shows
of settling issues of fact by appeal to a type of character          up at incident sites.
Patrol Techniques
Egypt - the first policing organization was created in about       1. Routine Patrol
3000 BC.       2. Directed Patrol
      3. D-Runs
Emperor Augustus - organized one of the earliest form of       4. Saturation Patrol
organized       5. Split Force
policing in Rome in 7 BC. He divided the city of Rome into       6. Suspect-Oriented Patrol
14 regiones
(wards), each consisting of vici (precincts) overseen by Police Traffic Enforcement Activities
vicomagistri,       1. Issue Traffic Citations
who were responsible for fire protection and other       2. Issue Parking Citations
administrative and       3. Investigate Traffic Accidents
religious duties.       4. Arrest Drunk Drivers
      5. Enforce Seat belt Laws
New Scotland Yard - the headquarters of the London       6. Direct Traffic
Metropolitan Police.
Police Traffic Enforcement Purposes
New York Police - The first police department in the United       1. Insure Safety of Public
States,       2. Reduce Accidents and Injuries
it was established in 1844 and it was officially organized in       3. Collect Information
1845.       4. Make Criminal Arrests
      5. Enforce Laws
Patrol - keep watch over (an area) by regularly walking or       6. Facilitate Traffic Flow
around it. Peel's 9 (Nine) Principle
      Principle 1. The basic mission for which the police exist is
Patrol Functions (Categories)       to prevent crime and disorder.
      1. Crime prevention - pro-active deterrence       Principle 2 - The ability of the police to perform their
      2. Law Enforcement - reactive deterrence duties
      3. Order Maintenance - security       is dependent upon public approval of police actions.
      4. Social Services - community welfare       Principle 3 - Police must secure the willing co-operation of
      the public in voluntary observance of the law to be able to
Patrol As A Function secure
      1. Constant Movement       and maintain the respect of the public.
      2. Prevent/deter crime       Principle 4 - The degree of co-operation of the public that
      3. Eliminate opportunity for crime can
      be secured diminishes proportionately to the necessity of
Patrol Activities and Purposes the use
      1. Crime Detection and Prevention       of physical force.
      2. Apprehension of Criminals & Wanted Suspects       Principle 5 - Police seek and preserve public favour not by
      3. Data & Information Collection       catering to the public opinion but by constantly
      4. Report Writing & Documentation demonstrating
      5. Public Assistance       absolute impartial service to the law.
      6. Peace Keeping and Order Maintenance       Principle 6 - Police use physical force to the extent
      7. Conflict Resolution necessary
      8. Traffic Control and Enforcement       to secure observance of the law or to restore order only
      9. Parking Enforcement when
      10.Law Enforcement Reduce Citizens’ Fear of Crime       the exercise of persuasion, advice and warning is found to
      11.Detect and Enforce Code and Safety Violations be
      12.Rapid Responses to Emergencies       insufficient.
      13.Public Relations       Principle 7 - Police, at all times, should maintain a
      14.Police Visibility relationship
      15.Property Protection       with the public that gives reality to the historic tradition
Patrol Method       the police are the public and the public are the police; the
      1. Foot Patrol       police being only members of the public who are paid to
      2. Motorcycle Patrol give
      3. Motorized Patrol       full-time attention to duties which are incumbent on every
      4. Bike Patrol citizen
      5. Horse Patrol       in the interests of community welfare and existence.”
      6. Aircraft Patrol       Principle 8 - Police should always direct their action
      7. Watercraft Patrol strictly
      towards their functions and never appear to usurp the 2. Vice & Drugs
powers of 3. K-9
      the judiciary. 4. Organized Crime
      Principle 9 - The test of police efficiency is the absence of 5. Community Services
      crime and disorder, not the visible evidence of police 6. Crime analysis
action 7. Domestic Violence
      in dealing with it. 8. Sex Crimes
9. Internal Affairs
Peeler - a police officer, especially in the United Kingdom 10.Crime Prevention
and 11.Juvenile & School Service
Australia. Derived from the name of Sir Robert Peel who 12.Intelligence
developed the
Metropolitan Police Act in 1928 which proved to be the
foundation for
Police Intelligence Reviewer
the modern police force in Britain.
Accuracy of Information 
Police Functional Units 1 - Confirmed By Other Sources
      1. Bureau - the largest organic functional unit within a 2 - Probably True
large 3 - Possibly True
         department. It comprises of numbers of divisions. 4 - Doubtfully True
      2. Division - a primary subdivision of a bureau. 5 - Improbable
      3. Section -functional unit within a division that is 6 - Truth Can Not Be Judged
         for specialization.
      4. Unit -functional group within a section; or the smallest Alexander The Great - A Greek Conqueror, was able to
         functional group within an organization. identify those
who are disloyal to him by ordering the opening of
Police Operations  communication
1. Patrol - 50 % Of Force - 80 % Of Budget letter of his men and was successful in uplifting the esprit de
2. Criminal Investigation (Detectives) - Solve 20 % Of Cases corps
Solved and morale of his men.
   In Depth  case screening
3. Traffic ASIS - Australian Secret Intelligence Service - Primary
4. Support/Special Services responsibility
is gathering intelligence from mainly Asian and Pacific
Police Territorial Units interest
      1. Post - a fixed point or location to which an officer is using agents stationed in wide variety of areas. Its main
         assigned for duty, such as a designated desk or office or purpose like
         an intersection or cross walk from traffic duty.It is a spot other most agencies is to protect the country's political and
         location for general guard duty. economic interest and ensure the safety of its citizens against
      2. Route -a length of streets designated for patrol purposes. national threats.
         It is also called Line Beat.
      3. Beat - an area assigned for patrol purposes, whether foot Bundesnachrichtendienst - BND, Federal Intelligence
         or motorized. Service, is the
      4. Sector - an area containing two or more beats, routes, or foreign intelligence agency of the German government, the
post. BND act as
      5. District-a geographical subdivision of a city for patrol the early warning system to alert the German government
         purposes, usually with its own station. against
      6. Area- a section or territorial division of a large city each threats to its interest coming from abroad.
         comprised of designated districts.
Categories of Intelligence
Polis - greek word which means city. 1. National Intelligence - integrated product of intelligence
   developed by all government departments concerning the
Purposes of Criminal Investigation broad
1. Determine whether or not a crime has been committed.    aspect of national policy and national security.
2. Decide if the crime was committed within the investigator’s 2. Departmental Intelligence - the intelligence required by the
   jurisdiction.    department or agencies of the government to execute iys
3. Discover all facts pertaining to the complaint. mission
4. Gather and preserve physical evidence.    and discharge its responsibilities.
5. Identify the perpetrator. 3. Military Intelligence - refers to the knowledge by the
6. Develop and follow up all clues. military
7. Locate and apprehend the perpetrator.    institution essential in the preparation and execution of
8. Aid in the prosecution of the offender by providing military
evidence of    plans, policies and programs.
   guilt that is admissible in court.
9. Testify effectively as a witness in court. CIA - Central Intelligence Agency, is the civilian intelligence
10.Recover stolen property. agency
of the USA. It is the largest intelligence agency in the world.
Robert Peel - established the Metropolitan Police Force for
London based Classifications of Documents
at Scotland Yard in 1929. Father of modern policing system. 1. Top Secret - calls for the utmost degree of protection,
Specialized Units and Operations    revelation of this materials and information will cause
1. Special Weapons & Tactics extremely
   severe damage to the nation, politically, economically, or Coding - the changing of message from plain clear text to
   militarily. unintelligible
2. Secret - unauthorized disclosure of this documents or things form, also known as encrypting.
   put at risk the national security, cause serious injury to the       Decoding - transforming of coded message into plain text,
   reputation of the nation. also
3. Confidential - Unauthorized revelation of which may be       known as decrypting.
   to the reputation of the nation or governmental activity or Counter Intelligence - phase of intelligence covering the
will activity
   cause administrative humiliation or unnecessary injury. devoted in destroying the effectiveness of hostile foreign
4. Restricted - this are information which should not be activities
published and the protection of information against espionage,
   or communicated to anyone except for official purposes. subversion and
These sabotage.
   records are daily files, routine in nature even if lost or
   destroyed will not affect operation or administration.       Types of Counter Intelligence
      1. Passive CI Measures - protection of classified and
Classification of Sources of Information sensitive
1. Open Sources - 99% of the information collected are          information against unauthorized access through secrecy,
coming from          communication security and other safeguards.
   open sources or obtained from overt operation.       2. Active CI Measures - are those measures which seek
2. Close Sources - only 1% of information are obtained from actively
covert          to block enemies effort to gain information or engage in
   operation.          espionage, subversion and sabotage.

      Elements of Clandestine Operation       Categories of Counter Intelligence Operations

      1. Sponsor - directs the organization conducting the       1. Military Security - it encompasses the measures taken
clandestine by a
         activity.          command to protect itself against espionage, enemy
      2. Target - person, place or things against which the operation,
         clandestine activity is to be conducted.          sabotage, subversion, or surprise.
      3. Agent - refers to a person who conducts the clandestine       2. Port Boundary and Travel Security - application of both
         operations, includes principal agents, action agents,          military and civil security measures for counter-
         and support agents. intelligence
         control at point of entry and departure, international
            Principal Agent - leader or management agent in borders
clandestine          and boundaries.
            operation usually undertaken by the case officer.       3. Civil Security - active and passive counter-intelligence
         measures affecting the non-military nationals
            Action Agent - one who conducts the clandestine permanently
operation          or temporarily residing in an area under military
            that includes:          jurisdiction.
               a. Espionage Agent - agent who clandestinely       4. Special Operations - counter subversion, sabotage and
procure or espionage.
                  collect information.
      Objectives of Counter-Intelligence
               b. Propagandist - agents who molds the attitudes,       1. It denies information to the enemy
opinions       2. It reduces the risk of a command
                  and actions of an individual group or nation.       3. Aid in achieving surprises
      4. Increases the security of the command
            Support Agent - agent who is engaged in activities       5. Decrease the ability of the enemy to create information
which          about he forces.
            supports the clandestine operations that includes the ff:    
               a. Surveillant - agent who observes persons and       Functions/Activities of Counter-Intelligence
places       1. Protection of Information against espionage
                  of operation of interest.       2. Protection of personnel against subversion
               b. Investigator - agent who undertakes to procure       3. Protection of installations and materials against
                  information or things of clandestine operation. sabotage

            Procurer of Funds - agent who obtains money when Cryptography - arts and science of codes and ciphers.
            for operational use. Crypto Analyst - refers to those persons who break
intercepted codes.
            Safe House Keeper - agents who manages and
maintains a safe Cryptographer - refers to a person who is highly skilled in
            house for clandestine operations like meetings, safe converting
heavens, message from clear to unintelligible forms by use of codes and
            training, briefing and debriefing. ciphers.

            Communication Agent - agent who is detailed to Delilah - a biblical personality, she was able to gain
secure information
            clandestine communications.             by using her beauty and charm, she was responsible for the
fall of
Samson, a known Israelite leader and enemy of the Philistines. clear pattern. (intelligence as an activity)
             - the end product resulting from the collection,
Frederick The Great - Father of organized military evaluation, analysis, integration and interpretation of all
espionage. available information which may have immediate or potential
     significance to the development and execution of plan,
FSD - Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation, is policies and
the main programs of the user.(intelligence as a product)
domestic security agency of the Russian Federation, and the              - an institution composed of person who prepares a
main plan
successor of the Cheka, NKVD and the KGB. or formulating policies.(intelligence as an institution)

General Directorate For External Security - France external Intelligence Cycle

intelligence agency, operating under the direction of  the 1. Planning
french 2. Collection
Ministry of Defense. 3. Processing
4. Dissemination
Informants - any person who hand over information to the
agents which       Planning - the intelligence officer must have a thorough
is relevant to the subject.       knowledge of the available sources of information, the
      collecting agencies and type of information the latter can
      Type of Informants       provide.
      1. Anonymous - unidentified or unknown informants.
      2. False Informant - reveals information of no       Collection - the intelligence officer must have thorough
consequences       knowledge of the available sources of information and
         or value.       collecting agencies and the type of information they can
      3. Frightened Informants - weakest link in criminal chain,       provide and consider the following:
         motivated by anxiety.          a. Determine collecting agency
      4. Self-Aggrandizing - moves around the the center of          b. Send orders or request
criminals          c. Supervise collection efforts
         delight in surprising the police about bits of information.          d. Use tools or techniques in collection
      5. Mercenary - information for sale, needed something for          e. Ensure timely collection
         of information.          Factors in Choosing Collection Agents
      6. Double Crosser - wants to get more information from          a. Capability - agents placement or access to target
the police          b. Multiplicity - more agents
         more than what he gives.          c. Balance
      7. Women Informant - most dangerous type of informant.
      8. Legitimate - operators of business.       Processing - Five Steps
      1. Recording - is the reduction of information in writing
      Motives of Informants          or other form of graphical representation and
      1. Vanity - conceited act/character of the criminal resulting          arranging the information into groups of related items.
to       2. Evaluation - is the determination of the pertinence of the
         self betrayal or tantamount to guilt, gaining favorable          information to the operation, reliability of the source or
         attention and importance by the police.          agency and the accuracy of the information.
      2. Civic-Mindedness - sense of duty and obligation to                Pertinence - does it holds some value to current
assist                             operation.
         the police.                Reliability - judging the source of information or
      3. Fear - a person under an illusion of oppression by                              agency
enemies or                Credibility - truth of information
         of other impending danger.       3. Analysis - is the stage in which the collected
      4. Repentance - one who has a change of heart and wishes information
to          is subjected to review in order to satisfy significant facts
         report a crime that is preying on his conscience.          and derive conclusions there from.
      5. Gratitude or Gain - an expression of appreciation to       4. Integration - the combination of the elements isolated
obtain          analysis with other known information related to the
         a privilege or an interest in the welfare of his family          operation.
         during his detention.       5. Interpretation - process of determining the significance
      6. Revenge - to settle a grudge due to settle a previous of
injury.          new information and its meaning.
      7. Jealousy - envious of the accomplishments or
possessions of       Dissemination - processed information or intelligence data
         another and wishes to humiliate him. are
      8. Remuneration - a person who informs solely for the       disseminated to end users, common methods of
pecuniary disseminating intel
         or other material gain he is to receive.       data are conferences, briefing and person to person
Informers - refers to any person who provides information to       In this process, consider the factors of timeliness,
the agents correctness
in a regular basis regarding a subject, they are paid either on a       and security.
regular or case to case basis.        

Intelligence - the organized effort to collect information, to ISI - Inter-Services Intelligence, Pakistan's premier
assist intelligence
it Little by little, and piece it together until it forms larger and agency. It was established in 1948. Its office is located in
Islamabad.                   undesirable influences.
Julius Caesar - in his time, the staff of each legion includes                3. Close Tail - extreme precautions are taken against
ten                   losing the subject is employed where constant
speculators who served as an information collecting agency.                   surveillance is necessary.
Speculators were the first intelligence personnel to appear in a    2. Casing - it is the careful inspection of a place to determine
military organization. Military success of the Romans was       its suitability for a particular operational purpose.
aided by
the communication system. Made use of pigeons as carrier    3. Elicitation - the process of extracting information from a
which made person
intelligence transmittal very fast.       believe to be in possession of vital information without his
      knowledge or suspicion.
Karl Schulmeister - known as Napoleon's Eye, he was
credited for    4. Employment of Technical Means
establishing counter-intelligence against spies. He is a master
of             Bugging - the use of an equipment or tool to listen and
deceit who used black mail to obtain vital information to             record discreetly conversation of other people.
the enemy's of Napoleon.             Wiretapping - a method of collecting information
Kinds of Covert Operation             interception of telephone conversation.
   1. Surveillance - is the covert, discreet observation of people
and    5. Tactical Interrogation - it is the process or method of
      places for the purpose of obtaining information concerning obtaining
the       information from a captured enemy who is reluctant to
      identities or activities of subjects. divulge
         Surveillant - is the plainclothes investigator assigned to
         make the observation.    6. Observation and Description - it is a method of collecting
      information by just merely using the different senses.
         Subject - can be a person, place, property and vehicle,
         group of people, organization, or object. Methods and Techniques of Collecting Information
         Safe house - refers to place where agents meet each other       Information - all evaluated materials of every description
         for purposes of debriefing and reporting.       including those derived from observation, reports, rumors,
      imagery and other sources from which intelligence is
         Live Drop - refers to a place where agents or informants produced.
         leave their messages to the other agents.
      Types of Agents Used in Collecting Information
         Decoy - a person or object used by the subject in an       1. Agent of Influence - agent who uses authority to gain
attempt          information.
         to elude the surveillant.       2. Agent in Place - agent who has been recruited within a
         Convoy - an associate of the subject who follows him to          sensitive target
         detect surveillance.       3. Penetration Agent - agent who have reached the enemy,
         Log - chronological records of activities that took place          information and able to get back without being caught.
         in the establishment under surveillance.       4. Expendable Agent - agent who leaks false information
to the
         Methods of Surveillance          enemy.
         1. Stationary Surveillance - also referred to as Fixed or       5. Double Agent - an enemy agent who has been taken into
            Stakeout Surveillance - is used when you know or custody
suspect          turned around and sent back where he came from as an
            that a person is at or will come to a known location, agent
when          of his captors.
            you suspect that stolen goods are to be dropped  or
when MI6 - Secret Intelligence Service, supplies the British
            informants have told you that a crime is going to be government
            committed. of foreign intelligence.

         2. Moving Surveillance/Shadowing/Tailing - simply the MSS - Ministry of State Security, is the security agency of the
act Peoples Republic of China
            of following a person.
Mossad - Institute for Intelligence and Special Operations, is
               Forms of Shadowing/Tailing responsible for the intelligence collection and covert operation
               1. Loose Tail - employed where a general impression of
                  of the subject's habits and associates is required. the Israel government, Its Director reports directly to the
        Israel Prime Minister.  It is one of the entities of the Israeli
               2. Rough Shadowing - employed without special intelligence community along with AMAN (Military
                  precautions, subject maybe aware of the Intelligence) and
surveillance, SHIN BET (Internal Security)
                  employed also when the subject is a material
                  witness and must be protected from harm or other Moses - sent 12 scouts to the land of Canaan to survey the
land, 1. Intelligence and Operation are interdependent
the people, their location and the nature of their cities. 2. Intelligence is continuous
3. Intelligence must be useful
NICA - National Intelligence Coordinating Agency, the 4. Intelligence operation requires imagination and foresight
primary 5. intelligence must be available on time
intelligence gathering arm of the Philippines. Its motto is 6. Intelligence must be flexible
Knowledge is Safety. It is headed by a Director General and is 7. Intelligence requires continuous security measures
assisted by a Deputy Director General. The Director General
reports RAW - Research and Analysis Wing is India's external
directly to the President of the Philippines. intelligence
agency. Its primary function is collection of external
      EO 492 issued on February 1, 2006, ordered the NICA to intelligence,
activate counter-terrorism and covert operations.
      the National Maritime Aerial Reconnaissance and
Surveillance Reliability of Information
      Center or NMARSC. The NMARSC shall serve as the A - Completely Reliable
primary intel B - Usually Reliable
      provider for the Philippine intelligence community. Under C - Fairly Reliable
the D - Not Usually Reliable
      supervision and oversight of the National Security E - Unreliable
Adviser, the F - Reliability Can Not Be Judge
      NICA-NMARSC will operate unmanned aerial vehicles or
UAV's to Security Clearance - is a certification by a responsible
      cater to the imagery intelligence demands of various authority
government that the person described is clear to access and classify matters
      agencies. at appropriate levels.

Police Intelligence - the end product resulting from the       Interim Clearance - effective for 2 years.
collection,       Final Clearance - effective for 5 years.
evaluation, analysis, integration and interpretation of all
available Security Measures and Operations in Relation To
information regarding the activities of criminals and other law Intelligence
violators for the purpose of effecting their arrest, obtaining 1. Physical Security - the broadest type of security that is
evidence concerned
and prevent plan to commit crimes.    with the physical measures designed to safeguard personnel
      Categories of Police Intelligence    prevent unauthorized access to equipment, facilities,
      1. Strategic Intelligence - knowledge pertaining to the materials,
         capabilities and vulnerabilities of a foreign nation which    documents and to protect them from espionage, sabotage,
         is required by the national planners for the formulation damage,
         of an adequate national defense. Intelligence is for long    or theft.
         range. 2. Communication Security - the protection resulting from the
      2. Counter-Intelligence - preparation and execution of    application of various measures which prevent or delay the
plans enemy
         and programs to neutralize or prevent any activities    or unauthorized person in gaining information through
         undesirable to the police organization. communication.
      3. Line or Tactical Intelligence - intelligence information    This includes transmission, cryptographic and physical
         directly contributes to the accomplishment of specific security.
         objectives and immediate in nature and necessary for 3. Documentary Security - protection of documents, classified
more matters
         effective police planning and operation.    and vital records from loss, access to unauthorized persons,
      Components of Strategic Intelligence    theft and compromise through proper storage and procedure.
      1. Political Intelligence - deals with domestic and foreign 4. Personnel security - the sum total procedures followed,
         affairs and relations of government operations. inquiries
      2. Economic Intelligence - deals with the extent and    conducted and criteria applied to determine the work
utilization suitable to
         of natural and human resources to the industrial potential    a particular applicant or the retention or transfer of a
         of the nation.    particular employee.
      3. Transportation and Telecommunication intelligence -
concerned          Personnel Security Investigation - is an inquiry into the
         with the operations and facilities of the military and          character, reputation, discretion, integrity, morals and
         civilians.          loyalty of an individual in order to determine a person's
         suitability for appointment and access to classified
      Functional Classification of Police Intelligence matters.
      1. Criminal Intelligence - refers to the knowledge essential
         to the prevention of crimes and the investigation, arrest          Types of PSI
         and prosecution of criminal offenders.          1. Local Agency Check - refers to the investigation of
      2. Internal Security Intelligence - refers to the knowledge the
         essential to the maintenance of peace and order.             records and files of agency in the area of principal
      3. Public Safety Intelligence - refers to the knowledge             residence of the individual being investigated: Mayor,
         essential to ensure the protection of lives and properties.             Police, Fiscal where the individual is a resident.
         2. National Agency Check - it consist of LAC
Principles of Intelligence supplemented by
            investigation of the records and files of the following          of the subject itself, he must know the ideologies of the
            agencies: PNP. ISAFP, NBI, CSC, Bureau of          group and the actions while inside should conform to the
Immigration          organization to avoid any suspicion.
            and other agencies.
         3. Background Investigation - a check made on an
Police Personnel and Records
            usually seeking employment through subject's records Management Reviewer
            the police files, educational institutions, place of
            residence and former employers. Attrition - refers to the retirement or separation from the
               Complete Background Investigation - a type of BI service of PNP uniformed personnel pursuant to any of the
which means
               is more comprehensive, it consist of detailed mentioned in RA 8551.
               regarding the subject.       Means of Attrition
      1. Attrition by attainment of maximum tenure in
               Partial Background Investigation - investigation of position
the          a. Chief PNP - 4 years
               background of an individual but limited only to some          b. PNP Deputy Chief for Operation - 4 years
of          c. PNP Deputy chief for Administration - 4 years
               the circumstances.          d. PNP Chief of the Directorial Staff - 4 years
         e. Regional Directors - 6 years
Sun Tzu - author of the art of war.          f. Provincial directors - 9 years
         g. City Directors - 9 years
Undercover Operation - also called Roping - is disguising          h. Other positions higher than provincial director shall
one's have
own identity or using an assumed identity for the purpose of             the maximum tenure of 6 years.
gaining the trust of an individual or organization to learn       2. Attrition by Relief
secret          A PNP member who has been relieved for cause and has
information or to gain the trust of targeted individuals in order not been
to gain information or evidence.          given an assignment within 2 years from the effective
date of
      Cover - it refers to the changing, forging, or falsifying          such relief shall be retired or separated.
agent's       3. Attrition by Demotion in Position
      real personality including but not limited to things,          A PNP member who has been relieved and assigned to a
location, position
      job and others that will be used in undercover assignments.          lower than what is established for his/her rank in the
         Types of Cover          staffing pattern and who shall not be assigned to a
         1. Artificial -altering the background that will position
correspond          commensurate to such rank despite the existence of a
            to theh operation. vacancy
         2. Multiple - includes different cover          within 18 months after his/her demotion in position shall
         3. Natural - actual or true background be
         retired or separated.
      Hazards of Undercover Operations       4. Attrition by Non-Promotion
      1. Reintegration back to normal duty          A PNP member who has not been promoted for a
      2. Maintenance of identity continuous period
         of 10 years shall be retired or separated.
      Uses and Types of Undercover Assignment       5. Attrition by Other Means - a PNP member with at
      1. Residential Assignment - it is related to the least 5 years
neighborhood          of accumulated active service shall be separated based
         of the subject, where the agent will live as a new resident on any
         without making any suspicion. His mission is to make          of the following grounds:
friends          a. Inefficiency based on poor performance during the last
         within its neighborhood and gather information 2
regarding             successive annual rating periods.
         the subject and possibly getting closer to the subject.          b. Inefficiency based on poor performance for 3
      2. Social Assignment - the agent will gain access to the cumulative
subject             annual ratings.
         by going to the different hangout places of the subject          c. Physical and/or mental incapacity to perform police
and             functions and duties
         gather information like knowing how to drink socially          d. Failure to pass the required entrance examination
         without getting drunk. twice
      3. Work Assignment - the agent will be employed where             and/or finish the required career courses except for
the subject             justifiable reasons.
         work to acquire information. The agent must know his          e. Refusal to take a periodic PNP Physical fitness test
work and             without justifiable reason.
         focus his mind set and habit to his work assignment          f. Failure to take PNP physical fitness test for 4
      4. Subversive Organization - this is the most dangerous of consecutive
all             periodic tests due to health reasons.
         the undercover assignment, the agent will join the          g. Failure to pass PNP physical fitness test for 2
organization consecutive
            periodic tests or 4 cumulative periodic tests. subordinates.
         h. Non-Compliance with the minimum qualification
standards for Esprit de corps - Promoting team spirit will build harmony
            the permanency of original appointment. and unity
within the organisation.
Attrition in Action - refers to the action containing the
findings Field Training Program - refers to the training required to
and evidence on a specific means of attrition filed by a make the
particular temporary appointment of a new PNP member permanent.
screening committee before the concerned attrition board.
Formal hierarchical structure - An organization is organized
Authority - Managers must be able to give orders. Authority into a
gives them hierarchy of authority and follows a clear chain of command.
this right. Note that responsibility arises wherever authority is The
exercised. hierarchical structure effectively delineates the lines of
Budgeting - with all that goes with budgeting in the form of and the subordination of the lower levels to the upper levels of
planning, the
accounting and control. hierarchical structure.

Centralization - Centralization refers to the degree to which Grievance - a wrong considered as grounds for complaint, or
subordinates are involved in decision making. Whether something
decision making believed to cause distress.
is centralized (to management) or decentralized (to
subordinates) is Immediate Supervisor - refers to a person authorized to make
a question of proper proportion. The task is to find the the
optimum degree performance evaluation rating of a PNP member.
of centralization for each situation.
Initiative - Employees who are allowed to originate and carry
Coordinating - that is the all important duty of interrelating out plans
the will exert high levels of effort.
various parts of the work.
Just Cause - refers to the legal grounds that would warrant the
Demotion in Position - refers to the designation of a relief
personnel to a or removal of a PNP member from his present position and
position lower than what is established for his/her rank or not designation
commensurate to his/her rank in the PNP table of in the PNP organization.
Management by rules - A bureaucracy follows a consistent
Directing - that is the continuous task of making decisions set of rules
and that control the functions of the organization. Management
embodying them in specific and general orders and controls
instructions and the lower levels of the organization's hierarchy by applying
serving as the leader of the enterprise. established
rules in a consistent and predictable manner.
Discipline - Employees must obey and respect the rules that
govern the Managers are salaried officials - A manager is a salaried
organisation. Good discipline is the result of effective official
leadership, and does own the administered unit. All elements of a
a clear understanding between management and workers bureaucracy are
regarding the defined with clearly defined roles and responsibilities and are
organisation's rules, and the judicious use of penalties for managed
infractions by trained and experienced specialists.
of the rules.
Mandatory Career Courses - refers to the required training
      Discipline - the practice of training people to obey rules or for a PNP
a member to be eligible for promotion to the next higher rank.
      code of behaviour, using punishment to correct
disobedience. Max Weber - As a German academic, Weber was primarily
interested in
Division of labor - Authority and responsibility are clearly the reasons behind the employees’ actions and in why people
defined who work
and officially sanctioned. Job descriptions are specified with in an organization accept the authority of their superiors and
responsibilities and line of authority. All employees have thus comply
clearly defined rules in a system of authority and with the rules of the organization.
Maximum Tenure of Position - is the maximum cumulative
Division of Work - This principle is the same as Adam period for a
Smith's PNP member to hold a particular position level.
division of labour. Specialization increases output by making
employees Mental Incapacity - is a condition where a PNP member is
more efficient. unable to
exercise his/her reasoning faculties or incapable of
Equity - Managers should be kind and fair to their understanding and
acting with discernment his/her duties and responsibilities as a Police Appraisal or Performance Rating - is the evaluation
result of the
of illness or injury as may be determined by the PNP medical traits, behavior and effectiveness of a police officer on the job
screening as
committee. determined by work standards.

Non-Promotion - refers to the non advancement to the next Police Compensation - Financial compensation in the form of
higher rank wages of
or position beyond the maximum prescribed period. salaries constitutes the largest single expenditure for most
organizations. In Metropolitan Manila and other urban centers,
Order - People and materials should be in the right place at wages of
the salaries represent the sole source to meet the basic needs of
right time. food,
clothing and shelter.
Organic Personnel To A Unit - is a PNP member assigned to
a particular Police Personnel Management - (Human Resources
unit covered with appropriate PNP assignment orders. Management) may be
defined as that area of management concerned with human
Original Appointment - refers to the appointment for the relations in
initial entry the police organization.
of PNP member to the uniformed service who meets all the
requirements Police Personnel Planning – is a study of the labor supply of
of the position. jobs, which are composed with the demands for employees in
an organization
Organizing - that is the establishment of the formal structure to determine future personnel requirements, which either
of increase or
authority through which work subdivisions are arranged, decrease.
defined, and
coordinated for the defined objective. Police Placement - is the process of making police officers
Pendency of an Attrition Action - refers to the stage when and knowledgeable in a new job and or working environment.
endorsement of the PRO regional director or the NSU director Police Recruitment - is the process of encouraging police
of a applicant
PCO Attrition action has been officially received by the from outside an organization to seek employment in an
concerned organization.
NHQ PCO attrition board through the NHQ screening
committee report       Recruitment - refers to the overall process of attracting,
of a PNCO  attrition action has been officially received by the       selecting and appointing suitable candidates for jobs
NHQ/ within
PRO/NSU attrition board.       an organisation, either permanent or temporary.

Personnel Action on Attrition - is an action filed before the Police Selections (screening) - is the process of determining
screening the
committee based on a verified statement of an alleged means most qualified police applicant for a given position in the
of police
attrition by an initiating person. organization.

Personnel Administration - Recruitment, induction, Police Training and Development – refers to any method
placement, transfer, used to improve
promotion, salary administration of Police personnel. the attitude, knowledge, and skill or behavior pattern of an
Personnel hired on grounds of technical competence - for adequate performance of a given job.
Appointment to
a position within the organization is made on the grounds of Promotion - is the advancement of an employee's rank or
technical position in
competence. Work is assigned based on the experience and an organizational hierarchy system.
of the individual.       Promotion - means shifting of an employee to a higher
Personnel Programs - refers to the activities programmed to       carrying higher responsibilities, facilities, status and
implement salaries.
the organization philosophy or creed and the personnel
philosophy of Physical Fitness Test - the method of evaluating the physical
central managers in relation to people so as to accomplish condition
organizational of PNP members in terms of stamina, strength, speed and
objectives. agility.

Planning - that is working out in broad outline the things that Physical Incapacity - the inability of a PNP member to
need perform his/her
to be done and the methods for doing them to accomplish the duties and responsibilities due to physical defect as a result if
purpose disease or injury as may be determined by the PNP medical
set for the enterprise. screening
Unity of Command - Every employee should receive orders
Poor Performance - is the poor rating in the promulgated from only one
PNP superior.
performance evaluation rating system.
Unity of Direction - Each group of organisational activities
Remuneration - Workers must be paid a fair wage for their that have
services. the same objective should be directed by one manager using
one plan.
Reporting - that is keeping those to whom the executive is
responsible Waiver Program - refers to the waiver of the minimum age,
informed as to what is going on, which thus includes keeping height,
himself weight and educational requirements for the initial
and his subordinates informed through records, research, and appointment to
inspection. the PNP pursuant to existing laws and policies.

Respondent - refers to the PNP member subjected to attrition       Waiver - the act of choosing not to use or require
proceedings. something
      that you are allowed to have or that is usually required.
Retirement - the termination of employment and official
relations of a Welfare - the health, happiness, and fortunes of a person or
PNP member who rendered at least 20 years of active service group.
in the
government with payment of corresponding benefits. Written documents - All decisions, rules and actions taken
by the
Scalar Chain - The line of authority from top management to organization are formulated and recorded in writing. Written
the lowest documents
ranks represents the scalar chain. Communications should ensure that there is continuity of the organization’s policies
follow this and
chain. However, if following the chain creates delays, procedures.
cross-communications can be allowed if agreed to by all
parties and
superiors are kept informed.
Comparative Police System Reviewer

Second Level PCO Ranks - refers to police commissioned 1998 - Asean Chiefs of Police (Aseanapol) was estabished.
officers below
the third level ranks in the PNP.       Members Aseanapol
      1. Indonesia
Second Level PCNO Ranks - refers to all rank for police non       2. Malaysia
commissioned officers.       3. Philippines
      4. Singapore
Separation - is the termination of employment and official       5. Thailand
relations       6. Brunei Darussalam
of a PNP member who rendered less than 20 years of active       7. Vietnam
service in       8. Laos PDR
the government with payment of corresponding benefits.       9. Myanmar
Stability of tenure of personnel - High employee turnover is
inefficient. Management should provide orderly personnel Abu Sayyaf - Abu means father and sayyaf means
planning and swordsmith, is a
ensure that replacements are available to fill vacancies. militant Islamist group based in and around Jolo and Basilan,
Staffing - that is the whole personnel function of bringing in
and Al Qaeda - literally means the base, a global militant Islamist
training the staff and maintaining favorable conditions of organization founded by Osama bin Laden, Abdullah Azzam,
work. and
several other militants.
Subordination of individual interests to the general
interest - The Apostasy -  is defined as the conscious abandonment of Islam
interests of any one employee or group of employees should by a
not take Muslim in word or through deed. It includes the act of
precedence over the interests of the organisation as a whole. converting to
another religion by a person who was born in a Muslim family
Third Level PCO Ranks - refers to police commissioned or who
officers with had previously accepted Islam.
the rank of Police Senior Superintendent and higher.
Arvan Tavnii Tsagdaa - The National Police Agency of
Total Permanent Physical Disability - is any impairment of Mongolia.
the body Created in 1965 and with its headquarters in the capital
which renders PNP member indefinitely incapable of Ulaanbaatar.
performing the mandated duties and functions of his position. Asean Police - Comparison
1. Afganistan - Name of Police Agency - ANP (Afganistan
Transfer - refers to a change in job assignment. National Police)
                Under What Department - Ministry of the Interior
                Highest Ranking Officer - Police General 15.India -      Name of Police Agency - Indian Police Service
                Lowest Ranking Officer - 2nd Patrolman                 Under What Department - Ministry of Internal
2. Armenia -    Name of Police Agency - Police of the Affairs
Republic of Armenia                 Highest Ranking Officer - Commissioner
                Under What Department - Ministry of Defense                 Lowest Ranking Officer -
                Highest Ranking Officer - Police Colonel General 16.Indonesia -  Name of Police Agency - Indonesian National
                Lowest Ranking Officer - Junior Sergeant Police
3. Azerbaijan - Name of Police Agency - National Police of                 Under What Department - Ministry of Internal
the Republic of Affairs
                                        Azerbaijan                 Highest Ranking Officer - Police General
                Under What Department - Ministry of the Internal                 Lowest Ranking Officer - 2nd Bhayangkar
Affairs 17.Iran -       Name of Police Agency - Iranian National Police
                Highest Ranking Officer -                 Under What Department - Ministry of Interior and
                Lowest Ranking Officer - Justice
4. Bahrain -    Name of Police Agency - Bahrain National                 Highest Ranking Officer -
Police                 Lowest Ranking Officer -
                Under What Department - Ministry of Interior 18.Iraq -       Name of Police Agency - Iraqi Police Service
                Highest Ranking Officer -                 Under What Department - Ministry of Interior
                Lowest Ranking Officer -                 Highest Ranking Officer - Chief of Police
5. Bangladesh - Name of Police Agency - Bangladesh Police                 Lowest Ranking Officer - Patrolman
                Under What Department - Ministry of Home Affairs 19.Israel -     Name of Police Agency - Israeli Police Force
                Highest Ranking Officer - Inspector General of                 Under What Department - Ministry of Internal
Police Security
                Lowest Ranking Officer - Constable                 Highest Ranking Officer - Commissioner
6. Bhutan -     Name of Police Agency - Royal Bhutan Police                 Lowest Ranking Officer - Constable
                Under What Department - Ministry of Home and 20.Japan -      Name of Police Agency - National Police
Cultural Affairs Agency
                Highest Ranking Officer - Gagpeon (Chief of                 Under What Department - National Public Safety
Police) Commission
                Lowest Ranking Officer - Gagpa                 Highest Ranking Officer - Commissioner General
7. Brunei -     Name of Police Agency - Royal Brunei Police                 Lowest Ranking Officer - Police Officer
Force 21.Jordan -     Name of Police Agency - Public security Force
                Under What Department - Home Affairs Ministry                 Under What Department - Public Security
                Highest Ranking Officer - Directorate of
                Lowest Ranking Officer - Constable                                         the Ministry of Interior
8. Myanmar -    Name of Police Agency - Myanmar Police                 Highest Ranking Officer -
Force                 Lowest Ranking Officer -
                Under What Department - Ministry of Home Affairs 22.Kazakhstan - Name of Police Agency - National Police of
                Highest Ranking Officer - Police Major General Kazakhstan
                Lowest Ranking Officer - Private                 Under What Department - National Security
9. Cambodia -   Name of Police Agency - Cambodian Police Committee of
Force                                         Ministry of internal Affairs
                Under What Department - Ministry of Internal                 Highest Ranking Officer - Procurator General
Affairs                 Lowest Ranking Officer - Ryadovoy
                Highest Ranking Officer - Brigadier General 23.North Korea - Name of Police Agency - National Police
                Lowest Ranking Officer - Officer Cadet Agency
10.Peoples Republic of China - Name of Police Agency -                 Under What Department - Ministry of Public
Peoples Armed Security
                                                       Police Force                 Highest Ranking Officer - Daewon (Grand
                Under What Department - Ministry of Public Marshall)
Security                 Lowest Ranking Officer - Chonsa (Private)
                Highest Ranking Officer - Commissioner General 24.South Korea - Name of Police Agency - Korea National
                Lowest Ranking Officer - Constable 2nd Class Police Agency (KNPA)
11.Cyprus -     Name of Police Agency - Cyprus Police Force                 Under What Department - Ministry of Government
                Under What Department - Ministry of Justice Administration
                Highest Ranking Officer - Chief of Police                                         and Home Affairs
                Lowest Ranking Officer - Constable                 Highest Ranking Officer - Commissioner General
12.East Timor - Name of Police Agency - National Police of                 Lowest Ranking Officer - Police Officer
East Timor 25.Kuwait -     Name of Police Agency - Kuwait National
                Under What Department - Ministry of Internal Police
Affairs                 Under What Department - Ministry of Internal
                Highest Ranking Officer - Affairs
                Lowest Ranking Officer -                 Highest Ranking Officer - Lieutenant General
13.Georgia -    Name of Police Agency - Georgian National                 Lowest Ranking Officer - Constable
Police 26.Krygzstan -  Name of Police Agency - Krygzstan Police
                Under What Department - Department of Public                 Under What Department - Ministry of Interior
Safety                 Highest Ranking Officer - General
                Highest Ranking Officer - Commissioner of Police                 Lowest Ranking Officer - Police Officer
                Lowest Ranking Officer - Constable 27.Laos -       Name of Police Agency - Laos National Police
14.Hongkong -   Name of Police Agency - Hongkong Police                 Under What Department - Ministry of Public
Force Security
                Under What Department - Operations and Support                 Highest Ranking Officer - General
                Highest Ranking Officer - Commissioner of Police                 Lowest Ranking Officer - Constable
                Lowest Ranking Officer - Constable 28.Lebanon -    Name of Police Agency - International
Security Forces                 Under What Department - Defense Ministry
                Under What Department - Ministry of Interior                 Highest Ranking Officer - Inspector General of
                Highest Ranking Officer - Director General Police
                Lowest Ranking Officer - Gendarme                 Lowest Ranking Officer - Police Constable Class 4
29.Macau -      Name of Police Agency - Macau National 43.Syria -      Name of Police Agency - Syria Public Security
Police Force Police
                Under What Department - Ministry of Internal                 Under What Department - Ministry of Interior
Affairs                 Highest Ranking Officer - Director General
                Highest Ranking Officer - Superintendent                 Lowest Ranking Officer - Police Private
                Lowest Ranking Officer - Guard 44.Taiwan -     Name of Police Agency - National Police
30.Malaysia -   Name of Police Agency - Royal Malaysian Agency
Police                 Under What Department - Ministry of Interior
                Under What Department - Ministry of Home Affairs                 Highest Ranking Officer - Police Supervisor
                Highest Ranking Officer - Inspector General of General
Police                 Lowest Ranking Officer - Police Rank 4
                Lowest Ranking Officer - Constable 45.Thailand -   Name of Police Agency - Royal Thai Police
31.Maldives -   Name of Police Agency - Maldives Police Force
                Under What Department - National Security and                 Under What Department - Ministry of Interior
Defense Branch                 Highest Ranking Officer - Police General
                Highest Ranking Officer - Commissioner of Police                 Lowest Ranking Officer - Constable
                Lowest Ranking Officer - Lance Constable 46.Turkey -     Name of Police Agency - Turkish Police
32.Mongolia -   Name of Police Agency - Mongolia Public                 Under What Department - Ministry of Internal
Security Force Affairs
                Under What Department - Ministry of Justice and                 Highest Ranking Officer - Director General
Home Affairs                 Lowest Ranking Officer - Police Officer\
                Highest Ranking Officer - General 47.Turkmenistan - Name of Police Agency - Turkmenistan
                Lowest Ranking Officer - Private National Police
33.Nepal -      Name of Police Agency - Nepal Police Force                                           Force
                Under What Department - Ministry of Home Affairs                 Under What Department - Ministry of State Security
                Highest Ranking Officer - Inspector General                 Highest Ranking Officer -
                Lowest Ranking Officer - Constable                 Lowest Ranking Officer -
34.Oman -       Name of Police Agency - Royal Oman Police 48.UAE Dubai -  Name of Police Agency - National Police
                Under What Department - Ministry of Interior Forces
                Highest Ranking Officer - Lieutenant General                 Under What Department - Ministry of Interior
                Lowest Ranking Officer - Conscript                 Highest Ranking Officer - General Commander
35.Pakistan -   Name of Police Agency - Pakistan Police Force                 Lowest Ranking Officer -
                Under What Department - Ministry of Interior 49.Uzbekistan - Name of Police Agency - Uzbekistan Police
                Highest Ranking Officer - Inspector General Force
                Lowest Ranking Officer - Constable                 Under What Department - Ministry of Interior
36.Papua New Guinea - Name of Police Agency - Royal                 Highest Ranking Officer - Director General
Papua New Guinea                 Lowest Ranking Officer - Constable
                                              Constabulary 50.Vietnam -    Name of Police Agency - Peoples Police of
                Under What Department - Vietnam
                Highest Ranking Officer - Commissioner of Police                 Under What Department - Ministry of Public
                Lowest Ranking Officer - Kiap (Patrol Officer) Security
37.Philippines - Name of Police Agency - Philippine National                 Highest Ranking Officer - General
Police                 Lowest Ranking Officer -
                Under What Department - Department of Interior 51.Yemen -      Name of Police Agency - Yemen National
and Police Force
                                        Local Government                 Under What Department - Ministry of Interior
                Highest Ranking Officer - Director General                 Highest Ranking Officer -
                Lowest Ranking Officer - Police Officer 1                 Lowest Ranking Officer -
38.Qatar -      Name of Police Agency - Qatar National Police
                Under What Department - Ministry of Interior
                Highest Ranking Officer - Basic Functions of Criminal Justice System
                Lowest Ranking Officer - Shurti 1. Policing
39.Russia -     Name of Police Agency - Militsiya 2. Adjudication
                Under What Department - Ministry of Internal 3. Correction
                Highest Ranking Officer - Police Colonel Centralized Police - A country with only one recognized
                Lowest Ranking Officer - Police Cadet police force
40.Saudi Arabia - Name of Police Agency - Departmemnt of which operates entire that country. It uses a centralized system
Security of
                Under What Department - policing.  Philippines is an example of centralized police
                Highest Ranking Officer - because
                Lowest Ranking Officer - the Philippine National Police has one central office with
41.Singapore -  Name of Police Agency - Singapore Police many
Force regional, provincial and local branches throughout the country.
                Under What Department - Ministry of Internal
Affairs       Decentralized police - refers to a system where police
                Highest Ranking Officer - Commissioner of Police       administrations and operations areindependent from one
                Lowest Ranking Officer - Police Constable state
42.Sri Lanka -  Name of Police Agency - Sri Lanka Police       to another. It is more applicable to countries with federal
Service       government.
Comparative Criminology - Theories (Scheider) in-house computer system.
      Alertness to crime theory - is that as a nation develops,
      people’s alertness to crime is heightened, so they report       Cyberstalking - a technologically based attack on person
more because
      crime to police and also demand the police become       of anger, revenge, or control.
      at solving crime problems.       Computer Fraud - altering data or gaining unlawful use of
      computer or services.
Chowkidar - in India, means one who inhabits a "chowki",
police station       Identity Theft - using another's personal information to
or guard house. commit
      fraud or other crimes.
      Economic or migration theory - is that crime everywhere is
      the result of unrestrainedmigration and over population in       Computer Viruses - a program that copies itself and infects
      urban areas such as ghettos and slums. a
      Opportunity theory - is that along with higher standards of
      living, victims become morecareless of their belongings,       Denial of Service Attacks - making service unavailable to
      and opportunities for committing crime multiply. users.

