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Different types of libraries and cultural institutions


Role of the school library

The school library provides information and ideas that are fundamental to functioning
successfully in today’s society, which is increasingly information and knowledge-based.
The school library equips students with lifelong learning skills and develops the
imagination, enabling them to live as responsible citizens. The IFLA/UNESCO
Manifesto for School Libraries (2000)

Goals of the school library

IFLA School Library Manifesto
The school library is integral to the educational process. The following are essential to
the development of literacy, information literacy, teaching, learning and culture, and
are core school library services:
 Supporting and enhancing educational goals as outlined in the school's mission
and curriculum;
 Developing and sustaining in children the habit and enjoyment of reading and
learning, and the use of libraries throughout their lives;
 Offering opportunities for experiences in creating and using information for
knowledge, understanding, imagination and enjoyment;
 Supporting all students in learning and practicing skills for evaluating and using
information, regardless of form, format or medium, including sensitivity to the
modes of communication within the community;
 Providing access to local, regional, national and global resources and
opportunities that expose learners to diverse ideas, experiences and opinions;
 Organizing activities that encourage cultural and social awareness and
 Working with students, teachers, administrators and parents to achieve the
mission of the school.
 Proclaiming the concept that intellectual freedom and access to information are
essential to effective and responsible citizenship and participation in a
 Promoting reading and the resources and services of the school library to the
whole school community and beyond.

Roles of the School Library

Media Center
 Information center
 Provides reading materials for education, information and recreation.
 Responds to information needs of students through reference services,
reader’s advisory and teaching information literacy.
 Audio-visual center
 Offering information in diverse formats: audio books, slide sets, games,
videos, etc.
 Facilities for consumption of non-textual information for both individuals
(e.g. computers, viewing stations, listening stations, etc.), and groups (e.g.
AV Rooms with LCD projectors, etc.)
 Instructional materials center
 Provides supplemental reading and skill enhancement materials to support
classroom activities.
 Aids in the information requirements of teachers and school heads in the
conduct of their daily tasks in the school.

To achieve such goals:

• Developing policies and services,
• Selecting and acquiring resources,
• Providing physical and intellectual access to appropriate sources of information,
• Providing instructional facilities, and
• Employing trained staff.

The school library media center should have:

• Sufficient resources to support the curriculum and pupils’ reading for pleasure, wide-
ranging in format, print, non-print and electronic, and subject matter to cater for all
tastes and interests.
• Accommodation that is attractive, suitable, accessible with adequate study, reading
and display areas, appropriately furnished;
• Activities. Programs of events, promotional activities;
• Access to the library at all times;
• Personnel. Adequate and appropriate staffing;
• Network. Good partnerships and relationships with other facilities and organizations,
including public libraries.

What is the difference between a SLMC and a PL?

• School libraries are distinct from public libraries because they serve as "learner-
oriented laboratories which support, extend, and individualize the school's curriculum...
• A school library serves as the center and coordinating agency for all material used in
the school.”

School Library Media Program

• Ensures that the students and faculty are effective users of information.
• Provides access to information materials in all formats.
• Trains students by instruction
• An effective school library media program formulates activities that help students
achieve information literacy.
• TLC – teacher-librarian collaboration to assist technology use

The school librarian

• The success of the school library media program depends on the quality and the
number of personnel.
• At times called the school library media specialist
• Helps integrate technology in school programs
• Collaborates with the teachers in designing activities that hone information literacy
skills of the students.
• Selects and acquires suitable materials for the library
Roles and Responsibilities
• Teacher
• Collaborates with students and other members of the learning community to
analyze learning and information needs, to locate and use resources that will
meet those needs, and to understand and communicate the information the
resources provide.
• Is knowledgeable about current research on teaching and learning and skilled in
applying its findings to a variety of situations— particularly those that call upon
students to utilize information literacy skills.
• Constantly updates personal skills and knowledge in order to work effectively
with teachers, administrators, and other staff.
• Instructional partner
• Joins with teachers and others to identify links across student information
needs, curricular content, learning outcomes, and a wide variety of resources.
• Leads in developing policies, practices, and curricula that guide students to
develop the full range of information and communication abilities.
• Works closely with individual teachers in the critical areas of designing
authentic learning tasks and assessments and integrating the information and
communication abilities required to meet subject matter standards.
• Programs administrator
• Works collaboratively with members of the learning community to define the
policies of the library media program and to guide and direct all activities
related to it.
• An advocate for the library media program and provides the knowledge, vision,
and leadership to steer it creatively and energetically in the 21st century.
• Plans, executes, and evaluates the program to ensure its quality both at a
general level and on a day-to-day basis.
• Information specialist
• Provides leadership and expertise:
• in acquiring and evaluating information resources in all formats;
• in bringing an awareness of information issues into collaborative
relationships with all stakeholders; and
• in modeling for students and others strategies for locating, accessing,
and evaluating information within and beyond the library media center.
• Both masters sophisticated electronic resources and maintains a constant
focus on the nature, quality, and ethical use of information available in these and
in more traditional tools.
An ideal school librarian is:
• Educationally-qualified
• Enthusiastic in working with kids
• Friendly
• Tactful
• Patient
• Creative