      Demographic theory - is based on the event of when a       Malware - malicious software that interferes with the
greater functioning
      number of children are beingborn, because as these baby       of computers and sending data of user over the internet.
      grow up, delinquent subcultures develop out of       Information warfare - attacks on information and computer
theadolescent systems.
      identity crisis. Deprivation theory holds that progress  
comes Different Police Global Organizations
      along with risingexpectations, and people at the bottom 1. ASEAN Chiefs of Police
develop 2. Europol
      unrealistic expectations while people at the top don’t see 3. IACP
      themselves rising fast enough. 4. Interpol
5. UN policing
      Modernization theory - sees the problem as society
becoming too Drug Trafficking - Drug trafficking is the commercial
      complex. exchange of drugs
and drug paraphernalia. Thisinclude any equipment used to
      Theory of anomie and synomie - (the latter being a term manufacture
      referring to social cohesion onvalues), suggests that illegal drugs or use them.
      progressive lifestyle and norms result in the disintegration
      of older norms that once held people together (anomie). Elliniki Astynomia - is the national police service of Greece.

Chusai-san - the rural police officer in Japan. EUROPOL - It means European Police Office or Europol.
Europol is the
Comparative Criminal Justice - it is as subfield of the study of European Union’s criminal intelligence agency. It became
criminal justice systems worldwide. It studies the similarities fully
and operational on July 1,1999. Europol only acts on request at
differences in structure, goals, punishment and emphasis on present.
as well as the history and political stature of different systems.       EUROPOL's Mandate
      1. llicit drug trafficking
Comparative Police System - it is the science and art of       2. Illicit immigration networks;
investigating       3. Terrorism; Forgery of money (counterfeiting of the
and comparing the police system of nations. It covers the euro)
study of          and other means of payment;
police organizations, trainings and methods of policing of       4. Trafficking in human beings (including child
various nations. pornography);
      5. Illicit vehicle trafficking;
Confucian thought - The belief that social order can be       6. Money laundering
through moral and political reform because man is by nature Gendarmerie Nationale - is the national rural police force of
good or Algeria.
capable of goodness.
      National Gendarmerie - is a branch of the French Armed
Countries With Less Or No Crime Forces,
1. Switzerland       in charge of public safety, with police duties among the
2. Japan       civilian population.
3. Ireland
4. Egypt - Siwa Oasis Globalization -  is a process of interaction and integration
Cybercrimes - are generally defined as any type of illegal the people, companies,and government of different nations, as
activity process
that makes use of the Internet, a private or public network, or driven by international trade and investmentand aided by
information translated to English as Police Box. Koban are staffed by a
technology. relatively
small number of police officers (usually 3-5 officers).
Hezbollah - literally means "Party of God", is a Shi'a Islamist
militant       Chuzaisho - (residential police box) is usually staffed by a
group and political party based in Lebanon.       single officer. The Chuzaisho is typically located outside
Hongkong Police Force - It is the world's second, and Asia's       urban districts in villages and is operated by one
first, community
police agency to operate with a modern policing system.       officer, who resides with his family in this police facility.

Human Trafficking - the illegal movement of people, typically       Hashutsusho -  (police box) The Hashutsusho is typically
for the placed
purposes of forced labour or commercial sexual exploitation.       in an urban district and is operated by a number of
IACP - (International Association of Chiefs of Police) the       police officers who work under a shift system. The
world’s community
oldest and largest nonprofit membership organization of police       officers generally live in the jurisdiction served by the
executives, with over 20,000 members in over 80 different       Hashutsusho.
IACP’s leadership consistsof the operating chief executes of Model System - is used to described the countries being used
international, federal, state and local agencies of all sizes. as
topics of discussion.These countries are chosen not because
Illegal Drug Trade - the term being used in the international they are
scene, greater than others but because they are thefocus of
it is a more comprehensive term than drug traficking as it comparison
includes being studied.
cultivation and manufacture.
Money Laundering - the concealment of the origins of
International Crime - Defined as crimes against the peace and illegally obtained
security money, typically by means of transfers involving foreign
of mankind. banks or
legitimate businesses.
      Internationa Crimes
      1. Aggression (by one state against another) Mutawa - religious police in Saudi Arabia whose duty is to
      2. Treat of aggression ensure
      3. Genocide (destroying a national, ethnic, racial, or strict adherence to established codes of conduct.
         religious group)
      4. Terrorism National Public Safety Commission - is the policy making and
      5. Drug trafficking oversight
body of the national police forces in Japan and South Korea.
International Criminal Justice - It involves the study and
description Ngā Pirihimana o Aotearoa - it literally means "the
of one country’s law, criminal procedure, or justice. policeman", is the
Comparative national police force of New Zealand. Policing in New
criminal justice system attempts to build on the knowledge of Zealand started
criminal in 1840.
justice in one country by investigating and evaluating, in terms
of Palermo Protocols - are three protocols that were adopted by
another country,culture, or institution. the
United Nations to supplement the 2000 Convention against
Interpol - (International Criminal Police Organization)  It Transnational
began in Organized Crime. They are:
1923,and at the same time its name was International Criminal       1. The Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish
Police Commission. In 1956, its name became International Trafficking in
Criminal          Persons, especially Women and Children; and
Police Organization. Slowly, the name of this international       2. The Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by
organization Land,
became famous as Interpol. Now,Interpol is the second biggest          Sea and Air.
international organization; the United Nations is the first.       3. The Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing and
Jemaah Islamiyah - (Islamic Congregation) is a Southeast          in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and
Asian militant Ammunition
Islamist terrorist organization dedicated to the establishment    
of a POLRI - (Kepolisian Negara Republik Indonesia) Indonesian
regional Islamic caliphate in Southeast Asia. National Police.
The Chief of Police of Indonesia is called Kapolri.
Jolly R. Bugarin - a Filipino former President of the Interpol,
from Police Box - is a British telephone kiosk or callbox located in
1980 to 1984. He is the only Filipino who had achieved that a public
feat. place for the use of members of the police, or for members of
the public
Koban - is a small neighborhood police station found in Japan. to contact the police. Most are disused at present with the
Often advent of
two way radio and mobile phones. robbery
   and murder.
Polis Diraja - the Royal malaysia police. 2. La Cosa Nostra - Known as the Italian or Italian-American
RA 8792 - Electronic Commerce Act of 2000.    The most prominent organized crime group in the world
from the
RA 9208 - The Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act of 2003.    1920’s to the 1990’s. They have been involved in violence,
RA 9165 - Comprehensive Dangerous Drugs Act of 2002.    bombings, torture, sharking, gambling, drug trafficking,
RA 9372 - Human Security Act of 2007.    insurance fraud, and political and judicial corruption.
3. Yakuza - Japanese criminal group. Often involved in
RA 9995 - Anti-Photo and Voyeurism Act of 2009. multinational
   criminals activities,including human trafficking, gambling,
Schupo - (Schutzpolizei), the state level police of the German    prostitution, and undermining licit businesses.
States. 4. FukChing - Chinese organized group in the United States.
Taliban - means "students", is an Islamic fundamentalist    have been involved in smuggling, street violence, and
political human
movement in Afghanistan.    trafficking.
5. Triads - Underground criminal societies based in Hong
Terrorism - the unofficial or unauthorized use of violence and Kong. They
intimidation in the pursuit of political aims.    control secret markets and bus routes and are often involved
Transnational Crime - It is a term that has been used in    money laundering and drug trafficking.
comparative 6. Heijin - Taiwanese gangsters who are often executives in
and international criminal justice study inrecent years to large
reflect    corporations. They are often involved in white collar crimes,
the complexity and enormity of global crime issues. It is    such as illegal stock trading and bribery, and sometimes run
defined    for public office.
by the United Nations (UN) offences whose inception, 7. Jao Pho - Organized crime group in Thailand. They are
proportion often
and/or direct or indirect effects involve in more than one    involved in illegal political and business activity.
country. 8. Red Wa - Gangsters from Thailand. They are involved in
   manufacturing and trafficking methamphetamine.
      Examples of Transnational Crimes
      1. Money laundering
      2. Drug trafficking
      3. Terrorism
      4. Human trafficking
      5. Cyber crime
Personal Identification Reviewer
Transnational Organized Crime - involves the planning and
execution Alphonse Bertillon - was a French criminologist and
of illicit business ventures by groups or networks of anthropologist who
created the first system of physical measurements,
working in more than one country. These criminal groups use
photography, and
record-keeping that police could use to identify recidivist
violence and corruption to achieve their goal. Crimes
commonly criminals.
include money laundering; human smuggling; cyber crime;
and Ancient Babylon - fingerprints were used in clay tablets for
trafficking of humans, drugs, weapons,endangered species, business
body parts, transactions. 1000 - 2000 BC
or nuclear material.
Anthropometry - the first system of personal identification.
Types of Court Systems of the World
1. Adversarial System - the accused is innocent until proven Azizul Haque and Hem Chandra Bose(1897) - Two Indian
guilty. fingerprint
2. Inquisitorial System - the accused is guilty until proven experts credited with primary development of the Henry
innocent. System of
fingerprint classification (named after their supervisor,
Vetting - is the process of performing a background check on Edward Richard Henry).
to ensure that they are suitable for a job requiring secrecy,
Bertillon System - a system of identification which focuses on
or trustworthiness.
meticulous measurement and recording of different parts and
Well Known Organized Crime Group components
1. Russian Mafia - Around 200 Russian groups that operate in of the human body.
   60 countries worldwide. Theyhave been involved in Chiroscopy – It is the examination and thorough study fo the
racketeering, palms of
   fraud, tax evasion, gambling, drugtrafficking, ransom, the human hand as a point indentifying persons.
         used in the early1900s.
Core - 1. Approximate center of the pattern       9. Battley System – a classification system forsingle
       2. It is placed upon or within the innermost sufficient          fingerprints used in the 1930s
Gilbert Thompson - He used his thumb print on a document
Delta - 1. point on a ridge at or nearest to the point of to prevent
divergence forgery. First known use of fingerprints in the U.S.
           of two typelines and
        2. is located at or directly in front of the point of John Evangelist Purkinje - anatomy professor at the
           divergence. University of
Breslau, in 1823, he published his thesis discussing nine
Dr. Henry P. DeForrest - he accomplished the first fingerprint fingerprint
file patterns  but he made no mention of the value of fingerprints
established in the United States, and the first use of for
fingerprinting personal identification.
by a U.S. government agency.
Juan Vucetich - In 1892, two boys were brutally murdered in
Dr. Nehemiah Grew - in 1684, he was the first European to the
publish village of Necochea, near Buenos Aires, Argentina. Initially,
friction ridge skin observations. suspicion fell on a man named Velasquez, a suitor of the
Edgeoscopy – the study of the morphological characteristics mother, Francisca Rojas. Investigators found a bloody
of fingerprint at
friction ridges; shape or contour of the edges of friction the crime scene and contacted Juan Vucetich, who was
ridges. developing a
system of fingerprint identification for police use. Vucetich
Edmond Locard - informally referred to as the Sherlock compared
Holmes of France, the fingerprints of Rojas and Velasquez with the bloody
he developed the science of poroscopy, the study of fingerprint.
fingerprint pores Francisca Rojas had denied touching the bloody bodies, but
and the impressions produced by these pores. He went on to the
write that fingerprint matched one of hers. Confronted with the
if 12 specific points were identical between two fingerprints, evidence, she
it would confessed—the first successful use of fingerprint
be sufficient for positive identification. This work led to the identification in a
use of murder investigation.
fingerprints in identifying criminals being adopted over
Bertillon's Loop - 1. One or more ridges enter upon either side
earlier technique of anthropometry.             2. Recurve
            3. Touch or pass an imaginary line between delta and
Fingerprint - is an impression of the friction ridge of all or any core
part of the finger. Fingerprint ridges are formed during the             4. Pass out or tend to pass out upon the same side the
third ridges
to fourth month of fetal development.                entered.

Fingerprint Classification Systems            Three Loop Characteristics

           1. A sufficient recurve
      1. The Henry Classification System – developed by Henry            2. A Delta
in the            3. A ridge count across a looping ridge
         late 1800s.
      2. Icnofalangometric System – the originalname of the Marcelo Malpighi - in 1686,  an anatomy professor at the
system University of
         developed by Vucetichin 1891 Bologna, noted fingerprint ridges, spirals and loops in his
      3. Dactiloscopy – the new name of the systemdeveloped treatise.
by Vucetich. A layer of skin was named after him; "Malpighi" layer, which
      4. The Oloriz System of Classification – developed by is
Oloriz. approximately 1.8mm thick.
         Identakey – developed in the 1930s by G. Tyler Mairs.
      5. The American System of FingerprintClassification – Mark Twain - author of the novel Pudd'nhead Wilson where
developed one of the
         by Parke in1903. characters has a hobby of collecting fingerprints.
      6. The Conley System. The Flack-ConleySystem –
developed in 1906 Paul-Jean Coulier - of Val-de-Grâce in Paris, published his
         in New Jersey,an improved Conley System. observations
      7. NCIC Fingerprint Classification System. that (latent) fingerprints can be developed on paper by iodine
         Collins System – a classification system forsingle fuming,
         fingerprints explaining how to preserve (fix) such developed impressions
         used in Scotland Yard inthe early 1900s. and
      8. Jorgensen System – a classification systemfor single mentioning the potential for identifying suspects' fingerprints
         fingerprints by
use of a magnifying glass.       1000-2000 B.C. - Fingerprints were used on clay tablets for
      business transactions in ancient Babylon.
Poroscopy – refers to the examination of the shape,size and
arrangement of the small opening on friction ridge through       3rd Century B.C. - Thumbprints begin to be used on clay
which body seals
fluids are secreted or released.       in China to “sign” documents.

Podoscopy – a term coined by Wilder and Wentwrth which       610-907 A.D. - During the T’ang Dynasty, a time when
refers to the imperial
examination of the soles and their significance in personal       China was one of the most powerful and wealthy regions
identification. of the
      world, fingerprints are reportedly used on official
Ridgeology – describes the individualization process of any documents.
area of
friction skin using allavailable detail.       1st Century A.D. - A petroglyph located on a cliff face in
      Nova Scotia depicts a hand with exaggerated ridges and
Ridge Characteristics finger
1. Ridge Dots - An isolated ridge unit whose length       whorls, presumably left by the Mi'kmaq people.
   its width in size.       14th Century A.D. - Many official government documents
2. Bifurcations - The point at which one friction ridge divides in
   into two friction ridges.       Persia have fingerprint impressions. One government
3. Trifurcations - The point at which one friction ridge divides physician
   into three friction ridges.       makes the observation that no two fingerprints were an
4. Ending Ridge - A single friction ridge that terminates within exact
   the friction ridge structure.       match.
5. Ridge Crossing - A point where two ridge units intersect.
6. Enclosures (Lakes) - A single friction ridge that bifurcates       1686 - At the University of Bologna in Italy, a professor
and       of anatomy named Marcello Malpighi notes the common
   rejoins after a short course and continues as a single friction       characteristics of spirals, loops and ridges in fingerprints,
   ridge.       using the newly invented microscope for his studies. In
7. Short Ridges (Islands) - Friction ridges of varying lengths. time,
8. Spurs (Hooks) - A bifurcation with one short ridge       a 1.88mm thick layer of skin, the “Malpighi layer,” was
branching off named
   a longer ridge.       after him. Although Malpighi was likely the first to
9. Bridges - A connecting friction ridge between parallel document
running       types of fingerprints, the value of fingerprints as
   ridges, generally right angles.       identification tools was never mentioned in his writings.

Sir Edward Richard Henry -  he was appointed Inspector-       1823 - A thesis is published by Johannes Evengelista
General of Police Purkinje,
of Bengal, India in 1891, he developed a system of fingerprint       professor of anatomy with the University of Breslau,
classification enabling fingerprint records to be organised and Prussia.
searched       The thesis details a full nine different fingerprint patterns.
with relative ease.       Still, like Malpighi, no mention is made of fingerprints as
      an individual identification method.
Sir Francis Galton - He devised a method of classifying
fingerprints       1858 - The Chief Magistrate of the Hooghly district in
that proved useful in forensic science. He pointed out that Jungipoor,
there were       India, Sir William Herschel, first used fingerprints to “sign”
specific types of fingerprint patterns. He described and       contracts with native Indians. In July of 1858, a local
classified       businessman named Rajyadhar Konai put his hand print
them into eight broad categories: 1: plain arch, 2: tented on the
arch,       back of a contract at Herschel’s request. Herschel was not
3: simple loop, 4: central pocket loop, 5: double loop,       motivated by the need to prove personal identity; rather,
6: lateral pocket loop, 7: plain whorl, and 8: accidental his
      motivation was to simply “frighten (Konai) out of all
Sir Henry Faulds - his first paper on the subject of fingerprint thought
was published in the scientific journal Nature in 1880.       of repudiating his signature.” As the locals felt more
Examining his bound to
own fingertips and those of friends, he became convinced       a contract through this personal contact than if it was just
that the       signed, as did the ancient Babylonians and Chinese,
pattern of ridges was unique to each individual. Herschel
      adopted the practice permanently. Later, only the prints
Sir William James Herschel - was a British officer in India who of the
used       right index and middle fingers were required on contracts.
fingerprints for identification on contracts. In
      time, after viewing a number of fingerprints, Herschel
Time Line - Fingerprints noticed
      that no two prints were exactly alike, and he observed
      even in widespread use, the fingerprints could be used for       1892 - Juan Vucetich, an Argentine police official, had
      personal identification purposes. recently
      begun keeping the first fingerprint files based on Galton’s
      1880 - Dr. Henry Faulds, a British surgeon and       Details. History was made that year when Vucetich made
Superintendent the
      of Tsukiji Hospital in Tokyo, published an article in the       first criminal fingerprint identification. A woman named
      Scientific Journal, "Nautre" (nature). He discussed Rojas
fingerprints       had murdered her two sons, then cut her own throat to
      as a means of personal identification, and the use of deflect
printers       blame from herself. Rojas left a bloody print on a
      ink as a method for obtaining such fingerprints. Faulds had doorpost.
      begun his study of what he called “skin-furrows” during       After investigators matched the crime scene print to that
the of
      1870s after looking at fingerprints on pieces of old clay       the accused, Rojas confessed. Vucetich eventually
      pottery. He is also credited with the first fingerprint developed his
      identification: a greasy print left by a laboratory worker on       own system of classification, and published a book
      a bottle of alcohol. Soon, Faulds began to recognize that entitled
the       Dactiloscopía Comparada ("Comparative Fingerprinting")
      distinctive patterns on fingers held great promise as a in 1904,
means       detailing the Vucetich system, still the most used system
      of individual identification, and developed a classification in
      system for recording these inked impressions. Also in       Latin America.
      Faulds sent a description of his fingerprint classification       1896 - British official Sir Edward Richard Henry had been
      system to Sir Charles Darwin. Darwin, aging and in poor living
health,       in Bengal, and was looking to use a system similar to that
      declined to assist Dr. Faulds in the further study of of
      fingerprints, but forwarded the information on to his       Herschel’s to eliminate problems within his jurisdiction.
cousin, After
      British scientist Sir Francis Galton.       visiting Sir Francis Galton in England, Henry returned to
      1882 - Gilbert Thompson, employed by the U.S. Geological       and instituted a fingerprinting program for all prisoners.
Survey By
      in New Mexico, uses his own fingerprints on a document       July of 1896, Henry wrote in a report that the classification
to guard       limitations had not yet been addressed. A short time later,
      against forgery. This event is the first known use of       Henry developed a system of his own, which included
      fingerprints for identification in America. 1,024
      primary classifications. Within a year, the Governor
      1883 - “Life on the Mississippi,” a novel by Mark Twain, General
tells       signed a resolution directing that fingerprinting was to be
      the story of a murderer who is identified by the use of the
      fingerprints. His later book "Pudd'n Head Wilson” includes       official method of identifying criminals in British India.
      courtroom drama involving fingerprint identification.       1901 - Back in England and Wales, the success of the
      1888 - Sir Francis Galton’s began his study of fingerprints       Fingerprint Classification System” in India was creating a
      during the 1880s, primarily to develop a tool for stir,
determining       and a committee was formed to review Scotland Yard's
      genetic history and hereditary traits. Through careful       identification methods. Henry was then transferred to
study of England,
      the work of Faulds, which he learned of through his cousin       where he began training investigators to use the Henry
Sir       Classification System after founding Scotland Yard's
      Charles Darwin, as well as his examination of fingerprints Central
      collected by Sir William Herschel, Galton became the first       Fingerprint Bureau. Within a few years, the Henry
to Classification
      provide scientific evidence that no two fingerprints are       System was in use around the world, and fingerprints had
      exactly the same, and that prints remain the same been
throughout       established as the uniform system of identification for the
      a person’s lifetime. He calculated that the odds of finding       future. The Henry Classification System is still in use today
      two identical fingerprints were 1 in 64 billion.       in English speaking countries around the globe.

      1892 - Galton’s book “Fingerprints” is published, the first       1902 - Alphonse Bertillon, director of the Bureau of
of       Identification of the Paris Police, is responsible for the first
      its kind. In the book, Galton detailed the first classification       criminal identification of a fingerprint without a known
      system for fingerprints; he identified three types suspect.
      (loop, whorl, and arch) of characteristics for fingerprints       A print taken from the scene of a homicide was compared
      (also known as minutia). These characteristics are to an against
extent       the criminal fingerprints already on file, and a match was
      still in use today, often referred to as Galton’s Details. made,
      marking another milestone in law enforcement       the fingerprinting of children for investigative purposes in
technology.       the event of a child becoming missing, Chris Migliaro
      Meanwhile, the New York Civil Service Commission, founds
spearheaded       Fingerprint America in Albany, NY. The company provides
      by Dr. Henry P. DeForrest, institutes testing of the first a simple,
      systematic use of fingerprints in the United States.       at-home fingerprinting and identification kit for parents,
      maintaining the family’s privacy while protecting and
      1903 - Fingerprinting technology comes into widespread educating
use in       children about the dangers of abduction. By 2001, the
      the United States, as the New York Police Department, the company
New       distributes over 5 million Child ID Fingerprinting Kits
      York State Prison system and the Federal Bureau of around
Prisons begin       the world.
      working with the new science.
      1999 - The FBI phases out the use of paper fingerprint
      1904 - The St. Louis Police Department and the cards with
Leavenworth State       their new Integrated AFIS (IAFIS) site at Clarksburg, West
      Penitentiary in Kansas start utilizing fingerprinting, Virginia.
assisted       IAFIS will starts with individual computerized fingerprint
      by a Sergeant from Scotland Yard who had been guarding records
the       for approximately 33 million criminals, while the outdated
      British Display at the St. Louis Exposition. paper
      cards for the civil files are kept at a facility in Fairmont,
      1905 - The U.S. Army gets on the fingerprinting       West Virginia.
bandwagon, and
      within three years was joined by the U.S. Navy and Marine Typelines - 1. Two innermost ridges that start or go parallel
Corps.                    2. Diverge and surround or tend to surround the
      In the ensuing 25 years, as more law enforcement pattern
agencies                       area
      joined in using fingerprints as personal identification
methods, Types of Fingerprints
      these agencies began sending copies of the fingerprint 1. Visible Prints
cards 2. Latent Prints
      to the recently established National Bureau of Criminal 3. Impressed Prints
         Visible Prints - also called patent prints and are left in
      1911 - The first central storage location for fingerprints in          some medium, like blood, that reveals them to the
      North America is established in Ottawa by Edward Foster naked eye
of the          when blood, dirt, ink or grease on the finger come into
      Dominion Police Force. The repository is maintained by          contact with a smooth surface and leave a friction ridge
the Royal          impression that is visible without development.
      Canadian Mounted Police, and while it originally held only
2000          Latent Prints - not apparent to the naked eye. They are
      sets of fingerprints, today the number is over 2 million.          formed from the sweat from sebaceous glands on the
body or
      1924 - The U.S. Congress acts to establish the          water, salt, amino acids and oils contained in sweat.
Identification          They can be made sufficiently visible by dusting, fuming
      Division of the F.B.I. The National Bureau and or
Leavenworth are          chemical reagents.
      consolidated to form the basis of the F.B.I. fingerprint
repository.          Impressed prints - also called plastic prints and are
      By 1946, the F.B.I. had processed 100 million fingerprint          indentations left in soft pliable surfaces, such as clay,
cards;          wax, paint or another surface that will take the
      that number doubles by 1971. impression.
         They are visible and can be viewed or photographed
      1990s - AFIS, or Automated Fingerprint Identification without
Systems,          development.
      begin widespread use around the country. This
computerized system Types of Patterns
      of storing and cross-referencing criminal fingerprint 1. Arch  a. Plain Arch
records               b. Tented Arch
      would eventually become capable of searching millions of 2. Loop  a. Radial Loop
      fingerprint files in minutes, revolutionizing law               b. Ulnar Loop
enforcement 3. Whorl a. Plain Whorl
      efforts.                b. Central Pocket Loop
               c. Double Loop
      1996 - As Americans become more concerned with the                d. Accidental Whorl
growing missing
      and abducted children problem, and law enforcement             Plain Arch - 1. Ridges enter upon one side
groups urge                                  2. Make a rise or wave in the center
                                 3. Flow or tend to flow out upon the Edward Richard Henry).
                                    opposite side.
Bertillon System - a system of identification which focuses on
            Tented Arch - Possesses an 1. Angle the
                                                           2. Upthrust meticulous measurement and recording of different parts and
                                                           3. Two of The Three basic components
                                                               characteristics of the loop of the human body.

            Ulnar loop - flow toward the little finger - ulna bone. Chiroscopy – It is the examination and thorough study fo the
palms of
            Radial Loop - flow toward the thumb - radius bone. the human hand as a point indentifying persons.

            Plain Whorl - 1. Consists of one or more ridges which Core - 1. Approximate center of the pattern
make        2. It is placed upon or within the innermost sufficient
                             or tend to make a complete circuit recurve.
                          2. With 2 delta's
                          3. Between which, when an imaginary line is Delta - 1. point on a ridge at or nearest to the point of
                             drawn, at least one recurving ridge within divergence
                             the inner pattern area is cut or touched.            of two typelines and
        2. is located at or directly in front of the point of
            Central Pocket Loop - 1. Consists of at least one            divergence.
                                                    ridge or Dr. Henry P. DeForrest - he accomplished the first fingerprint
                                                2. An obstruction at right angles to file
                                                     the line of flow established in the United States, and the first use of
                                                3. With 2 delta's fingerprinting
                                                4. Between which, when an by a U.S. government agency.
                                                    line is drawn, no recurving ridge Dr. Nehemiah Grew - in 1684, he was the first European to
                                                    within the inner pattern area is publish
                                                    cut or touched. friction ridge skin observations.

            Double Loop - 1. Consists of two separate loop Edgeoscopy – the study of the morphological characteristics
formations of
                                    2. With two separate and distinct set of friction ridges; shape or contour of the edges of friction
                                        shoulders and ridges.
                                    3. Two delta's
Edmond Locard - informally referred to as the Sherlock
            Accidental Whorl - 1. Consists of a combination of two Holmes of France,
                                               different types of patterns with the he developed the science of poroscopy, the study of
                                              exception of the plain arch fingerprint pores
                                          2. With 2 or more delta's or and the impressions produced by these pores. He went on to
                                         3. A pattern which possesses some of write that
the if 12 specific points were identical between two fingerprints,
                                             requirements for 2 or more different it would
                                             types or a pattern which conforms to be sufficient for positive identification. This work led to the
                                             none of the definitions. use of
fingerprints in identifying criminals being adopted over
earlier technique of anthropometry.
Personal Identification Reviewer
Fingerprint - is an impression of the friction ridge of all or any
Alphonse Bertillon - was a French criminologist and part of the finger. Fingerprint ridges are formed during the
anthropologist who third
created the first system of physical measurements, to fourth month of fetal development.
photography, and
record-keeping that police could use to identify recidivist Fingerprint Classification Systems
      1. The Henry Classification System – developed by Henry
Ancient Babylon - fingerprints were used in clay tablets for in the
business          late 1800s.
transactions. 1000 - 2000 BC       2. Icnofalangometric System – the originalname of the
Anthropometry - the first system of personal identification.          developed by Vucetichin 1891
      3. Dactiloscopy – the new name of the systemdeveloped
Azizul Haque and Hem Chandra Bose(1897) - Two Indian by Vucetich.
fingerprint       4. The Oloriz System of Classification – developed by
experts credited with primary development of the Henry Oloriz.
System of          Identakey – developed in the 1930s by G. Tyler Mairs.
fingerprint classification (named after their supervisor,       5. The American System of FingerprintClassification –
developed one of the
         by Parke in1903. characters has a hobby of collecting fingerprints.
      6. The Conley System. The Flack-ConleySystem –
developed in 1906 Paul-Jean Coulier - of Val-de-Grâce in Paris, published his
         in New Jersey,an improved Conley System. observations
      7. NCIC Fingerprint Classification System. that (latent) fingerprints can be developed on paper by iodine
         Collins System – a classification system forsingle fuming,
         fingerprints explaining how to preserve (fix) such developed impressions
         used in Scotland Yard inthe early 1900s. and
      8. Jorgensen System – a classification systemfor single mentioning the potential for identifying suspects' fingerprints
         fingerprints by
         used in the early1900s. use of a magnifying glass.
      9. Battley System – a classification system forsingle
         fingerprints used in the 1930s Poroscopy – refers to the examination of the shape,size and
arrangement of the small opening on friction ridge through
Gilbert Thompson - He used his thumb print on a document which body
to prevent fluids are secreted or released.
forgery. First known use of fingerprints in the U.S.
Podoscopy – a term coined by Wilder and Wentwrth which
John Evangelist Purkinje - anatomy professor at the refers to the
University of examination of the soles and their significance in personal
Breslau, in 1823, he published his thesis discussing nine identification.
patterns  but he made no mention of the value of fingerprints Ridgeology – describes the individualization process of any
for area of
personal identification. friction skin using allavailable detail.

Juan Vucetich - In 1892, two boys were brutally murdered in Ridge Characteristics
the 1. Ridge Dots - An isolated ridge unit whose length
village of Necochea, near Buenos Aires, Argentina. Initially, approximates
suspicion fell on a man named Velasquez, a suitor of the    its width in size.
children's 2. Bifurcations - The point at which one friction ridge divides
mother, Francisca Rojas. Investigators found a bloody    into two friction ridges.
fingerprint at 3. Trifurcations - The point at which one friction ridge divides
the crime scene and contacted Juan Vucetich, who was    into three friction ridges.
developing a 4. Ending Ridge - A single friction ridge that terminates within
system of fingerprint identification for police use. Vucetich    the friction ridge structure.
compared 5. Ridge Crossing - A point where two ridge units intersect.
the fingerprints of Rojas and Velasquez with the bloody 6. Enclosures (Lakes) - A single friction ridge that bifurcates
fingerprint. and
Francisca Rojas had denied touching the bloody bodies, but    rejoins after a short course and continues as a single friction
the    ridge.
fingerprint matched one of hers. Confronted with the 7. Short Ridges (Islands) - Friction ridges of varying lengths.
evidence, she 8. Spurs (Hooks) - A bifurcation with one short ridge
confessed—the first successful use of fingerprint branching off
identification in a    a longer ridge.
murder investigation. 9. Bridges - A connecting friction ridge between parallel
Loop - 1. One or more ridges enter upon either side    ridges, generally right angles.
            2. Recurve
            3. Touch or pass an imaginary line between delta and Sir Edward Richard Henry -  he was appointed Inspector-
core General of Police
            4. Pass out or tend to pass out upon the same side the of Bengal, India in 1891, he developed a system of fingerprint
ridges classification enabling fingerprint records to be organised and
               entered. searched
with relative ease.
           Three Loop Characteristics
           1. A sufficient recurve Sir Francis Galton - He devised a method of classifying
           2. A Delta fingerprints
           3. A ridge count across a looping ridge that proved useful in forensic science. He pointed out that
there were
Marcelo Malpighi - in 1686,  an anatomy professor at the specific types of fingerprint patterns. He described and
University of classified
Bologna, noted fingerprint ridges, spirals and loops in his them into eight broad categories: 1: plain arch, 2: tented
treatise. arch,
A layer of skin was named after him; "Malpighi" layer, which 3: simple loop, 4: central pocket loop, 5: double loop,
is 6: lateral pocket loop, 7: plain whorl, and 8: accidental
approximately 1.8mm thick.
Sir Henry Faulds - his first paper on the subject of fingerprint
Mark Twain - author of the novel Pudd'nhead Wilson where was published in the scientific journal Nature in 1880.
Examining his bound to
own fingertips and those of friends, he became convinced       a contract through this personal contact than if it was just
that the       signed, as did the ancient Babylonians and Chinese,
pattern of ridges was unique to each individual. Herschel
      adopted the practice permanently. Later, only the prints
Sir William James Herschel - was a British officer in India who of the
used       right index and middle fingers were required on contracts.
fingerprints for identification on contracts. In
      time, after viewing a number of fingerprints, Herschel
Time Line - Fingerprints noticed
      that no two prints were exactly alike, and he observed
      1000-2000 B.C. - Fingerprints were used on clay tablets for that
      business transactions in ancient Babylon.       even in widespread use, the fingerprints could be used for
      personal identification purposes.
      3rd Century B.C. - Thumbprints begin to be used on clay
seals       1880 - Dr. Henry Faulds, a British surgeon and
      in China to “sign” documents. Superintendent
      of Tsukiji Hospital in Tokyo, published an article in the
      610-907 A.D. - During the T’ang Dynasty, a time when       Scientific Journal, "Nautre" (nature). He discussed
imperial fingerprints
      China was one of the most powerful and wealthy regions       as a means of personal identification, and the use of
of the printers
      world, fingerprints are reportedly used on official       ink as a method for obtaining such fingerprints. Faulds had
documents.       begun his study of what he called “skin-furrows” during
      1st Century A.D. - A petroglyph located on a cliff face in       1870s after looking at fingerprints on pieces of old clay
      Nova Scotia depicts a hand with exaggerated ridges and       pottery. He is also credited with the first fingerprint
finger       identification: a greasy print left by a laboratory worker on
      whorls, presumably left by the Mi'kmaq people.       a bottle of alcohol. Soon, Faulds began to recognize that
      14th Century A.D. - Many official government documents       distinctive patterns on fingers held great promise as a
in means
      Persia have fingerprint impressions. One government       of individual identification, and developed a classification
physician       system for recording these inked impressions. Also in
      makes the observation that no two fingerprints were an 1880,
exact       Faulds sent a description of his fingerprint classification
      match.       system to Sir Charles Darwin. Darwin, aging and in poor
      1686 - At the University of Bologna in Italy, a professor       declined to assist Dr. Faulds in the further study of
      of anatomy named Marcello Malpighi notes the common       fingerprints, but forwarded the information on to his
      characteristics of spirals, loops and ridges in fingerprints, cousin,
      using the newly invented microscope for his studies. In       British scientist Sir Francis Galton.
      a 1.88mm thick layer of skin, the “Malpighi layer,” was       1882 - Gilbert Thompson, employed by the U.S. Geological
named Survey
      after him. Although Malpighi was likely the first to       in New Mexico, uses his own fingerprints on a document
document to guard
      types of fingerprints, the value of fingerprints as       against forgery. This event is the first known use of
      identification tools was never mentioned in his writings.       fingerprints for identification in America.

      1823 - A thesis is published by Johannes Evengelista       1883 - “Life on the Mississippi,” a novel by Mark Twain,
Purkinje, tells
      professor of anatomy with the University of Breslau,       the story of a murderer who is identified by the use of
Prussia.       fingerprints. His later book "Pudd'n Head Wilson” includes
      The thesis details a full nine different fingerprint patterns. a
      Still, like Malpighi, no mention is made of fingerprints as       courtroom drama involving fingerprint identification.
      an individual identification method.
      1888 - Sir Francis Galton’s began his study of fingerprints
      1858 - The Chief Magistrate of the Hooghly district in       during the 1880s, primarily to develop a tool for
Jungipoor, determining
      India, Sir William Herschel, first used fingerprints to “sign”       genetic history and hereditary traits. Through careful
      contracts with native Indians. In July of 1858, a local study of
      businessman named Rajyadhar Konai put his hand print       the work of Faulds, which he learned of through his cousin
on the Sir
      back of a contract at Herschel’s request. Herschel was not       Charles Darwin, as well as his examination of fingerprints
      motivated by the need to prove personal identity; rather,       collected by Sir William Herschel, Galton became the first
his to
      motivation was to simply “frighten (Konai) out of all       provide scientific evidence that no two fingerprints are
thought       exactly the same, and that prints remain the same
      of repudiating his signature.” As the locals felt more throughout
      a person’s lifetime. He calculated that the odds of finding       future. The Henry Classification System is still in use today
      two identical fingerprints were 1 in 64 billion.       in English speaking countries around the globe.