Standards and Guidelines for School Library Media Centers

• International: IFLA School Library Manifesto (1999) and IFLA School Library
Guidelines (2015)
• United States: Information Power: Guidelines for School Library Media Programs by
the American Association of School Librarians (AASL) and the Association of Education
and Communications Technology (AEC )
• Local. Dep Ed Order no. 56 s. 2011. Standards for Philippine Libraries.

IFLA School Library Manifesto (1999)

• The School Library Manifesto adopted in 1999, aims to define and advance the role of
school libraries and resource centers in enabling students
• to acquire the learning tools and learning content that allow them to develop
their full capacities;
• to continue to learn throughout their lives; and
• to make informed decisions.
The Mission of the School Library
• Funding Legislation and Networks
• Staff
• Operation and Management
• Implementing the Manifesto
IFLA School Library Guidelines (2nd Revised Ed., 2015)
1. Mission and Purposes of the School Library
2. Legal and Financial Framework for a School Library
3. Human Resources for a School Library
4. Physical and Digital Resources of a School Library
5. Programs and Activities of a School Library
6. School Library Evaluation and Public Relations

AASL Standards for the 21st Century Learner

• “Standards for the 21st-Century Learner offer vision for teaching and learning to
both guide and beckon our profession as education leaders.
• They will both shape the library program and serve as a tool for school librarians to
use to shape the learning of students in the school.”
Learners use skills, resources, and tools to:
 Inquire, think critically, and gain knowledge
 Draw conclusions, make inferred decisions, apply knowledge to new situations,
and create new knowledge
 Share knowledge and participate ethically and productively as members of our
democratic society
 Pursue personal and aesthetic growth

DepEd Order no. 56 s. 2011. Standards for Philippine Libraries

Standard I. Mission, Goals and Objectives
Standard II. Administration
Standard III. Human Resources
Standard IV. Collection Management
Standard V. Services and Utilization
Standard VI. Physical Facilities
Standard VII. Information Technology Facilities and Services
Standard VIII. Financial Resources
Standard IX. Linkages and Networking
Appendix A. Recommended Growth Rate of Collection
Appendix B. Furniture and Equipment Standard
• Transitioning to the K-12 curriculum
• Censorship of library resources
• Lack of qualified staff
• Budget
• Support from school administrators


 “A library that is attached to an academic institution above the secondary level,

serving the teaching and research needs of students and staff.”* (College
library, University library)
 Sometimes also called a research library due to the nature of tertiary studies
driven towards instruction and research
 “A university is just group of buildings gathered around a library” – Shelby Foote
 “The library is the heart of the university” – Charles William Eliot

• The primary obligation to meet the information needs of the members of their
institution .
• Functions outside this, such as availability to the general public, are secondary,
though fee based services are becoming significant.
• Academic libraries therefore always have two purposes:
• For students , providing for the educational needs, both those arising directly
from the curriculum and those of a more general nature
• For faculty and staff , supporting in their need for up to date material
required for their teaching role.
In most universities, additional purposes are:
• Providing for research (where the institution undertakes this), both higher
degree work and research activity of academic staff.
• Needs in extension/outreach work, of cultural, and recreational nature.

Mission of UPD main lib - To provide library users:

• the best possible access to the information that they need in support of
instruction, research and extension; and,
• the best possible information services through the use of the new information
and communication technologies (ICTs) as applied in libraries
 IT WORKS BOTH WAYS. The character and quality of an institution of higher
learning are shaped in large measure by the nature of its library holdings and the
ease of how the materials in the collection are accessed.

What sets an academic library apart from a school library?

• Set of clients
• Mostly late teenage and early young adults but also includes faculty members,
researchers and graduate students.
• Capable of independent study and requires less supervision.
• Studying for specialization, not for general knowledge.
• Information needs of clients
• Requires in depth information of a given field of study or discipline.
• Information not solely for instruction but for instruction and research.
• Less priority on providing instructional materials but more on providing content
for learning.

Standards for academic libraries

• Standards for Libraries in Higher Education by the Association of College and
Research Libraries.
• CHED Memorandum Orders on Policies, Standards and Guidelines for specific degree
• CHED Draft Memorandum Order: “Requirements for Academic Libraries Common to
All Programs” adopting the BFL standards.
• Philippine Association of Academic/Research Librarians (PAARL) Standards for
Academic Libraries for 2010.
• Accreditation standards
• Philippine Accrediting Association of Schools, Colleges and Universities
• Philippine Association of Colleges and Universities Commission on Accreditation
PRC Board for Librarians Standards
I. Mission, Goals and Objectives
II. Administration
III. Human Resources
IV. Collection Development
V. Services and Utilization
VI. Physical Facilities
VII. Information Technology
Facilities and Services
VIII. Financial Resources
IX. Linkages and Networking

Academic librarians/staff
• They spend considerable time working with electronic tools and resources , involving
database and Web management.
• The role is also very customer focused , providing research assistance to clients.
• Also involves facilitating and supporting learning by library instruction to students and
staff within classrooms or virtual learning environments.

Duties of an Academic Librarian

• managing and developing collections of books and journals (both paper and electronic),
as well as websites;
• managing buildings, furniture and equipment
• managing staff , which may involve recruitment and selection, appraisals, support and
development, disciplinary action, staff roles and training, as well as day to day
management of staff;
• managing budgets and, in some cases, purchasing resources;
• maintaining relationships with external bodies, such as suppliers;
• contributing to academic course development and liaising with academic departments;
• managing and supporting the provision of reading lists and allocating length of loans;
• creating, updating and managing information resources , both electronic and printed;
• selecting, acquiring and cataloguing information using library and information
• assisting researchers with literature searches using databases, printed resources
and the internet;
• delivering information and learning skills courses for students and staff;
• dealing with user enquiries , which may involve one on one advice sessions;
• keeping up to date with relevant professional developments in the library sector;
• participating in professional groups or networks.

•Master of Library and Information Science
• Philippines
• professional license
• Master of Library and Information Science (for heads)
• Bachelor of Library and Information Science (entry level)

A good academic librarian must possess the following:

• good interpersonal, communication and presentation skills;
• IT skills - academic libraries are highly computerized, so expertise with databases,
the internet, online searching and web editing is vital;
• flexibility - the work is changing rapidly as more information becomes available in
electronic format and a greater emphasis is placed on supporting students' learning;
• an appreciation of the pressures and demands within the academic work environment.
• Must attempt to include all available formats, i.e. printed resources, multimedia
sources, electronic resources, both online and offline.
• Must be based on the curricular offerings and research areas of the
• Stakeholders can suggest titles or types of resources to be purchased.
Facilities and services
• Quiet reading areas; discussion spaces.
• Learning Commons/Information Commons a designated area that provides digital
resources, productivity tools and other technologies to facilitate research and
• In person service reference desk and roving reference
• Virtual reference service

Challenges and Opportunities for Academic Libraries

Scholarly publishing –
 The requirement for faculty publishing for permanency or for promotion.
With predatory journals , the library becomes a source of peer reviewed
journal titles.
•Commercially published journals operate in an oligopolistic competition.
• Only a few large sellers dominate the journals market.
• Result: overpriced journal databases and other online subscriptions.
• Demand for open access - Offering “full text scholarly articles made
completely free and unrestricted to users to read, copy, download and distribute
online”; free from economic or intellectual property constraints; Either self
archiving or publishing in OA journals
• Institutional Repositories - Libraries host IRs for independent
release/publication of material; Primary problems are on plagiarism and
copyright restrictions.
Student Success and Retention –
Libraries aid in developing information skills for students to be equipped for
their future careers. Primarily concerned with the influence of libraries in
student academic achievement and overall success.
• Library Instruction
• Information Literacy
Collaborative Spaces – novel service models
• Information Commons - Learning commons (a.k.a. information commons,
academic commons, digital commons) are spaces that integrate educational
facilities with information technologies for learning, collaboration and content
• Makerspaces - a place where students can gather to create, invent, tinker,
explore and discover using a variety of tools and materials.
Embedded Librarianship -
• Being part of the users’ social structure. Programs that “often locate
librarians in the spaces of their users and colleagues, either physically or
through technology, in order to be part of their users’ culture.” Examples are:
• Instructional modules for research assistance
• Tutorial services, chat functions and other personalized functions
• Availability of the librarian in the course management system*
*Imagine a hotlink or a chat app on our UVLE page, connecting you to our
• Entry into the student culture (i.e. where the users are)
Preservation –
• Retention of paper based and AV (e.g. magnetic tape and film based) resources
• Most academic libraries face the problem of deteriorating book
• Response: digitization, or maintenance of multiple formats
• Acquisition of born digital resources, both offline and online. How can we
preserve these resources?
• Paper preservation
• Digital preservation
• Digital curation