      1892 - Galton’s book “Fingerprints” is published, the first       1902 - Alphonse Bertillon, director of the Bureau of
of       Identification of the Paris Police, is responsible for the first
      its kind. In the book, Galton detailed the first classification       criminal identification of a fingerprint without a known
      system for fingerprints; he identified three types suspect.
      (loop, whorl, and arch) of characteristics for fingerprints       A print taken from the scene of a homicide was compared
      (also known as minutia). These characteristics are to an against
extent       the criminal fingerprints already on file, and a match was
      still in use today, often referred to as Galton’s Details. made,
      marking another milestone in law enforcement
      1892 - Juan Vucetich, an Argentine police official, had technology.
recently       Meanwhile, the New York Civil Service Commission,
      begun keeping the first fingerprint files based on Galton’s spearheaded
      Details. History was made that year when Vucetich made       by Dr. Henry P. DeForrest, institutes testing of the first
the       systematic use of fingerprints in the United States.
      first criminal fingerprint identification. A woman named
Rojas       1903 - Fingerprinting technology comes into widespread
      had murdered her two sons, then cut her own throat to use in
deflect       the United States, as the New York Police Department, the
      blame from herself. Rojas left a bloody print on a New
doorpost.       York State Prison system and the Federal Bureau of
      After investigators matched the crime scene print to that Prisons begin
of       working with the new science.
      the accused, Rojas confessed. Vucetich eventually
developed his       1904 - The St. Louis Police Department and the
      own system of classification, and published a book Leavenworth State
entitled       Penitentiary in Kansas start utilizing fingerprinting,
      Dactiloscopía Comparada ("Comparative Fingerprinting") assisted
in 1904,       by a Sergeant from Scotland Yard who had been guarding
      detailing the Vucetich system, still the most used system the
in       British Display at the St. Louis Exposition.
      Latin America.
      1905 - The U.S. Army gets on the fingerprinting
      1896 - British official Sir Edward Richard Henry had been bandwagon, and
living       within three years was joined by the U.S. Navy and Marine
      in Bengal, and was looking to use a system similar to that Corps.
of       In the ensuing 25 years, as more law enforcement
      Herschel’s to eliminate problems within his jurisdiction. agencies
After       joined in using fingerprints as personal identification
      visiting Sir Francis Galton in England, Henry returned to methods,
Bengal       these agencies began sending copies of the fingerprint
      and instituted a fingerprinting program for all prisoners. cards
By       to the recently established National Bureau of Criminal
      July of 1896, Henry wrote in a report that the classification       Investigation.
      limitations had not yet been addressed. A short time later,
      Henry developed a system of his own, which included       1911 - The first central storage location for fingerprints in
1,024       North America is established in Ottawa by Edward Foster
      primary classifications. Within a year, the Governor of the
General       Dominion Police Force. The repository is maintained by
      signed a resolution directing that fingerprinting was to be the Royal
the       Canadian Mounted Police, and while it originally held only
      official method of identifying criminals in British India. 2000
      sets of fingerprints, today the number is over 2 million.
      1901 - Back in England and Wales, the success of the
“Henry       1924 - The U.S. Congress acts to establish the
      Fingerprint Classification System” in India was creating a Identification
stir,       Division of the F.B.I. The National Bureau and
      and a committee was formed to review Scotland Yard's Leavenworth are
      identification methods. Henry was then transferred to       consolidated to form the basis of the F.B.I. fingerprint
England, repository.
      where he began training investigators to use the Henry       By 1946, the F.B.I. had processed 100 million fingerprint
      Classification System after founding Scotland Yard's cards;
Central       that number doubles by 1971.
      Fingerprint Bureau. Within a few years, the Henry
Classification       1990s - AFIS, or Automated Fingerprint Identification
      System was in use around the world, and fingerprints had Systems,
been       begin widespread use around the country. This
      established as the uniform system of identification for the computerized system
      of storing and cross-referencing criminal fingerprint 1. Arch  a. Plain Arch
records               b. Tented Arch
      would eventually become capable of searching millions of 2. Loop  a. Radial Loop
      fingerprint files in minutes, revolutionizing law               b. Ulnar Loop
enforcement 3. Whorl a. Plain Whorl
      efforts.                b. Central Pocket Loop
               c. Double Loop
      1996 - As Americans become more concerned with the                d. Accidental Whorl
growing missing
      and abducted children problem, and law enforcement             Plain Arch - 1. Ridges enter upon one side
groups urge                                  2. Make a rise or wave in the center
      the fingerprinting of children for investigative purposes in                                  3. Flow or tend to flow out upon the
      the event of a child becoming missing, Chris Migliaro                                     opposite side.
      Fingerprint America in Albany, NY. The company provides             Tented Arch - Possesses an 1. Angle
a simple,                                                            2. Upthrust
      at-home fingerprinting and identification kit for parents,                                                            3. Two of The Three basic
      maintaining the family’s privacy while protecting and                                                                characteristics of the loop
      children about the dangers of abduction. By 2001, the             Ulnar loop - flow toward the little finger - ulna bone.
      distributes over 5 million Child ID Fingerprinting Kits             Radial Loop - flow toward the thumb - radius bone.
      the world.             Plain Whorl - 1. Consists of one or more ridges which
      1999 - The FBI phases out the use of paper fingerprint                              or tend to make a complete circuit
cards with                           2. With 2 delta's
      their new Integrated AFIS (IAFIS) site at Clarksburg, West                           3. Between which, when an imaginary line is
Virginia.                              drawn, at least one recurving ridge within
      IAFIS will starts with individual computerized fingerprint                              the inner pattern area is cut or touched.
      for approximately 33 million criminals, while the outdated             Central Pocket Loop - 1. Consists of at least one
paper recurving
      cards for the civil files are kept at a facility in Fairmont,                                                     ridge or
      West Virginia.                                                 2. An obstruction at right angles to
                                                     the line of flow
Typelines - 1. Two innermost ridges that start or go parallel                                                 3. With 2 delta's
                   2. Diverge and surround or tend to surround the                                                 4. Between which, when an
pattern imaginary
                      area                                                     line is drawn, no recurving ridge
                                                    within the inner pattern area is
Types of Fingerprints                                                     cut or touched.
1. Visible Prints
2. Latent Prints             Double Loop - 1. Consists of two separate loop
3. Impressed Prints formations
                                    2. With two separate and distinct set of
         Visible Prints - also called patent prints and are left in                                         shoulders and
         some medium, like blood, that reveals them to the                                     3. Two delta's
naked eye
         when blood, dirt, ink or grease on the finger come into             Accidental Whorl - 1. Consists of a combination of two
         contact with a smooth surface and leave a friction ridge                                                different types of patterns with the
         impression that is visible without development.                                               exception of the plain arch
                                          2. With 2 or more delta's or
         Latent Prints - not apparent to the naked eye. They are                                          3. A pattern which possesses some of
         formed from the sweat from sebaceous glands on the the
body or                                              requirements for 2 or more different
         water, salt, amino acids and oils contained in sweat.                                              types or a pattern which conforms to
         They can be made sufficiently visible by dusting, fuming                                              none of the definitions.
         chemical reagents.
Police Photography Reviewer
         Impressed prints - also called plastic prints and are
Alhazen (Ibn Al-Haytham) - a great authority on optics in
         indentations left in soft pliable surfaces, such as clay,
the Middle
         wax, paint or another surface that will take the
Ages who lived around 1000 AD, invented the first pinhole
         They are visible and can be viewed or photographed (also called the Camera Obscura } and was able to explain
without why the
         development. images were upside down.

Types of Patterns Angelo Sala - a self educated chemist, he discovered that

when paper or an accident scene using photography for the benefit of a
contained powdered silver nitrate it would react with sunlight, court or
causing to aid in an investigation.
it to darken. These pioneering experiments with silver salts
were a Frederick Scoff Archer - an English sculptor who invented
crucial step towards the later invention of photography. He the wet
published plate negative in 1851. Using a viscous solution of collodion,
his findings in a pamphlet in 1614. he
coated glass with light-sensitive silver salts. Because it was
Anna Atkins - (1799- 1871) an English Botanist, she is glass
considered and not paper, this wet plate created a more stable and detailed
to be the first female photographer. negative.

Aristotle - he observed and noted the first casual reference to Gelatin - It is used to hold silver halide crystals in an
the emulsion in
optic laws that made pinhole cameras possible, around 330 virtually all photographic films and photographic papers.
BC, he
questioned why the sun could make a circular image when it George Eastman - he invented in 1889 a film with a base that
shined was
through a square hole. flexible, unbreakable, and could be rolled. Emulsions coated
on a
Arthur Fellig - (Weegee) became famous because of his cellulose nitrate film base, such as Eastman's, made the mass-
frequent, produced
seemingly prescient arrivals at scenes only minutes after box camera a reality.
fires or other emergencies were reported to authorities. Hamilton Smith - he patented in 1856 the Tintypes, another
medium that
Carl William Scheele - (1742-1786) Swedish scientist, self- heralded the birth of photography. A thin sheet of iron was
educated. used to
He used to work as an assistant in pharmacies and showed a provide a base for light-sensitive material, yielding a positive
talent in image.
chemistry from a very young age. In spite an offer made to
him to       Tintypes - are a variation of the collodion wet plate
study in London or Berlin, he operated a pharmacy in Kφping process.
where he       The emulsion is painted onto a japanned (varnished) iron
spend the rest of his life and made all his important inventions. plate,
He was especially interest on chemical analysis and worked       which is exposed in the camera.
with the chemical reactions between silver nitrate and Heliographs - (sun prints) were the prototype for the modern
sunlight, photograph.
therefore making a break through in the chemistry of
photography. Henry Fox Talbot - an English botanist and mathematician
The records from his experiments were of a great importance and The
for the inventor of the first negative from which multiple postive
next generations of scientists. prints
were made.
Digital photography - uses an array of electronic photo
detectors to Hercules Florence - (1804-1879) Few details are known for
capture the image focused by the lens, as opposed to an his life.
exposure on In 1824 goes to Brazil and takes part in a scientific mission at
photographic film. the
Amazon, where he becomes preoccupied with the idea of
Emulsion - is a mixture of two or more liquids that are recording images
normally from his trip. From 1830 devotes himself to research and
immiscible (nonmixable or unblendable). Emulsions are part experimentation for photography. The above, gives Brazil the
of a more ability
general class of two-phase systems of matter called colloids. to claim that is one of the places in the world, where
Exposure - is the amount of light per unit area (the image was found.
illuminance times the exposure time) reaching a photographic Hippolyte Bayard - (1807-1887) The most unfortunate from
film, the pioneers
as determined by shutter speed, lens aperture and scene of photography. Discovered one direct positive photographic
luminance. method.
He was the first person to hold a photographic exhibition (for
Film Speed - is the measure of a photographic film's humanitarian reasons) and the first who combined two
sensitivity negatives to
to light, determined by sensitometry and measured on various created one print (called Combination Printing). As a civil
numerical scales, the most recent being the ISO system. servant
and with five hundred franks that received as financial help
Forensic Photography - (forensic imaging)(crime scene from
photography) Arago for improving his method, prevented him from
it is the art of producing an accurate reproduction of a crime presenting the
scene discovery of photography at the French Academy of Sciences.
      1853: Nadar (Felix Toumachon) opens his portrait studio
History of Photography - Timeline in Paris

      Ancient Times: Camera obscuras used to form images on       1854: Adolphe Disderi develops carte-de-visite
walls in photography in Paris,
      darkened rooms; image formation via a pinhole       leading to worldwide boom in portrait studios for the next
      16th century: Brightness and clarity of camera obscuras
improved by       1855: Beginning of stereoscopic era
      enlarging the hole inserting a telescope lens
      1855-57: Direct positive images on glass (ambrotypes) and
      17th century: Camera obscuras in frequent use by artists metal
and made       (tintypes or ferrotypes) popular in the US.
      portable in the form of sedan chairs
      1861: Scottish physicist James Clerk-Maxwell
      1727: Professor J. Schulze mixes chalk, nitric acid, and demonstrates a color
silver in       photography system involving three black and white
      a flask; notices darkening on side of flask exposed to photographs, each
sunlight.       taken through a red, green, or blue filter. The photos were
      Accidental creation of the first photo-sensitive compound. turned
      into lantern slides and projected in registration with the
      1800: Thomas Wedgwood makes "sun pictures" by same color
placing opaque objects       filters. This is the "color separation" method.
      on leather treated with silver nitrate; resulting images
deteriorated       1861-65: Mathew Brady and staff (mostly staff) covers the
      rapidly, however, if displayed under light stronger than American
from candles.       Civil War, exposing 7000 negatives

      1816: Nicéphore Niépce combines the camera obscura       1868: Ducas de Hauron publishes a book proposing a
with variety of methods
      photosensitive paper       for color photography.

      1826: Niépce creates a permanent image       1870: Center of period in which the US Congress sent
      1827: Joseph Nicephore Niepce made the first known       out to the West. The most famous images were taken by
photographic William
      image using the camera obscura. The camera obscura was       Jackson and Tim O'Sullivan.
a tool
      used by artists to draw.       1871: Richard Leach Maddox, an English doctor, proposes
the use of
      1834: Henry Fox Talbot creates permanent (negative)       an emulsion of gelatin and silver bromide on a glass plate,
images using the
      paper soaked in silver chloride and fixed with a salt       "dry plate" process.
      Talbot created positive images by contact printing onto       1877: Eadweard Muybridge, born in England as Edward
another Muggridge,
      sheet of paper.       settles "do a horse's four hooves ever leave the ground at
      1837: Louis Daguerre creates images on silver-plated       bet among rich San Franciscans by time-sequenced
copper, coated photography of
      with silver iodide and "developed" with warmed mercury;       Leland Stanford's horse.
Daguerre is
      awarded a state pension by the French government in       1878: Dry plates being manufactured commercially.
exchange for
      publication of methods and the rights by other French       1880: George Eastman, age 24, sets up Eastman Dry Plate
citizens to use Company in
      the Daguerreotype process.       Rochester, New York. First half-tone photograph appears
in a daily
      1841: Talbot patents his process under the name       newspaper, the New York Graphic.
      1888: First Kodak camera, containing a 20-foot roll of
      1851: Frederick Scott Archer, a sculptor in London, paper, enough
improves       for 100 2.5-inch diameter circular pictures.
      photographic resolution by spreading a mixture of
collodion       1889: Improved Kodak camera with roll of film instead of
      (nitrated cotton dissolved in ether and alcoohol) and paper
chemicals on
      sheets of glass. Wet plate collodion photography was       1890: Jacob Riis publishes How the Other Half Lives,
much cheaper images of
      than daguerreotypes, the negative/positive process       tenament life in New york City
permitted unlimited
      reproductions, and the process was published but not       1900: Kodak Brownie box roll-film camera introduced.
      1902: Alfred Stieglitz organizes "Photo Secessionist"
show in
      New York City       1934: Fuji Photo Film founded. By 1938, Fuji is making
cameras and
      1906: Availability of panchromatic black and white film       lenses in addition to film.
      therefore high quality color separation color photography.       1935: Farm Security Administration hires Roy Stryker to
J.P. run a
      Morgan finances Edward Curtis to document the       historical section. Stryker would hire Walker Evans,
traditional culture of Dorothea Lange,
      the North American Indian.       Arthur Rothstein, et al. to photograph rural hardships over
the next
      1907: First commercial color film, the Autochrome plates,       six years. Roman Vishniac begins his project of the soon-
      manufactured by Lumiere brothers in France to-be-killed
      -by-their-neighbors Jews of Central and Eastern Europe.
      1909: Lewis Hine hired by US National Child Labor
Committee to       1936: Development of Kodachrome, the first color multi-
      photograph children working mills. layered color
      film; development of Exakta, pioneering 35mm single-lens
      1914: Oscar Barnack, employed by German microscope reflex
manufacturer Leitz,       (SLR) camera
      develops camera using the modern 24x36mm frame and             World War II: Development of multi-layer color
sprocketed 35mm negative films
      movie film.             Margaret Bourke-White, Robert Capa, Carl Mydans,
and W. Eugene
      1917: Nippon Kogaku K.K., which will eventually become             Smith cover the war for LIFE magazine
      established in Tokyo.       1940s - in the early 1940's commercially viable color films
      (except Kodachrome, introduced in 1935) were brought to
      1921: Man Ray begins making photograms ("rayographs") the market.
by placing       These films used the modern technology of dye-coupled
      objects on photographic paper and exposing the shadow colors in
cast by a       which a chemical process connects the three dye layers
      distant light bulb; Eugegrave;ne Atget, aged 64, assigned together
to       to create an apparent color image.
      photograph the brothels of Paris
      1947: Henri Cartier-Bresson, Robert Capa, and David
      1924: Leitz markets a derivative of Barnack's camera Seymour start the
commercially as       photographer-owned Magnum picture agency
      the "Leica", the first high quality 35mm camera.
      1948: Hasselblad in Sweden offers its first medium-format
      1925: André Kertész moves from his native Hungary to SLR for
Paris, where he       commercial sale; Pentax in Japan introduces the automatic
      begins an 11-year project photographing street life diaphragm;
      Polaroid sells instant black and white film
      1928: Albert Renger-Patzsch publishes The World is
Beautiful,       1949: East German Zeiss develops the Contax S, first SLR
      close-ups emphasizing the form of natural and man-made with an
objects;       unreversed image in a pentaprism viewfinder
      Rollei introduces the Rolleiflex twin-lens reflex producing
a 6x6       1955: Edward Steichen curates Family of Man exhibit at
      cm image on rollfilm.; Karl Blossfeldt publishes Art New York's
Forms in Nature       Museum of Modern Art

      1931: Development of strobe photography by Harold       1959: Nikon F introduced.

("Doc") Edgerton
      at MIT       1960: Garry Winogrand begins photographing women on
the streets of
      1932: Inception of Technicolor for movies, where three       New York City.
black and
      white negatives were made in the same camera under       1963: First color instant film developed by Polaroid;
different filters; Instamatic
      Ansel Adams, Imogen Cunningham, Willard Van Dyke,       released by Kodak; first purpose-built underwater
Edward Weston, introduced, the
      et al, form Group f/64 dedicated to "straight photographic       Nikonos
      and production".; Henri Cartier-Bresson buys a Leica and       1970: William Wegman begins photographing his
begins a Weimaraner, Man Ray.
      60-year career photographing people; On March 14,
George Eastman,       1972: 110-format cameras introduced by Kodak with a
      aged 77, writes suicide note--"My work is done. Why 13x17mm frame
      shoots himself.       1973: C-41 color negative process introduced, replacing
      1933: Brassaï publishes Paris de nuit
      1975: Nicholas Nixon takes his first annual photograph of Rineke Dijkstra
his wife
      and her sisters: "The Brown Sisters"; Steve Sasson at Infrared Photography - the film or image sensor used is
Kodak builds sensitive to
      the first working CCD-based digital still camera infrared light.

      1976: First solo show of color photographs at the Museum Johann Heinrich Schulze - (1687 - 1744) he was a German
of Modern professor at
      Art, William Eggleston's Guide the University of Altdorf. He was the first person to produce
Photograms, which were created by using paper masks in
      1977: Cindy Sherman begins work on Untitled Film Stills, direct contact
completed with a jar containing a mixture of silver nitrate powder and
      in 1980; Jan Groover begins chalk.
      exploring kitchen utensils Schulze proved that the darkening of silver nitrate was caused
by light
      1978: Hiroshi Sugimoto begins work on seascapes. and ruled out the possibility of the change being caused by
      1980: Elsa Dorfman begins making portraits with the by observing no tonal change to silver nitrate when heated in
20x24" Polaroid. an oven.

      1982: Sony demonstrates Mavica "still video" camera Joseph Nicephore Niepce - made the first photographic
image with a
      1983: Kodak introduces disk camera, using an 8x11mm camera obscura.
frame (the same
      as in the Minox spy camera) Latent Image - is an invisible image produced by the
exposure to
      1985: Minolta markets the world's first autofocus SLR light of a photosensitive material such as photographic film.
system (called
      "Maxxum" in the US); In the American West by Richard Louis Daguerre - a Frenchman and A professional scene
Avedon painter,  was
able to reduce exposure time to less than 30 minutes and keep
      1988: Sally Mann begins publishing nude photos of her the image
children from disappearing afterwards. He was the inventor of the first
      1987: The popular Canon EOS system introduced, with process of photography.
      all-electronic lens mount Mugshot - (police photograph)(booking photograph) is a
      1990: Adobe Photoshop released. portrait typically taken after a person is arrested.

      1991: Kodak DCS-100, first digital SLR, a modified Negative - is an image, usually on a strip or sheet of
Nikon F3 transparent
plastic film, in which the lightest areas of the photographed
      1992: Kodak introduces PhotoCD subject
appear darkest and the darkest areas appear lightest.
      1993: Founding of (this Web site), an early
Internet online Parallax - is a displacement or difference in the apparent
      community; Sebastiao Salgado publishes Workers; Mary position
Ellen Mark of an object viewed along two different lines of sight, and is
      publishes book documenting life in an Indian circus. measured by the angle or semi-angle of inclination between
      1995: Material World, by Peter Menzel published. two lines.

      1997: Rob Silvers publishes Photomosaics Photography - It is a method of recording images by the
action of light,
      1999: Nikon D1 SLR, 2.74 megapixel for $6000, first or related radiation, on a sensitive material.
ground-up DSLR
      design by a leading manufacturer. Photographic Film - (Film) is a strip or sheet of transparent
      2000: Camera phone introduced in Japan by Sharp/J- film base coated on one side with a gelatin emulsion
Phone containing
microscopically small light-sensitive silver halide crystals.
      2001: Polaroid goes bankrupt
Point-and-Shoot Camera - (compact camera) is a still
      2003: Four-Thirds standard for compact digital SLRs camera designed
introduced with primarily for simple operation.[1] Most use focus free lenses
      the Olympus E-1; Canon Digital Rebel introduced for less or
than $1000 autofocus for focusing, automatic systems for setting the
      2004: Kodak ceases production of film cameras options, and have flash units built in.

      2005: Canon EOS 5D, first consumer-priced full-frame Rogues Gallery - is a police collection of pictures or
digital SLR, photographs of
      with a 24x36mm CMOS sensor for $3000; Portraits by criminals and suspects kept for identification purposes.
Air Resistance - (Drag) decelerates the projectile with a force
Shutter Lag - is the delay between triggering the shutter and proportional to the square of the velocity.
the photograph is actually recorded. Ammunition - shall mean loaded shell rifle, muskets, carbine,
Shutter Speed - (exposure time) is the length of time a revolver and pistol from which a bullet, ball, shot, shell or
camera's other
shutter is open when taking a photograph. missiles may be fore by means of a gun powder or other
Silver Halides - The light-sensitive chemicals used in
photographic Anvil - An internal metal component in a boxer primer
film and paper. assembly
against which the priming mixture is crushed by the firing pin
Single-Lens Reflex Camera (SLR) - typically uses a mirror blow.
and prism
system (hence "reflex", from the mirror's reflection) that Anvil Marks - A term generally used by the military for a
permits cartridge
the photographer to view through the lens and see exactly with a full metal jacketed bullet or solid metal projectile.
what will
be captured, contrary to viewfinder cameras where the image Armalite – occasionally, the home of manufacturing company
could becomes
be significantly different from what will be captured. almost a generic term. It happens with the colt produced M16,
Sir Humphry Davy - (1778-1829) Chemistry genius, friend has been designed and develop at Armalite. The Armalite
and assistant business was
of Wedgwood in his experiments whose results were form by Charles Dorchester and George Sullivan in 1950.
published at Royal Armalite
Society, in 1802 by Davy. The problem of "fixing" the images employed Eugene Stoner, Chief Engineer and one of the top
remained designer
in spite of Davy's breakthroughs in chemistry. of the country.

Sir John F.W. Herschel - a scientist who first used the word Automatic - when the mechanism is so arrange that it will fire
photography continuously when the trigger is depressed.
in 1839. The word photography was derived from the Greek
words Photos, Automatic Action Type – a firearm design that feeds
which means light and Graphein, which means to draw. cartridges fires
and ejects cartridge cases as long as the trigger is fully
Snapshot - is popularly defined as a photograph that is "shot" depressed
spontaneously and quickly, most often without artistic or and there is cartridge available in the feed system.
journalistic intent.
Barrel - metal tube through which the projectiles travel.
Thomas Wedgwood - (1771 - 1805) an Englishman who
made good ground Berthold Schwartz - the inventor of gunpowder. His real
creating Photograms and recording images from his Camera name is
Obscura Constantin Anklitzen, a Franciscan monk in the town of
or pinhole camera, However, he never overcome the problem Freiberg
of fixing in Germany.
the image and therefore the prints produced had to be viewed
for very Blowback -  In firearm, an automatic and semi-automatic
short periods of time in a darkened environment. firearm design,
that directly utilizes the breech pressure exerted on the head
Twin-Lens Reflex Camera (TLR) - is a type of camera with of the
two objective cartridge cases to actuate the mechanism. In ammunition, a
lenses of the same focal length. leakage
of gas re-ward between the case and chamber wall from the
Viewfinder - is what the photographer looks through to mouth of
compose, the case.
and in many cases to focus, the picture.
Bolt Action Type – a firearm in which the breech closure is
(1) in line with the bore at all times,
(2) manually reciprocated to load, unload and cock
Forensic Ballistics Reviewer (3) and is locked in place by breech bolt lugs and engaging
ACP - Automatic Colt Pistol     usually in the receiver.

Action - the working mechanism of a firearm. An action is the Bore -  the interior of the barrel of a gun or firearm.
mechanism that manipulates cartridges and/or seals the Breechface - is the front part of the breechblock that makes
breech. contact
with the cartridge in a firearm. The breech block (or
Air Gun - a gun that uses compressed air or gas to propel a breechblock) in
projectile a gun is what holds a round in the chamber, and absorbs the
also called air rifle, pellet rifle, pellet gun and gun. recoil
of the cartridge when the round is fired, preventing the
cartridge       machine gun use and can be seen by day and night. The
case from moving. point of
      the bullet colored red is for identification. These are used
Broach Cutter - used to create a rifling impressions on a only
barrel.       in the military service, and were never sold to individuals.
      Should an individual obtain one or more of these
Broach, Gang – A tool having a series of cutting edges of cartridges,
slightly       he should at once return it to military control or else
increasing height used to cut the spiral grooves in a barrel. All dispose
groves are cut with a single pass of the broach.       of these by throwing into a deep river or lake, as they are
      exceedingly dangerous to have around. This should never
Broach, Single – a non-adjustable rifling cutter which cuts all be
the       “Monkeyed” with, and particularly no attempt should be
grooves simultaneously, and is in a series of increasing made to
dimensions       unload them for examination, as these may ignite and
until the desired groove depth is achieved. cause
      exceedingly serious burn or fire. The ingredients used in
Browning, J.M. - born in 1855. Started the production of tracer
single shot       and igniter mixtures are confidential.
rifle that was adopted by Winchester.
      Incendiary Bullet - is similar in construction to a tracer
Buckshot - coarse lead shot used in shotgun shells. Lead bullet,
pellets       but the composition contained in the cavity burns fiercely
ranging in size from .20 inches to .36 inch diameter normally impact
loaded in shotshells.       with a very hot flame which will quite reliably ignite
Buffer -  in a firearm, any part intended to absorb shock and       that the bullet strikes. For identification purposes the
check       incendiary bullet has a light blue color. The same
recoil. precaution
      should be observed as with tracer cartridges.
Bullet - a projectile propelled from the firearm. A metallic or
non       Dum-Dum Bullet - this word and type of bullet were
metallic cylindrical projectile. Originated from the French invented by
word       British Ordinance force stationed at their arsenal at Dum-
“BOULETTE”, a small ball. In common police par lane, a Dum,
bullet maybe       India. The British army was engaged in extensive Punitive
called “SLUG”.       expedition on the Northwest Frontier of India, fighting
      Two Basic Types of Commercial Bullets in Common       Afghan and Pathan tribesmen. It soon develop that such a
Used Today. full
      1. Lead Bullets - are used in almost all revolver       jacketed bullet was of no practical effect against primitive
ammunition       natures. So the English made some of these bullets
         and in some low or medium powder rifle cartridges. expanding
         Are produced in automatic swedging machine from       by grinding of the nose of the jacketed bullet. These are
extruded wire now
         containing the proper percentage of tin and antimony for       known as Hallow Point bullet and Soft Point Bullet.
      2. Jacketed Bullets - are used for automatic pistols       Gas Check Bullet - to prevent the melting of the base,
ammunition lead
         and medium and high power rifle ammunition. The most       bullets intended to be fired at higher velocity have their
common gases
         are those from the blowback- .25 ACP, .380 ACP, 9mm       protected with a small copper cups. The bullet is casts with
luger, a
         .45 ACP (Automatic Colt Pistol) and several types of       slightly tape-ring base, and the copper gas chock is then
high pressed
         velocity .30s. These are all made automatically by       lightly on the bore, the cup remaining on the bullet when it
swedging       is fired.
         a cup of metal around a lead core.
      Wad Cutter Bullet - a cylindrical bullet design having a
      Armor-Piercing Bullets - is pointed flat base bullet with sharp
      gliding metal jacket. The core is of pointed, boat-tailed       shouldered nose intended to cut target paper clearly to
shape       facilitate easy and accurate soaring.
      and is made of harden tungsten, chrome steel and has a
blackened       Wax Bullet - a bullet made from paraffin and other wax
      tip. Used to penetrate armored cars and vehicles.       preparation usually used for short range indoor target
      Tracer Bullet - when fired, emit a light red flame from its
base,       Marks Found Of Fired Bullets
      there by showing the gunner the trace of flame, the path as       1. Landmarks -  depressed portion caused by the lands.
well       2. Groove Marks -  raised on elevated portions caused by
      as the striking point of the bullet, the flame continuing to the
burn          grooves.
      and trace for about 600 yards. These are intended       3. Skid Marks -  when the bullet enters the rifled bore from
primarily for          a stationary position and is forced abruptly into the
         rifling, its natural tendency is to go straight toward purposes will have a gun mechanism incorporated in them.
         before encountering the regular rifling twist. (also known as FREAKISH DEVICE)
      4. Slippage Marks -  bullets fired from a worn-out barrel,
         oily barrels and slightly oversized bullets. Cannelure - a circumferential groove generally of a knurled
      5. Shaving Marks -  most commonly these marks are found or plain
on the appearance on a bullet or cartridge. These three uses including
         bullets  fires from  a revolver due to a poor alignment of crimping, lubrication and identification.
         the cylindrical with the bore.
Cartridge - a term to describe a complete un-fired unit,
      Identification of a Bullet - Principles consisting
      1. No two barrels are microscopically identical as the of bullet, primer, cartridge case and gunpowder.
         of their bores all possess individual and characteristics       Test Cartridge Case - a cartridge case obtain while test
         on their own. firing
      2. When a bullet is fired from a rifled barrel, it becomes       a firearm in a laboratory to be used for comparison or
         engraved by the riflings and this engraving will vary in analysis.
         its minute details with every individual bore. So it
happens       Function Of Cartridge Cases
         that the engravings on the bullet fired from one barrel       1. It holds the bullet gunpowder and primer.
will       2. It serves as a water proof container for the gunpowder.
         be different from that on a similar bullet fired from       3. It prevents the escape of gases to the rear.
         barrel. And conversely the engraving on bullets fired       Marks Found on Cartridge Cases
from       1. Firing pin impression – the indentation in the primer of
         the same barrel will be the same. a
      3. Every barrel leaves its thumb marks on every bullet          tentative cartridge case or in the rim of a rimface
which          cartridge case cause when it is struck by the firing pin.
         is fired through it, just as every breech face leaves its       2. Breechface Markings – negative impression of the
         thumb marks on the base of every fired cartridge case. breechface
         of the firearm found on the head of the cartridge case
      Test Bullet - a bullet fired from a bullet recovery system          after firing.
for       3. Chamber Marks – individual microscope marks placed
      comparison analysis. upon a
         cartridge case by the chamber wall as a result of any of
Bullet Recovery System - Any method which will allow the          the following:
undamaged                a. Chambering
recovery of a fired bullet. Differing systems are needed for                b. Expanding during firing
different                c. Extraction
cartridges depending upon bullet composition, jacket       4. Extractor Marks – toolmarks produced upon a cartridge
thickness, and case
velocity. Water tanks and cotton boxes are most commonly in          form contact with the extractor. These are usually found
use. on
         or just ahead of the rim.
Bullet Splash - The spatter and fragmentation of a bullet upon       5. Ejector Marks – toolmarks produced upon a cartridge or
impacting a hard surface.          cartridge case on the head, generally at or near the rim,
         form contact with the ejector.
Bullet Wipe - The discolored area on the immediate periphery
of a Cape Gun – a doubled-barreled shoulder arm with barrel side
bullet hole, caused by bullet lubricant, lead, smoke, bore by side :
debris, one being smooth bore and the other being rifled.
or possible jacket material. Sometimes called "Burnishing" or
"Leaded Edge". Case Head - The base of the cartridge case which contains the
Button – a hardened metal plug, called a button, with a rifled
cross Cast-Off - the off-set of the butt of a firearm to the right
section configuration. It is pushed or pulled through a drilled handed
and shooter and to the right for a left-handed shooter.
reamed barrel so as to cold form the spiral grooves to the
desired Cast-On - the offset of the butt of a firearm to the left for a
depth and twist. When the carbide button was first introduced right-handed shooter and to the right for a left handed shooter.
it was
described as a SWAGING PROCESS or SWAGED Chamber - the rear part of the barrel bore that has been
RIFLING. formed to
accept a specific cartridge. Revolver cylinders are multi-
Caliber - the diameter of the bore of a rifled firearm. The chambered.
caliber is
usually expressed in hundredths of an inch or millimeters. Cock -  place a firing mechanism under a spring tension.
Raise the cock
      Land to Land - the way to determine the caliber of a gun of (a gun) in order to make it ready for firing.
is to
      measure the diameter of the bore from land to land.       Full Cock - the position of the hammer or strike when the
      firearm is ready to fire.
Cane gun, Knife pistols - many devices primarily designed
for another Compensator - (MuzzleBrake) a device attached to or
integral with the energy
muzzle end of the barrel to utilize propelling gases for from a spring-loaded hammer to the primer, while a striker is
counter-recoil. usually heavier, and is directly connected to the spring
CETME - Centro dos Studios Technicos de Materiales the energy to impact the primer.
Especiales. This
is Spanish government weapon development agency, based in Flare guns - used in cases such in sending signals and
Madrid. enabling to
see enemies in the dark.
Class Characteristics - Are those characteristics which are
determinable Forensic Ballistics - A scientific study of firearm
only after the manufacture of the firearm. They are identification
characteristics with the use of laboratory examination. The subject gives
whose existence is beyond the control of man and which have emphasis
random on the study of ammunitions, projectiles, gunpowder, primer
distribution. There existence in the firearms is brought about and
by explosives, including the use of the bullet comparison
the tools in their normal operations resulting through wear and microscope.
tear, It also deals with the principles in the microscopic and
abuse, mutilation, corrosion, erosion and other fortuitous macroscopic examination of firearm evidence and the
causes. preparation of
reports for legal proceedings in the solution of cases involving
Classification of Cartridge According to Rim firearms.
      1. Rimmed Type - the diameter of the rim is greater than
the       Types of Problems in Forensic Ballistics
         diameter of the body of the cartridge case. e.g. caliber       1. Given a bullet to determine the caliber and type of
         .38 and caliber .22. firearm
      2. Semi-Rimmed Type- the diameter of the rim is slightly          from which it was fire.
         greater than the diameter of the body of the cartridge       2. Given fired cartridge case, to determine the caliber and
case.          type of firearm from which it was fired.
         e.g. caliber .25. 32 auto. Super .38.       3. Given a bullet and a suspected firearm, to determine
      3. Rimless Type - the diameter of the rim is equal to the whether
body          or not the bullet was fired from the suspected firearm.
         of the cartridge case. e.g. caliber .5.56mm, .30, .9mm, .       4. Given a fired cartridge case a suspected firearm, to
45. determine
      4. Rebated Type- the diameter of the rim is smaller than          whether or not the cartridge was fired from the suspected
the          firearm.
         body of the cartridge case. e.g. caliber 8mm x 59.       5. Given two or more bullets, to determine whether or not
      5. Belted Type - there is a protruding metal around the they
body          were fired from only one firearm.
         of the cartridge case near the rim. e.g. caliber 338       6. Given two or more cartridge cases, to determine
magnum whether or
         13.9 x 39          not they were fired.

Colt - Samuel Colt was born on July 1814 in was to be       Equipments used In A Ballistics Laboratory
instrumental       1. Comparison Microscope - This valuable instrument is
in making the revolver a practical type of pistol. specially
         designed to permit the firearm examiner to determine the
Cylinder - storage for ammunition in a revolver, the cylinder          similarity and dissimilarity between two fired bullets or
rotates          two fired cartridge cases by simultaneously observing
as the action is cocked. their
         magnified image. It is actually two microscope couple
DAMSCUS - an obsolete barrel making process the barrel is together
formed by          with a single or two eye piece, so that when one looks
twisting or braiding together steel and iron wires or bars. through
Sometimes          this comparison eye piece, he is seeing one half of what
         under the other – in other words, half of the evidence
Derringer, Henry - born in the beginning of 19th century. bullet
Worked at          and half of the test bullet.
Philadelphia where he manufactured Pocket Pistol.       2. Stereoscope Microscope - This is generally used in the
         preliminary examination of fired bullets and fired shells.
Drilling - refers to a combination gun that has three barrels.          To determine the location of the extractor marks and
Ejector Rod - metal rod used to help with the removal of the          marks for orientation purposes. It can be used also in one
cartridges.          close-up examination of tampered serial numbers of
Energy Bullet - the capacity of  a projectile to do work.       3. Comparison Projector - CP6 This is generally used in
Firearms Identification - a discipline mainly concerned with          preliminary examination of fired bullets and fired shells.
determining          To determine the location of the extractor marks and
whether a bullet or cartridge was fired by a particular weapon. ejector
         marks for orientation purposes. It can be used also in one
Firing Pin - is a lightweight part, which serves to transfer          close-up examination of tampered serial numbers of
firearms.       2. Smokeless Powder - a mixture of nitrocellulose 60 parts,
      4. Bullet Recovery Box - For obtaining best fired bullet or          nitroglycerine 35 parts and Vaseline 5 parts. These
         test fired cartridge cases from the suspected firearms          substances are almost entirely smokeless in action. They
         submitted to the ballistics laboratory. In test firing are
         suspected firearms, it is standard procedure to used          all given the generic term of nitro powders and are
         ammunition that are of the same caliber, make or brand legion in
and          number. All nitro powders used 2. in rifles, pistols, and
         manufactured in the same year with that of the evidence          revolvers are a gelatinized powder that is they are made
         bullet or shell. by
         Water is one of the means to obtain test bullets and test          forming dough into sticks or grains. The identification of
         shells because the microscope marks on the cylindrical          partially burnt powder grains may become a matter of
or vital
         peripheral surface of the bullets are preserved for good          importance, since such grains maybe found around the
         used. The same is true with cotton. entrance
      5. Measuring Projector - MP6 This projector determines          hole of a wound, and it will obviously help if the type of
the          powder can be identified from these unburnt grains.
         width of the lands, width of grooves, diameter and twist
         of fired bullets. Hammer - part that strikes the primer to cause ignition.
      6. Verneir Caliper - This instrument determines the bullet
         diameter and barrel length. Hammerli, Johann Ulrich - hammerli weapons has always
      7. Analytical Balance - This more or less determines the been the
weight epitome of Swiss precision Engineering ability.
         of the bullets, shots and pellets for possible type, caliber
         and make for firearm from which they were fired. Handgun - a revolver or a pistol.
      8. Taper Gauge - Used for determining the diameter of the
bore Harpoon Guns - barbed spear in hunting large fish.
         of the firearms.
      9. Onoscope - For examining the interior surface of the Headspace - is the distance measured from the part of the
barrel. chamber
      10.Helixometer - For measuring the pitch of the rifling. that stops forward motion of the cartridge (the datum
Pitch reference) to
         of rifling is the distance advanced by the rifling in one the face of the bolt.
         complete turn or a distance traveled by the bullet in one
         complete turn. Headstamp - numerals, letters and symbols stamped into the
      11.Chronograph - For determining the speed of the bullet head of
or the cartridge case or shotshell to identify the manufacture
         the muzzle velocity of the bullet. caliber
gauge or give additional information.
Fouling - the residual deposits remaining in the bore of  a
firearm Heckler and Kock – Edmond Heckler has been a plant
after firing. manager with
Mauser, and Alex Siedel a designer with Mauser.
Garand, John C. - was born in North Carolina in 1818.
Developed the Hook – a cutting tool which cuts has hook shape and only cuts
hang-ranked machine gun. A development of Duver Gatling one
type of grooves at a time.
machine gun.
Keyhole - an oblong or an oval hole in a target that is
Gas Guns – these will be found in all shapes and sizes and produced by
used for an unstable bullet striking the target at an oblique angle to the
firing tear gas and other forms of disabling gases. bullets. Longitudinal axis.

Gas Operated - an automatic or semi-automatic firearm in Leading - the accumulation of lead in the bore of a firearm
which the from the
propellant gases are used to unlock the breech bolt and then to passage of lead shot or bullet. Also called METAL
complete the cycle of extracting and expecting. FOULING.