Top trends in academic libraries

A review of the trends and issues affecting academic libraries in higher education.
College & Research Libraries News
Data. - Open data, data plan management, and “big data” research
Device neutral digital services - responsive design, which facilitates having only one
website that automatically adapts to the size of a visitor’s screen.
Evolving openness in higher education - Open access; Open education. Distance
education, social learning and massive open online courses (MOOCs)
Student success initiatives - Performance Funding 2.0, outcomes based learning
Competency based learning - Learning goals are based on developing concrete skills than
abstract skills.
Altmetrics - Methodology for measuring the impact of scholarly works and research
published on the Web.
Digital humanities - The place where traditional humanities research methodologies and
media/digital technologies intersect.
• “a library established, supported and administered by a business firm, private
corporation, association, government agency, or other special interest group or
agency to meet the information needs of its members or staff in pursuing the
goals of the organization.
• Scope of collections and services is limited to the subject interest of the host
or parent organization”. (ALA)
• “Information resource centers located in corporations, private businesses,
government agencies, museums, colleges, hospitals, associations and other
organizations with specialized information needs.” (Feather and Sturges, 2003)
• Specialized materials are included in the collection: based on the type of
organization the library is under.

Documentation Center
• “An organization or agency that specializes in receiving, processing, preserving,
abstracting, and indexing publications, usually within a scholarly discipline or field of
research and study (example: ERIC).
• “Documentation centers also issue bulletins on the progress of such work for
distribution to interested parties and may also prepare bibliographies on special topics,
make copies or translations, and engage in bibliographic research.” (ODLIS)
• A documentation center may be considered as a “processing house” or a “clearing
house” as well as a repository of documented information.

Data Center
• facility dedicated to the purpose of securing data and systems and is used to house
network server systems and associated components (State of Iowa Data Center
 A facility housing electronic equipment used for data processing, data storage, and
communications networking
• Houses server, network, and computer equipment
• May have environmental controls
• May contain or link to an uninterruptible, redundant and/or backup power
• May be protected by physical security and protection devices or systems (e.g.,
closed circuit monitoring, fire suppression)
• May be built for redundancy

Special Libraries vs. Archives

•Although some special libraries keep company records (non-permanent) and archives
(permanent), special libraries ideally do not keep the archives of a company,
institution, or organization. The archives does the management of permanent records.
• In knowledge management initiatives, the special library and the archives are
combined into one unit or are grouped in one division within the company.
Associations of Special Libraries
• Special Libraries Association
• Established by John Cotton Dana (right photo) in 1900
• Association of Special Libraries in the Philippines (ASLP)
• SLA counterpart in the Philippines
• Established in 1954, the second oldest library association in the country
• Rufo Buenviaje, the father of special libraries in the Philippines

Functions of a Special Library (Gupta, 2011)

• selects and procures documents and other sources of relevant information;
• processes the procured information or documents with the help of
classification, cataloguing, shelf arrangements etc. to make them easily available
for the users;
• subscribes to a good number of journals related to its area;
 provides indexing and abstracting services to the users to save their time;
• provides reference services to the users by telephone, by post or by e-mail;
• gives reference services such as current awareness, selective dissemination of
information, interlibrary loan and document delivery services
• brings out library bulletins weekly/fortnightly/monthly to keep the users up
to date with latest information;
• also provides intranet as well as internet facility to the users in order to
access the library collection and catalogues at their desktop;
• responds to the reference queries and make retrospective search of
literature as per the users’ demand;
• compiles bibliographies, union catalogues, documentation lists, newspaper-
clippings, accession lists etc. to save the time of its users;
• provides interlibrary loan (ILL) facility to the users;
• gives user orientation training through personal interaction with users and by
library brochure and pamphlets to make the users familiar with the library
collection and services.