Gas Port - an opening  in the wall of  a barrel to allow gas to Lever Action Type – a design wherein the breech mechanism
operate a mechanism or reduce recoil. is cycled
by an external lever generally below the receiver.
Grip - handle of the handgun.
Liberator – made by the US government for use in occupied
Gunpowder - any of the various powder used in firearms as countries
propellant in Europe during the recent war and fired the .45ACP
charge. cartridge,
single shot and smooth bore.
      Types of Gunpowder
      1. Black powder - consists of the jet black and rather shiny Lubaloy - is a wrought copper alloy that is composed mainly
         grains. Although black powder has been in used for of copper
about and zinc. In 1922, the Western Cartridge Company introduced
         six centuries, and although methods of manufactured are a
         naturally led to greater efficiency in action, its copper-washed bullet jacketing called Lubaloy which stands
         composition has remained practically the same in all for
         countries. lubricating alloy. Lubaloy replaced standard bullet jacketing
had been cupro-nickel coated steel or solid cupro-nickel.       Composition of a Primer
      1. Potassium Chlorate - 45%
Luger, George - was born in Australia in 1849. he did lasting       2. Antimony Sulfide         - 23%
designed       3. Fulminate of Mercury - 32%
work in connection with 9mm Parabellum cartridge.
Proofmark - a distinctive symbol stamped into the metal of
Machine Gun Type – primarily used only in military combat the barrel
and will or other part of a firearm to indicate that testing of the part
seldom be encountered by the firearms technician. bearing
the stamp by firing proof loads has been carried out.
Machine Markings - a cross section of a gun barrel will show
small Proof Test - is a form of stress test to demonstrate the fitness
grooves or striations all along the lands and grooves. of a
load-bearing structure. The firing of a deliberate overload to
Marlin, John Mahlon - New Haven, Connecticut test the
manufacturer of lever strength of a firearm barrel an action.
action rifle, 1800’s.
Rachet - a notched wheel on the rear of a revolver cylinder to
Mauser - Paul and Wilhelm brothers produced parts of the rotate
rifle which when a force is applied by a level hold a hand.
had been adopted by the German government in 1871.
Recoil - (often called knockback, kickback or simply kick) is
Mossberge, Oscar - born in Sweden in 1866 and went to the the
United backward momentum of a gun when it is discharged. In
States. The maker of high quality .22 rifles. Sporting rifles and technical terms,
pump action shotguns. the recoil caused by the gun exactly balances the forward
momentum of
Mossin, Sergei - Colonel of Russia Army. Designated in the projectile and exhaust gases (ejecta), according to
Russian Service Newton's third law.
Rifle in 1891.
Reload - a cartridge, which have been reassembled with a new
Multi –Barreled guns – in particular one will find guns primer,
having the powder and or other components.
three or four barrels are mounted in one receiver. Some may
have Repeating Arms – this type is loaded with more than
a combination of several different gauges of shotguns, or a cartridge into
combination of shotgun barrels and rifle barrel. the chamber when it is fired rather having to perform this
Muzzle - the end of the barrel through which the bullet exits. by hand.

Muzzle Energy - is the kinetic energy of a bullet as it is Resizing - the reduction in diameter of  a fire cartridge case to
expelled unfired diameter by forcing it into die of smaller size than the
from the muzzle of a firearm. It is often used as a rough fired case.
of the destructive potential of a given firearm or load. Ricochet - is a rebound, bounce or skip off a surface,
particularly in
Nambu, Kijiro - an army gun officer designer. His first the case of a projectile.
design was
produced by the Kayoba Factory in 1904. Rifling - refers to helical grooves in the barrel of a gun or
firearm, which imparts a spin to a projectile around its long
Paradox - an obsolete barrel designed in which the major axis.
length of
the barrel is smooth and last few inches are rifled.       Types of Riflings
      1. Steyr Type - four lands, four grooves, right hand twist
Pen Gun -  a small caliber firearm shaped like a pen or pencil. and
         lands or equal widths ( 4-R-G=L) used in earlier
Powder - commonly used term for the propellant in a          self-loading pistols.
cartridge or       2. Smith and Wesson Type - five lands and five grooves,
shotshell. right
         hand twist and lands of equal width (5-R-G=L)
Pressure - in a firearm, the force developed by the expanding       3. Browning Type- six lands, six grooves, right hand twist,
gasses          narrow lands and broad grooves. (6-R-G-2x)
generated by the combustion of the propellant.       4. Colt Type- six lands and six grooves, left hand twist,
Primer - The ignition components of cartridge primers are          lands and broads grooves. (6-L-G-2x)
used for       5. Webley Type- seven lands, seven grooves, right hand
igniting prominent. A blow from the firing pin of the firing twist,
cup          narrow lands and broad grooves. (7-R-G3x)
compresses the priming composition to detonate. This       6. Army Type- four lands and four grooves, right hand
detonation twist,
produces a flame which passes through the vent of flesh hole          narrow lands and broad grooves. ( 4-R-G3x)
in the
cartridge case, igniting the gunpowder. Round -  a military term for a cartridge.
Sidelock – A design in which the firing mechanism is attached
Scrape – a cutting tool which cuts two opposing grooves at a to a
time. sideplate rather than being integral with the frame.

Shocking Power - the ability of a projectile to dissipate its Sight - device used for aiming.
energy effectively in a target. Silencer - a device attach to the barrel of the  firearm to
Shot - a small ball or pellet of lead, a number of which are the noise of discharge. Also called SOUND SUPPRESSOR.
in a cartridge and used for one charge of a shotgun. Single Shot Firearms – those type of firearms that is
designated to
      Birdshot - the smallest size of shot for sporting rifles or shoot only one shot.
      other guns.
Slide Action Type – a firearm which features a movable
Shotshell - a cartridge containing projectile designed to be forearm which
fired is manually actuated in motion parallel to the barrel by the
in a shotgun. The cartridge body maybe metal, plastic or shooter.
paper. Forearm motion is transmitted to a breech blot assembly
which performs
Semi-Automatic Type – A firearm requiring a separate pull all the function of the firing cycle assigned to it by the design.
of the Also known as PUMP ACTION.
trigger for each shot fired, and which uses the energy of
discharge Sling - a strap fasten to a firearm to assist in carrying or to
to perform a portion of the operating or firing cycle. steady it during firing. A sling may also refer to a projectile
weapon typically used to throw a blunt projectile such as a
Serial Number - a number applied to a firearm in order to stone,
identify the clay or lead "sling-bullet".
individual firearm.
Slug - a projectile generally fired from a shotgun either one
Shell - an explosive artillery projectile or bomb. large
piece of lead or several smaller caliber pieces.
      Identification of Shells - Principles
      1. The breech face and striker of every single firearm leave       Rifled Slug - a simple projectile in spiral grooves and
         microscopically individualities of their own. hollow
      2. The firearm leaves its “fingerprints” or “thumb mark”       base, intended to use in shotgun. The slug will rotate, and
on       thus, reach its target much more accurate.
         every cartridge case which it fires.
      3. The whole principle of identification is based on the fact Smith and Wesson - Horace Smith and Daniel B. Wesson
         that since the breech face of every weapon must be formed a
         individually distinct, the cartridge cases which it fires are partnership in 1852. They manage by producing what is
         imprinted with this individuality. The imprint on all probably the
cartridge best double-action revolver in the world. (Daniel Wesson left
         cases fired from the same weapon are always the same, the
those company to set up his own firearm business).
         on cartridge cases fired form different weapons must
always Smoke Ring - the circular gray deposits around the face of the
         be different. chamber
of a revolver produce by gun powder residues upon discharge.
Shotgun - a smooth-bore gun for firing small shot at short
range. Stock - also known as a shoulder stock, a buttstock, or simply
   a. Single Barreled shotgun – it is loaded with a single a
shotgun butt is a part of a rifle or other firearm, to which the barrel and
      cartridge, closed. Fired and then re-loaded by the shooter. firing mechanism are attached, that is held against one's
   b. Double barreled shotgun – the two barrels may be side by shoulder
side when firing the gun.
      or they may be one over the other. Each barrel may have
its Striations - (Striae) When a bullet is fired through a rifled
      own trigger. barrel,
   c. Pump action shotgun - operates in the same manner as a the raised and lowered spirals of the rifling etch fine grooves
slide called
      action rifles, by means of sliding lever under the barrel. "striations" into the bullet.
   d. Auto loading shotguns - these are the same as auto-
loading or       Characteristics of Striations Depend Upon The ff: Factors
      self-loading rifles in that the recoil action reloads the gun       1. The size and shape of the microscopic irregularities on
      form the magazine without any effort on the part of the          the acting tool.
shooter.       2. The original surface smoothness of the object acted
SIG - (SCHWEIZERISCHE INDUSTRIE CESSELSHALF)       3. Relative hardness of the two materials.
adopted by the Swiss       4. Speed of application or rate of relative motion.
government as their standard service weapon. The company       5. Pressure areas involved
started to       6. Texture and uniformity of material acted upon.
produced railway engines and carriage in 1853.
Submachine Type – is alight, portable machine gun which
uses pistol during
size ammunition. It differs from a pistol in it that has a          the application may scraped over the jamb of a door,
shoulder leaving
stock which may or may not fold but is designed to be fired by          striate. Tin Snips or Bolt Cutter have blades which
the frequently
use of both hands.          leave striate on the edges of metal cut. An axe will leave
         striate on wood chips, as well as the auger or blade of a
Swage – an internal mandrel with rifling configuration which          plane. Mechanical tool as a planner, joiner, and lathe all
forms          have blades and edges which leaves striate on chips,
rifling in the barrel by means of the external hammering. Also shaving
known          and stock being worked. Many examples should be
as HAMMER FORGING. given but
         these are typical if the tool most commonly encountered
Tattoing - small hemorrhagic marks on the skin produce by in
the impact          the criminal investigations. Striated marks are often
of gun powder particles also called STRIPPLING. referred
         to a “friction marks”, abrasion marks or “scratched
Thompson, John - born in 1860 in Newport, Kentucky. marks”.
Designed the
Thompson submachine gun in 1920. Tools – there are a number of tools using cartridges which are
designed to drive studs, punch holes or cut tables. Such tools
Thumb Rest -  a ledge in the grip area of a rifle or hand gun may
in which be encountered in the investigation of an accident.
to rest the thumb of the trigger hand.
Traps – these are designed to be set in the woods and left
Trailing Edge - the edge of a land or groove impression in a where
fire animals will encounter them. They may fire a bullet or a
bullet which is opposites the driving edge of the same land or poison
groove impressions. charge, depending on their construction.

Trajectory - the curved path of a projectile from muzzle to Trigger - small lever that is pulled or squeezed to start the
target. firing
Trap Door – An action in which a top hinged breechblock
pivots up Trigger Guard - piece that surrounds the trigger to protect it
and forward to open. Locking on this action is accomplished from
by a being accidentally squeezed or bumped.
cam located at the rear of the breechblock that fits into a
mating recess. Also known as a CAM LOCK. Velocity - the speed of the projectile at a given point along its
Trigger - is a mechanism that actuates the firing of firearms.
Vierling - A four-barreled gun, typically with two identical
Trigger Guard - trigger guard is a loop surrounding the shotgun
trigger of barrels and with two rifle barrels of differing calibres. Built
a firearm and protecting it from accidental discharge. primarily in Germany and Austria.

Trigger Pull - the amount of force, which must firearm to Walther, Carl - developed a reliable small caliber automatic
cause sear pistol
release. in 1866.

Tokarev, Fedor - born in Egorlikshaya in 1971. Designed the Walker Test - the original chemical test for the detection of
service spatial
pistol of the Soviet forces. distributions of nitrites in gun powder residue.

Tool Marks Identification - is a discipline of forensic science Winchester, Oliver - he led the formation of the Winchester
which Company.
has, as its primary concern to determine if a tool mark was
produced Types Of Cartridge Case According To Location Of
by a particular tool. Primer
1. Pin-Fire Cartridge - the pin extent radially through the bead
      Two General Type of Tool Marks of
      1. Impression Type - which as its name implies a little    the cartridge case into the primer. This type of cartridge is
more than no longer use.
         a bent. A pry-bar may leave an impression type-mark on 2. Rim-Fire Cartridge- the priming mixture is place in the
a window cavity
         frame to which is applied. The shape and the size of the    formed in the rim of the head of the cartridge case.
mark, 3. Center-Fire Cartridge- the primer cup is force to the middle
         plus irregularities cause by nicks or breaks in the pry-    portion of the head of the cartridge case.
bar, 4. Percussion - a means of ignition of propellant change by a
         may be such as to permit a positive statement as to its    mechanical blow against the primer or percussion cap.
source.       a. Low Power - a cartridge giving a muzzle velocity of less
      2. Striated Tool Mark- is left by a tool scrapping over an          than 1850 ft/sec.
object       b. High Power- a cartridge giving a muzzle velocity of
         or surface softer than him. Thus, a pry-bar which slips between
         1925 and 2500 ft/sec. power model
      c. High Intensity- a cartridge giving a muzzle velocity over     P-35 in 9mm parabellum.He is a person who invented more
         2500 ft/sec.     firearms than any other gun  maker in the history of the
Yaw - the angle between longitudinal axis of a projectile and
the 2. Richard Jordan Gatling - He is the inventor of the Gatling
line of the projectile trajectory. gun.He
    was born on September 12, 1818 at Maney's Neck,NC.He
Zip guns - these may be in any form, since the name has been
died in
    New York city on February 26, 1903.He has a medical
to all homemade guns. A great many of this class will be
found to degree in
be exceedingly clever mechanisms and most effective weapon.     Ohio medical college.He conceived the idea of the rapid fire
    machine gun which is associated with his
Zwilling - European term for a double barreled shoulder arm     name.He succeeded in perfecting the Gatling gun in 1862
with one capable
rifle and one smooth bore barrel.     of discharging 350 shots per minute.

3. Samuel Colt - He was born at Hartford,Connecticut in 1814

The Basics of Firearms and and
    died there in 1862.After leaving school,he worked at his
Ammunition father's
There are 5 General categories of small arms     textile mill.He spent his spare time disassembling and
1. Handguns reassembling
2. Rifles     his father's guns.In 1829,he became a sailor.In 1835,he
3. Shotguns patented
4. Sub-machine guns     his five shot revolver that transformed firearm into a multi-
5. Machine guns shot
handgu rifle shotgu machin
machin 4. John Cantius Garand - He was born on January 1, 1888 in
n s n e gun
e gun Saint
There are 4 Basic Types of Handguns     Remi, Quebec in a french Canadian family.He died On
1. Single shot pistols February 16,
2. Derringers     1974 in Springfield,Massachusetts.He was 11 years old
3. Revolvers when he
4. Auto-loading pistols     came to America speaking little English but fluent in
    quit school and went to work at a textile mill and later
Revolv became a
Auto     machinist at a precision tool company.He took
single shot pistol loading Correspondence
pistol     course in engineering.He is best known for creating the first
Related Readings:     successful semi-automatic rifle,the M1 Garand,to be widely
Ammunition used
Headstamp     in active military service.
Firearms Terminology 5. Horace Smith - He was born in Cheshire,Massachusetts on
History of Firearms     October 28,1808 and died on January 15, 1893.He was a
(timeline)     gunsmith,inventor, and Businessman.He moved to
Definition of Terms Springfield at
Commonly Asked     age four.He joined his father working in the U.S. armory as
Questions an
 Histories     apprentice.He worked his own gun manufacturing
 Online Course business.He
 Reviewer     patented an improvement of the breech-loading
 Web Designs     rifle in 1851 a year before he met Wesson through their
Great American Firearms Inventor work at
    Allen,Brown,and Luther barrel manufacturers.He together
1. John Moses Browning - He was born on January 23, 1855 in with
    Daniel Wesson patented a pistol that used a cartridge with
    Ogden,Utah U.S. where his father settled after the Mormon      powder and lubricant and had a new repeating action which

    exodus of 1847.It was in his   fathers shop that he learned     became the basis for the famous Winchester rifle.
    art and secrets of gunsmithing.He passed away in 6. Daniel Baird Wesson - He was born on May 18, 1825 in
Liege,Belgium in     Worcester, MA and died on August 4, 1906 at Springfield,
    1926 due to heart failure.He is famous for designing MA due
    many firearms but the most famous of his design is the     to heart failure.He apprenticed as a gunsmith under his
colt's 45 elder
    ACP M1911 government model and FN Browning high     brother Rufus and later worked with another gunsmith 
    brother,Frank before partnering with Horace Smith     22, 1938.He committed
    in establishing the Smith and Wesson arms company in     suicide.He is the inventor of the Savage model 99 lever-
1852.He action
    developed a lever-action pistol with a repeating action and     rifle.
    first practical self-primed metallic cartridge.The pistol was 13.William Batterman Ruger - He was born on June 21, 1916
    powerful enough that it was quickly nicknamed volcanic in
followed     Brooklyn, New york and he died on July 6, 2002 in
    by the more famous volcanic rifle.     Prescott,Arizona.In 1938,he came up with a design for what
    eventually became a light machine gun for the United States
7. David Marshall Williams - He was born on November 13,
1900 in     army.
    Cumberland County,North Carolina and he died on January
8, 1975 14.Eliphalet Remington - He was born on October 28, 1793 in
    in Raleigh,North Carolina.He built his first pistol with a reed     Suffield, Connecticut and he died on August 12, 1861 in
    barrel when he was 10 years old.He was imprisoned in Ilion,New
Halifax     York due to heart failure.He was a blacksmith.He can not
    County.After 8 years,he was pardoned.When afford
    World War II broke out,he was working for Winchester     to purchase a rifle which he need so he made his own from
Repeating scrap
    Arms Company in Connecticut.He was famous for designing     iron in his smithing shop and soon hired by neighbors as
a rifle rifle
    with a short stroke gas piston which he had worked in     maker and by 1820,Remington's rifle were sold throughout
prison.He is New
    best remembered for the gun that gave him his     England.He introduced America's first gun barrel made from
nickname,the M1 solid
    carbine.     steel,the popular beal revolver,and the breech-loading gun
8. John Taliaferro Thompson - He was born on December 31,     superseded the conventional muzzle-loading rifle.
    in Newport,Kentucky and he died on June 21, 1940.He was a 15.Robert Parker parrot - He was born on October 5, 1804 in
    Lee,New Hampshire and he died on December 24, 1877 in
    soldier and a United States Military Academy graduate.He Cold
    graduated in 1882.He invented and     Spring,New York.He is a product of the U.S. Military
    developed the Thompson sub-machine gun.After his death Academy
in     class of 1824.During 1860, he produced the Parrot rifle
    1940,the Thompson sub-machine gun began to be used for gun,an
its     innovative rifled cannon which was manufactured in several
    creator's original intended purpose as highly effective and sizes
easily     the largest, the 300 pounder version weighed 26000 lbs.
    carried weapon in trench warfare. and its
    projectile weighed 300 lbs.Parrot guns was extensively
9. Earle Harvey - He designed the T25 rifle while working at     used during the American Civil War by Union and
    Springfield armory.The T25 was later renamed T47.Later on Confederate
T44     armies.
    was created as an alternative to T47.In 1957,U.S. formally  
    adopted the T44 as the U.S. infantry service rifle,designated 16.Hiram Maxim - He was born on February 5, 1840 in
    M14.He is also known as the father of the 7.62 mm NATO Sangerville,
    cartridge.     Maine and he died on November 24, 1916 in London.He was
10.Eugene Morrison Stoner - He was born on November 22,     inventor of the Maxim gun, the first portable fully automatic
    in Gosport,Indiana.He died on April 24, 1997 due to     machine gun.
cancer.He is
    the man most associated with the design of the AR15 17.John marlin - He was born in 1836 in Connecticut and he
    rifle,adopted by the U.S. military as M16. died in
      1901. He apprenticed as a tool and die maker. During the
11.Christian Sharps - He was born on January 2, 1810 in civil war,
    Washington,New Jersey.He died on March 12, 1874 at his     he worked at the Colt plant in Hartford and in 1870,
home in manufactured
    Vernon,Depot due to tuberculosis.He was the inventor of     his own line of revolvers and derringers. He was able,
the first together
    commercially successful breech-loading rifle.At the onset of     with outstanding team of inventors,enduring firearms
the models
    American Civil War,Sharp's rifle was produced in large     known today as models 39 and 336, they are the oldest
quantities. shoulder
    arm designs in the world still being produced.
12.Arthur William Savage - He was born on May 13, 1857 in  
    Kingston,Jamaica, British West Indies and he died on 18.Benjamin Tyler Henry - Born in 1821 and he died in 1898.
September He
    was a gunsmith and inventor of the Henry rifle, the first Class Characteristics are similarities between individuals who
reliable learned
    lever-action repeating rifle the same type of writing systems.

      Individual Characteristics - highly personal or peculiar

to a
Questioned Document Examination       particular writer. Influenced by habit, mindset, personal
Reviewer       preference. It identifies an individual from other writers.

      Types of Individual Characteristics

3rd Century A.D. - The earliest handwriting examination
      1. Skill level - the way a writing looks.
cases reported.
      2. Slant - is the angle of writing.
      3. Form - is the way a writer makes a letter or movement
6th Century - the Roman Emperor Justinian dictated
guidelines for the
         letters. Most basic individual characteristic and is very
use of handwriting comparisons in Roman courts.
         important to QDE.
      4. Movement - is the way a pen moves in order to make a
1873 - the year in which the first commercially successful
mark or
typewriter was introduced.
         form a letter. This can help distinguish the difference in
         form. 2 letters can be the same, but made in a different
Addition - inserting or modifying clause or sentence in a
      5. Proportions - is the symmetry of an individual letter.
to alter its meaning.
      6. Height - is comparing the height of one letter to another.
         Height, proportions are usually habits found in a
      Substitution - replacing original entries or writing with
         specific writer.
      7. “I” Dot
      8. “t” Crossing
Albert Sherman Osborn - became the pre-eminent American
      9. Loops - are similar to proportions.
pioneer in
      10.Pressure - is the difference in ink or pencil in width or
the field when he authored "Questioned Documents," a
         shade. Helps show direction of movement.
seminal work in
      11.Baseline Alignment - The value of this show the
scientific document analysis that remains in print and in use.
         writing in correlation to the baseline. Helps QDE
founded the American Society of Questioned Document
Examiners in 1942.
         determine whether the writing was altered or is
Alfred Dreyfus - A French army officer, accused of treason
         with the rest of the writing or other examples.
      12.Pen Lifts - Pen lifts are when the pen or pencil is lifted
letters found attempting to sell French secrets to Germany.
         from the paper and reapplied to finish a word or
Later found that Dreyfus did not write the letters.
      13.Speed - The speed of a writer is a key indicator for
Alignment - relation of successive characters or letter of a
QDE in
         the examination process. Fast and slow speeds are
signature or line of writing to an actual or imaginary base line.
         to duplicate leaving behind inconsistencies in the
Alphabet - is a standard set of letters (basic written symbols
      14.Embellishments - decorate writing. Usually found in
graphemes) which is used to write one or more languages
based on the
         beginning of word, but can be seen other places.
general principle that the letters represent phonemes (basic
      15.Entry/Exit Strokes -  is the way a writer begins certain
significant sounds) of the spoken language.
         letter or words and can be very specific to an individual.
         Also includes the idea of connecting stokes.
Alteration - any change made on a document before, during,
      16.Retracing - is considered fixing a portion of writing that
or after
         is not readable or pleasing to the writer. In some cases,
its original execution.
         this can indicate forgery but is very common in normal
         handwriting to retrace letters or words.
      Methods of Alteration 
      17.Spelling - is an individual characteristic because of
      1. Mechanical
         education or habits and can be an easy fix to eliminate or
      2. Chemical
         pin point suspects.
      18.Spacing - is the area between letters or words and is
Arrangement - habitual placing and positioning of letters and
         specific to the writer.
      19.Format - is the habit in which a writer uses to depict
Casting - was one method used to produce counterfeit coins in
         things like; Dates, numbers, abbreviations.
and America during the colonial period. Basically it consisted
         Example: The way people write checks
      20.Case - is a characteristic of a writer who might use
melting metal and then pouring the molten liquid into a mold
         case letters where a lower case should be present.
a reservoir in the shape of a coin.
Coin Clipping - shaving off a small portion of a precious
Class Characteristics - common to a group of people.
metal coin
Learned from
for profit.
school or from an individual's parent or tutor.

Coin Mutilation - cutting a portion of a coin.          b. Visualize security features printed into papers;
         c. Use the spectrometer and various built-in light sources
Collected Standard - (Procured Standard)obtained from files for
executed             U.V., visible spectrum and I.R. examinations of ink
in the course of everyday routine. and
            documents to visualise fluorescence; examination with
      Requested Standard - document requested by an             transmitted light or low angle light, and
investigator for recording/comparing
      the purpose of comparative examination.             differences in reflectance, and absorption under
Color Shifting Ink - ink that changes color when viewed in             wavelengths of light and with various filters which will
different             discriminate between different inks.
angles.       4. Electrostatic Detection Apparatus (ESDA) - is an
Connections - links which connect a letter with the one          which can:
following it.          a. Produce an evidential record of any indentations
Counterfeiting - imitate fraudulently for gain. To make a             impressions) which are present upon a page, resulting
copy of, from
usually with the intent to defraud; forge: counterfeits money.             previous pages of over-writing in a writing pad,
Cuneiform - denoting or relating to the wedge-shaped             or upon a letter placed inside an envelope which was
characters used             then addressed.
in the ancient writing systems of Mesopotamia, Persia, and          b. Visualise and record any other transmitted impression,
Ugarit, such
surviving mainly on clay tablets.             as from a machine postal stamp upon an envelope; or
            visualise and record any paper edge impressions of a
Cutting - skillful cutting away of some portions and then             page-portion that was torn from a page within a note-
inserting pad,
new one to fill the gap.             even if the page was removed some time later.

Disguised Writing - is any deliberate attempt to alter one's Erasure - the removal of writing, recorded material, or data.
handwriting to prevent recognition.
EURion Constellation - is a pattern of symbols incorporated
Document - any material that contains marks, symbols, or into a
signs either number of banknote designs worldwide since about 1996. It is
visible, partially visible or invisible that may present or added
ultimately to help imaging software detect the presence of a banknote in
convey a meaning or message to someone. a
digital image.
      Document May Be Questioned With Respect To Its 
      1. Authenticity Exemplars -  Handwriting used as a standard for comparison
      2. Identity with the
      3. Origin document in question. Known authentic writing samples.
      4. Relation among its parts
      5. Relation to other things       Two Types of Exemplars
      1. Requested Writings - (Dictated) are writing samples
      Types of Document Examination taken
      1. Handwriting Comparisons          from someone for the purpose of comparison with a
      2. Ink Examinations questioned
      3. Indented Writing          document.
      4. Alterations       2. Non-Requested Writings - (Undictated)(Collected) these
      5. Paper Analysis are
      6. Photocopy Analysis          examples of the subject's writings that are taken in the
      7. Typewriting          normal course of business or personal transactions.

      Instrument Used In A Questioned Document QD Forensic Document Examination - the practice of the
Laboratory application of
      1. Stereo Microscope - The stereo or stereoscopic or document examination to the purposes of the law.
         microscope is an optical microscope variant designed for Graphology - is the study of handwriting to identify the
low writer's
         magnification observation of a sample, typically using personality traits.
         reflected from the surface of an object rather than Graphologist - Profiles character or personality by drawing
         transmitted through it. conclusions
      2. Light Microscope - light microscope works like a from certain types of characteristics in the handwriting
refracting sample.
         telescope except that the object is very close to the
         objective lens. Handwriting  - refers to a person's writing created with a
      3. Video Spectral Comparator (VSC) - is an apparatus writing
which can: utensil such as a pen or pencil.
         a. Analyse and compare inks: reveal alterations on a
document;       Handwriting Comparison Characteristics
      1. Spacing between letters the center piece of the investigation and the reason for the
      2. Spacing between words arrest
      3. Relative proportions between letters and within letters of the perpetrator.
      4. Individual letter formations
      5. Formations of letter combinations Manuscript - is any document written by hand, as opposed to
      6. The overall slant of the writing being printed
      7. Connecting strokes or reproduced in some other way.
      8. Pen lifts
      9. Beginning and ending strokes Microprinting - is one of many anti-counterfeiting techniques
      10.Unusual flourishes used
      11.Pen pressure most often on currency and bank checks, as well as various
      Character of handwriting items of value. Microprinting involves printing very small
      1. No single handwriting characteristic can in itself be text,
taken usually too small to read with the naked eye, onto the note or
         as the basis for a positive comparison. item.
      2. The final conclusion must be based on a sufficient
number Obliteration - obscuring a document by a series of x-types,
         of common characteristics between the known and haphazard,
questioned lines, blots, and smears.
         writing samples.
      3. There are no hard and fast rules for a sufficient number Offset printing - or web offset printing is a commonly used
of printing
         personal characteristics; it is a judgment call made by the technique in which the inked image is transferred (or "offset")
         expert examiner in the context of each case. from
a plate to a rubber blanket, then to the printing surface.
Henry Mill - was an English inventor who patented the first
typewriter       Letterpress printing - is a technique of relief printing
in 1714. using a
      printing press. A worker composes and locks movable type
Hieroglyph - (Greek for "sacred writing") is a character of the into the
ancient       bed of a press, inks it, and presses paper against it to
Egyptian writing system. Logographic scripts that are transfer
pictographic in       the ink from the type which creates an impression on the
form in a way reminiscent of ancient Egyptian are also paper.
called "hieroglyphs". Pellegrino Turri - an Italian inventor, invented a mechanical
Hologram - a three-dimensional image formed by the machine, one of the first typewriters in 1801 for his blind
interference of lover
light beams from a laser or other coherent light source. Countess Carolina Fantoni da Fivizzano. He also invented
Indented Writing - (second page writing), is the impression paper to provide the ink for his machine.
from the
writing instrument captured on sheets of paper below the one Pen Lift - is the practice of lifting the tip of a pen from a
that writing
contains the original writing. surface. It comes in the form of a disconnection between
letters and
      Electrostatic Detection - indented writing may be letter combinations.
      using this method. Pen Pressure - the proportions of strokes to each other in
width as
Ink - a coloured fluid or paste used for writing, drawing, affected by shading and by unconscious emphasis.
or duplicating. Penmanship - is the technique of writing with the hand using
      Microspectrophotometer - A nondestructive approach to writing instrument. The art or practice of writing with the pen.
      ink lines. It is accomplished with a visible-light Pictograph - a pictorial symbol for a word or phrase.
      microspectrophotometer. Pictographs
were used as the earliest known form of writing, examples
      Thin-layer chromatography is also suitable for ink having been
comparisons. discovered in Egypt and Mesopotamia from before 3000 BC.

Interlineation - insertion between lines or paragraphs. Questioned Document - is any signature, handwriting,
typewriting, or
Juxtaposition - an act or instance of placing close together or other mark whose source or authenticity is in dispute or
side doubtful.
by side, especially for comparison or contrast.
      Most Common Questioned Document
Lindbergh Baby Case - a sensational case of kidnapping for       1. Letters
ransom       2. Checks
resulting in murder of a baby where questioned document       3. Drivers License
examination is       4. Contracts
      5. Wills identification in authorizing a cheque or document or
      6. Voters Registration concluding
      7. Passports a letter. From the latin word "signare" which means "to sign".
      8. Petitions
      9. Threatening Letters       Kinds of Signature
      10.Suicide Notes       1. Formal Signature - signature used on official documents
      11.Lottery Tickets such
         as will or deed of sale.
      Rules in Collecting Questioned Documents       2. Informal Signature - signature used in routine
      1. Original Document Preferred correspondence
      2. QDE must mark all evidence - initial and date.          such as personal letters and other documents where you
         If document cannot be marked it should be placed in want
enveloped          the reader to recognize the signature but the exact
         and sealed with initial and date. spelling
      3. Maintain chain of custody.          of the name isn’t important.
          3. Stylistic Signature - signature used in signing checks,
Questioned Document Examination - The scientific methods credit
of          card receipts, etc. This is also like the famous
identification and examination of questionable documents, “physician’s
handwriting          signature” on a prescription. It is often highly stylistic
examination, detection of forgery, falsification and          and looks like a scribble with little that would be
counterfeiting of          recognizable as a signature.
documents which stress the procedures of restoring and
deciphering Signature Forgery - refers to the act of falsely replicating the
erasures and obliteration's; examination of documents by signature of another person.
means of
visible light, ultra-violet light and ultra-red radiation and       Popular Methods of Forging Signature
colored       1. Freehand Method -  whereby the forger, after careful
powders; recognition and selection of standards; and practice,
examination of          replicates the signature by freehand. Although a difficult
questionable typewriting, computerized documents and other          method to perfect, this often produces the most
forms of convincing results.
modern printing.       2. Trace-Over Method - the sheet of paper containing the
Retracing - any writing stroke which goes back over another          signature is placed on top of the paper where the forgery
writing is
stroke.          required. The signature is traced over, appearing as a
Rhythm - the balanced quality of movement, producing a          indentation on the sheet of paper underneath. This
natural result indentation
not constrained nor artificial.          can then be used as a guide for a signature.

Rubric and Embellishment - the additional and unnecessary             Methods of Signature Tracing
stroke             1. Carbon Outline Method - carbon paper inserted
incorporated in writing for decorative or ornamental purposes. between
               original and false document.
Samuel Willard Soulé - (January 25,1830-July 12,1875)             2. Indentation Process - original document is placed
along with over
Christopher Sholes and Carlos Glidden invented the first                false one under it, to be traced later using a pen or
practical                pencil.
typewriter at a machine shop located in Milwaukee,             3. Transmitted Light Process - a light source is placed
Wisconsin,                under a light, the original document is placed under
in 1869. the
               false one. The light source will illuminate both
Security fibers - are embedded in the paper during                documents so that the writings on the original
manufacture and document
are non-reproducible.                will be seen and traceable on the false one.

Security Thread - is a security feature of many banknotes to       Characteristics That May Suggest Presence of Forgery
protect       1. Shaky handwriting
against counterfeiting, consisting of a thin ribbon that is       2. Pen lifts            
threaded       3. Signs of retouching
through the note's paper.       4. Letter proportions
      5. Very close similarity between two or more signatures
Shading and Pen Position - the increase in width of stroke
brought by       Kinds of Forgery of Signatures
variations in writing pressure.       1. Simple Forgery - (spurious forgery) signing of a
document in
Sholes and Glidden Type-Writer - the first commercially          his own or in a modified handwriting. Easy to detect
successful once
typewriter.          standards of genuine signatures are obtained.
      2. Simulated Forgery - (freehand forgery) the copying or
Signature - a person's name written in a distinctive way as a imitation
form of          of a signature.
      Indicators of Forgery           different languages or fonts. Instead of using a bar mold
      1. Blunt starts and stops for
      2. Pen lifts and hesitations          the type (called a type bar), single-element typewriters
      3. Tremor use
      4. Speed and Pressure          type wheels, type sleeves or type shuttles for molds. The
      5. Patching          most popular single-element was the Hammond type-
Slant - slope of writing in relation to the base line.          typewriter produced in 1884.
      3. Type-bar typewriters, as the name suggests, use type
Spacing -  is a blank area devoid of content, serving to bars,
separate words,          or molds of iron shaped like bars, for their types. Type
letters, numbers, and punctuation. bars
         are the most common kind of typewriter and the original
Striking - (stamping) making an impression of a coin on a          invented by Sholes, Glidden and Soule was a type-bar
metal blank          typewriter.
by pressure using steel dies.       4. Index typewriters - were far less costly in the pre-
Superimposition - placing or laying of one document over          era, but also less useful. An index typewriter required
another that
in a way that it appears as a single image. The placement of an          users first input what key they would like, and then
image or video on top of an already-existing image or video, perform
usually          another action (usually pressing a lever) to print the
to add to the overall image effect, but also sometimes to letter
conceal something.          to a page. Usually these didn't use type bars, but instead
         type wheels, type shuttles, type plates and even more
Terminal - The end of a writing stroke. novel
         types. Examples of the index typewriter are the
      Initial Stroke - the beginning of a writing stroke. American
         Visible, first manufactured in 1901, and the French
Tremor - deviation from uniform stroke brought about by Virotyp
lack of          of 1914.
smoothness.       5. Teletype Typewriters - (Teleprinters) came on the scene
      Kinds of Tremors           the mid-1950s and peaked in popularity in the 1960s.
      1. Genuine Tremors - caused by age, illiteracy, weakness. They
      2. Tremor of Fraud          were used mostly for communicating information from
Typebar - one of the bars on a typewriter that bears type for          to point, much as modern fax machines are used. Most
printing. non-IBM
         computers had teletype terminals. Teletypes were
Typewriter - is a mechanical or electro-mechanical machine completely
for writing          mechanical and thus required regular lubrication; they
in characters similar to those produced by printer's movable didn't
type          have type bars in the strictest sense and instead used
by means of keyboard-operated types striking a ribbon to          plastic gears to print messages.
transfer       6. Electric Typewriters - The most modern typewriter, still
ink or carbon impressions onto the paper.          used today, is the electric typewriter, most notably IBM
         models such as the Selectric. The electric typewriter
      Carriage Return -  referred to a mechanism or lever on a          minimized the force necessary to print out a message by
typewriter.          using a motor and type ball to print letters on paper.
      It was used after typing a line of text and caused the
assembly Vignette - a small illustration or portrait photograph which
      holding the paper (the carriage) to return to the right so fades
that into its background without a definite border.
      the machine was ready to type again on the left-hand side
of Watermark - a faint design made in some paper during
      the paper (assuming a left-to-right language). manufacture that
is visible when held against the light and typically identifies
      Typeface - the printing surface of the type block. The the maker.
      popular type are pica and elite. Writing - is a medium of communication that represents
      Pica - 10 characters per inch through the inscription of signs and symbols.

      Elite - 12 characters per inch       Cursive Writing - also known as script, joined-up writing,
      joint writing, running writing, or handwriting is any style
      Types of Typewriters of
      1. Keyboard typewriter - is the simplest kind of typewriter,       penmanship in which the symbols of the language are
         functioning from the QWERTY formation of letters and written in
having       a conjoined and/or flowing manner, generally for the
         a type (a metallic cast with letters molded into it) that's purpose of
         attached by a bar or rod.       making writing faster.
      2. Single-element typewriter - enable the user to print data
      Writing Speed - Classified Into 4 Divisions       questions. Those who blushed were selected for the job. It
      1. Slow and Drawn was
      2. Deliberate       believed that if a person blushed in response to
      3. Average provocative
      4. Rapid       questions, he would not participate in plots.

      Ancient Sparta - Before being admitted to certain schools

      young men were required to pass the selection criteria. The
Polygraphy (Lie Detection) Reviewer       young men were ordered to stand on the edge of a cliff,
and were
1875 - The earliest attempt at a scientific approach to the       asked if they were afraid. The answer was always
development negative;
of diagnostic instrumentation for lie detection, when the       however its integrity was determined by the men’s
Italian complexion.
physiologist, Angelo Mosso (1846-1910), began studies of       It was concluded that the pale young men lied and they
fear and its were
influence on the heart and respiration. The fear of being       pushed from the cliff.
detected was
considered an essential element of deception. Through his       Nervous Behavior - if the subject look down and moved
research his toe
Mosso demonstrated that blood pressure, blood volume, and       in a circular motion while being interrogated, he was
pulse thought
frequency changed depending on changes in emotions of a       to be deceptive. This was later diagnosed as nervous
tested behaviorism.
subject. From records of pulsation, Mosso was able to       Nervous individuals were stereotyped as being deceptive.
persons who were afraid from those who were tranquil.       The Ordeal of Rice - was commonly utilized as a lie
detector in
1915 - the year Dr.Marston developed the discontinuous       ancient China. Suspect was required to chew a mouthful of
systolic blood dry
pressure test which would later become one component of the       rice and then spit it out. If the rice was moist, the suspect
modern       was judged innocent. If the rice was dry, the suspect was
polygraph. judged
      guilty. The tension of guilt supposedly caused a cessation
1992 - the polygraph made its official entrance into the of
computer age.       salivary glands secretion of fluids.

1997 - considered the year of birth of lie detection in Ukraine.       The Ordeal of the Hot iron - in Africa, the suspect had a
18th Century - the era conducive to developing technical       iron placed on his tongue, if the suspect's tongue was not
means of       burned, he was judged innocent, if the suspect's tongue
detecting deception, subsequently named: lie detector, was
variograph,       burned, he was judged guilty. The tension of guilt
polygraph, emotional stress monitor, deceptograph, to name a supposedly
few.       caused a cessation of salivary secretions which would
allow the
African Tribes - have utilized their own method of detecting       tongue to be burned.
a guilty
person. While performing a special dance around a suspected       The Ordeal of the Sacred Donkey - around 1500 BC in
individual, India,
a sorcerer intensely sniffed him. The "investigator" made a       Indian priests paints a donkey's tail with carbon residue
conclusion from
whether the suspect committed the crime based upon the       an oil lamp and placed the animal in a dark tent. The
intensity of suspects
his body odor.       were sent into the tent and told that pulling the "magic"
      donkey's tail would reveal the liar (if a guilty man pulls his
Alexander R. Luria - (1902-1977) a Soviet       tail, the donkey will bray). When the suspects came out,
neuropsychologist, who the
initiated  the research on the psycho-physiological diagnostic       priests examined their hands. Those with clean hands had
instrumentation methods in criminal investigations which not
began in       touched the donkey's tail. It was assumed that this was due
the 1920s. He used reaction time measures to study thought       to the suspects’ fear of their guilt being discovered,
processes proving
and developed a psychodiagnostic procedure he referred to as       they were liars.
"combined motor method" for diagnosing individual subject's Angelo Mosso - an Italian Physiologist, he used an instrument
thought called
processes. He did not use an instrument in his study. plethysmograph in his research on emotion and fear in
Ancient Methods of Lie Detection undergoing questioning and he studied the effects of these
      Ancient Rome - bodyguard candidates were asked on their cardiovascular and respiratory activity.
      Plethysmograph - from the Greek word "Plethysmos" - 3. Question Formulation - Question formulation should be
increase or conduced in
      enlargement and "grapho" - write or record, is an    accordance with established standards and techniques.
instrument for Unless
      recording and measuring variation in the volume of a part    specifically required by the nature of the issue being
of resolved,
      the body, especially as caused by changes in blood    no questions regarding morals or the intimate details of a
pressure. person’s
   personal life will be asked.
Anti–Climax Dampening - The principle of psychological 4. Test Construction - The use and placement of test questions
focus which within
holds that a person will establish an emotional priority for that    the question sequence must adhere to and be in accordance
stimulus which he perceives to represent the greatest threat to with
his    those techniques generally recognized and widely accepted
well being. within
   the polygraph profession.
Anxiety - A state of mental uneasiness or concern. Abnormal 5. Stimulation Test - The “stim” test is optional. It may be
apprehension    conducted either as the first polygraph chart or inserted
or fear, often accompanied by psychological signs, behavior between
symptoms or    polygraph charts. The fact that an individual has been
doubt concerning the nature and reality of a threat; real or previously
imagined.    examined, perhaps even by the same polygraphist], does not
Unfounded self–doubt. negate
   the use of the “stim” test.
Apnea - The transient cessation of breathing which follows 6. Review of Test Questions - Under no circumstances will
forced any test
breathing. On a polygraph chart, apnea is generally    be administered without a prior, thorough review of all test
represented by    questions with the examinee.
a blocking pattern in the pneumograph tracing. 7. Administering The Polygraph Charts
      a. After applying pressure to the blood pressure cuff at the
Applied Stimulus - An intentionally applied external          time of the test, the polygraphist should be able to
stimulus, announce
normally in the form of a question, directed to a person under          the beginning of the test with minimum delay.
going       b. Test questions should be usually spaced at not less than
a polygraph examination. An applied stimulus may be          15 second intervals.
employed for the       c. The administering of the polygraph examination shall be
purpose of demonstrating a persons response capabilities at          conducted in accordance with established standards and
the time          techniques which are taught by the accredited schools.
the stimulus is applied. 8. Chart Interpretation - Chart interpretation is the final key to
   a valid polygraph examination. Under no circumstances is it
Associated Research Inc. - in Chicago, manufactured the 1st    permitted that a AzPa polygraphist overlook or ignore the
commercial    established, basic concepts of chart interpretation taught in
polygraph instrument for Leonarde Keeler.    all accredited polygraph schools.

Autonomic Nervous System - That part of the peripheral Behavior Symptoms - Those subjectively observable non-
nervous system verbal
consisting of the sympathetic and the parasympathetic nervous manifestations of a person at the time of an applied stimulus
system. which
may or may not be indicative of that person’s veracity.
Axon - The central core which forms the essential conducting
part of Blood Pressure Change - The visual representation of an
a nerve fiber. An extension from and a part of the cytoplasm increase or
of some decrease in blood pressure or volume on a polygraph chart by
nerve cells. the
cardio component of a polygraph instrument.
Backster Zone Comparison Technique -  a polygraph
technique which Cardio-Sphygmo-graph - Heart/pressure/recording. The
primarily involved an alteration of the Reid question tracing on a
sequencing. polygraph chart, made by a pen moved by a bellows device in
Basic Polygraph Examination Requirements with a closed air pressurized circuit and an in-line
1. The Examining Room - Polygraph examinations should be cardiosphygmomanometer, which reflects blood pressure and
conducted in radial pulse
   a quiet. private room. Under normal circumstances only the in response to an applied stimulus.
   polygraphist and examines are permitted in the examining
room. Cardiosphygmomanometer -  An in-line pressure dial in a
2. Pre-Test Interview - The examination actually begins with closed air
the first pressurized circuit capable of representing the pressure in that
   contact between the examinee and the polygraphist. The pre- circuit in units of millimeters of mercury.
   interview is vital to a proper polygraph examination. and no Cardiovascular System - Those portions of an organism
   examination will be administered by any AzPa member which contain
without an the heart, arteries, veins and capillaries. The functional means
   adequate pre-test interview. by
which blood is transported throughout the body. related
to the issue being resolved, and should be of slightly less
Cerebellum - That portion of the brain which projects over weight
the medulla than the relevant questions.
and is especially concerned with the coordination of muscular
activity Control Question Technique (CQT) - a polygraph technique
and body equilibrium. that
incorporated control questions (comparison) which were
Cerebrum - The enlarged front and upper part of the brain designed to be
which contains emotionally arousing for non-deceptive subjects and less
the higher nervous centers. emotionally
arousing for deceptive subjects than the relevant questions
Cesare Lombroso (1835-1909) was the first in 1895 to previously used.
experiment with a
device, measuring blood pressure and pulse, to detect Counter Measures - Deliberate chemical, mental or physical,
deception in attempts
criminal suspects and noted increased blood pressure by an examinee to affect the polygraph tracings or the final
following outcome
relevant questions when put to some subjects. He called it a of a polygraph examination.
Cuff pressure - The air pressure in the inflatable bladder in
Chart - The graphic recorded representations of a persons the
psychophysiological responses to a set of carefully controlled blood pressure cuff as indicated on the sphygmomanometer of
stimuli presented to him in the form of a valid and reliable the
question polygraph instrument in units of millimeters of mercury.
Daniel Defoe - a British novelist who in 1730 wrote an essay
Christian Hans Stoelting - founded the stoelting company, entitled
now a "An Effectual Scheme for the Immediate Preventing of Street
Manufacturer and distributor of research instrumentation Robberies
including and Suppressing all Other Disorders of the Night", wherein he
physiology and biofeedback for scientific research plus recommended that taking the pulse of a suspicious fellow was
psychological a
and educational tests. practical, effective and humane method for distinguishing
      Stoelting Company - Stoelting invented the first modern from lying.
      polygraph in 1935.
Deception - the act of making someone believe something that
Chart Identification - Any information placed on a polygram is
which not true.
identified the person examined, the polygraphist conducting
the Dendrites - An extension or process of a neuron which serves
examination as well as any other data, time and place of the to conduct
examination, including the signature of the examinee, if impulses toward the cell body.
Dick Arther - refined the Reid Control Question Technique
Cleve Backster -  he founded the CIA's polygraph unit shortly with his
after known Lie and Probable Lie Question Technique and the Guilt
World War II. He also founded the longest running polygraph Complex
school Question. This Became known as Arther's Technique.
in the world. He developed the Backster Zone Comparison
Technique Dicrotic Notch - graphic representation within the cardio
(ZCT). tracing on
a polygraph chart caused by a backward surge of blood against
Control Stimulation Test -  A modified peak of tension test the
used to semi-lunar valve in the left ventricle of the heart.
relax the non-deceptive examinee and stimulate the deceptive
examinee Distortion - change in polygraph tracings caused by artifact
by empirical evidence of the effectiveness of the polygraph stimulus.
technique. A disturbance of normal polygraph tracings not attributable to
Control Question - That question within a structured intended stimulus within a test structure.
technique which
is broad in scope and depth, generally limited by mutually Dr. Joseph F. Kubis - of Fordham University in New York
exclusive City, was the
time parameter, which relates to a wrong doing of the same first researcher to use potential computer applications for the
general purpose of polygraph chart analysis in the late 1970's.
nature as the one under investigation, and one to which the
examiner Dr. Marie Gabriel Romain Vigouroux (1831-1911) a
will, in all probability, lie or to which his answer will be of French electrotherapy
dubious validity in his own mind. specialist was first to discover in 1879 the phenomenon we
      - A question to which the examinee’s answer will be a now know
known lie as Electrodermal Response.
or a probable lie. This question is similar in nature but not
      Electrodermal Response - human body phenomenon in emergency
which the body, state of preparedness for the sake of survival.
      mainly the skin, involuntarily changes resistance
electrically Forensic Psychophysiology -  Modern term for polygraph
      upon the application of certain external stimuli. examination.

      Scientists Who Contributed to the electrodermal Galvanograph - elecrtrical Current recording, known as the
response research GSR, galvanic
      1. Ivan R. Tarchanoff (1846-1908) Georgian skin response and galvanic skin conductance.
      2. Charles Samson Fere (1852-1907) French
      3. Georg Sticker (1860-1960) German Galvanometer - measures the small differences in electrical
      4. Otto Veraguth (1870-1944) Swiss resistance and any shifts in a subject’s anxiety.

Dyspena - Abnormal breathing characterized by either labored Ganglia -  Groups of nerve cell bodies found in the autonomic
breathing, plexuses
shortness of breath, suppression or serrated exhalation. composed primarily of sympathetic postganglionic neurons.

Efferent Nerve Fibers - Those neural fibers which carry Guilt Complex -  A group of associated ideas or attitudes
impulses away which have a
from the central nervous system. common emotional tone of feelings of universal responsibility.
Ego Defense Mechanism - Those psychological defenses ideas or attitudes may be conscious or unconscious; however,
used by a person they
to shield himself against that which he perceives to represent a may significantly influence an individuals behavior or
threat to his immediate well-being. psychophysiological responses when confronted with an
Endocrine Glands - Those ductless glands which discharge
their       Guilt Complex Question - A question included in a
secretions directly into the blood stream. In general, the structured
endocrine       polygraph test designed to identify a person who may be
glands coordinate and control body activities at a slower rate       inappropriately responding to relevant and control
than questions
the nervous system and thus promote long term adjustments.       due to a guilt complex. This question is usually one which
      concerns a nonexistent crime or circumstance which an
Enveloping Question - A question used at the beginning and examinee
end of a       is led to believe did exist in which he is suspect but which
searching peak of tension test which deals with an issue or       he knows he could not have committed.
which is beyond the realm of possibility of the information       Guilt Complex Question -  A question about a fictitious
being incident
sought.       of individual. and of a similar nature and weight as the
Eupnea - Regular or normal breathing.       being resolved.

Examinee -  An individual who has volunteered for and Sticker - one of the first to suggest the use of EDA, galvanic
undergoes a skin response as an indicator of deception.
polygraph examination.
Hidden Key - An item of evidence known only to the victim,
Excitability - The potential ability of a neuron to respond to perpetrator,
any investigator and polygraphist.
given stimulus.
Homestasis - The tendency of an organism to maintain a state
Expert Opinion - A statement reflecting the results of the of
evaluation equilibrium between interrelated psychological and
of a polygraph chart. psysiological stimuli.

Extrasystole - A premature contraction of the heart which is Hydrosphygmograph - (water pressure recording) a device
independent of the normal rhythm and which arises in consisting
response to an of a cylinder containing water and connected with a
impulse in some part of the heart other than the sino-auricular registering tube,
node, used to record the amount of blood forced with each pulsation
or from some abnormal stimulus. An extra systole appears in into a
the cardio limb in cased in the apparatus.
tracing of a polygraph chart as a break in the normal rhythm of
the heart. Hypnosis - alteration of consciousness and concentration,
Fight or Flight Syndrome - The activation of involuntary manifest heightened suggestability, not admissible in court.
neural activity upon conscious recognition of a threat to the Hypothalamus - That portion of the brain which contains
immediate well-being of an organism. A group of neural centers for
symptoms which the regulation of body temperatures, sleep and water balance.
enable an organism to cope with a stressful or threatening It
situation also appears to be the center for the integration of emotions,
by taking that organism from a normal relaxed state to an visceral activity and neural impulses which trigger the
sympathetic Leonarde Keeler - in 1926, modified the polygraph
division of the autonomic nervous system. instrument designed
by John Larson by adding a device that measured electrical
Irrelevant Question - is intended to be an innocuous. skin
harmless conductivity or electrodermal response. He also  founded the
question, having no particular relationship to the issue being world's
resolved and which can unequivocally be answered truthfully. first polygraph school, the Keeler Polygraph Institute in
      Primary Relevant Question - The key question regarding Illinois in 1948. Considered the father of modern polygraph.
the direct
      act of committing an offense. Lie - is an intentionally false statement to a person or group
      Secondary Relevant Question - A question pertaining to by another person or group who knows it is not wholly the
pertinent truth.
      aspects of the issue. to which a guilty or knowledgeable
person       Kinds of Lie
      would be expected to respond significantly.       1. White or Benign Lie - lie to preserve harmony of
Jacques-Arsène d'Arsonval (June 8,1851–December       2. Pathological Lie - can not tell right from wrong.
31,1940) was a French       3. Red Lie - communist propaganda
physician, physicist, and inventor of the moving-coil       4. Black Lie - lie to dishonor or to discredit
D'Arsonval       5. Malicious/Judicial Lie -misleading or lie to obstruct
galvanometer and the thermocouple ammeter. D'Arsonval was justice.
an important       6. Fabrication - misrepresentation of truth
contributor to the emerging field of electrophysiology, the       7. Bold-Face Lie - obviously lying
study of       8. Lying by Omission - omission of important facts
the effects of electricity on biological organisms, in the       9. Lie to Children - to gain acceptance to children
19th century.       10.Noble Lie - to maintain law and order
      11.Emergency Lie - to prevent harm to third party
John Augustus Larson - was a Police Officer for Berkeley,       12.Perjury - false testimony under oath
California,       13.Bluffing - pretense of capability/intention one does not
United States, and famous for his invention of modern possess
polygraph used       14.Jocose Lie - meant to be jest, teasing and sarcasm
in forensic investigations. He was the first American police       15.Contextual lie - stating part of truth out of context
officer       16.Promotion lie - incredible advertisements
having an academic doctorate and to use polygraph in criminal
investigations.       Type of Liars
      1. Panic Liars
John E. Reid - a lawyer from Chicago, Illinois, developed the       2. Occupational Liars
Control       3. Tournament Liars
Question Technique (CQT) in 1947. Also called the "father of       4. Psychopathic Liars
Controls".       5. Ethological Liars
      6. Pathological Liars
      Reid Control Question Technique - inserted a surprise       7. Black Liars
      question in the relevant/irrelevant technique. Luigi Galvani - an Italian Physician and Physiologist who in
Keeler Polygraph - It became the most widely used accidentally discovered that a dissected frog leg would twitch
polygraph in the and
world for the next three decades. contract at the touch of a scalpel charged with electricity. He
discovered that current or galvanic electricity flowed through
Known Peak of Tension Test - This is a series of similar type animal
questions tissue.
containing only one relevant question. known to the
polygraphist. Mechanical Adjustment - The manual centering of the ink
pens on a
      Searching Peak of Tension Test - A series of questions polygraph instrument in order to maintain the individual
wherein component
      the relevant questions are not known to the polygraphist. tracings within their appropriate physical parameters.

Kymograph - An instrument for recording variations in Medula Oblongata - The lowest or hindmost part of the brain
pressure, as continuous
of the blood, or in tension, as of a muscle, by means of a pen with the spinal cord. Contains centers of respiratory, cardio
or inhibitory,
stylus that marks a rotating drum at a constant speed. cardio acceleratory, vasoconstrictor, vasodilator, swallowing,
Lafayette Instrument Company - founded in 1947 by Max and vomiting.
(1915-1990), located in Lafayette, Indiana, USA, dominates Midbrain - The middle segment of the brain containing the
the centers for
international polygraph market. It is the unconditional global certain visual and auditory reflexes.
in the manufacture and sale of lie detectors. Middle Ages - a suspect's pulse rate readings were collected
determining his or her guilt. This method was employed for Outside Issue - A circumstance unrelated to the primary issue
exposing which
unfaithful wives and their lovers. The testing technique was poses a greater threat to the immediate well-being of the
very examinee
simple. A trained individual placed a finger on a wrist of a than does the primary relevant issue.
suspected of infidelity, while mentioning names of the men, Padding Questions - Those questions placed before and after
who could the known
have had an intimate relationship with her. The examinee's relevant question in a known peak of tension test. Padding
pulse questions
accelerated when she heard and, consequently, reacted to the are similar in nature to the known relevant question and fall
name within
of her lover. the realm of possibility of the information being sought.

Name Test - A controlled peak of tension test utilized to Parasysmpathetic Nervous System -  That part of the
establish autonomic nervous
an examinee’s response capability to a known lie in which the system which tends to induce secretion, to increase the tone
name and
of a person upon whom the examinee places emotional contractibility of smooth muscle and to channel the dilation of
significance is blood vessels. That division of the autonomic nervous system
used as a known peak of tension. responsible for the normal “house keeping functions of the
Nerves - Those strands of tissue which specialize in the i.e. digestion and body temperature.
of impulses to and from the brain and spinal cord and all parts Peripheral Nervous System - That portion of the nervous
of system lying
the body. outside the central nervous system.

Neuron - A single nerve cell. Plethsysmograph - The tracing on a polygraph chart made by
a pen moved
Neutral Question - A question which does not pertain to the by a photo-optical system controlled by an examinee’s
issue under psychophysiological responses to controlled stimuli.
investigation the answer to which recognized as universally
correct Pneumograph — breathing/recording, from the Greek word
by both the examinee and the polygraphist. A neutral question "Pneuma" - air
is or breath and "Grapho" - write or record, a device that
intended to elicit a minimal response from the examinee and recorded a
provide subject's breathing patterns.
the polygraphist with a valid graphic representation of the
examinee’s non-stress response patterns. Polygram - One or more polygraph charts. The cumulative
Numerical Evaluation - A valid and reliable system of representations of an examinee’s psychophysiological
numerical responses to a
evaluation which employs a consistent set of values to set of controlled stimuli presented to him in the form of a
describe the properly
observable physiological responses graphically represented on constructed question technique upon which an expert opinion
a is formed.
polygraph chart.
Polygraph - a machine designed to detect and record changes
Opinion - The expert conclusion expressed by a qualified in
polygraphist physiological characteristics, such as a person's pulse and
concerning the veracity of the statements made by examinee. breathing
rates, used especially as a lie detector.
Otto Veraguth - was a Swiss neurologist. In the 1900s he
published a       Polygraph Machine Measure and Record the ff:
study of a phenomenon he called "psychogalvanic reflex"       1. Blood Pressure
associated       2. Heart Rate
with observed changes in the electrical properties of the skin.       3. Respiration
In       4. Skin Conductivity
his research he noticed that emotional stimuli caused greater
deflections (higher readings) on a galvanometer that was Polygraphist - An individual who, by virtue of his education,
connected training
to the skin via electrodes than did neutral stimuli. He used the and experience, is capable of conducting a valid and reliable
galvanomenter in conjunction with word-association tests. polygraph examination for the purpose of determining whether
or not
      Psychogalvanic Reflex - also called galvanic skin an examinee honestly believes that his own statements and
response, a answers
      change in the electrical properties of the body following concerning a questioned issue are in fact truthful.
      stimulation, stimulation that produces emotional reaction Polygraph Examination - The entire environment within
and to which a
      some extent, stimulation that attracts the subject's attention qualified polygraphist renders an expert opinion as to the
      and leads to an aroused alertness. veracity
of an examinee’s statements concerning the primary issue of
the galvanic skin resistance during questioning, and in doing so,
matter under investigation. thus
signaling the birth of the polygraph as we know it today.
Polygraph Examiner - interpret the charts generated by the
polygraph Psychological Set - The theory which holds that a person’s
machine. Polygraph came from the Greek word "polys" - fears,
many writings anxieties and apprehensions will be directed toward that
and "grapho" write. situation
which presents the greatest immediate threat to his self-
Polygraph Chart - is one continuous set of test questions preservation
recorded on or general well-being; generally to the exclusion of all other
paper by the polygraph instrument. less
threatening circumstances within his environment.
PolyScore - a software program which used a sophisticated
mathematical Psychosis - A form of sever personality disorder involving
algorithm to analyze the polygraph data and to estimate a loss of
probability contact with reality, generally characterized by delusions and
or degree of deception or truthfulness in a subject. hallucinations.
      - is a computerized polygraph chart scoring algorithm that
uses Question Spacing - The elapsed time (not less than 15
statistical probability to arrive at truthfulness or deception. It seconds) between
has been shown that validated algorithms have exceeded 98 an answer given by an examinee and the following question
percent asked by
in their accuracy to quantify, analyze and evaluate the the polygraphist during a polygraph test.
data collected from polygraph examinations administered in Receptors - Those specialized cells sensitive to incoming
real stimuli.
criminal cases.
Reflex Action - The cumulative product of stimulus, receptor,
      Dr. Dale E. Olsen and John C. Harris - statisticians at afferent
Johns nerve, connecting neuron, efferent nerve and effector action. A
      Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, in simple
Maryland, reflex arc.
      completed a software program called PolyScore in 1993.
Refractory Period - That period of time in which a neuron is
Pons - A band of nerve fibers in the brain connecting the lobes unable
of the to conduct an impulse.
cerebellum, the medulla and the cerebrum.
Reid Polygraph - was the first instrument to use a movement
Pre-Employment Examination - An examination in which sensor to
an individual is detect subject movement during the examination. Besides
tested regarding the truthfulness and accuracy of an recording
employment blood pressure, pulse, respiration, and GSR, this new
application. along with other background areas, which aids the polygraph
employer in selecting the most qualified individual for a recorded muscular activity in the forearms, thighs, and feet
position thanks
within the organization. to metal bellows placed under the arms and seat of the
Pre-Examination Interview - That portion of a polygraph chair.
during which information is obtained by the polygraphist from Relevant Question - That question within a structured
the polygraph test
examinee regarding the facts and circumstances which from which pertains directly to the matter under investigation.
the basis
of the examination and from which the polygraphist develops       Irrelevant Question - is intended to be an innocuous,
appropriate questions for the polygraph technique to be harmless
employed.       question, having no particular relationship to the issue
Psychogalvanic Skin Response - The recordable changes of       resolved. and which can unequivocally be answered
body tissue truthfully.
polarization (neural discharge), sweat gland activity or
circulatory       Primary Relevant Question - The key question regarding
variations which occur as the result of work, emotion or a the direct
combination       act of committing an offense.
of either. In polygraphy, these changes are recorded on a
polygraph       Secondary Relevant Question - A question pertaining to
chart by a pen attached to a galvanometer driven by the pertinent
variations       aspects of the issue. to which a guilty or knowledgeable
of electrical conductivity introduced into a Wheatstone Bridge person
by       would be expected to respond significantly.
the body tissues of an examinee.
          Control Question - A question to which the examinee’s
Psychogalvanometer — a component that measured changes answer will
in a subject's       be a known lie or a probable lie. This question is similar in
      nature but not related to the issue being resolved, and whereby
should analysis of response capability may be made at each location
      be of slightly less weight than the relevant questions. on a
polygraph chart wherein a relevant question is either preceded
      Guilt Complex Question - A question about a fictitious by
incident or followed by a control question.
      of individual. and of a similar nature and weight as the
issue Super Dampening - The principle of psychological focus
      being resolved. which holds
that if a person considers an outside issue to be a greater threat
Relevant/Irrelevant (R/I) questioning - a mixture of to his well-being than the main relevant issue, and that if he
questions relevant anticipates an unreviewed question concerning this outside
to the crime (for example, Do you own a knife?) and irrelevant issue,
questions he may tune out all relevant and control questions by forcing
are asked (for example, Are you twenty years old?).  The basis his
for this psychological set on the outside issue. The presence of an
type of questioning was that an innocent person has a similar outside
physiological issue usually results in poor responses or no responses.
response to both types of questions, but a guilty person would
react Stimulation Test - Verifies for the examiner that the
more strongly to the crime-relevant questions. examinee is
testable. and aids in convincing the examinee that the
Residual Air - That volume of air which remains in the lungs polygraph
after the instrument works, and will work on him.
deepest possible exhalation.
Suppression - An involuntary reduction in the amplitude of
Sacrifice Relevant Question - A question used in the Zone the
comparison pneumograph and cardiograph tracings in response to a
Test designed for the intended to dissipate initial tension stressful
anticipated by an examinee in response to the target issue. stimulus.

Searching Peak Of Tension Test - a polygraph test in which Sympathetic Nervous System - That part of the autonomic
a series nervous
of questions, usually similar in nature and scope, are asked system which tends to depress secretion, decrease the tone and
and in contractibility of muscle not under direct voluntary control,
which the answer to only one of them may evoke a response and
from the cause the contraction of blood vessels.
Symptomatic Question - A question contained within a
Screening Examination - is one in which, without any structured
specific question technique which is designed to identify the presence
allegation, an individual is examined to verify his/her honesty, of
integrity and conduct as an employee. an outside issue upon which a person may be focusing during
Specific Examination - is one in which there is one specific course of a polygraph examination.
issue to
be resolved, ex. theft, burglary, robbery murder, etc.       Symptomatic Question - A question use to determine it
Sensor - Any attachment made to the human body for the       outside issue is of such concern to the examinee that it
purpose of       tends to damage expected responses to relevant questions.
measuring and/or recording a psychophysiological response
during a Synapsis - The chemical junctions where nerve impulses pass
polygraph test. from one
neuron to another.
Specific Response - A deviation from an examinee’s normal
state of System - A group of body organs which combine to form a
homeostasia as evidenced by the tracings on a polygraph whole and to
chart. cooperate for the purpose of carrying on some vital function.
Consideration must be given to overall chart interpretation
with Test Technique - A valid and reliable question structure
emphasis on the nature of the questions asked, the sequential employed
position of the question within the structure used and the by a qualified polygraphist for the purpose of verifying an
manner in examinee’s statements or answers during a polygraph
which the question was presented to the examinee. examination.
The sequential order in which questions are asked during a
Sphygmomanometer - or blood pressure meter (also referred polygraph
to as a examination. The foundation of expert opinion.
sphygmometer) is a device used to measure blood pressure,
composed of Thalamus - The middle part of the brain through which
an inflatable cuff to restrict blood flow, and a mercury or sensory
mechanical impulses pass to reach the cerebral cortex.
manometer to measure the pressure.
Tidal Volume -  The volume of air moved in or out of the
Spot Analysis Technique - A system of chart interpretation lungs with
each respiratory cycle. changes
      in the muscles after death, causing the limbs of the corpse
Veraguth - was one of the first to make word-association tests to
with       become stiff and difficult to move or manipulate.
the galvanometer.
      Importance Of Rigor Mortis
Vittorio Benussi - an Italian Psychologist who in 1914       - Rigor mortis is utilized to approximate the time of death.
discovered a         Generalized muscular contractionsoccur from 3 to 6
method for calculating the quotient of the inhalation to hours
exhalation         until 36 hours.
time as a means of verifying the truth and detecting deception
in Autopsy - a post-mortem examination to discover the cause of
a subject. Benussi measured and recorded breathing by means death or
of an the extent of disease. Autopsy is derived from the Greek word
instrument known as the Pneumograph. He concluded that "autos" - oneself and "opsis" - sight/view.
lying caused
an emotional change within a subject that resulted in       Who are authorized to perform autopsy
detectable       1. Health officers
respiratory changes that were indicative of deception.       2. Medical officer of law enforcement agencies
      3. Members of the medical staff of accredited hospitals
West Africa - persons suspected of a crime were made to hold
and pass       When Autopsy performed
a bird's egg to one another. The person breaking the egg was       1. Written request of nearest kin to ascertain cause of death
considered       2. Order of competent court, mayor, prosecutor
guilty, based on the notion that his or her tremor-eliciting       3. Written request of a law enforcement officer
nervousness was to blame.       4. When required by special law
      5. Solgen, prosecutor to determine cause of death
Wheatstone Bridge - A specially devised electronic circuit
for the       Principal Aim Of An Autopsy
measurement of electrical resistance in a conductor. The       1. To determine the cause of death
conductor       2. To determine the state of health of the person before he
of unknown resistance is included in the circuit with three or
known          she died,
resistances. when the unknown resistance (RX) is balanced       3. To determine whether any medical diagnosis and
with three treatment
known resistances (R1, R2, R3) it can be calculated          before death was appropriate.
since it becomes one term in a proportion.       Types of Autopsies
      1. Medico-Legal Autopsy or Forensic or coroner's -
William Moulton Marston - was an American psychologist autopsies
and the creator          seek to find the cause and manner of death and to
of the systolic blood pressure test, which became one identify
component of          the decedent.
the modern polygraph invented by John Augustus Larson in       2. Clinical or Pathological autopsies are performed to
Berkeley, diagnose
California.          a particular disease or for research purposes.
      - an American attorney and psychologist, is credited with       3. Anatomical or Academic Autopsies - are performed by
inventing an early form of the lie detector when, in 1915, he students
developed the discontinuous systolic blood pressure test which          of anatomy for study purpose only.
would       4. Virtual or Medical Imaging Autopsies - are performed
later become one component of the modern polygraph. utilizing
         imaging technology only, primarily magnetic resonance
Word Association Test  - questions answerable by yes or no,          imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT).
with time of response. Quick answer, no relation to       Forensic Autopsy - is used to determine the cause and
investigation. manner
Delayed answer, has relation to investigation.       of death.

Anatomy - the branch of science concerned with the bodily

Legal Medicine Reviewer of humans, animals, and other living organisms, especially as
by dissection and the separation of parts.
Abortion - is the termination of pregnancy by the removal or
expulsion Biochemistry - the branch of science concerned with the
from the uterus of a fetus or embryo before viability. chemical and
physico-chemical processes and substances which occur
Algor mortis (Latin: algor - coldness; mortis - death) is the within living
reduction organisms.
in body temperature following death.
Cadaveric Spasm - also known as postmortem spasm,
      Rigor mortis (Latin: rigor - stiffness, mortis - death") is instantaneous rigor,
one cataleptic rigidity, or instantaneous rigidity, is a rare form of
      of the recognizable signs of death, caused by chemical muscular stiffening that occurs at the moment of death,
persists       4. Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease
into the period of rigor mortis and can be mistaken for rigor
mortis.       Signs Of Death
      1. Cessation of heart action and circulation
      Cadaveric spasm occurs immediately after death and is       2. Cessation of respiration
useful       3. Cooling of the body (Algor Mortis) - The temperature of
      to ascertain the circumstances of death.          15–20 degrees Fahrenheit is considered as ascertain sign
Cerebral Concussion – there is a brief loss of consciousness          death.
and       4. Loss of motor power
sometimes memory after ahead injury that doesn’t cause       5. Loss of sensory power
obvious       6. Changes in the skin
physical damage.       7. Changes in and about the eye - There is loss of corneal
Cerebral Contusion – they are bruises to the brain, usually    
caused by Declaration of Tokyo - is a set of international guidelines for
a direct, strong blow to the head. They are more serious than physicians concerning torture and other cruel, inhuman or
concussions. degrading
treatment or punishment in relation to detention and
Circulatory System - also called the cardiovascular system, is imprisonment,
an which was adopted in October 1975 during the 29th General
organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport assembly
nutrients of the World Medical Association.
(such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon
dioxide, Defloration - is the laceration or rupture of the hymen as a
hormones, and blood cells to and from cells in the body to result
nourish of sexual intercourse.
it and help to fight diseases, stabilize body temperature and
pH, and Dermis - the thick layer of living tissue below the epidermis
to maintain homeostasis. which
forms the true skin, containing blood capillaries, nerve
Contempt of Court - any willful disobedience to or disregard endings,
of a sweat glands, hair follicles, and other structures.
court order or any misconduct in the presence of a court action
that Digestive System - digestive system is a group of organs
interferes with a judge's ability to administer justice or that working
insults the dignity of the court. Punishable by fine or together to convert food into energy and basic nutrients to feed
imprisonment the
or both. entire body.

Contusion - also called a bruise, is a type of hematoma of Dr. Pedro P. Solis - Philippines father of Legal Medicine.
tissue in
which capillaries and sometimes venules are damaged by Ecchymosis - a discoloration of the skin resulting from
trauma, bleeding
allowing blood to seep, hemorrhage, or extravasate into the underneath, typically caused by bruising.
interstitial tissues. Endocrine System - refers to the collection of glands of an
Death - Complete cessation of all cardio- pulmonary (heart- that secrete hormones directly into the circulatory system to be
lungs) carried towards a distant target organ.
and/or cessation of brain activity.
Death is the termination of all biological functions that sustain Epidermis - the outermost layer of the skin of a human or
a other
living organism. vertebrate animal.

      Kinds of Death Euthanasia - Meaning good death ( well or good ), Refers to

      1. Somatic or Clinical Death - permanent cessation of all the
vital practice of ending life in a painless manner. Deliberate
         bodily functions. intervention
      2. Molecular or Cellular Death - refers to the death of undertaken with the express intention of ending life, to relieve
cells. intractable suffering.
         3 to 6 hours after cessation of life.
      3. Apparent death or State of Suspended Animation - a Excretory System - is a passive biological system that removes
state in excess,
         which the processes of the body (such as blood unnecessary materials from an organism, so as to help
circulation) maintain
         stop or become very slow for a period of time while a homeostasis within the organism and prevent damage to the
person body.
         or animal is unconscious.
      Homeostasis -means remaining stable or remaining the
      Leading Causes of Death In The World same.
      1. Ischaemic heart disease
      2. Stroke (cerebrovascular diseases) Firearm identification - used to determine whether the gun that
      3. Lower respiratory infections is
subject of the investigation has the same gun used or fired. resuscitation.

Forensic Medicine - application of medical science to Lazarus Sign - or Lazarus reflex is a reflex movement in brain
elucidate dead
legal problems. patients, which causes them to briefly raise their arms and
Forensic Science - involves the application of the sciences to them crossed on their chests.
questions of interest to the legal system. Legal Medicine - Branch of medicine which deals with the
Four 4 Signs of Inflammation of medical knowledge to the purpose of law and in the
1. Rubor - redness administration
2. Calor - heat of justice. Application of medicine to legal cases.
3. Tumor - swelling
4. Dulor - pain Livor Mortis - is a settling of the blood in the lower
Fracture - comes from the Latin word “fractura” which means portion of the body, causing a purplish red discoloration of the
a break in skin.
the continuity of the bone. It is also a combination of a break From the latin word "livor" - bluish color and "mortis" - of
in death.
the bone and soft tissue injury. Also known as post-mortem lividity.

Frostbite - injury to body tissues caused by exposure to Mayhem -  intentional maiming of another person.
extreme cold,
typically affecting the nose, fingers, or toes and often resulting Mechanical Trauma - is an injury to any portion of the body
in gangrene. from a
blow, crush, cut, or penetrating wound.
Frostnip - the initial stages of frostbite.
Medical Evidence - is the means sanctioned by the rules of
Gynecology - the branch of physiology and medicine which court of
deals with ascertaining in a judicial proceeding the truth respecting a
the functions and diseases specific to women and girls, matter
especially of fact.
those affecting the reproductive system.
      Types of Evidence
Hematoma - is a collection of blood outside of a blood vessel.       1. Real Evidence/Autoptic - made known to the senses
      2. Testimonial Evidence - oral testimony under oath
Incision - a surgical cut made in skin or flesh.       3. Experimental Evidence
      4. Documentary Evidence
Injury -  is the damage to a biological organism caused by
physical Medical Jurisprudence - knowledge of law in relation to the
harm. practice
of medicine.
      Coup Injury - injury at the site of application of force.
Medico-Legal officer - (medical examiner) a physician who
      Contre-Coup Injury - injury opposite the site of application determines
      of force. the cause of injury/death/disease by examining the
      Coup-Conre-Coup Injury - injury at the site and opposite and testify in court to aid in the administration of justice.
      site of application of force. Mental Deficiency – or mental retardation, is sub average
      Locus Minoris Resistentiae - injury not at the site and not ability present from birth or early infancy. Intelligence is both
      opposite the site of application of force but at the site determined by heredity and environment. In most cases of
      offering least resistance. mental
deficiency, the cause is unknown.
      Extensive Injury - injury on greater area more than the site
      of application of force.       Classification of Mental Deficiency
      1. Idiot – The idiot’s intelligence never exceeds that of a
Integumentary system - is the organ system that protects the          normal child over 2years old. The IQ is between 0 – 20.
body          This is usually congenital.
from various kinds of damage, such as loss of water or       2. Imbecile – the imbecile’s intelligence is compared to a
abrasion from normal
outside. The system comprises the skin and its appendages,          child from 2 –7 years old and the IQ is 20 – 40.
including       3. Feeble Minded – his mentality is similar to that of a
hair, scales, feathers, hooves, and nails. normal
         child between 7 – 12 years old and an IQ of 40 – 70.
Laceration - a deep cut or tear in skin or flesh. A wound that is
produced by the tearing of soft body tissue. This type of       The Legal Importance of determining the person’s state of
wound is mind
often irregular and jagged.       are the following:
      1. In Criminal law, insanity exempts a person from
Lazarus Syndrome - is also called Lazarus Phenomenon, is the criminal
spontaneous return of circulation after failed attempts at          liability.
      2. In Civil law, Insanity is a restriction of the capacity of a by
         natural person to act as provided in Article 38 of the          loss of contact with reality(psychosis), hallucinations,
         Civil Code.          delusions (false beliefs), abnormal thinking, disrupted
      3. Insanity modifies or limits the capacity of a natural          work and social functioning.
         to act as provided in Article 39 of the Civil Code.                Types of Schizophrenia
      4. Insanity at the time of marriage of any or both parties is                a. Paranoid - is a mental disorder characterized by
a                   paranoia and a pervasive, long-standing
         ground for the annulment of marriage.                   suspiciousness and generalized mistrust of others.
                 b. Hebephrenic -  it is characterized by disorganized
Mental Health Disorders – include disturbances in thinking,                   behavior and speech, as well as disturbances in
emotion,                   emotional expression.
and behavior. There is a complex interaction between the                c. Catatonic - does not respond to external stimuli.
physical,                   characterized by a marked lack of movement,
psychological, social, cultural and hereditary influences.                   activity, or expression.

      Factors that Contribute to the Development of Mental       14.Delusional Disorder

Disorders       15.Psychological Incapacity – a waste basket diagnosis
      1. Heredity – the most frequent factor that contributes to because
         insanity and a good history will reveal the ascendants          it is so broad a term, that it covers all possible Mental
         afflicted with the same.          Disorders.
      2. Incestuous Marriage – The mental illness is accentuated
when       Some Manifestations of Mental Disorders
         they are blood relative.       1. Disorders of Cognition (Knowing)
      3. Impaired Vitality – Stress, tension, worry,grief may             a. Illusion
         predispose to insanity.             b. Hallucination
      4. Poor Moral Training and Breeding – Corrupt moral       2. Disorders of Memory
upbringing             a. Dementia
         in the family due to immorality of the parents.       3. Disorders in the Content of Thought
      5. Psychic Factors – Factors like love, hate,rage, anger,             A. Delusion
         passion disappointments.                   a. Delusion of grandeur
      6. Physical Factors                   b. Delusion of persecution
               a. Non toxic factors – exhaustion resulting from                   c. Delusion of reference
severe                   d. Delusion of Self – Accusation
                  physical and mental strain and traumatic injuries                   e. Delusion of infidelity
                  to the head.                   f. Nihilistic delusion
               b. Toxic factors – drug addiction,infections of                   g. Delusion of poverty
                  the brain.                   h. Delusion of control
                  i. Delusion of depression
      Kinds of Mental Health Disorders             B. Obsession
      1. Psychosomatic disorders – physical disorders caused by       4. Disorders in the trend of thought    
         psychological factors.             Types a. Mania
      2. Somatiform disorders – encompasses several psychiatric                   b. Melancholia
         disorders in which people report physical symptoms but       5. Disorders of Emotions or Feelings – a disorder in the
deny state
         having psychiatric problems.          of mind, fervor, or sensibility, not in accord with reality.
      3. Generalized Anxiety Disorders       6. Disorders of volition or conation (doing)
      4. Panic Attacks and Panic Disorder
      5. Phobic Disorders             Conation - the mental faculty of purpose, desire, or
               a. Agoraphobia will
               b. Specific phobias             to perform an action; volition.
               c. Social phobia       
      6. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder             Kinds of Conation
      7. Post Traumatic Stress Disorder             A. Impulsion or Impulse (Compulsion) – a sudden and
      8. Depression and Mania                irresistible force compelling a person to the
      9. Bipolar Disorder conscious
      10.Suicidal Behavior                performance of some action without motive or
      11.Eating Disorders forethought.
               a. Anorexia nervosa
               b. Bulimia nervosa                Types of Compulsion
               c. Binge eating disorder                a. Pyromania - from the Greek word "pyr" - fire, is
      12.Personality Disorders an
               a. Paranoid                   impulse control disorder in which individuals
               b. Schizoid                   repeatedly fail to resist impulses to deliberately
               c. Histrionic                   start fires in order to relieve tension or for
               d. Narcissistic                   instant gratification.
               e. Antisocial                b. Kleptomania - is the inability to refrain from the
               f. Borderline                   urge to steal items and is done for reasons other
               g. Avoidant                   than personal use or financial gain.
               h. Dependent                c. Dipsomania - an uncontrollable craving for
               i. Obsessive – Compulsive alcoholic
               j. Passive Aggressive                   liquors.
               k. Dissociative                d. Homicidal impulse - occurs when one person kills
      13.Schizophrenia – a serious mental disorder characterized                   another suddenly and without premeditation or
                  planning. dead to determine the cause of death.
               e. Sex impulse - a sudden strong and unreflective
urge       Ante-Mortem - before death.
                  or desire to have sex..
               f. Suicidal impulse - recurring thoughts of or Post-Mortem Caloricity - is the rise of temperature of the body
                  preoccupation with suicide. after
death due to rapid and early putrefactive changes, usually in
Mortal Wound - capable of causing death. the
first two hours.
Muscular System - is an organ system consisting of skeletal,
smooth Post Mortem Lividity - it occurs in most extensive areas of the
and cardiac muscles. It permits movement of the body, most
maintains dependent portions of the body.
posture, and circulates blood throughout the body.
Puncture Wound - is usually caused by a sharp pointy object
Mutilation - or maiming is an act of physical injury that such as
degrades a nail, animal teeth, or a tack. This type of wound usually does
the appearance or function of any living body. not
bleed excessively and can appear to close up.
Nervous System - consists of the brain, spinal cord, sensory
organs, Putrefaction - or decomposition is the final stage following
and all of the nerves that connect these organs with the rest of death,
the produced mainly by the action of bacterial enzymes, mostly
body. anaerobic
organisms derived from the vowel. Other enzymes are derived
Obstetrics - branch of medecine that deals with pregnancy, from
childbirth, fungi and sometimes from insects.
and postpartum period, including care of the newborn.
      Kinds of Putrefaction:
Paraffin test or Dermal Nitrate test – present on the skin of the       1. Mummification -  is the preservation of a body.
hand or site of the wound of entrance. This test is not       2. Saponification – also called Adipocere Formation.
conclusive because fertilizers, cosmetics, cigarettes, urine and       3. Maceration - Softening of the tissues after death by
other          autolysis.
nitrogenous compounds with nitrates will give a positive
reaction. Reproductive System - or genital system is a system of sex
A negative test is also not conclusive . The test usually gives a organs
positive result even after a lapse of 3days or even if the hands within an organism which work together for the purpose of
are subjected to ordinary washing. sexual
reproduction. Many non-living substances such as fluids,
Pathology - the science of the causes and effects of diseases, hormones,
especially the branch of medicine that deals with the and pheromones are also important accessories to the
laboratory reproductive
examination of samples of body tissue for diagnostic or system.
purposes. Respiratory System - (or ventilatory system) is a biological
Paulus Zacchias - (1584–1659) is the Father of Forensic consisting of specific organs and structures used for the
Medicine. process
of respiration in an organism. The respiratory system is
Petechiae – a circumscribe extravasation of blood in the involved
subcutaneous in the intake and exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide
tissue. between an
organism and the environment.
Physical Injury - is the effect of some stimulus on the body.
Scald - is a type of burn injury caused by hot liquids or gases.
Physical injuries - include those caused by mechanical trauma,
heat Sex Crimes - generally involve illegal or coerced sexual
and cold, electrical discharges, changes in pressure, and conduct by
radiation. one person towards another.
Mechanical trauma is an injury to any portion of the body
from a       Chaste – An unmarried woman who has had no carnal
blow, crush, cut, or penetrating wound. knowledge
      with men or that she never voluntarily had unlawful sexual
Physics - The subject matter of physics includes mechanics,       intercourse. These also denotes purity of mind and
heat, innocence
light and other radiation, sound, electricity, magnetism, and       of heart.
structure of atoms.       Virgin – A woman who has had no carnal knowledge of
Physiology - the branch of biology that deals with the normal       Her genital organs have not been altered by carnal
functions of living organisms and their parts. connection.

Post-Mortem - (meaning after death) internal examination of             Kinds of Virginity

the             1. Moral virginity – the state of not knowing the nature
               of sexual life and not having experience sexual impure.
            2. Physical Virginity – A condition whereby a woman Vital Reaction -  the response of living body tissues to injury.
               conscious of the nature of sexual life but has not Wound - in legal medicine,it means strictly a solution of
               experienced sexual intercourse. continuity.
            3. Demi–virginity – This term refers to a condition of An injury to living tissue caused by a cut, blow, or other
               a woman who permits any form of sexual liberties as impact,
               long as they abstain from rupturing the hymen by typically one in which the skin is cut or broken.
               sexual act. The woman allows sexual intercourse, but
               only inter femora or even inter labia, but not to the       Open Wound - there is a break in the continuity of the
               extent of rupturing the hymen. skin.
            4. Virgo intacta – A truly virgin woman. There is no       1. Abrasion - a wound consisting of superficial damage to
               structural change in her organ,not withstanding the          the skin. Scratch, friction mark.
               fact of a previous sexual intercourse.       2. Bruise - is a common skin injury that results from the
         breakage of tiny blood vessels leaking under the skin.
      Carnal Knowledge - is the act of a man in having sexual Blood
bodily          from damaged blood vessels beneath the skin collects
      connection with a woman. There is carnal knowledge if near
there          the surface of the skin to appear as what we recognize as
      is the slightest penetration in the sexual organ of the          a black and blue mark. Cause by a blunt injury to the
female          tissues which damage blood vessels beneath the surface,
      by the sexual organ of the male.          allowing blood to extravasate or leak into the
Shrapnel - fragments of a bomb, shell, or other object thrown          tissues.
out       3. Incised Wound - caused by a clean, sharp-edged object
by an explosion. such
         as a knife, razor, or glass splinter.
Skeletal System - gives the body its basic framework,       4. Stab Wound - is a specific form of penetrating trauma to
providing          the skin that results from a knife or a similar pointed
structure, protection, and movement.          object that is "deeper than it is wide".
      5. Punctured Wound - is a deep wound caused by
Subpoena - order issued by the court to a person to appear in something sharp
court.          and pointed, like a nail. The opening on the skin is small,
         and the puncture wound may not bleed much. Puncture
Subpoena ad Testificandum´- is a court summons to appear wounds
and give          can easily become infected.
oral testimony for use at a hearing or trial.       6. Perforating Wound - a wound with an entrance and exit
Surgery - is an ancient medical specialty that uses operative       7. Lacerated Wound - that occurs when skin, tissue, and/or
manual          muscle is torn or cut open. Lacerations may be deep or
and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate and/or          shallow, long or short, and wide or narrow. Most
treat lacerations
a pathological condition such as disease or injury, to help          are the result of the skin hitting an object, or an object
improve          hitting the skin with force.
bodily function or appearance or to repair unwanted ruptured       8. Bite -  is a wound received from the teeth of an animal,
areas.          including humans.
      9. Gunshot Wound (GSW) - (Ballistic Trauma) is a form
Topinard and Rolet - two french anatomist who devised a of physical
formula for          trauma sustained from the discharge of arms or
the determination of the height for male and female. munitions.

Toxicology - the branch of science concerned with the nature,       Barotrauma - wound/injury caused by a change in
effects, atmospheric
and detection of poisons.       pressure.

Trauma - injury, a physical wound to the body caused by an       Defense Wound - or self-defense wound is an injury
external received by
source.       the victim of an attack while trying to defend against the
      assailant. often found on the hands and forearms, where
Virginity - A condition of a female who has not experience the
sexual       victim has raised them to protect the head and face or to
intercourse and whose genital organs have not been altered by fend
carnal       off an assault, but may also be present on the feet and legs
connection and whose hymen is still intact.       where a victim attempts defense while lying down and
Virgo Intacta - literally the term refers to a truly virgin       out at the assailant.
that there are structural changes in her organ to infer previous
sexual intercourse and that she is a virtuous woman.

Virtuous Female - If her body is pure and if she has never had
sexual intercourse with another though her mind and heart is
pardon. It wipes all traces and vestiges of the crime but does
extinguish civil liability.
Astucia – (Craft) involved the use of intellectual trickery or
on the part of the accused. A chicanery resorted to by the
accused to
Criminal Law Book 1 Reviewer aid in the execution of his criminal design. It is employed as a
scheme in the execution of the crime.
Abberatio Ictus – mistake in blow.
Bill Of Attainder – A legislative act which inflicts
       What is the legal effect of aberratio ictus? punishment
       a. may result in complex crime or two felonies without trial.
       b. if complex, apply Art. 48 - penalty for the more or most
serious Characteristics of Criminal Law
           crime in its maximum period. 1. General
2. Territorial
Absolutory Causes - where the act committed is a crime but 3. Prospective
for some
reason of public policy and sentiment, there is no penalty Circumstances That Affect Criminal Liability
imposed. 1. Justifying circumstances
Exempting and justifying circumstances are absolutory causes. 2. Exempting circumstances
3. Mitigating circumstances
Accomplices - Persons who do not act as principals but 4. Aggravating circumstances
cooperate in 5. Alternative circumstances
the execution of the offense by previous and simultaneous
acts, Commutation – change in the decision of the court by the
which are not indispensable to the commission of the crime. chief regarding
They act as the degree of the penalty by decreasing the length of the
mere instruments that perform acts not essential to the imprisonment
perpetration or fine.
of the offense.
Consummated Felonies - when all the elements necessary for
Act – an overt or external act. Any bodily movement tending its execution
to produce and accomplishment are present.
some effect in the external world.
Continued Crime – refers to a single crime consisting of a
Actus Me Invito Factus Non Est Meus Actus – Any act series of
done by me against acts but all arising from one criminal resolution. Although
my will is not my act. there is
a series of acts, there is only one crime committed, so only one
Agent - subordinate public officer charged w/ the maintenance penalty shall be imposed.
of public
order and protection and security of life and property. Crime – acts and omissions punishable by any law.

Aggravating Circumstances - Those which, if attendant in Criminal law - A branch of municipal law which defines
the commission crimes, treats
of the crime, serve to have the penalty imposed in its of their nature and provides for their punishment.
maximum period
provided by law for the offense or those that change the nature       The Following are not subject to the operation of
of Philippine
the crime.       Criminal Law
      Generic - those which apply to all crimes.       1. Sovereigns and other heads of state
      Specific - those which apply only to specific crimes.       2. Charges d'affaires
      Qualifying - those that change the nature of the crime.       3. Ambassadors
      Inherent - which of necessity accompany the commission       4. Ministers plenipotentiary
of the crime,       5. Ministers resident
                 therefore not considered in increasing the penalty to
be Cruelty – there is cruelty when the culprit enjoys and delights
                 imposed. in
      Special - those which arise under special conditions to making his victim suffer slowly and gradually, causing
increase unnecessary
                the penalty of the offense and cannot be offset by physical pain in the consummation of the criminal act.
                mitigating circumstances.
Degree – one whole penalty, one entire penalty or one unit of
Alternative Circumstances – Those which must be taken into the
consideration penalties enumerated in the graduated scales provided for in
as aggravating or mitigating according to the nature and Art. 71
effects of
the crime and the other conditions attending its commission. Despoblado – (Uninhabited Place) one where there are no
houses at all,
Amnesty – is an act of the sovereign power granting oblivion a place at a considerable distance from town, where the houses
or general are
scattered at a great distance from each other. derived from the
proceeds of the crime of robbery or theft.
Discernment - mental capacity to fully appreciate he
consequences of Fraud (fraude) – insidious words or machinations used to
the unlawful act, which is shown by the manner the crime was induce the
committed victim to act in a manner which would enable the offender to
and conduct of the offender after its commission. carry
out his design.
Disfraz (Disguise) – resorting to any device to conceal
identity. Good conduct allowance during confinement – Deduction
for the term of
Duress -  use of violence or physical force. sentence for good behavior.

Dwelling - must be a building or structure exclusively used for Habitual Delinquency or Multi-recidivism – Where a
rest person within a
and comfort (combination of house and store not included), period of ten years from the date of his release or last
may be conviction
temporary as in the case of guests in a house or bedspacers. It of the crimes of serious or less serious physical injuries,
includes dependencies, the foot of the staircase and the robbery,
enclosure theft, estafa or falsification, is found guilty of the said crimes a
under the house. third time or oftener. This is an extraordinary aggravating
El que es causa de la causa es causa del mal causado -
Spanish maxim Habitual Delinquent - A person who, within a period of ten
which means: "He who is the cause of the cause is the cause of years
the from the date of his release or last conviction of the crimes of
evil caused. serious or less serious physical injuries, robbery, theft, estafa,
or falsification, is found guilty of any said crimes a third time
En Cuadrilla – (Band) whenever there are more than 3 armed or
malefactors oftener.
that shall have acted together in the commission of an offense.
Ignominy – is a circumstance pertaining to the moral order,
Entrapment - ways and means are resorted to for the purpose which
of trapping adds disgrace and obloquy to the material injury caused by the
and capturing the lawbreaker in the execution of his criminal crime.
Imbecile - one while advanced in age has a mental
Error in personae – mistake in identity. development comparable
to that of children between 2 and 7 years old. He is exempt in
       What is the legal effect of error in personae? all
       a. if same crime results, liable for the same crime cases from criminal liability.
       b. if different crime results, apply Art. 49 - penalty for
lesser Insane - one who acts with complete deprivation of
           crime in its maximum period intelligence/reason
or without the least discernment or with total deprivation of
Exempting Circumstances - grounds for exemption from of will. Mere abnormality of the mental faculties will not
punishment exclude
because there is wanting in the agent of the crime any of the imputability.
which make the act voluntary or negligent. Instigation - Instigator practically induces the would-be
accused into
Ex Post Facto Law - An act which when committed was not a the commission of the offense and himself becomes a co-
crime, principal.
cannot be made so by statute without violating the
constitutional Insuperable Clause - some motive, which has lawfully,
inhibition as to ex post facto laws. morally or
physically prevented a person to do what the law commands.
Felonies – acts and omissions punishable by the Revised
Penal Code. Irresistible Force - offender uses violence or physical force to
compel another person to commit a crime.
Fence – is a person who commits the act of fencing. A fence
who Justifying Circumstances -  where the act of a person is in
receives stolen property as above- provided is not an accessory accordance
but with law such that said person is deemed not to have violated
a principal in the crime defined in and punished by the Anti- the law.
Law. Mala In Se - acts or omissions that are inherently evil.

Fencing – is an act, with intent to gain, of buying, selling, Mala Prohibita - acts made evil because there is a law
receiving, prohibiting it.
possessing, keeping, or in any other manner dealing in
anything of Misdemeanor - a minor infraction of law.
value which a person knows or should have known to be
Mistake of Fact - misapprehension of fact on the part of the right of
person government to execute the final sentence after the lapse of a
who caused injury to another. He is not criminally liable. certain time.

Mitigating Circumstances - those which if present in the Probation - a disposition under which a defendant after
commission conviction and
of the crime reduces the penalty of the crime but does not sentence is released subject to conditions imposed by the court
erase and to
criminal liability nor change the nature of the crime. the supervision of a probation officer.

Motive - it is the moving power which impels one to action Pro Reo -  whenever a penal law is to be construed or applied
for a and the
definite result. law admits of two interpretations, one lenient to the offender
and one
Nullum Crimen, Nulla Poena Sine Lege – There is no crime strict to the offender, that interpretation which is lenient or
when there is favorable
no law punishing it. to the offender will be adopted.

Obscuridad – (Night time) that period of darkness beginning Proximate Cause - the cause, which in the natural and
at the end continuous
of dusk and ending at dawn. sequence unbroken by any efficient intervening cause,
produces the
Offense - a crime punished under special law. injury, without which the result would not have occurred.

Omission – failure to perform a duty required by law. Quasi-Recidivism – Where a person commits felony before
beginning to
Pardon – an act of grace proceeding from the power entrusted serve or while serving sentence on a previous conviction for a
with the felony. This is a special aggravating circumstance.
execution of laws, which exempts the individual from the
punishment RA 75 -  This law penalizes acts which would impair the
the law inflicts for the crime. proper
observance by the Republic and its inhabitants of the
Parole – consists in the suspension of the sentence of a immunities, rights,
convict after and privileges of duly-accredited foreign diplomatic
serving the minimum term of the indeterminate penalty, representatives
without granting in the Philippines.
pardon, prescribing the terms upon which the sentence shall be
suspended. In case his parole conditions are not observed, a Rank - The designation or title of distinction used to fix the
convict relative position of the offended party in reference to others
may be returned to the custody and continue to serve his (There must be a difference in the social condition of the
sentence offender
without deducting the time that elapsed. and the offended party).

Penalty – suffering inflicted by the State for the transgression Recidivism – Where a person, on separate occasions, is
of a law. convicted of
two offenses embraced in the same title in the RPC. This is a
Period – one of 3 equal portions, min/med/max of a divisible generic aggravating circumstance.
A period of a divisible penalty when prescribed by the Code as Recidivist – one who at the time of his trial for one crime,
a shall
penalty for a felony, is in itself a degree. have been previously convicted by final judgment of another
Person In Authority - public authority, or person who is embraced in the same title of the RPC.
vested with jurisdiction and has the power to govern and Reiteracion or Habituality – Where the offender has been
execute previously
the laws. punished for an offense to which the law attaches an equal or
Plurality Of Crimes – consists in the successive execution by penalty or for two crimes to which it attaches a lighter penalty.
the same This is a generic aggravating circumstance.
individual of different criminal acts upon any of which no
conviction has yet been declared. Requisites of Dolo or Malice 
1. Freedom
Praetor Intentionem - lack of intent to commit so grave a 2. Intelligence
wrong. 3. Intent

      What is the legal effect of praeter intentionem? Requisites of Culpa

      - a mitigating circumstance (Art. 13, par. 3) 1. Freedom
2. Intelligence
Prescription Of A Crime – is the loss/forfeiture of the right 3. Negligence, Imprudence, Lack of Foresight, Lack of Skill
of the
state to prosecute the offender after the lapse of a certain time.       Negligence - it indicates a deficiency of perception; failure
to pay
Prescription Of Penalty - means the loss/forfeiture of the       proper attention and to use diligence in foreseeing the
injury or with the intent to marry or to corrupt her.
      damage impending to be caused; usually involves lack of
foresight.       Forcible abduction - If a woman is transported from one
      Imprudence -  it indicates a deficiency of action; failure       to another by virtue of restraining her of her liberty, and
to take the that
      necessary precaution to avoid injury to person or damage       act is coupled  with lewd designs.
to property;
      usually involves lack of skill.       Serious illegal detention - If a woman is transported just
Rules on jurisdiction over private or merchant vessels       restrain her of her liberty. There is no lewd design or lewd
while in the  intent.
territory of another country
1. French Rule       Grave coercion - If a woman is carried away just to break
2. English Rule her
      will, to compel her to agree to the demand or request by
Stand Ground When in The Right - the law does not require the
a person       offender.
to retreat when his assailant is rapidly advancing upon him
with a       Special complex crime of Kidnapping with Murder -
deadly weapon. When the victim
      dies or is killed as a consequence of the detention.
Stages In The Execution Of A Crime
1. Attempted Stage -  a stage in the execution of a crime where Abortion By A Physician Or Midwife And Dispensing Of
the offender Abortives -
    commences commission of a felony directly by over acts, punishes a pharmacist who merely dispenses with an abortive
and does without the proper
    NOT perform all acts of execution which should produce prescription of a physician. If pharmacist knew that the
the felony abortive would
    by reason of some cause or accident other his spontaneous be use for abortion, she would be liable as an accomplice in
desistance. the crime
2. Frustrated Stage - a stage in the execution of a crime where of abortion.
the offender
    performs all the acts of execution which would produce the Acts Of Lasciviousness - Committed under circumstances
felony w/c, had there
    as a consequence but which, nevertheless, do not produce it been carnal knowledge, would amount to rape. Offended party
due to is a
    some cause independent of the will of the perpetrator. female or male.
3. Consummated Stage -  a stage in the execution of a crime
where all Adherence – intellectually or emotionally favors the enemy
    the elements necessary for its execution and and harbors
accomplishment sympathies or convictions disloyal to his country’s policy or
    are present. interest.

Treachery – when the offender commits any of the crimes Agent Of Person In Authority – any person who, by direct
against the provision of
person, employing means, methods or forms in the execution law or by election or by appointment by competent authority,
thereof is charged
which tend directly and specially to insure its execution with the maintenance of public order and the protection and
without security
risk to himself arising from the defense which the offended of life and property.
might make. Aid or Comfort – act w/c strengthens or tends to strengthen
the enemy
Uncontrollable Fear -  offender employs intimidation or of the government in the conduct of war against the
threat in government, or an
compelling another to commit a crime. act w/c weakens or tends to weaken the power of the
government or
Unlawful Entry - when an entrance is effected by a way not the country to resist or to attack the enemies of the gov’t or
intended country.
for the purpose.
Alarms and Scandal - The essence of the crime is
Youthful offender – over 9 but under 18 at time of the disturbance of public
commission tranquility and public peace. Any kind of disturbance of public
of the offense. order
where the circumstance at the time renders the act offensive to
tranquility prevailing, the crime is committed.
Criminal Law Book 2 Reviewer
Allegiance – obligation of fidelity and obedience which
Abduction - the taking away of a woman from her house or individuals
the place owe to the government under which they live or to
where she may be for the purpose of carrying her to another the sovereign, in
place return for protection they receive.
      act. It is  sufficient that he accepts the gift  offered by
Certificate - any writing by which testimony is given that a       reason of his office.
fact has
or has not taken place. Dissolute – lax, unrestrained, immoral (includes maintainer of
Charivari - is a mock serenade or discordant noises made of prostitution).
with kettles,
tin horns etc., designed to deride, insult or annoy. Document - any written statement by which a right is
established or
Combination In Restraint Of Trade - is an agreement or an obligation is extinguished.
between two or more persons in the form of a contract, trust, Duel - is a formal or regular combat previously consented to
pool, by two
holding  company or other form of association, for the purpose parties in the presence of two or more seconds of lawful age
of on
unduly restricting competition, monopolizing trade and each side, who make the selection of arms and fix all the other
commerce in a conditions of the fight to settle some antecedent quarrel.
certain commodity, controlling its production, distribution and       If these are not the conditions of the fight, it is not a duel
price,       in the sense contemplated in the Revised Penal Code. It
or otherwise interfering with freedom of trade without will
statutory authority.       be a quarrel and anyone who killed the other will be liable
Combination in restraint of trade refers to the means while       for homicide or murder, as the case may be.
refers to the end. Espionage - is the offense of gathering, transmitting, or losing
information respecting the national defense with intent or
Conspiracy - when two or more persons come to an reason to
agreement to rise believe that the information is to be used to the injury of the
publicly and take arms against government for any of the Republic
purposes of of the Philippines or the advantage of a foreign nation.
rebellion and decide to commit it.
Estafa With Abuse of Confidence - Crime is committed by
Coup d' Etat - Essence of the crime: Swift attack against the misappropriating,
government, converting, or denying having received money, goods or other
its military camps an installations, etc. It maybe committed personal
singly or property.
collectively. Committed through force, violation, intimidation,
threat, False Testimony - committed by a person who, being under
strategy or stealth. oath and
required to testify as to the truth of a certain matter at a
Customs - refer to established usage, social conventions hearing
carried on by before a competent authority, shall deny the truth or say
tradition and enforced by social disapproval in case of something contrary to it.
Forgery - The essence of forgery is giving a document the
Decency - means properly observing the requirements of appearance
modesty, of a true and genuine document. Not any alteration of a letter,
good taste. number,
figure or design would amount to forgery. At most, it would
Delay in the Delivery of Detained Persons - Crime is only be
committed by frustrated forgery.
failing to deliver such person to the proper judicial authority
within Grave scandal - consists of acts which are offensive to
a certain period. Detention is for some legal ground. decency and
good customs. They are committed publicly and thus, give rise
Dereliction of Duty - Committed only by public officers who to
have the public scandal to persons who have accidentally witnessed the
duty to institute prosecution for the punishment of violations acts.
the law. Public officer does not abandon his office but merely Illegal Detention - Committed by a Committed by private
fails individual
to prosecute a violation of the law. public officer or who unlawfully employee who deprives a
Direct Assault - The Public Authority or the Agent of the detains a person of his liberty.
Authority must be engaged in the performance of official Illegal Exactions - This can only be committed principally
duties or by a public officer whose official duty is to collect taxes,
that he is assaulted by reason thereof. license
fees, import duties and other dues payable to the government.
Direct Bribery - the officer agrees to  perform or refrain from Mere demand of a larger or different amount is sufficient to
doing consummate
an act in  consideration of the gift or promise. the crime. The essence is the improper collection (damage to
      Indirect Bribery - it is not necessary  that the officer do is not required)
Illegal marriage - Illegal marriage includes also such other person having meager knowledge of law cannot doubt the
marriages injustice; not
which are performed without complying with the requirements abuse of discretion or mere error of judgment.
of law, or
marriages where the consent of the other is vitiated, or such Medical Malpractice -  which is a form of negligence,
marriage consists in the
which was solemnized by one who is not authorized to failure of a physician or surgeon to apply to his practice of
solemnize the same. medicine
that degree of care and skill which is ordinarily employed by
Imprudence - Failure in precaution. the
profession generally, under similar conditions, and in like
Incriminating Innocent Person - act of planting evidence surrounding
and the like circumstances.
in order to incriminate an innocent person.
Misfeasance - Improper doing of an act which a person might
Inducing A Minor To Abandon His Home - What lawfully do.
constitutes the crime is
the act of inducing a minor to abandon his home of his Monopoly - is a privilege or peculiar advantage vested in one
guardian, and or more
it is not necessary that the minor actually abandons the home. persons or companies, consisting in the exclusive right or
power to
Infanticide - the victim is younger than three days or 72 hours carry on a particular business or trade, manufacture a
old; particular
can be committed by a stranger. If a stranger who conspires article, or control the sale or the whole supply of a particular
with parent, commodity. It is a form of market structure in which one or
both commit the crime of infanticide. only a few
firms dominate the total sales of a product or service.
In Flight – From the moment all exterior doors are closed
following Mutiny - the unlawful resistance to a superior, or the raising
embarkation until the same doors are again opened for of
disembarkation. commotions and disturbances on board a ship against the
authority of
Insurrection - more commonly employed in reference to a its commander.
movement which
seeks merely to effect some change of minor importance, or to Negligence - Failure in advertence.
the exercise of governmental authority with respect to Nonfeasance - Failure of an agent to perform his undertaking
particular for
matters or subjects. the principal.

Interlocutory Order - one issued by the court deciding a Perjury by Making False Accusations - giving of false
collateral statement under
or incidental matter; it is not a final determination of the issues oath or making a false affidavit, imputing to the person the
of the action or proceeding. commission
of a crime.
Intriguing Against Honor - is referred to as gossiping: the
offender, Person In Authority – any person directly vested with
without ascertaining the truth of a defamatory utterance, jurisdiction,
repeats the whether as an individual or as a member of some court or
same and pass it on to another, to the damage of the offended governmental
party. corporation, board or commission.

Libel - Defamation is in writing or printed media. Piracy - it is robbery or forcible depredation on the high seas,
      Slander - oral defamation. lawful authority and done with animo furandi and in the spirit
      Defamation - public and malicious imputation calculated intention of universal hostility.
to cause
      dishonor, discredit, or contempt upon the offended party. Political Crimes – are those directly aimed against the
political order,
Malfeasance - Doing of an act which a public officer should as well as such common crimes as may be committed to
not achieve a political
have done. purpose. The decisive factor is the intent or motive.

Malversation - is otherwise called embezzlement. Crime is Prevaricacion - means the negligence and tolerance in the
committed prosecution
by approaching, taking, or misappropriating/consenting, or of an offense.
abandonment or negligence, permitting any other person to Proposal - when the person who has decided to rise publicly
take the and take
public funds/property. arms against the government for any of the purposes of
Manifestly Unjust Judgment – manifestly contrary to law proposes its execution to some other person or persons.
that even a
Prostitutes - women who habitually(not just 1 man) indulge other means
in sexual contrary to good faith by which any person shall pass off the
intercourse or lascivious conduct for money or profit (If a man goods
indulges in the same conduct, the crime committed is manufactured by him or in which he deals, or his business, or
vagrancy.) services
for those of the one having established goodwill, or
Quasi-Recidivism - Commission of Another Crime During committing any acts
Service of calculated to produce such result.
Penalty Imposed for Another Previous Offense.
Unintentional Abortion - requires physical violence inflicted
Rebellion - more frequently used where the object of the deliberately
movement is and voluntarily by a third person upon the pregnant woman. If
completely to overthrow and supersede the existing the pregnant
government. woman aborted because of intimidation, the crime committed
is not
Revealing Secrets With Abuse Of Office - Essence of this unintentional abortion because there is no violence; the crime
crime is committed
that the offender learned of the secret in the course of his is light threats.
He is enjoying a confidential relation with the employer or Unlawful Arrest - This felony consists in making an arrest or
master detention
so he should respect the privacy of matters personal to the without legal or reasonable ground for the purpose of
latter. delivering the
offended party to the proper authorities.
Ruffians – brutal, violent, lawless.
Vagrants -  Those who have no apparent means of
Sedition - It is the raising of commotions or disturbances in subsistence and who have
the State. the physical ability to work yet neglect to apply themselves to
It is sufficient that the public uprising be tumultuous. The some
purpose useful calling.
may be political or social.

Seduction - enticing a woman to unlawful sexual intercourse

Criminal Procedure Reviewer
by promise
of marriage or other means of persuasion without use of force. Affidavit of Desistance - the complainant states that he did
It not
applies when there is abuse of authority (qualified seduction) really intend to institute the case and that he is no longer
or interested in testifying or prosecuting.
deceit (simple seduction).
Appeal - A proceeding for review by which the whole case is
Service Mark – is a mark used in the sale or advertising of transferred on the higher court.
to identify the services of one person and distinguish them Appellant - The party appealing
from the
services of others and includes without limitation the marks, Appellee - The party adverse to the appellant.
symbols, titles, designations, slogans, character names, and Arraignment - It means for bringing the accused into court
distinctive and
features of radio or other advertising. informing him of the nature and cause of the accusation
against him.
Slavery - This is committed if anyone shall purchase, kidnap,
or Arrest - taking a person into custody in order that he may be
detain a human being for the purpose of enslaving him. bound
to answer for the commission of some offense, made by an
Trade-Name Or Trade-Mark – is a word or words, name, actual
title, symbol, restraint of the person or by his submission to custody.
emblem, sign or device, or any combination thereof used as an
advertisement, sign, label, poster, or otherwise, for the purpose Attachment - It is a remedy afforded to the offended party to
of have
enabling the public to distinguish the business of the person the property of the accused attached as security for the
who satisfaction
owns and uses said trade-name or trade-mark. of any judgment that may be recovered from the accused.

Treason – breach of allegiance to the government by a person

who owes Bail - security given for the release of a person in custody of
allegiance to it. The levying of war against the government law,
would furnished by him or a bondsman, conditioned upon his
constitute treason when performed to aid the enemy. appearance before
any court as required.
Tumultuous - caused by more than 3 persons who are armed
or provided with Bail Bond - an obligation under seal given by accused with
means of violence. one or
more sureties and made payable to proper officer with the
Unfair Competition -  consists in employing deception or any condition
to be void upon performance by the accused of such acts as he is insufficient in point of law, whether true or not, to make out
may a
legally be required to perform. case or sustain the issue.

Brief - It literally means a short or condensed statement. The Deposition  - It is the testimony of a witness taken upon oral
purpose questions or written interrogatories, in open court, but in
of the brief is to present to the court in concise form the points pursuance
and questions in controversy, and by fair argument on the facts of a commission to take testimony issued by a court, or under
and a general
law of the case, to assist the court in arriving at a just and law or court rule on the subject, and reduced to writing and
proper conclusion. duly
authenticated, and intended to be used in preparation and upon
Capital Offense - It is an offense which, under the law trial of a civil or criminal prosecution.
existing at
the time of its commission and of the application for Duplicity of the Offense - A complaint or information must
admission to charge
bail may be punished with death. only one offense, except when the law prescribes a single
punishment for various offenses.
Certiorari - is used to correct only errors of jurisdiction and
errors of judgment of an inferior court. Error of Judgment - One which the court may commit in the
exercise of
Confrontation - It is the act of setting a witness face to face its jurisdiction.
the accused so that the latter may make any objection he has to Equipose Rule - where the evidence of the parties in a
the criminal case
witness, and the witness may identify the accused, and this are evenly balanced, the constitutional presumption of
must take innocence should
place in the presence of the court having jurisdiction to permit tilt in favor of the accused who must be acquitted.
privilege of cross examination. General Warrant - It is a process which authorizes the search
Counsel De Officio - He is counsel appointed by the court to seizure of things, in a general manner. It does not specify or
represent describe with particularity the things to be searched and
and defend the accused in case he cannot afford to employ one seized.
himself. This kind of warrant is VOID as it infringes on the
Complaint -  sworn written statement charging a person with mandate requiring particular description of the things to be
an offense, seized.
subscribed by the offended party, any peace officer or other
official charged with the enforcement of the law violated. Habeas Corpus - is available when a person is imprisoned
beyond the
Continuous Trial System - Trial once commenced shall maximum penalty imposed by law.
continue from
day to day as far as practicable until terminated; but it may be Hearing - It is not confined to trial but embraces the several
postponed for a reasonable period of time for good cause. stages
of litigation, including the pre-trial stage.
Criminal Action - It is an action by which the State
prosecutes a
person for an act or omission punishable by law. Improvident Plea - It is a plea without information as to all
Criminal Jurisdiction - It is the authority to hear and try a circumstances affecting it; based upon a mistaken assumption
particular offense and impose the punishment for it. or
misleading information or advice.
Criminal Procedure -  It is the method prescribed by law for
the Information - accusation in writing charging a person with an
apprehension and prosecution of persons accused of any offense,
criminal offense subscribed by the fiscal and filed with the court.
and for their punishment, in case of conviction.
Judgment - adjudication by the court that the accused is
Custodial Investigation - Involves any questioning initiated guilty or not
by law guilty of the offense charged, and the imposition of the proper
enforcement officers after a person has been taken into penalty
custody or and civil liability provided by law on the accused.
otherwise deprived of his freedom of action in any significant
Mittimus - It is a process issued by the court after conviction
Demurrer To Evidence - It is an objection by one of the carry out the final judgment.
parties in
an action, to the effect that the evidence which his adversary Motion To Quash - a hypothetical admission that even if all
produced the facts
alleged were true, the accused still cannot be convicted due to                - Such reasons, supported by facts and
other circumstances,
reasons. as will warrant a cautious man in the belief that his action, and
New Trial - The rehearing of a case already decided but means taken in prosecuting it, are legally just and proper
before the
judgment of conviction therein rendered has become final, Probable Cause For A Search - It is defined as such facts
whereby and
errors of law or irregularities are expunged from the record or circumstances which would lead a reasonably discreet and
new prudent man
evidence is introduced or both steps are taken. to believe that an offense has been committed and that the
Nolle Prosequi - is a dismissal of the criminal case by the sought in connection with the offense are in the place sought
government to
before the accused is placed on trial and before he is called to be searched.
with the approval of the court in the exercise of its judicial Probable Cause In General - Such facts and circumstances
discretion. antecedent
to the issuance of the warrant, that are in themselves sufficient
Oath - Includes any form of attestation by which a party induce a cautious man to believe that the person against whom
signifies that the
he is bound in conscience to perform an act faithfully and search warrant is applied had committed or is about to commit
truthfully. a crime.

Probation - disposition under which a defendant after

Parole - the conditional release of an offender from a penal or conviction and
correctional institution after he has served the minimum sentences, is released subject to conditions imposed by the
period of his court and
prison sentence under the continued custody of the state and to the supervision of a probation officer.
conditions that permit his reincarceration if he violated the Property Bond - It is an undertaking constituted as a lien on
conditions the real
of his release. property given as security for the amount of the bail.

Plea Bargaining - process whereby the accused and the Provisional Remedy - It is one provided for present need or
prosecution in one that is
a criminal case work out a mutually satisfactory disposition of adopted to meet a particular exigency.
case subject to court approval. It usually involves the
defendant's Reasonable Doubt - state of the case which, after full
pleading guilty to a lesser offense or to only some of the consideration
counts of of all the evidence, leaves the mind of the judge in such a
a multi-count indictment in return for a lighter sentence than condition
that that he cannot say that he feels an abiding conviction, to a
for the greater charge. moral
certainty, of the truth of the charge.
Prejudicial Question - It is one which arises in a case, the
resolution of which is a logical antecedent of the issue Recantation - A Witness who previously gave a testimony
involved subsequently
therein and the cognizance of which pertains to another declares that his statements were not true.
Recognizance - Obligation of record entered into before some
Preliminary Investigation - inquiry or proceeding to court
determine if of magistrate duly authorized to take it, with the condition to
there is sufficient ground to engender a well-founded belief do
that a some particular act, the most usual condition in criminal cases
crime cognizable by the RTC has been committed, and that the being
respondent the appearance of the accused for trial.
is probably guilty thereof, and should be held for trial.
Reduced Bail - A person in custody for a period to or more
Pre-Trial Order - It is an order issued by the court reciting than the
the minimum of the principal penalty prescribed for the offense
actions taken, the facts stipulated and the evidence marked charged,
during the pre-trial conference. Such order binds the parties without application of the Indeterminate Sentence Law or any
and modifying
limits the trial to those matters not disposed of. circumstance, shall be released on a reduced bail or on his
Probable Cause - such facts and circumstances which would recognizance at the discretion of the court.
lead a
reasonably prudent man to believe that a crime has been Reverse Trial - When the accused admits the act or omission
committed and charged in
the thing to be searched for and seized is in the place to be the complaint/information but interposes a lawful defense, the
searched. trial
court may allow the accused to present his defense first and Admission - any statement of fact made by a party against his
thereafter interest
give the prosecution the opportunity to present his rebuttal or unfavorable to the conclusion for which he contends or is
evidence. inconsistent
with the facts alleged by him.

Scatter Shot Warrant - It is a warrant that is issued for more

than Best Evidence Rule - is that rule which requires the highest
one offense. It is void, since the law requires that a warrant grade of
should evidence obtainable to prove a disputed fact.
only be issued in connection with one specific offense.
Burden Of Evidence - logical necessity on a
Search - It is an examination of a man’s house, buildings or party during a particular time of the trail to create a
other prima facie case in his favor or to destroy that
premises, or of his person, with a view to the discovery of created against him by presenting evidence.
evidence of guilt to be used in the prosecution of a criminal Burden Of Proof/Risk of Non-Persuasion - the duty of a
action party to present
for some offense with which he is charged. evidence on the facts in issue necessary to establish his claim
or defense
Searching Questions and Answers - Such questions as have by the amount of evidence required by law.
the tendency
to show the commission of a crime and perpetrator thereof.
Character - the aggregate of the moral qualities which belong
Search Warrant - an order in writing issued in the name of to and
the People distinguish an individual person.
of the Philippines, signed by a judge and directed to a peace
officer, Circumstantial Evidence - is the proof of a fact or facts from
commanding him to search for personal property described which
therein and taken either singly or collectively, the existence or a particular
bring it before the court. fact in dispute may be inferred as a necessary or probable
Seizure -  It is the physical taking of a thing into custody;
contemplates a forcible disposition of the owner. Common Reputation - is the definite opinion of the
community in which
State Witness - One of two or more persons jointly charged the fact to be proved is known or exists. It means the general
with the or
commission of a crime but who is discharged with his consent substantially undivided reputation, as distinguished from a
as such partial or
accused so that he may be a witness for the state. qualified one, although it need not be unanimous.

Stop and Frisk - A limited protective search of outer clothing Competency Of A Witness -  is the legal fitness or ability of
for weapon. a witness
to be heard on the trial of a cause.
Transactional Immunity - witness can no longer be
prosecuted for any Competent Evidence - one that is not excluded by this Rules,
offense whatsoever arising out of the act or transaction. a statute
or the Constitution.
Trial - It is the examination before a competent tribunal
according Compromise - is an agreement made between two or more
to the laws of the land, of the facts put in issue in a case for the parties as a
purpose of determining such issue. settlement matters in dispute.

Trial in Absentia - accused in case of his non-appearance Conclusive Evidence - the class of evidence which the law
After does not allow
Arraignment despite due notice simply means that he thereby to be contradicted.
his right to meet the witnesses face to face, among others. Confession - categorical acknowledgement of guilt made by
an accused
Use and Derivative Use Immunity - witness is only assured in a criminal case, without any exculpatory statement or
that his explanation.
or her particular testimony and evidence derived from it will If the accused admits having committed the act in question but
not be alleges
used against him or her in a subsequent prosecution. a justification therefore, the same is merely an admission.

      Judicial Confession - one made before a court in which

the case
      is pending and in the course of legal proceedings therein
      by itself, can sustain a conviction even in capital offenses.

      Extra Judicial Confession - one made in any other place

Evidence Reviewer or
      occasion and cannot sustain a conviction unless
corroborated by any litigation arising out of such declaration, act or omission,
      evidence of the corpus delicti. This section refers to be
extrajudicial permitted to falsify it.
Expert Witness - one who belongs to the profession or calling
Corroborative Evidence - is additional evidence of a to which
difference character the subject matter of the inquiry relates to and who possesses
to the same point. special
knowledge on questions on which he proposes to express an
Cumulative Evidence - evidence of the same kind and to the opinion.
same state
of facts. Express Admissions - are those made in definite, certain and
Demonstrative Evidence - is a tangible evidence that merely
illustrates Extra Judicial Admissions - are those made out of court, or
a matter of importance in the litigation such as maps, in a judicial
diagrams, proceeding other than the one under consideration.
models, summaries and other materials created especially for
Fact - thing done or existing.
Direct Evidence - that which proves the fact in dispute
without the Facts In Issue - are those facts which the plaintiff must prove
aid of any inference or presumption. in order
to establish his claim and those facts which the defendant must
Doctine Of Processual Presumption - absent any of the prove
evidence or admission, in order to establish a defense set up by him, but only when
the foreign law is presumed to be the same as that in the the fact
Philippines. alleged by the one party is not admitted by the other party.

Document - any substance having any matter expressed or Facts Relevant To The Issue - are those facts which render
described upon the probable
it by marks capable of being read. existence or non-existence of a fact in issue, or some other
         - is a deed, instrument or other duly authorized appear by relevant
which something is proved, evidenced or set forth. fact.

Documentary Evidence - evidence supplied by written Factum Probandum - the ultimate fact or the fact sought to
instruments or derived be established.
from conventional symbols, such as letters, by which ideas are                  - Refers to proposition
on material substances. Factum Probans - is the evidentiary fact or the fact by which
the factum
Dying Declaration - The ante mortem statements made by a probandum is to be established. Materials which establish the
person after proposition.
the mortal wound has been inflicted under the belief that the
death is
certain, stating the fact concerning the cause of and the Hearsay Rule - Any evidence, whether oral or documentary is
circumstances hearsay if
surrounding the attack. its probative value is not based on the personal knowledge of
witness but on the knowledge of some other person not on the
Equipose Rule -  Where the evidence gives rise to two witness
probabilities, stand.
one consistent with defendant’s innocence, and another
indicative of
his guilt, that which is favorable to the accused should be Impeaching Evidence - a proper foundation must be laid for
considered. the impeaching
questions, by calling attention of such party to his former
Estoppel By Deed – the tenant is not permitted to deny title of statement
his so as to give him an opportunity to explain before such
landlord at the time of the commencement of the land-lord admissions are
tenant offered in evidence.
relationship. If the title asserted is one that is alleged to have
been Implied Admissions - are those which may be inferred from
acquired subsequent to the commencement of that relation, the the acts,
presumption declarations or omission of a party. Therefore, an admission
will not apply. may be
implied from conduct, statement of silence of a party.
Estoppel In Pais - whenever a party has, by his own
declaration, act, Independent Evidence - admissions are original evidence and
or omission, intentionally and deliberately lead another to no foundation
believe a is necessary for their introduction in evidence
particular thing to be true and act upon such belief, he cannot,
in Intermediate Ambiguity - situation where an ambiguity
partakes of the for its view or observation of an exhibition, experiment or
nature of both patent and latent. In this, the words are demonstration.
seemingly This is referred to as autoptic preference.
clear and with a settled meaning, is actually equivocal and
admits of Omnia praesumuntur rite et solemniter esse acta donec
two interpretations. Here, parol evidence is admissible to probetur in
clarify contrarium – all things are presumed to have been done
the ambiguity provided that the matter is put in issue by the regularly and
pleader. with due formality until the contrary is proved.
Example: Dollars, tons and ounces.
Opinion - an inference or conclusion drawn from facts
Issue - is the point or points in question, at the conclusion of observed.
pleadings which one side affirms, and the other side denies. Ordinary Opinion Evidence - that which is given by a
witness who is
of ordinary capacity and who has by opportunity acquired a
Judicial Admissions - are those so made in the pleadings filed particular
or in knowledge which is outside the limits of common observation
the progress of a trial. and which
                    - It is one made in connection with a judicial may be of value in elucidating a matter under consideration.
proceeding in which it is offered, while an extrajudicial
is any other admission. Parole Evidence - any evidence aliunde, whether oral or
written, which
Judicial Notice -  no more than that the court will bring to its is intended or tends to vary or contradict a complete and
aid enforceable
and consider, without proof of the facts, its knowledge of agreement embodied in a document.
matters of public concern which are known by all well- Patent or Extrinsic Ambiguity - is such ambiguity which is
informed apparent on
persons. the face of the writing itself and requires something to be
                - cognizance of certain facts which judges may take added in
and act on without proof because they are already known to order to ascertain the meaning of the words used. In this case,
them. parol
evidence is not admissible, otherwise the court would be
creating a
Material Evidence - evidence directed to prove a fact in issue contract between the parties.
determined by the rules of substantive law and pleadings. The Pedigree - includes relationship, family genealogy, birth,
test is marriage,
whether the fact it intends to prove is an issue or not. AS to death, the dates when, and the placer where these facts
whether occurred and
a fact is in issue or not is in turn determined by the substantive the names of their relatives. It embraces also facts of family
law, history
the pleadings, the pre-trial order and by the admissions or intimately connected with pedigree.
on file. Consequently, evidence may be relevant but may be Positive Evidence - when the witness affirms that a fact did or
immaterial did not
in the case. occur. Entitled to a greater weight since the witness represents
of his
personal knowledge the presence or absence of a fact.
Negative Evidence - when the witness did not see or know of
the occurrence Presumption - An inference as to the existence or non-
of a fact. There is a total disclaimer of persona knowledge, existence of a
hence without fact which courts are permitted to draw from the proof of other
any representation or disavowal that the fact in question could facts.
or could
not have existed or happened. It is admissible only if it tends       Presumption Juris Or Of Law – is a deduction which the
to law
contradict positive evidence of the other side or would tend to       expressly directs to be made from particular facts.
the existence of fact sworn to by the other side.       Presumption Hominis Or Of Fact – is a deduction which
      draws from facts proved without an express direction from
Object Evidence -  is a tangible object that played some the
actual role on       law to that effect.
the matter that gave rise to the litigation. For instance, a knife.
Prima Facie Evidence - that which is standing alone,
Objective or Real Evidence - directly addressed to the senses unexplained or
of the uncontradicted, is sufficient to maintain the proposition
court and consist of tangible things exhibited or demonstrated affirmed.
in open
court, in an ocular inspection, or at place designated by the Primary Evidence - that which the law regards as affording
court the greatest
certainty of the fact in question. Also referred to as the best
Privies - those who have mutual or successive relationship to INVESTIGATION
same right of property or subject matter, such as “personal
representatives, heirs, devisees, legatees, assigns, voluntary Traffic Management and Accident
grantee Investigation Reviewer
or judgment creditors or purchasers from them without notices
to the fact.
Accident (Legal meaning) – an accident is any happening
beyond the
Privity - mutual succession of relationship to the same rights
control of a person the consequences of which are not
of property. foreseeable.
(There is no criminal liability in accident provided, the
Proof - the result or effect of evidence. When the requisite following
requisites or elements under the law must be satisfied;
of evidence of a particular fact has been duly admitted and    1. performance of a lawful act
given weight,
   2. with due care
the result is called the proof of such fact.    3. causes injury to another by mere accident
   4. without any fault or intention of causing it
Relevant Evidence - evidence having any value in reason as
Articulated Vehicle - shall mean any motor vehicles with a
tending to trailer
prove any matter provable in an action. The test is the logical
having no front axle and so attached that part of the trailer rest
relation upon the motor vehicle and a substantial part of the weight of
of the evidentiary fact to the fact in issue, whether the former
tends trailer and of its load is born by the motor vehicle.
to establish the probability or improbability of the latter.
Benz Patent-Motorwagen - (motorcar) built in 1886, is
Res Gestae - literally means things done; it includes
widely regarded
circumstances, as the first automobile. It is a vehicle designed to be propelled
facts, and declarations incidental to the main facts or
transaction an internal combustion engine.
necessary to illustrate its character and also includes acts,
words, Box Junction - is a road traffic control measure designed to
or declarations which are closely connected therewith as to
constitute congestion and gridlock at junctions. A road area at a junction
part of the transaction.
with a yellow grid, which a vehicle should enter only if its exit
Rule Of Exclusion - that which is secondary evidence cannot
inceptively it is clear. Box junctions were introduced in UK during 1967,
be introduced as the original writing itself must be produced in
following a successful trial in London.
except in the four instances mentioned in Section 3.
Chain of Events – is the making up of accident or the link
explains the occurrence of the accident and its components are
Secondary Evidence - that which is inferior to the primary present
evidence and
in every accident.
is permitted by law only when the best evidence is not
      Perception of hazard – is the point of sensory warning at
Known as the substitutionary evidence.       which the operator sensed the approaching hazard. The
                   - shows that better or primary evidence exists as to
the proof of fact in question. It is deemed less reliable.       may not comprehend or recognized the hazard in all of its
      implications at this point of perception, but there was a
Self Serving Declaration - is one which has been made       warning. The normal routine is perception, realization, or
      recognition, decision, and action.
by the party to favor his interests. It is not admissible in
      Possible Perception - is a link in the accident chain dealing
      with the reaction of a normal person. Prompt perception
Testimonial Evidence - is that which is submitted to the court       when possible and actual perception are very close.
the testimony or deposition of a witness.       delayed perception occurs when actual perception is
      until impact shock alerts the driver..
Unsound Mind - any mental aberration, whether organic or
functional, or       Encroachment – is the movement of a vehicle into the path
induced by drugs or hypnosis.
      assigned to the other traffic unit.

      Evasive Action – is the first action taken by a traffic unit

Witness - reference to a person who testifies in a case or gives       to escape from a collision course or otherwise avoid the
before a judicial tribunal.

      Point of no escape – is that location and that time after or lightning, flood, and the like.
      beyond which an accident cannot be prevented by the
driver or Francois Isaac de Rivaz - A French and Swiss national who
      pedestrian. invented a
hydrogen powered internal combustion engine with electric
      Initial Contact – it is the first accidental touching of an ignition and
      object collided with by a traffic unit in motion. described it in a French patent published in 1807. In 1808 he
      Maximum Engagement – is the greatest collapse or it into a primitive working vehicle the world's first internal
overlap in a combustion
      collision. powered automobile.

      Disengagement – is the separation of a traffic unit in Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle - FCHV was developed by Toyota
motion in 2005. The
      from an object with which it has collided. vehicle is powered by the chemical reaction between hydrogen
and oxygen
      Final Rest of Stopping – it usually stabilizes the accident to power the motor driving the vehicle.
      situation where both vehicles in a collision has ceases its
      force, and stopping may occur with or without control by Geneva Convention on Road Traffic - September 19, 1949.
the Promotes the
      driver or pedestrian. development and safety of international road traffic by
Classification of Road certain uniform rules.
1. National Road
2. Provincial Road Gottlieb Daimler - He invented the high-speed petrol
3. City Road engine.He is
4. Municipal Road also thought to have invented the first real motorcycle in 1885.
5. Barangay Road
6. Private Road Gustave Trouve - In November 1881, Trouvé demonstrated a
Compressed Air Car - is an alternative fuel car that uses a three-wheeled electric automobile at the International
motor Exhibition of
powered by compressed air. The car can be powered solely by Electricity in Paris.
air, or
by air combined (as in a hybrid electric vehicle) with Hit-and-run - is the act of causing (or contributing to) a
gasoline,diesel, traffic
ethanol, or electric plant. accident (such as colliding with a person or a fixture), and
Crosswalks - are designed to keep pedestrians together where to stop and identify oneself afterwards. It is considered a crime
they can in
be seen by motorists, and where they can cross most safely most jurisdictions.
across the
flow of vehicular traffic.       Characteristics of Hit-and Run Drivers
      1. After living the scene, he dreads or frighten of being
Defensive Driving – is an act of driving while preventing caught.
accidents       2. He may have left the accident scene because he was
despite of the wrong actions of others aggravated by the shocked,
existence          injured, or intoxicated.
of adverse driving conditions. Which requires knowledge,       3. He may have been too confused to know he was doing.
alertness,       4. He may have a long record of violations or accidents
foresight, judgment and skill. and
         therefore a terrible fear of  getting further involve with
Ferdinand Verbiest - a member of a Jesuit mission in China,          the law.
built the       5. More often, he fears financial loss specially if he does
first steam-powered vehicle around 1672 which was of small not
scale and          have liability insurance.
designed as a toy for the Chinese Emperor, that was unable to       6. Hit-and run drivers do not have a establish method of
carry          operation unlike criminals.
a driver or a passenger, but quite possibly, was the first
working Imprudence – indicates deficiency of action. If a person fails
steam-powered vehicle. to
take the necessary precaution to avoid injury to a person or
Force Majure – is an inevitable accident or casualty, an damage
accident to property, there is imprudence. Imprudence usually involves
produced by any physical cause which is irresistible. In other lack
words of skill.
it is an Act of Man, such robbery, fire, fault, negligence,
rebellion, etc. Ivan Kulibin - a Russian mechanic and inventor, he
developed in 1971
Fortuitous Event – an event which takes place by accident a human-pedalled, three-wheeled carriage with modern
and could features such as
not have been foreseen. In other words it is an Act of God a flywheel, brake, gear box, and bearings.
could neither be foreseen nor resisted, such as earthquake, Karl Friedrich Benz - was a German engine designer and car
engineer, piston chamber.
generally regarded as the inventor of the first automobile
powered by Paris - in 1964, first time that police women were used for
an internal combustion engine, and together with Bertha Benz, traffic
pioneering founder of the automobile manufacturer Mercedes- control duties.
Pavement Markings – are markings on the roads and surfaces
Last Clear Chance - it means that the driver who is in the whereby a
better message is conveyed by means of words or symbols, officially
position to prevent the accident shoulders the responsibility of reflected
preventing the accident. The last clear chance principle is for the purpose of regulating, warning and guiding traffic.
always       May Indicate a Number of Things like
applied in any traffic accidental investigation in order to       1. Where lanes are divided
justify       2. Where you may pass other vehicles
penalized the driver who was not defensive in its driving.       3. Where you may change lanes or which lane to use for
Lester Wire - a policeman in Salt Lake City, Utah. He       4. Where pedestrian walkways are located
developed the       5. Where you may stop for traffic signs and traffic signals
first electric traffic light in 1912 which used red-green.
      Types of Pavement Markings
Macadam - is a type of road construction pioneered by       1. Curve Markings – are used to show where parking is
Scottish engineer legally
John Loudon McAdam around 1820. The method simplified          prohibited or not allowed, such Bus Stop, or in front of a
what had been          fire hydrant, drive way.
considered state of the art at that point. Single-sized aggregate       2. Object Markings – are painted on fixed poles, and on
layers vertical
of small stones, with a coating of binder as a cementing agent,          ends of bridges and ports to avoid accidents.
are       3. Reflectorized Markings – are used to mark hazardous
mixed in an open-structured roadway. areas
         and also used as delineators or road limits, these
Mesopotamia - (Present Iraq) location of the oldest delineators
constructed roads          are aids especially during night driving, particularly
discovered to date. The stoned paved streets date back to about when
4000 BC,          the alignment of a road changes and might confused the
in the Mesopotamia cities of Ur and Babylon.          operator of the vehicle.
      4. Striped Curb Markings – are markings used in traffic
Milestone - The earliest road signs, giving distance or islands
direction.          in order to warn the driver of the traffic island on the
milestone is one of a series of numbered markers placed along road
a road          and aids the motorist to its traffic lane.
or boundary at intervals of one mile or occasionally, parts of a       5. Painted Crosswalk – are placed at intersections and
mile. other
They are typically located at the side of the road or in a          places where there is considerable pedestrians traffic to
median.          provide pedestrians with safety zones when crossing.
      6. Broken White Lines – is used to define or separate
Motor Car Act 1903 - introduced registration of motor cars traffic lanes.
and          It permits crossing from one lane to another if there is
licensing of drivers in the United Kingdom and increased the ample
speed limit.          passing distance, and if the opposing lane is clear of
Motor Vehicle – shall mean any vehicle propelled by any       7. Solid White Line – is used to separate opposing streams
power other of
than muscular power using the public highways, but          traffic. Crossing is unlawful except where ample
exempting road distance
rollers, trolley cars, street sweepers, bulldozers, graders,          exists and where the opposing traffic lane is clear of
fork-lifts, cranes, vehicles which runs only on rails or tracks, traffic.
tractors, trailers, and traction engine.       8. Solid Yellow Line – is your driving lane prohibits you
Negligence – indicates a deficiency of perception. If a person          passing other vehicles.
fails       9. Double Yellow Line – indicates two way traffic; were
to pay proper attention to use due diligence in foreseeing the crossing
injury          of pedestrian and motorist is not allowed. It separates the
or damage impending to be caused there in negligence.          opposing flow of traffic.
Negligence       10.Broken Yellow Lines – is a two way/highway which
usually involves lack of skill. means no
         overtaking or passing is permitted only when the road
Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot - was a French inventor. He is known          ahead is clear.
to have       11.Stop Line – it indicates where stop should be made.
built the first working self-propelled mechanical vehicle, the
world's first automobile. PD 96 - A law declaring unlawful the use or attachment of
Nikolaus August Otto - the German inventor of the first bells, horns, Whistles or similar gadgets that emit
internal-combustion engine to efficiently burn fuel directly in exceptionally
a loud or startling sounds, including dome lights and other
signalling Places Where Parking is Prohibited
or flashing devices on motor vehicles.(January 13, 1973) 1. Within an intersection
2. On a crosswalk
      Excemptions - Motor Vehicles designated for official use 3. Within six meters of the intersection of curb lines.
by the 4. Within four meters of the driveways entrance to any fire
      1. AFP station.
      2. NBI 5. Within four meters of a fire hydrant.
      3. LTO 6. In front of a private driveway
      4. PNP 7. On the roadway side of any vehicle stopped or parked at the
      5. BFP curb
      6. Hospital Ambulances    or edge of the highway.
8. At any place where official signs have been erected
      Penalty prohibiting
      1. Confiscation - 1st offense    parking.
      2. Imprisonment - 6 months and/or Fine. - 2nd and
succeeding offenses. PNP Highway Patrol Group - is an operational support unit
      3. Cancellation or Revocation or Certificate of of the PNP
Registration in charged of anti-carnapping, highway robbery and hi-jacking
PD 1911 - a law authorizing the disposal of of unclaimed Formerly called Traffic Management Group. Traffic
recovered and Management in
impounded carnapped motor vehicles. Metro Manila is managed by the MMDA.

      This law provides that all carnapped or stolen motor Professional Driver – shall mean every and any driver hired
vehicle, or paid
      recovered and impound by law enforcement agencies for driving or operating a motor vehicle, whether for private
which after a use or
      period of three (3) months from the date of its for public.
      have remained unclaimed or whose real owners could no       Categories of Drivers
longer be       1. Tourist
      determined or established because the original numbers of       2. International Driver
the       3. Government
      motor engine or chassis numbers could no longer be       4. Professional
determined and       5. Non-professional
      restored, are considered as abandoned motor vehicles and       6. Student Permit
shall be
      sold and disposed of by the Chief PNP or his authorized RA 4136 - the Land Transportation and Traffic Code.
      representative in a public auction.
RA 6539 - Anti-Carnapping Act of 1972. An act preventing
      In all cases before any public auction is effected, there and
shall penalizing carnapping.
      be published once a week for three (3) consecutive weeks
in a       Carnapping -  is the taking, with intent to gain, of a motor
      newspaper of general circulation in the Philippines or in       vehicle belonging to another without the latter's consent,
the or
      place where it was recovered or found, a description of the       by means of violence against or intimidation of persons, or
motor by
      vehicles intended to be auctioned with a notice that after       using force upon things.
      lapse of one month from the date of the last publication, Road Intelligence – Unusual points of serious congestion
should must be noted.
      no person file a claim for the recovery of the same, said Note and report unnecessary delay at stop signs or signals
motor which are
      vehicles will be sold at public auction. installed when traffic is heavier. Note and report congestion
that ties
Pedestrian Crossing - is a place designated for pedestrians to up traffic for a block or more.
a road. Skid Marks - are marks caused by tires on roads which occur
when a
Pierre-Marie-Jérôme Trésaguet - was a French engineer. He vehicle wheel stops rolling and slides or spins on the surface
is widely of
credited with establishing the first scientific approach to road the road.
about the year 1764. Proposed a method of construction       Importance of Skid Mark In Traffic Accident
relying on a Investigation
firm well-drained foundation of large rocks topped by        - Skid marks can be analyzed to find the maximum and
progressively minimum
smaller ones, forming a convex surface to make it more          vehicle speed prior to an impact or incident.
impervious to
water. He is sometimes considered the first person to bring       Kinds of skid Marks
post-Roman       1. Pavement Grinding – is the collection of many fine
science to road building. scratches
         and some larger one form by particles of gritty materials
         such as stone, gravel, glass and sometimes bit of metal 4. Petroleum Fuel
         embedding itself in the rubber of the tire or in the thread 5. Bi-fuel, bio gas, and Ethanol fuel
         pattern and being ground or scored against the road 6. Hydrogen
surface. 7. Electric
      2. Tire Grinding – is the collection of particles of rubber
         ground from the tire surface by gritty paving, especially Registration Classification of Vehicles
         before the tire gets hot enough smear. It occur on hard, 1. Private
         dry, granular surfaces, particularly weathered or new but 2. For Hire
         not traffic-polished cement. 3. Government
      3. Erasing – is a clean light area where a sliding tire had 4. Diplomatic
         erased or removed dirt from the pavement. Erasing is
most Scuff Marks – are signs left on the road by tires that are
         likely to be found on traffic-polished concrete road. sliding or
      4. Squeeze Mark – are areas where a sliding tie rubs scrubbing while the wheel is still turning.
         of the surface in its path. It occurs on some kind of       Types of Scuff Marks
surface       1. Decelerating Scuff – are left while the vehicle is
         as erasing except that the surface is wet. slowing
      5. Smear of Soft Material – materials such as snow, mud,          by braking effort and tires are both sliding and rolling.
or       2. Accelerating Scuff – are left by a wheel driven by the
         debris usually wet smooth or spread by a sliding tire. It          engine and spinning on the ground.
         occurs on road covered with snow, or mud.       3. Side Scuff – are scuff marks left by a tire that is free to
      6. Smear of Bituminous Material – is excess asphalt or tar,          rotate without braking or power the sliding sideways,
         usually warm which spread by a sliding tire this occurs these
in          are usually left by a vehicle steering around a curb and
         pavement patches and joints in very warm weather and          also in collision.
else       4. Combination Scuff – are combination of slide with
         where when there is an excess of tar or asphalt bleeding either
to          decelerating or accelerating scuffs.
         the surface.       5. Flat Tire Scuff – are marks lefts on the road by the
      7. Tire Smear – is a rubber melted from the tire rather than edges
         material melted from the road by a sliding tire.          of under-inflated or greatly overloaded tires. They are
      8. Scrub of Tire during Collision – collision of cars usually          usually smear of rubber, a flat tire rolls it become a very
         cause the wheel to jam and prevents it from turning. If          hot specially at the edges where the pressure is greatest.
the       6. Scrub of Tire – during collision it is much the same
         vehicles are moving there will be a heavy scrubbing when
action          the wheel is rotating as when it is locked.
         between tire and road surface.       7. Furrows – by a rotating and sliding wheel are little
      9. Furrow – is a ploughed depression made by a sliding different
tire with          than one with a locked wheel.
         material piled-up on each sides and usually at the end. If
         the soil is smooth and sticky, there may be soft material State of Necessity – there is state of necessity even if the
         smear in the bottom of the rut. injury
to a person results in his death, because self-preservation
        Types of Ending Skid Mark always
      1. Overlapping Skid mark – occurs when the rear wheels makes the actor feel that his own safety is greater than that of
track on another.
         top of the front wheel marks in sliding.    Elements or requisites under the law
      2. Front Wheel Marks – are in long skids on hard    1. the evil sought to avoided actually exists ;
pavement with    2. the injury feared be greater that that done to avoid it;
         bituminous binders. Front wheels skid marks in which    3. that there is no other practical and less harmful means of
most of       preventing it.
         the mark is at edge of the tire.
      3. Rear Tire Marks – are relatively faint because of lesser Thomas Telford - a Scottish civil engineer, architect and
         weight on the tire in slowing. They may show thread stonemason,
grooves and a noted road, bridge and canal builder.  he was dubbed
         when the front tire marks do not. The Colossus
      4. Flat Tire Scuffs – will leave marks by a scrubbing of Roads, and, reflecting his command of all types of civil
action engineering
         even without application of brakes due to overload. in the early 19th century. He was elected as the first President
      5. Gaps in Skid marks – are interruptions in skid marks of
made by the Institution of Civil Engineers.
         release of brake pressure and its reapplication.
      6. Skip Skid – are skid marks that are broken or Timeline - History of Transportation
interrupted       3500 BC - Fixed wheels on carts are invented - the first
         without brakes being release. wheeled
      7. Curb in Skid marks – are usually gentle slides toward       vehicles in history. Other early wheeled vehicles include
the the
         edge of the road which is simply downhill.       chariot.
              - River boats are invented - ships with oars
Sources of Power In Transportation
1. Man Power       2000 BC - Horses are domesticated and used for
2. Animal Power transportation.
3. Water and Air Power
      181-234 - The wheelbarrow is invented.       1907 - Very first helicopter - unsuccessful design.

      770 - Iron horse shoes improve transportation by horse.       1908 - Henry Ford improves the assembly line for
      1492 - Leonardo da Vinci first to seriously theorize about       manufacturing.
      flying machines - with over 100 drawings that illustrated
his       1908 - Hydrofoil boats co-invented by Alexander Graham
      theories on flight. Bell &
      Casey Baldwin - boats that skimmed water.
      1620 - Cornelis Drebbel invented the first submarine - a
human       1926 - First liquid propelled rocket launched.
      oared submersible.
      1940 - Modern helicopters invented.
      1662 - Blaise Pascal invents the first public bus - horse-
drawn,       1947 - First supersonic jet flight.
      regular route, schedule, and fare system.
      1956 - Hovercraft invented.
      1740 - Jacques de Vaucanson demonstrates his clockwork
powered       1964 - Bullet train transportation invented.
      1969 - First manned mission (Apollo) to the Moon.
      1783 - First practical steam boat demonstrated by Marquis
      Claude Francois de Jouffroy d'Abbans - a paddle wheel       1970 - First jumbo jet.
      1981 - Space shuttle launched.
      1783 - The Montgolfier brothers invent the first hot air
balloons. Traffic – is a movement of vehicles along a route where
      1787 - Steamboat invented. and cargoes are carried by transportation.

      1769 - First self-propelled road vehicle invented by       Elements of street and highway traffic
Nicolas       1. The road user
      Joseph Cugnot.       2. The vehicle and its load
      3. The road.
      1790 - Modern bicycles invented.
      Police officers main functions in Traffic
      1801 - Richard Trevithick invented the first steam       1. Police traffic directions
powered       2. Police traffic law enforcement
      locomotive (designed for roads).       3. Police traffic accident investigation.

      1807 Isaac de Rivas makes a hydrogen gas powered Traffic Accident -  (traffic Collision) occurs when a vehicle
vehicle - collides
      first with internal combustion power - however, it is an with another vehicle, pedestrian, animal, road debris, or other
      unsuccessful design. stationary obstruction, such as a tree or utility pole.

      1807 - First steamboat with regular passenger service -       Elements of traffic accident
inventor       1. The vehicle involved
      Robert Fulton's Clermont.       2. The highway
      3. The road user.
      1814 - George Stephenson invents the first practical steam
      powered railroad locomotive.           Causes of Traffic Accident
      1. Direct Causes – the direct causes of an accident are
      1862 - Jean Lenoir makes a gasoline engine automobile.          observable by witness and participants, or may be
      1867 -First motorcycle invented.          from physical evidence found at the scene. Since a direct
      1868 - George Westinghouse invents the compressed air          relates to the action of the human part of the traffic unit
locomotive          concerned it is a behavior cause. Usually only four direct
      brake - enabled trains to be stopped with fail-safe          causes are considered in accident investigation;
accuracy.             a. Initial Behavior - Any movement, position, or failure
               to signal intent to make a traffic maneuver that
      1871 - First cable car invented. creates
               a dangerous situation and is either hazardous, illegal,
      1885 - Karl Benz builds the world's first practical                improper, or unusual may be initial behavior of a
automobile nature
      to be powered by an internal combustion engine.                justly term a direct cause of an accident.
            b. Speed – Too fast for conditions is the direct cause of
      1899 - Ferdinand von Zeppelin invents the first successful                many accidents.
      dirigible - the Zeppelin.             c. Delayed Perception – is inattention to the major task
               of operating a motor vehicle, and occurs when the
      1903 - The Wright Brothers invent and fly the first driver
engined                is distracted by conversation with other occupants of
      airplane.                the car, lighting a cigarette or cigar, looking at a
               roadway or the scenery, or glancing at occupants of
               nearby vehicles. beyond
            d. Faulty Evasive Action – Faulty evasive action          which the accident cannot be prevented by the traffic
always unit
               occurs after perception and is the reaction of a          under consideration.
               driver or pedestrian to a hazardous situation on       6. Point of Impact – is used to mean as the point of initial
               the highway.          contact, sometimes it is considered the point of
      2. Mediate and Early Causes – These mediate and early maximum
causes of          engagement or center of force.
         an accident are also termed condition causes in       7. Final Position – is the place and time when the object
formalized          involved in the accident finally come to rest without
         accident investigation procedure. A mediate cause of an          application of power.
         accident occurs between the early and the direct causes
in Traffic Actuated Signal – is controlled by an individual using
         the time span leading to the accident, but it has a closer his
         relationship to the direct cause than to the early causes. hands in signaling the flow of traffic wherein traffic shall
         A mediate cause should not be listed unless it explains proceed
the in accordance with the desire of the individual controlling the
         direct cause of an accident. A mediate cause of an flow of traffic.
         is an irregular or unusual condition of a vehicle, the road, Traffic Code - (also motor vehicle code) refers to the
         the weather, or of a road user (driver or pedestrian) that collection of
         explains on of the four direct causes of an accident: local statutes, regulations, ordinances and rules that have been
initial officially adopted by countries to govern the orderly operation
         behavior, speed, delayed perception and faulty evasive and
action. interaction of motor vehicles, bicycles, pedestrians and others
      3. Early Causes - An early cause of an accident results upon
from the the public (and sometimes private) ways.
         act of any individual, or the failure to act by any person,
         which creates conditions leading to the chain of events Traffic Education – comprises all means for public
         making up an accident. information and the
safety education of both drivers and pedestrians as to traffic
         Early cause of an accident - is an act or negligence on laws
the and the use of traffic facilities and an adequate training
         part of an individual or an organization which causes or programs in
         permits a mediate cause to exist. traffic control throughout the police unit.

      Traffic Accident Analysis Traffic Engineering - is a branch of civil engineering that

      1. Condition of the motor vehicles involved in the uses
accident; engineering techniques to achieve the safe and efficient
      2. Condition of the drivers at the time of the accident; movement of
      3. Load of the vehicle; people and goods on roadways.
      4. Weather condition;
      5. Characteristics of the road, which involves the design       Functions of Traffic Engineering
         condition, and inhabitants of the place of accident       1. Fact finding surveys and recommendation of traffic
      6. Presence or absence of traffic sign and its condition. rules and
         All these factors must considered in order to fully          regulations.
uncover       2. Supervision and maintenance to the application of
         the reasons of the accident, and thereby provide a factual traffic
         bases in coming-up with a traffic prevention program          control devices.
and       3. Planning of traffic regulations.
         traffic plans and programs.
      Objectives of traffic Engineering
         1. To achieve efficient, safe, free and rapid flow of traffic.
      Key Events in a Traffic Accident       2. To prevent traffic accidents and casualties.
      3. To present the role of traffic engineering in reducing the
      Key Event – means the one which characterizes the          needs for police action and simplifying police
manner of performance.
      the occurrence of the traffic accident. It determines the       4. To show that good police action and performance makes
      time, place, and type of accident.          engineering plans effective.

      1. Point of Possible Perception – is the place and time at Traffic Investigation - Objective
which 1. Securing facts upon which to base an accident prevention
         the unusual or unexpected movement or condition could program;
have 2. Determining whether or not laws have been violated,
         been perceive by a normal person. gathering
      2. Delay in Perception or Perception Time – it is the time    evidence which will reveal the road user responsible for the
         between the point of possible perception and actual    accident, and taking on-the-scene police action; and
         perception. 3. Ascertaining the facts so that those involved in accidents
      3. Prompt Perception – is the perception of hazard which is can
         actually nearly the possible accident.    properly exercise claims under our Civil Law.
      4. Maximum Delayed Perception – occurred when the
traffic unit Traffic Island - a small raised area in the middle of a road
         does not sense a hazard until he hits another vehicle. which
      5. Point of No Escape – is the place and time after or provides a safe place for pedestrians to stand and marks a
division make
between two opposing streams of traffic.          a right turn.
      3. The RIGHT GREEN signal might or might NOT have a
      Kinds of Traffic Islands road sign
      1. Divisional and or Pedestrian Barrier          disallowing a right turn while the RED lights is On
      2. Channelizing Island
      3. Refuge Island Traffic Management – it comprises all public surfaces ,
      4. Rotary Island facilities
and agencies having responsibility for licensing, approving,
Traffic laws - are the laws which govern traffic and regulate maintaining and controlling the flow of traffic and the use of
vehicles, traffic
while rules of the road are both the laws and the informal rules facilities.
may have developed over time to facilitate the orderly and Traffic Patrol – Traffic patrol refers to the observation
timely of road conditions, the behavior of the drivers and other users
flow of traffic. of
vehicles for the purpose of traffic supervision and law
Traffic Law Enforcement – comprises all police activities in enforcement
connection and providing authorized traffic-connected services to the
with the direction of traffic, regulation and education of public.
determine potential offenders, constant patrol, giving of       Purpose of Traffic Patrol
assistance       1. Deterrent to violations and dangerous driving.
in the prosecution of offenders, investigation of accidents,       2. Detecting and apprehending violators.
follow-up       3. Observing and reporting traffic conditions.
complaints, requesting police action, warning, summoning or       4. Observing and reporting road conditions, including view
arrest of          obstruction which needs attention.
violators, reporting of road hazards and obstruction.       5. Providing certain services to the public.

      Traffic Enforcement Action       Types/Kinds of Traffic Patrol

      1. Detection       1. Line Patrol – Conducts observation either in moving or
      2. Apprehension          stationary observation at a certain route or point of a
      3. Prosecution major
      4. Adjudication          street in a city.
      5. Penalization       2. Area Patrol – Conduct observation either by moving
patrol or
      Enforcement action is usual limited to:          stationary observation in a certain area, which included a
      1. Verbal or written warning;          number of streets roads or sections of a highway.
      2. Summon or citation requiring the offender to appear in       3. Stationary Observation – Observation of traffic
court; conditions
      3. Arresting traffic violators for traffic violations not          of a selected place, usually one with unfavorable
attended accident
      4. Suspension or revocation of license;          experiences for traffic law supervision. Stationary
      5. Payment of fines or civil damages, and; observation
      6. Prosecution of criminal offenses in relation to traffic.          may be conspicuous, visible or concealed, depending
upon the
Traffic lights - a set of automatically operated coloured lights,          location of the patrol unit in relation to the street under
typically red, amber, and green, for controlling traffic at road          observation.
junctions, pedestrian crossings, and roundabouts.       4. Conspicuous Observation – Stationary observation in
Traffic Light Signals – is a power operated traffic control          the observer remains in full review of traffic conditions.
device       5. Visible Observation – Stationary observation in which
by which traffic is warned or directed to take some specific observer
actions.          is full view but so located, for example, at Side Street, so
         as to require effort on the part of traffic users to discover
      Light: Flashing Red          the observer.
      1. This is the same as STOP SIGN.       6. Concealed Observation – Stationary observation in
      2. STOP at the designated line. which the
      3. Vehicles will be crossing from the “other side”          observer is not visible to persons using ordinary power
      4. Expect pedestrians to cross at the pedestrian lane. of
      5. PROCEED WHEN CLEAR.          observation form the roadway being observed.

      Light: Flashing Yellow

      1. This is the same as a YIELD SIGN. Traffic Signs – a device mounted on a fixed or portable
      2. Proceed through the intersection with caution. means of words
      3. You have the right of way over a flashing RED light. or symbols, officially created and installed for the purpose of
      4. Vehicles on the other side will proceed to a FULL regulating, warning and guiding traffic.
      Types of Traffic Signs
      Light: Steady Green and Steady left/Right Arrow       1. Regulatory Signs - are intended to inform road-users of
      1. Vehicles can go straight or vehicles on the left lane can          special obligations, instructions or prohibitions which
make must
         a left turn.          comply. A round shape is used for regulatory signs with
      2. Vehicles can go straight or vehicles on the right lane can          exception of stop and yield signs.
      2. Warning Signs - are intended to warn road-users of       The warrant of arrest is to be served within a statutory
danger on       period of 10 days.
         the road and to inform them of its nature. These signs
have       The warrant  of arrest validity continues unless:
         an equilateral triangular shape with one side horizontal.       1. Recalled by the issuing court
      3. Guide or Informative Signs - are intended to guide road-       2. The respondent has been arrested
users       3. Respondent voluntary submitted himself
         while they are traveling or to provide them with other
useful Arson - An act of willfully and maliciously damaging or
         information. destroying a
building or other property by fire or explosion.
       Types of Guide Signs
      1. Route markings – is usually found on highways Autopsy - known as a post-mortem examination, necropsy,
composed of autopsia
         several lanes which are going into different direction. cadaverum, or obduction, is a highly specialized surgical
      2. Destination and distance signs – is usually erected on procedure
         highway informing the motorist as to the number of that consists of a thorough examination of a corpse to
kilometers determine the
         and at which way to take going to its place of cause and manner of death and to evaluate any disease or
destination. injury that
      3. Information signs – is usually erected on highway which may be present.
         informs the motorist of the establishments in the era,
such Accused - A person who’s case was forwarded to the office of
         hospitals, restaurants, restrooms, hotels, and other the
         establishments which provide services to motorist. prosecutor and filed in court.

Transfer Evidence – it is an evidence found at the accident Baseline - a method of locating object, particularly useful in in
scene large, irregularly shaped outdoor areas.
that will connect to the suspected vehicle and with the crime
scene. Confession - An express acknowledgment by the accused in a
prosecution of the truth of his guilt as to the offense charged,
while admission refers to statements of fact not directly
Special Crime Investigation Reviewer constituting
an acknowledgment of guilt.
Admission - Any statement of fact made by a party which is
against Corpus Delicti - Latin for the “body of the crime”.
his interest or unfavorable to the conclusion for which he
contends Crime - A generic term referring to many types of misconduct
or inconsistent with the facts alleged by him. forbidden by law.

AFIS - Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS) is Crime Scene - A venue or place where the alleged
a biometric crime/incident/event
identification (ID) methodology that uses digital imaging has been committed.
to obtain, store, and analyze fingerprint data. Criminal - A person who is convicted by final judgment.

Amateur Intermittent Offender - These types of robbers Criminalist - The officer responsible for recording a crime
view themselves scene and
as lifetime robbers and commits infrequent robbery offenses, recognizing and preserving physical evidence.
recklessly. Criminal Investigation - The collection of facts in order to
Armed Robbery - This involves the use of weapons such as the three-fold aims – to identify the guilty party, to locate the
firearm, a guilty
knife or other dangerous weapons. party and to provide evidence of his (suspect) guilt.

Animus Lucrandi - means intent to gain, in Robbery. Criminal Investigator - A well-trained, disciplined and
      Bienes Muebles - in Robbery, means personal property professional in the field of criminal investigation.
      to another. Criminal Law - One that defines crimes treats of their nature
Arrest - The legal taking of a person into a custody in order provides for their punishment.
he may be bound to answer for the commission of an offense.   Crime Scene - The geographical area where the crime was

Arrest Warrant - An order in writing issued in the name of Crime Scene Sketch -  A simple diagram that creates a
the mental pictures
Philippines commanding or directing a peace officer to arrest of the scene to those who are not present.
person described therein and brings it before the court.       Rough Sketch -  The first pencil-drawn outline of the
      and the location of objects and evidence within this          is used. The zero location on the board is oriented
outline. toward
         magnetic north.
DNA Profiling - (also called DNA testing, DNA typing, or
genetic          Triangulation - is a method that can be used when the
fingerprinting) is a technique employed by forensic scientists scene
to assist          is irregularly shaped. Two control points are used for this
in the identification of individuals by their respective DNA          method.
Highgrading – selling
DNA Fingerprinting - is a test to identify and evaluate the
genetic Information - The general term referring to the knowledge
information, called DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), of a acquired
person's cells. by criminal investigator from various sources. Data gathered
by an
Early Techniques of Crime Investigation investigator from other persons including the victim himself
      Archimedes (287–212 BC) invented a method for and
determining the other sources.
      volume of an object with an irregular shape.
Instrumentation - The application of instrument and method
      Book of Xi Yuan Lu - The first written account of using of physical
medicine science in the detection and investigation of crime.
      and entomology to solve criminal cases.
Interview - The simple friendly questioning of people who
      Carl Wilhelm Scheele - he devised in 1773 a method for have the
detecting information officially needed by investigators.
      arsenous oxide, simple arsenic, in corpses.
Interrogation - The vigorous or aggressive questioning of
      Henry Goddard - at Scotland Yard pioneered the use of person
bullet suspected of having committed an offense or a person who is
      comparison in 1835. reluctant
or willing to make a full disclosure of information in his
      Alphonse Bertillon - was the first to apply the possessions,
anthropological which is pertinent to the investigation of a criminal case.
      technique of anthropometry to law enforcement, thereby
creating Investigation - The collection of basic facts establishing that a
      an identification system based on physical measurements. crime
has been committed and that some other person is responsible
      Sir William Herschel - was one of the first to advocate thereof.
the use
      of fingerprinting in the identification of criminal suspects. Kastle–Meyer Test - is a presumptive blood test, first
described in
English Constable - early recorded professional criminal 1903, in which the chemical indicator phenolphthalein is used
investigator. to detect
the possible presence of hemoglobin.
Evidence -  The means by which facts are proved.
Miranda Doctrine - The principle on the rights of a suspect
Forcible Rape - Sexual intercourse carried out against a against
person’s will forced self-incrimination during police interrogation.
by the use of physical violence.
Modus Operandi - Methods of Operation, Modes of
Four Basic Techniques That Can Be Used To Measure A Operation, Manner of
Crime Scene committing the crime.
1. Rectangular/Coordinate System
2. Baseline/Station Line Murder-Suicide - An act in which an individual kills one or
3. Triangulation/Trilateration more other
4. Azimuth/Polar Coordinates persons immediately before or at the same time as him or
         Azimuth - uses polar coordinates. This method requires
two Phenomena - A circumstance, event or occurrence as it
         people; one to hold each end of a tape measure. This actually
type of exists or existed.
         measuring convention is best suited for large open areas
where Photography -  The most reliable means of preserving the
         there might not be any fixed reference points. A known crime scene
starting or evidence.
         point must be established in your scene which might
require Political terrorists - The use of force or the fear of force to
         pounding in a stake. That point is located by using a achieve
handheld a political end.
         GPS (global positioning system). A large protractor or
some Power-Reassurance Rapist - The rapist who psychologically
         other type of board marked with a circle and degree doubt his
increments masculinity and seeks to dispel this doubt by exercising power
and was held
control over women. from November 3 to 8, 1980 at Manila. After the second
conference, the
Professional Robber - This characterized as having a long- Philippine council of Non-Governmental Organization was
term organized.
commitment to crime as a source of livelihood, planning and
organizing 1988 - the United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in
crimes before committing them and pursuing money to Narcotics
support a particular Drugs and Psychotropic Substances was held further
lifestyle. bolstering anti
drug laws.
RA 7438 - An act defining certain rights of person under
custodial Addiction - A person has an addiction when he becomes
investigation. dependent on or
craves a drug and believes he needs the drug to live. All an
RA 8353 - The Anti-Rape Law of 1997. addicted
drug user can think about is getting the next dose after getting
RA 9514 - The Fire Code of the Philippines. high.

Rectangular - a method of obtaining measurement to locate Classification of Commonly Used Drugs

an object    Psychoactive Drugs - These are often described as a
by making a measurement at right angles from each of two psychotropic
walls. Works    (mind affecting) or mind altering drugs. It is a chemical
well for indoor measurements. substance
   that changes ones thinking, feelings, perceptions and
Special Crime Investigation - The investigation of cases that behaviors.
are       a. Depressants - they are drugs that affects the central
unique and often require special training to fully understand nervous
their          system causing it to relax.
broad significance.
         Common Types of Depressants
Spectrometry - modern detection method of alcohol and          1. Narcotics - refers to any drugs which produces
drugs. insensibility,
            stupor, melancholy or dullness of mind with delusion
Suspect - A person arrested for a crime. and
            which may be habit forming.
Terrorism - The unlawful use of threat of violence against          2. Barbiturates - drugs that affect the central nervous
person or system
property to further political or social objectives.             causing sedation.
         3. Tranquilizers - are drugs which relieves
Three Fold Aim of Criminal Investigation uncomfortable
1. Identify the Perpetrator             emotional feelings by reducing anxiety and promoting
2. Locate the Perpetrator             relaxation.
3. Provide Evidence          4. Alcohol - fermented or distilled liquids or drug
            containing ethanol and intoxicating substances.
Triangulation - method of locating object where          5. Solvents and Inhalants - volatile liquids that give off a
measurements are taken             vapor, which is inhaled producing short term
from two fixed points at the scene to the object you desire to excitement
locate.             and euphoric followed by a period of disorientation. Its
            effect includes nausea, sneezing, coughing, nose
            fatigue,lack of coordination and loss of appetite.

Drug Education and Vice Control       b. Stimulants - chemical substances that generally speed
Reviewer up
         central nervous system function, resulting in alertness
1875 - in San Francisco California, enacted an ordinance          excitability.
which banned
the smoking of opium in opium dens.          Common Types of Stimulants
         1. Cocaine - a natural stimulants derived from the plant
1919 - the prohibition of alcohol commenced in Finland.             erythroxylon coca.
         2. Methamphetamine/Amphetamine - man made
1920 - the prohibition of alcohol commenced in the United stimulants drugs.
States.          3. Caffeine - a stimulant found in coffee.
         4. Nicotine - an addictive substance usually obtained
1974 - the Inter Agency Committee on Drug Prevention from
Education was             cigarette smoking.
created and played vital role in the integration of drug abuse
prevention concepts in social actions programs.       c. Hallucinogen/Psychedelics - sometimes known as “all
1979 - the first International non-governmental organization          and “mind expanders” these drugs affects the person
conference          perceptions, awareness, emotions and can also cause
was held in Jakarta, Indonesia, followed by the second which          hallucinations as well as illusions.
Dangerous Drugs Board - is the policy making and strategy-
         Common Types of Hallucinogens formulating
         1. Marijuana body, under the office of the President, in the planning and
         2. Lysergic Acid Diethylamide formulation of policies and programs on drug prevention and
         3. Ecstacy control.
         4. PCP, Psilocybin mushroom and peyote
      The late President Ferdinand E. Marcos, organized the
Cocaine - is a stimulant of the central nervous system and an Dangerous
appetite       Drugs Board on November 14, 1972 under the Office of
suppressant, giving rise to what has been described as a the President.
sense of happiness and increased energy. It is a quick acting       National Agencies Forming Part of the Dangerous Drugs
drug Board
whose effects are rapid from the time of intake. It is legally       1. DOH  - Department of Health
used       2. DSWD - Department of Social Welfare and
in medicine as a topical anesthetic, specifically in the eye, Development
nose and       3. DECS - Department of Education, Culture and Sports
throat surgery. It is a crystallinetropane alkaloid that is derived       4. DOJ  - Department of Justice
from the leaves of the coca plant known as “Erythroxylon”       5. DND  - Department of National Defense
      6. DOF  - Department of Finance
      Alexander Bennet - he discovered the first medical use of       7. DILG - Department of the Interior and Local
      cocaine in 1873 as anesthetic. Government
      8. DOLE - Department of Labor and Employment
      1879 - cocaine was used to treat morphine addiction.       9. DFA  - Department of Foreign Affairs
      10.CHED - Commission on Higher Education
      1884 - cocaine was introduced into clinical use as       11.NYC  - National Youth Commission
anesthetic.       12.PDEA - Philippine Drug Enforcement Agency
      in Germany.
      Permanent Consultants of the DDB
      1970 - cocaine gained popularity as a recreational drug.       1. Director of the NBI
      2. Chief of the PNP
      Medellin and Cali Cartel - were founded in Colombia to
meet the       Two Regular Members of the DDB
      new demand for cocaine. The Cali Cartel became the       1. President of the IBP - Integrated Bar of the Philippines
number one       2. Chairman or President of a non-government
      cocaine trafficker after the death of Pablo Escobar. organization
         involved in dangerous drug campaign to be appointed by
      Pablo Escobar - the founder of the Medellin Cartel who          the President of the Philippines.
      killed by the police in late 1993.       Oplan Iwas Droga - is the national flagship program on
Chemicals – is any substance taken into the body, which       abuse prevention launched by the DDB in 1995.
alters the
way, the mind and the bodywork.       Barkada Kontra Droga - is a peer-based program designed
as a
Chemical Abuse – is an instance when the use of a chemical       preventive education and information strategy to counter
has the
produced a negative or harmful consequence.       dangers and disastrous effects of drug abuse. It aims to
Codeine - Methylmorphine is an opiate used for its analgesic,       individuals to be catalysts within their peer groups in
anti-tussive and anti-diarrheal properties. It is marketed as the       advocating healthy, drug-free lifestyles through
salt codeine sulfate and codeinephosphate. It is also often used involvement
as recreational drugs. This is primarily because of its easy       in various wholesome activities.
availability over the counter or on prescription in combination
of products.       IDADIN - Integrated Drug Abuse Data and Information
Dangerous Drugs - are those that have high tendency for       - is an online drug data pooling and collection system that
abuse and       allows better management and assessment of the over-all
dependency, these substances may be organic or synthetic, and drug
pose       demand and supply reduction efforts undertaken by the
harm to those who use them.       government.

Dangerous Drugs Act of 1972 - marked the government       DDB-DIAL - (DDB Drug Information Action Line) is an
assurance to strict action
policy against drug abuse. The act was subsequently amended       center created to receive reports and complaints related to
through       drug abuse as well as to provide relevant information and
Presidential Degree No. 44. Dangerous Drug Board was       assistance to the public.
created to
implement the provisions of the Dangerous Drug Act as the       KID Listo - is a mascot created to stand as an icon or
national       representation of the drug abuse prevention program. KID
policy making body and deal with other related matters on       means Kalaban ng Ilegal na Droga. It was brought to
drug abuse different
prevention and control.       schools and communities all over the country to promote
      anti-drug advocacy. seeking,
and use. Addiction is caused by brain changes caused by
      5 Pillar Global Drug Control Approach constant
      1. Drug Supply Reduction drug use.
      2. Drug Demand Reduction
      3. Alternative Development Drug Dependence - A state of psychic or physical
      4. Civic Awareness and Response dependence, or both
      5. Regional and International Cooperation on dangerous drugs, arising in a person following
administration or
Dangerous Drugs Board Certification - is issued to attest use of a drug on a periodic or continuous basis.
that                 - Drug dependence describes the state when an
substance/s manufactured or imported by companies are not individual is dependent upon the drug for normal
included in physiological
the list of dangerous drugs and controlled precursors and functioning.
chemicals. Drug Experimenter - One who illegally, wrongfully, or
improperly uses
      Certificate of Exemption - is issued to exempt products any narcotics substances, marijuana or dangerous drugs as
or defined not
      preparations containing dangerous drugs and/or controlled more than a few times for reasons of curiosity, peer pressure
      substances that are below and above the 30% threshold or
from other similar reasons.
      certain regulatory control measures.
Drug Syndicate - it is a network of evil. It is operated and
Dependency - is the state of physical and psychological manned
dependence, by willful criminals who knowingly traffic  human lives for
or both, on a dangerous drug, or drugs, experienced by a the money.
person Large sum of money, they can make in their illegal and
following the use of that substance on a periodic or continuous nefarious trade.
basis. The set results of their commerce are physical and mental
Depressant - A depressant is a drug that slows a person down. ruined lives, even agonizing death.
prescribed depressants to help people be less angry, anxious, Ecstacy - In 1912 MDMA or
or Methylenedioxymetamphetamine was developed
tense. Depressants relax muscles and make people feel sleepy in Germany as an appetite depressant by the pharmaceutical
or like company
their head are stuffed. Merck. During the late 1970 psychiatrists and psychologist
used the
Drugs - are chemicals that affect a person in such a way as to drugs as treatment for emotional and psychological disorders.
bring Among
about physiological, emotional, or behavioral change. the youth users referred it as the “sex drugs”. In its purest form
it is crystalline substance white powder with mastic odor.
Drug Abuse - is a patterned use of a substance (drug) in
which the Enabling - is any action taken by a concerned person that
user consumes the substance in amounts or with methods removes or
which are softens the negative effect or harmful consequences of drug
harmful to themselves or others. Drug abuse exists when a use upon
person the user. Enabling only makes thing worse. It is like fighting
continually uses a drug other than its intended purpose. This fire with gasoline.
use can lead to drug addiction and dependency. Facility Based/Treatment Based Data - are data gathered
from the
      General Signs and Symptoms of Drug Abuse residential and out-patient treatment and rehabilitation centers
      1. Unexpected changes of behavior in
      2. Significant deterioration of grooming the Philippines.
      3. Continually wear long sleeve clothing to hide injection
marks Hallucinogen - A hallucinogen is a drug, such as LSD, that
      4. Wearing of sunglasses in appropriate time. changes a
      5. Weight loss not attributed to proper physical exercises. person's mood and makes him see, hear, or think things that
      6. Association with persons who are known drug abusers aren't
      7. Unusual spending of money really there. Hallucinogens change the way a person feels
Drug Addiction – a state of periodic or chronic (continuous) making it seem to slow down. As the name implies,
intoxication (drunk) detrimental to individual and to the hallucinogens may
society cause hallucinations - this is when people think they see or
produced by the repeated consumption of drugs. hear
               - Drug addiction refers to the behavioral condition imaginary people or things.
an individual’s need to obtain and use (especially, self- Harrison Act - passed in 1914, which required sellers of
administer) opiates and
drugs becomes a strong fixation. cocaine to procure license. Originally intended to require
               - Drug addiction is a complex, and often chronic, paper trails
brain disease. It is characterized by excessive drug craving, of drug transactions between doctors, drug stores and patients,
soon became a prohibitive law.       Methods/Apparatus in Smoking Marijuana
      1. The Joint
Hashish - It is the dark brown resin that is collected from the       2. The Blunt
tops of       3. The Hookah
potent Cannabis Sativa. It is at least five times stronger than       4. The Bong - is a tube with a small bowl at the end of a
crude          thinner tube inserted throughthe side near the base.
marijuana. Since it is stronger, the effect on the user is more       5. The Waterfall
intense,       6. The Pipe
and the possibility of side effects is greater. Placing the crude       7. The Shotgun
plant       8. The Chillum
material in a solvent makes it. The plant materials then filtered       9. The One Hitter or Bat - is a contrivance that allows the
out          small amount of cannabis to be burned and inhaled in a
and the solvent is removed, yielding a gummy, resinous          single breath.
Middle East - the Bec ka Valley of Lebanon is considered to
Heroin - is also known as Diacetylmorphine, is a semi be the
synthetic opioid. biggest producer of cannabis in the Middle East.
It mimics endorphins and creates a sense of well being upon
entering Morphine - is a strong opiate analgesic drug and is the
the bloodstream usually through intravenous injection. It is principal
widely active agent in opium. It acts directly on the central nervous
used as a illegal drug for its intense euphoria, which often system
disappears relieving pain. It is claimed to be six (6) times more potent
with increase tolerance. than
opium. It is administered into the body by means of injection.
High - A high is the feeling that drug users want to get when It is
they used legally as an analgesic in hospital setting to relieve pain
take drugs. There are many types of high, including a spacey after surgery and pain associated with trauma.
euphoria, or a feeling that a person  has “special powers”, such Most Commonly Used/Abused Substances In The
as Philippines
the ability to fly or see into the future. 1. Methamphetamine hydrochloride (Shabu)
2. Cannabis Sativa or Marijuana
Lebanon - also became the transit country for cocaine from 3. Inhalants (Contact Cement)
South America
to illicit drugs markets. Motbok - an alcohol rationing system with personal ration
record book
Marijuana - obtained from an Indian hemp plant known as employed by Sweden from 1914 to 1955.
“Cannabis Sativa”
a strong, handy ,annual shrub which grows wild in Narcotics - is any drug that produces sleep or stupor and
temperature and relieves
tropic regions. A mind altering substance produced from pain due to its depressant effect on the central nervous system.
cannavis sativa, A
it is used because its primary active chemical term narcotic comes from the Greek word for sleep
Tetrahydrocannabinol “Narkotikos".
(THC) induces relaxation and heightens the senses.
Opium - Obtained from a female poppy plant known as
      Cannabis is prepared for human consumption in different “Papayer Somniferum”.
forms: It comes from the Greek word which means “juice”. It is the
      1. Marijuana or Ganja - the leaves and flowering tops of original
female components of Morphine and Heroin. It was known to be
         plants. cultivated in
      2. Hashish or Charas - a concentrated resin composed of lower Mesopotamia long ago as 3400 BC. In De Medicina (30
glandular AD), Aulus
         trichomes and vegetative debris that has been physically Cornelius Celsus specified various uses for “Poppy Tears” as
extracted an
         usually by rubbing, sifting or with ice. emollient for painful joints and anal crevices, in anodynes pills
      3. Kif or Kief - the chopped flowering tops of female promoting relief of pain through sleep.
         plants, often mixed with tobacco,Moroccan hashish       Opium Preparation - The smoking of opium does not
produced involve the
         in the Rif mountains.Sifted cannabis trichomes       burning of the material as might be imagined. The
consisting of prepared opium
         only the glandular heads often incorrectly referred to as       is indirectly heated to temperature at which active
         “Crystals or Pollen”. alkaloids,
      4. Bhang - a beverage prepared by grinding cannabis       mainly Morphine, are vaporized.
leaves in
         milk and boiling with spices and other ingredients.       Opium Chemical Properties and Physiological Effects -
      5. Hash Oil - an oily mixture resulting fromchemical Opium
extraction       includes two groups of alkaloids: Phenanthrenes(including
         or distillation of theTHC- rich part of the plant.       Morphine and Codeine) and Benzylisoquinolines
      6. Budder - hash oil whipped to incorporate air, making it       (including Papaverine).
         more like butter.
      Opium Medical Uses - Opium has been a major          Intended Programs
commodity of trade          a. Preventive Education
      for centuries, due to the fact that it has long been used as a          b. Sports Development
      pain killer and sedative.          c. Moral and Spiritual Values Recovery
         d. Treatment and Rehabilitation
Presidential Proclamation No.1192 - declared the 2nd week
of November       3. International and Local Cooperation/Coordination -
as Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Week, and celebrated refers to
every year.          an effective and efficient cooperation and coordination
of all
Physical Dependence - An adaptive state caused by repeated          local and international agencies of the government.
drug use
that reveals itself by development of intense physical          Intended Programs
symptoms when          a. Joint Training and Exercises
the drug is stopped (withdrawal syndrome).          b. Intelligence Networking
         c. Interdiction Operation
Polydrug Abuse - Many people who abuse on drug tend to
take all sorts Rehabilitation - is a dynamic process directed towards the
of drugs. Some play chemical “Russian roulettes” by taking changes
everything on the health of the person to prepare him from his fullest life
including unidentified pills. This is called polydrug abuse. potentials and capabilities, and making him law-abiding and
Psychological Dependence - An attachment to drug use member of the community without abusing drugs.
which arises from
a drug ability to satisfy some emotional or personality need of Shabu - Methamphetamine was discovered in Japan in 1919.
an This
individual. (Physical dependence not required but it does not crystalline powder is solute in water making it an ideal drug
seem to for
reinforce psychological dependence. injection. During world War II, the drugs was used as
stimulants for
RA 9165 - commonly known as The Comprehensive combat soldiers. After the war it was regarded as a cure all for
Dangerous Drugs Act of treatment in mild depression and a good weight control
2002. It took effect on July 4, 2002. substance.
In the mid 80’s it was introduced in the Philippines and has
      Dangerous Drugs Board (DDB) - continues as policy gained
making body popularity not only in urban areas but rural communities as
      and it formed the Philippine Drug Enforcement Agency well. It
(PDEA) is also regarded as poor man’s cocaine.
      as the led agency in the enforcement of the law under the
office Stimulant - A stimulant speeds up a person's body and brain.
      of the President. Stimulants, such as methamphetamines, have the opposite
effect of
      The new law abolished the National Drug Law depressants. Usually stimulants make a person high energetic.
Enforcement and When
      Prevention Coordinating Center, the PNP Narcotics the effects of a stimulant wear off, a person will feel tired
Group, the or sick.
      NBI Narcotics Unit and the Customs Narcotics
Interdiction Office. Tetrahydrocannabinol - (THC) It is the psychoactive agent
of marijuana.
      Establishing the proper intelligence network has been The more THC present in marijuana, the more potent is the
inherent drug. It is
      task given by the law to PDEAin coordination with the also known as the “sinister element” in marijuana. This is
following what causes the
      support units:The PNP AIDSOTF, the NBI AIDTF, the “high lift” or “trip” in marijuana users.
Customs Task
      Force in Dangerous Drugs and Controlled Chemicals The Golden Crescent
along with 1. Afghanistan
      other government and non-government entities dedicated 2. Pakistan
to curb 3. Iran
      the drug problem. 4. India

      National Strategies Against Dangerous Drugs The Golden Triangle of Drug Trafficking
      1. Supply Reduction Strategy - which refers to the concept 1. Laos
of 2. Thailand
         keeping the  drugs away from the potential drug users. 3. Burma

         Intended Programs Tolerance - it is the increasing dosage of drugs to maintain

         a. Law Enforcement the same
         b. Amendments of the Law effect.

      2. Demand Reduction Strategy - refers to the concept of Treatment – Is a medical service rendered to a client for the
keeping the effective
         potential users awayfrom drugs. management of hit total conditions related to drug abuse. It
with the physiological without abusing drugs. increase.

Withdrawal Period - From the point of habituation or drug Classification of Fires

up to the time a drug dependent is totally or gradually           Class A Fire - Fires involving ordinary combustible
deprived of materials,
the drug.           such as wood, cloth, paper, rubber and many plastics.

          Class B Fires - Fires involving flammable liquids,

Fire Technology And Arson Investigation greases
Reviewer           and gases.

          Class C Fires - Fires involving energized electrical

3 State of matter equipment.

          Solid           Class D Fires - Fires involving combustible metals, such

          Liquid as
          Gas           magnesium, titanium, zirconium, sodium and potassium.

4 General Categories Of Heat Energy           Class K Fires - Class K is a new classification of fire as
          of 1998 and involves fires in combustible cooking fuels
          Chemical Heat Energy such
          Electrical Heat Energy           as vegetable or animal fats.
          Mechanical Heat Energy
          Nuclear Heat Energy Combustion - is the self-sustaining process of rapid oxidation
of a
Backdraft - a phenomenon in which a fire that has consumed fuel being reduced by an oxidizing agent along with the
all available evolution of
oxygen suddenly explodes when more oxygen is made heat and light.
available, typically
because a door or window has been opened. Dry Chemicals and Halons - method of fire extinguishment,
Boiling Point - The temperature of a substance where the rate the flame producing chemical reaction, resulting in rapid
of extinguishment.
evaporation exceeds the rate of condensation.
Electrical Heat Energy
British Thermal Unit - (BTU)  The amount of heat needed to
raise the           Dielectric Heating - The heating that results from the
temperature of one pound of water one degree F. action
          of either pulsating direct current, or alternating current
Calorie - The amount of heat needed to raise the temperature           at high frequency on a non-conductive material.
of one
gram of water one degree Centigrade.           Heat from Arcing - Heat released either as a high-
Centigrade - (Celcius)  On the Centigrade scale, zero is the           arc or as molten material from the conductor.
point of ice; 100 degrees is the boiling point of water.           Heat Generated by Lightning - The heat generated by
Chemical Heat Energy           discharged of thousands of volts from either earth to
          Heat of Combustion - The amount of heat generated by           cloud to cloud or from cloud to ground.
          combustion (oxidation) process.           Induction Heating - The heating of materials resulting
          Heat of Decomposition - The release of heat from           an alternating current flow causing a magnetic field
decomposing influence.
          compounds.  These compounds may be unstable and
release           Leakage Current Heating - The heat resulting from
          their heat very quickly or they may detonate. imperfect
          or improperly insulated electrical materials.  This is
          Heat of Solution - The heat released by the mixture of           particularly evident where the insulation is required to
matter           handle high voltage or loads near maximum capacity.
          in a liquid.  Some acids, when dissolved, give off
sufficient           Resistance Heating - The heat generated by passing an
          heat to pose exposure problems to nearby combustibles.           electrical force through a conductor such as a wire or
          an appliance.
          Spontaneous Heating - The heating of an organic
substance           Static Electricity Heating - Heat released as an arc
          without the addition of external heat.  Spontaneous between
heating           oppositely charged surfaces.  Static electricity can be
          occurs most frequently where sufficient air is not           generated by the contact and separation of charged
present surfaces
          to dissipate the heat produced.  The speed of a heating           or by fluids flowing through pipes.
          reaction doubles with each 180 F (80 C) temperature
   Heating - is transfer of energy, from a hotter body to a colder
Endothermic Heat Reaction - A chemical reaction where a other than by work or transfer of matter.
absorbs heat energy. Heat of Combustion - The amount of heat generated by the
Exothermic Heat Reaction - A chemical reaction where a (oxidation) process.
gives off heat energy. Heat Transfer

Fahrenheit - On the Fahrenheit scale, 32 degrees is the           Conduction - Conduction is the transfer of energy
melting point through
of ice; 212 degrees is the boiling point of water.           matter from particle to particle. Heat may be conducted
Fire point - The temperature at which a liquid fuel will           one body to another by direct contact of the two bodies
produce or
vapors sufficient to support combustion once ignited.  The fire           by an intervening heat-conducting medium.
is usually a few degrees above the flash point.           Convection -  is the transfer of heat by the actual
Fire Triangle - Oxygen, Fuel, Heat           of the warmed matter. Transfer of heat by the movement
Fire National Training Institute - (FNTI) the Institution for           air or liquid.
on human resource development of all personnel of the Bureau           Radiation -  Electromagnetic waves that directly
of Fire transport
Protection (BFP).           energy through space.

Flame - A gas-phased combustion. Ignition Temperature - The minimum temperature to which

a fuel in air
Flammable or Explosive Limit - The percentage of a must be heated in order to start self-sustained combustion
substance in air independent
that will burn once it is ignited.  Most substances have an of the heating source.
(too rich) and a lower (too lean) flammable limit. Heat - The form of energy that raises temperature.  Heat is
Flashover - an instance of a fire spreading very rapidly across by the amount of work it does.
a gap
because of intense heat. Occurs when a room or other area Heat of Decomposition -  The release of heat from
becomes decomposing compounds.
heated to the point where flames flash over the entire surface These compounds may be unstable and release their heat very
or area. quickly or
they may detonate.
Flash Point - The minimum temperature at which a liquid fuel
gives Heat of Solution -  The heat released by the mixture of matter
off sufficient vapors to form an ignitable mixture with the air in a
near liquid.  Some acids, when dissolved, give off sufficient heat to
the surface.  At this temperature, the ignited vapors will flash, pose
but exposure problems to nearby combustibles.
will not continue to burn.
Mechanical Heat Energy
Fuel - is the material or substance being oxidized or burned in
the           Frictional Heat - The heat generated by the movement
combustion process. Material such as coal, gas, or oil that is between
burned           two objects in contact with each other.
to produce heat or power.
          Friction Sparks - The heat generated in the form of
Fuel Removal - method of fire extinguishment, fire is sparks
effectively           from solid objects striking each other.  Most often at
extinguished by removing the fuel source.  This may be least
accomplished by           one of the objects is metal.
stopping the flow of liquid or gaseous fuel or by removing
solid fuel           Heat of Compression - The heat generated by the forced
in the path of the fire or allow the fire  to burn until all fuel           reduction of a gaseous volume.  Diesel engines ignite
is consumed. fuel
          vapor without a spark plug by the use of this principle.
Glowing Combustion -  A condensed phased combustion.
Nuclear Fission and Fusion - The heat generated by either
Heat - the quality of being hot; high temperature. A form of the
energy splitting or combining of atoms.
arising from the random motion of the molecules of bodies,
which Oxidation - The complex chemical reaction of organic
may be transferred by conduction, convection, or radiation. material with
oxygen or other oxidizing agents in the formation of more
compounds.           Provincial Fire Marshall - the heads of the provincial
offices -
Oxidizing Agents - are those materials that yield oxygen or           rank is Superintendent.
oxidizing gases during the course of a chemical reaction.           District Fire Marshall - heads of the district offices -
Oxygen Dilution - is the reduction of the oxygen           is Chief Inspector.
concentration to
the fire area.           Chief of Municipal/City Fire Station - (also called City/
          Municipal Fire Marshall) - the heads of the municipal or
Phases of Fire           city stations - rank is Senior Inspector.
           Incipient Phase (Growth Stage)             Fire Station - at least one in every provincial capital,
           Free-Burning Phase (Fully Developed Stage) city
           Smoldering Phase (Decay Stage)           and municipality.

Products of Combustion           LGU - (Local Government Unit) - shall provide the site
of the
          Fire gases           Fire Station.
          Heat RA 9263 - this Act shall be known as the "Bureau of Fire
          Smoke Protection
and Bureau of Jail Management and Penology
Pyrolysis (also known as thermalde composition) - is Professionalization Act of 2004.
defined as the
chemical decomposition of matter through the action of heat.           The BFP is headed by a Chief to be assisted by 2 deputy
chief, 1
RA 6975 - created the BFP.           for administration and 1 for operation, all appointed by
          Bureau of Fire Protection (BFP) - administers and           President upon recommendation of DILG Secretary
enforces from among
          the fire code of the Philippines. The Fire Bureau shall           qualified officers with at least the rank of Senior
          have the power to  investigate all causes of fires and, if Superintendent
          necessary, file the proper  complaints with the city or           in the service.
          provincial prosecutor who has jurisdiction  over the
case.           In no case shall any officer who has retired or is
          Chief of the Fire Bureau - rank is Director.           within six (6) months from his/her compulsory
      retirement age
          Deputy Chief for Administration of the Fire Bureau -           be appointed as Chief of the Fire Bureau or Chief of the
2nd           Jail Bureau.
          highest officer in the BFP. Rank is Chief
Superintendent.           The Chief of the Fire Bureau and Chief of the Jail
          Deputy Chief for Operation of the Fire Bureau - the 3rd           shall serve a tour of duty not to exceed four (4) years.
          highest officer in the BFP. Rank is Chief
Superintendent.           The President may extend such tour of duty in times of
          Chief of Directorial Staff of the Fire Bureau - 4th           or other national emergency declared by Congress.
          officer in the BFP. Rank is Chief Superintendent. RA 9514 - this act shall be known as the fire code of the
          Directors of the Directorates in the respective national of 2008. An Act establishing a comprehensive fire code of the
          headquarters office - rank is Senior Superintendent. Philippines repealing PD 1185 and for other purposes.

          Regional Director for Fire Protection - The BFP  Specific Gravity - the density of liquids in relation to water.
          shall establish, operate and maintain their respective
          regional offices in each of the administrative regions of Spontaneous Heating - The heating of an organic substance
          the country. Rank is Senior Superintendent. without
                - He/She shall be respectively assisted by the the addition of external heat.  Spontaneous heating occurs
                  following officers with the rank of superintendent: most
                  Assistant Regional Director for Administration, frequently where sufficient air is not present to dissipate the
                  Assistant Regional Director for Operations, and heat produced.
                  Regional Chief of Directorial Staff.
      Temperature Reduction - method of extinguishing fire,
          Assistant Regional Director for Fire Protection - The cooling the fuel
          assistant heads of the Department's regional offices - with water to a point where it does not produce sufficient
rank vapor to burn.
          is Senior Superintendent.
Vapor Density - the density of a particular gas or vapor
          District Fire Marshall - the heads of the NCR district relative
offices - to that of hydrogen at the same pressure and temperature.
          rank is Senior Superintendent.
Dust - A finely powdered substance which, when mixed with
air in the
Definition of Terms Under RA 9514 proper proportion and ignited will cause an explosion.

Abatement - Any act that would remove or neutralize a fire Electrical Arc - An extremely hot luminous bridge formed by
hazard. passage
of an electric current across a space between two conductors
Administrator - Any person who acts as agent of the owner or
and ma nages terminals due to the incandescence of the conducting vapor.
the use of a building for him.
Ember - A hot piece or lump that remains after a material has
Blasting Agent - Any material or mixture consisting of a fuel partially burned, and is still oxidizing without the
and manifestation of flames.
oxidizer used to set off explosives.
Finishes - Materials used as final coating of a surface for
Cellulose Nitrate or Nitro Cellulose - A highly combustible ornamental
and or protective purposes.
explosive compound produced by the reaction of nitric acid
with a Fire - The active principle of burning, characterized by the
cellulose material. heat
and light of combustion.
Cellulose Nitrate Plastic (Pyroxylin) - Any plastic substance,
materials or compound having cellulose nitrate (nitro Fire Trap - A building unsafe in case of fire because it will
cellulose) burn
as base. easily or because it lacks adequate exits or fire escapes.

Combustible, Flammable or Inflammable - Descriptive of Fire Alarm - Any visual or audible signal produced by a
materials device or
that are easily set on fire. system to warm the occupants of the building or fire fighting
elements of the presence or danger of fire to enable them to
Combustible Fiber - Any readily ignitable and free burning undertake immediate action to save life and property and to
fiber such suppress
as cotton, oakum, rags, waste cloth, waste paper, kapok, hay, the fire.
Spanish moss, excelsior and other similar materials commonly Fire Door - A fire resistive door prescribed for openings in
used in commerce. fire
separation walls or partitions.
Combustible Liquid - Any liquid having a flash point at or
above 37.8 Fire Hazard - Any condition or act which increases or may
 C (100 F). cause an
increase in the probability of the occurrence of fire, or which
Corrosive Liquid - Any liquid which causes fire when in may obstruct, delay, hinder or interfere with fire fighting
contact with operations
organic matter or with certain chemicals. and the safeguarding of life and property.

Curtain Board - A vertical panel of non-combustible or fire Fire Lane - The portion of a roadway or public way that
resistive should be kept
materials attached to and extending below the bottom chord of opened and unobstructed at all times for the expedient
the roof operation of
trusses, to divide the underside of the roof into separate fire fighting units.
so that heat and smoke will be directed upwards to a roof vent. Fire Protective and Fire Safety Device - Any device
intended for the
Cryogenic - Descriptive of any material which by its nature or protection of buildings or persons to include but not limited to
as a built-in protection system such as sprinklers and other
result of its reaction with other elements produces a rapid drop automatic
in temperature of the immediate surroundings. extinguishing system, detectors for heat, smoke and
Damper - A normally open device installed inside an air duct products and other warning system components, personal
system protective
which automatically closes to restrict the passage of smoke or equipment such as fire blankets, helmets, fire suits, gloves and
fire. other
garments that may be put on or worn by persons to protect
Distillation - The process of first raising the temperature in themselves
separate during fire.
the more volatile from the less volatile parts and then cooling
and Fire Safety Constructions - Refers to design and installation
condensing the resulting vapor so as to produce a nearly of walls,
purified barriers, doors, windows, vents, means of egress, etc. integral
substance. to and
incorporated into a building or structure in order to minimize
Duct System - A continuous passageway for the transmission danger
of air. to life from fire, smoke, fumes or panic before the building is
evacuated. These features are also designed to achieve, among
others, temperature.
safe and rapid evacuation of people through means of egress
sealed Overloading - The use of one or more electrical appliances or
from smoke or fire, the confinement of fire or smoke in the devices
room or which draw or consume electrical current beyond the designed
floor of origin and de lay their spread to other parts of the capacity
building of the existing electrical system.
by means of smoke sealed and fire resistant doors, walls and
floors. Owner - The person who holds the legal right of possession or
It shall also me an to include the treatment of buildings title
components to a building or real property.
or contents with flame retardant chemicals.
Oxidizing Material - A material that readily yields oxygen in
Flash Point - The minimum temperature at which any quantities sufficient to stimulate or support combustion.
material gives off
vapor in sufficient concentration to form an ignitable mixture Pressurized Or Forced Draft Burning Equipment - Type or
with air. burner where
the fuel is subjected to pressure prior to discharge into the
Forcing - A process where a piece of metal is heated prior to combustion chamber and/or which includes fans or other
changing provisions for
its shape or dimensions. the introduction of air at above normal atmosphere pressure
into the
Fulminate - A kind of stable explosive compound which same combustion chamber.
explodes by
percussion. Public Assembly Building - Any building or structure where
fifty (50)
Hazardous Operation/Process - Any act of manufacturing, or more people congregate, gather, or assemble for any
fabrication, purpose.
conversion, etc., that uses or produces materials which are
likely Public Way - Any street, alley or other strip of land
to cause fires or explosion. unobstructed
from the ground to the sky, deeded, dedicated or otherwise
Horizontal Exit - Passageway from one building to another or permanently
through appropriated for public use.
or around a wall in approximately the same floor level.
Pyrophoric - Descriptive of any substance that ignites
Hose Box - A box or cabinet where fire hoses, valves and spontaneously
other equipment when exposed to air.
are stored and arranged for fire fighting.
Refining - A process where impurities and/or deleterious
Hose Reel - A cylindrical device turning on an axis around materials are
which a removed from a mixture in order to produce a pure element of
fire hose is wound and connected. compound.
It shall also refer to partial distillation and electrolysis.
Hypergolic Fuel - A rocket or liquid propellant which consist
of Self-Closing Doors - Automatic closing doors that are
combinations of fuels and oxidizers which ignite designed to
spontaneously on confine smoke and heat and delay the spread of fire.
contact with each other.
Smelting - Melting or fusing of metallic ores or compounds so
Industrial Baking and Drying - The industrial process of as to
subjecting separate impurities from pure metals.
materials to heat for the purpose of removing solvents or
moisture Sprinkler System - An integrated network of hydraulically
from the same, and/or to fuse certain chemical salts to form a designed
uniform glazing the surface of materials being treated. piping installed in a building, structure or area with outlets
arranged in a systematic pattern which automatically
Jumper - A piece of metal or an electrical conductor used to discharges water
bypass a when activated by heat or combustion products from a fire.
safety device in an electrical system.
Standpipe System - A system of vertical pipes in a building
Occupancy - The purpose for which a building or portion to which
thereof is fire hoses can be attached on each floor, including a system by
used or intended to be used. which
water is made available to the outlets as needed.
Occupant - Any person actually occupying and using a
building or Vestibule - A passage hall or antechamber between the outer
portions thereof by virtue of a lease contract with the owner or doors
administrator or by permission or sufferance of the latter. and the interior parts of a house or building.

Organic Peroxide - A strong oxidizing organic compound Vertical Shaft - An enclosed vertical space of passage that
which extends
releases oxygen readily. It causes fire when in contact with from floor to floor, as well as from the base to the top of the
combustible materials especially under conditions of high building.
            BJMP officer. Appointed by the President upon
            of the DILG Secretary. Rank is Chief Superintendent.
          - BJMP Deputy Chief for Operations - the 3rd highest
Alcatraz - a US federal penitentiary, Often referred to as "The ranking
Rock",             BJMP officer. Appointed by the President upon
the small island of alcatraz was developed with facilities for a recommendation
lighthouse,             of the DILG Secretary. Rank is Chief Superintendent.
a military fortification, a military prison (1868), and a federal           - BJMP Chief of the Directorial Staff - the 4th highest
prison BJMP
from 1933 until 1963.             officer. Appointed by the President upon
recommendation of
Alexander Maconochie - was a Scottish naval officer,             the DILG Secretary. Rank is Chief Superintendents.
geographer, and
penal reformer. He is known as the Father of Parole. Borstal - a custodial institution for young offenders.

          His 2 Basic Principle of Penology Borstal System - rehabilitation method formerly used in Great
          1. As cruelty debases both the victim and society, Britain for
punishment delinquent boys aged 16 to 21. The idea originated (1895)
             should not be vindictive but should aim at the reform with the
of Gladstone Committee as an attempt to reform young
             the convict to observe social constraints, and offenders. The first
          2. A convict's imprisonment should consist of task, not institution was established (1902) at Borstal Prison, Kent,
time England.
             sentences, with release depending on the performance
of a Branding - stigmatizing is the process in which a mark,
             measurable amount of labour. usually a symbol
or ornamental pattern, is burned into the skin of a living
Auburn Prison - Constructed in 1816 ,(opened 1819) it was person, with
the second the intention that the resulting scar makes it permanent as a
state prison in New York, the site of the first execution by punishment
electric or imposing masterly rights over an enslaved or otherwise
chair in 1890. It uses the silent or congregate system. oppressed person.

Banishment - a punishment originating in ancient times, that Bridewell Prison and Workhouse - was the first correctional
required institution
offenders to leave the community and live elsewhere, in England and was a precursor of the modern prison. Built
commonly in the initially as
wilderness. a royal residence in 1523, Bridewell Palace was given to the
city of
BJMP - (Bureau of Jail Management and Penology) London to serve as the foundation for as system of Houses of
government agency Correction
mandated by law (RA 6975) to take operational and known as “Bridewells.” These institutions, eventually
administrative control numbering 200 in
over all city, district and municipal jails. Britain, housed vagrants, homeless children, petty offenders,
It takes custody of detainees accused before a court who are disorderly women, prisoners of war, soldiers, and colonists
temporarily sent
confined in such jails while undergoing investigation, waiting to Virginia.
judgement and those who are serving sentence promulgated by Bridewell Prison and Hospital - was established in a former
the court royal palace
3 years and below. in 1553 with two purposes: the punishment of the disorderly
poor and
          - created Jan. 2, 1991. housing of homeless children in the City of London.
          - Charles S. Mondejar - 1st BJMP chief.
          - BJMP chief tour of duty, must not exceed 4 years, Bureau of Corrections - has for its principal task the
maybe rehabilitation
            extended by President. Grounds: of national prisoners, or those sentenced to serve a term of
                                   1. In times of war imprisonment
                                   2. other national emergencies. of more than three years.
          - Senior superintendent - the rank from which the BJMP
chief           - has 7 prison facilities
            is appointed. This is the rank of the BJMP Directors of           - 1 prison institution for women
            the Directorates in the National Headquarters. This is           - 1 vocational training centre for juveniles.
also           - Classification Board - classifies inmates according to
            the rank of the Regional Director for Jail Management             their security status.
            and Penology.           - Reception and Diagnostic Centre - (RDC) receives,
          - Chief of the BJMP - Highest ranking BJMP officer. studies
Appointed             and classifies inmates committed to Bureau of
            by the President upon recommendation of DILG Corrections.
Secretary. Rank           - Board of Discipline - hears complaints and grievances
            is Director. with
          - BJMP Deputy Chief for Administration - the 2nd             regard to violations of prison rules and regulations.
highest ranking           - Iwahig Penal Farm - established in 1904 upon orders
of Gov. District Jail - is a cluster of small jails, each having a monthly
            Forbes, then the Sec. of Commerce and police. average population of ten or less inmates, and is located in the
          - New Bilibid Prison - established in 1941 in vicinity of the court.
            Camp Bukang Liwayway - minimum security prison. Draco - was the first legislator of ancient Athens, Greece, 7th
            Camp Sampaguita - medium security prison century
          - Davao penal Colony - established jan 21, 1932 (RA BC. He replaced the prevailing system of oral law and blood
3732) feud by a
          - Sablayan Penal Colony and Farm - established written code to be enforced only by a court.
Sept.27, 1954
            (Proclamation No.72) location:Occidental Mindoro Ducking Stool - a chair fastened to the end of a pole, used
          - Leyte Regional Prison - established Jan.16, 1973 formerly
          - Old Bilibid Prison - First Penal Institution in the Phil. to plunge offenders into a pond or river as a punishment.
            designated as insular penitentiary by Royal Decree in
1865. Dungeon - a dark cell, usually underground where prisoners
  are confined.

Burning at Stake - a form of ancient punishment by tying the Elmira Reformatory - located in new York, was originally a
victim prison opened
in a vertical post and burning him/her. to contain Confederate prisoners of war during the Civil War.
It became
Cesare Beccaria - an Italian criminologist, jurist, philosopher known as a “death camp” because of the squalid conditions
and and high death
politician best known for his treaties On Crimes and rate in its few years of operation. Established 1876.
Punishments (1764),
which condemned torture and the death penalty, and was a Elmira System - An American penal system named after
founding work Elmira Reformatory,
in the field of penology and the Classical School of in New York. In 1876 Zebulon R. Brockway became an
criminology innovator in the
reformatory movement by establishing Elmira Reformatory
Charles Montesquieu - a french lawyer, who analyzed law as for young felons.
an expression The Elmira system classified and separated various types of
of justice. He is famous for his articulation of the theory of prisoners,
separation gave them individualized treatment emphasizing vocational
of powers, which is implemented in many constitutions training and
throughout the world. industrial employment, used indeterminate sentences.

Code of Justinian -  formally Corpus Juris Civilis (“Body of Ergastulum - is a Roman prison used to confine slaves. They
Civil Law”), were attached
Justinian I the collections of laws and legal interpretations to work benches and forced to do hard labor in period of
developed imprisonment.
under the sponsorship of the Byzantine emperor Justinian I
from AD