Some Examples of PHL Special Libraries

International Agencies
International Rice Research Institute Library
SEAMEO INNOTECH Learning Resource Center
World Health Organization Manila Library
Asian Development Bank Library (on right)
Government Agencies
Armed Forces of the Philippines Library
CCP Library and Archives (on right)
National Museum Library
Presidential Museum and Library (Malacanang)
Civil Service Commission Library
Department of Health Central Library
National Economic Development Authority (NEDA)
Knowledge Center
Department of the Interior and Local Government (DILG) Library
Philippine Nuclear Research Institute
Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology
Commission on Higher Education
Corporate, Research and Foundation – operated by a business firm; a company
Ortigas Foundation Library
Filipinas Heritage Library (Ayala Foundation)
Lopez Museum and Library
Goethe-Institute Manila Library
Jose P. Laurel Library and Museum
Frank X. Lynch, SJ Library, Philippine Social Science Council
Miguel Hernández Library, Instituto Cervantes of Manila (on right)
SGV & Co.
San Miguel Corp.
Health / Medical – hospitals / health-care facilities
St. Luke’s Medical Center
DOH hospital libraries
Jose R. Reyes Memorial Medical Center Library
Lung Center of the Philippines Library (on right)
Philippine Heart Center Library
National Kidney & Transplant Institute Library
Philippine Children’s Medical Center Library
Research Institute for Tropical Medicine Library
Medical school libraries
Law – law offices / legal research
Government agencies
Public Attorney’s Office
Supreme Court Library
Legislative Library Service (Senate Library)
House of Representatives Congressional Library
Law Firms
Fortun Narvasa & Salazar Law Library
Carpio Villaraza & Cruz Law Library
Castillo Laman Tan Pantaleon & San Jose (on right)
Law school libraries
UST Law Library
UP College of Law Library
Mass media libraries
GMA Network Library and Archives
Philippine Center for Investigative Journalism
Philippine Daily Inquirer Library
Summit Media Library
One Mega Group Library and Information Center (publisher of Mega Magazine)

Specialized, primarily based on what type of special library
•Law libraries
• court decisions ; laws
• health resources ; medical journals
• items relevant to the business; contracts; R&D

•Employs librarians and subject specialists. Preferably someone with a
background in the field where the library is located.
•This is why some special libraries hire field experts rather than professional

Interlibrary loan and Document Delivery
For similar types
 Lending of materials
 Resource sharing – cost efficient
Current Awareness Services
Selective Dissemination of Information
 Matching desired user needs to relevant materials in the collection.
 Profile matching, e.g. a doctor who specializes in orthopedia would be
matched to relevant materials discussing innovations in the field of
• Professional Regulatory Board for Librarians (PRBFL) Resolution No. 2016-01:
Standards for Special Libraries in the Philippines (2013)

Trends and Challenges

• Special libraries are evolving into information centers, knowledge centers,
and knowledge management centers. Although the name is different, the
primary goal is still the same.
• The growth of the special library is primarily subject to the appreciation of
the company management. If the company is not information-driven or does not
appreciate the library’s function, the special library is vulnerable to abolition or
merging with another department.
– Libraries that are provided through public funding for public use and the
public good.
– Public libraries make use of materials in printed, audiovisual and electronic
formats in order to collect, preserve, organize, retrieve, disseminate and
communicate information, ideas and the creative product of the human
– The public library is the local gateway to knowledge.
– It provides a basic condition for lifelong learning, independent decision making
and cultural development of the individual and social groups. (UNESCO)

Mission of the Public Library

– creating and strengthening reading habits in children from an early age;
– supporting both individual and self conducted education as well as formal education at
all levels;
– providing opportunities for personal creative development;
– stimulating the imagination and creativity of children and young people;
– promoting awareness of cultural heritage, appreciation of the arts, scientific
achievements and innovations;
– providing access to cultural expressions of all performing arts;
– fostering inter-cultural dialogue and favouring cultural diversity;
– supporting the oral tradition;
– ensuring access for citizens to all sorts of community information;
– providing adequate information services to local enterprises, associations and
interest groups;
– facilitating the development of information and computer literacy skills;
– supporting and participating in literacy activities and programmes for all age groups,
and initiating such activities if necessary.

Funding and Legislation

The public library shall in principle be free of charge. The public library is the
responsibility of local and national authorities. It must be supported by specific
legislation and financed by national and local governments. It has to be an essential
component of any long-term strategy for culture, information provision, literacy and
To ensure nationwide library coordination and cooperation, legislation and strategic
plans must also define and promote a national library network based on agreed
standards of service.
The public library network must be designed in relation to national, regional, research
and special libraries as well as libraries in schools, colleges and universities.

Operation and Management

A clear policy must be formulated, defining objectives, priorities and services in
relation to the local community needs. The public library has to be organized
effectively and professional standards of operation must be maintained.
Cooperation with relevant partners - for example, user groups and other professionals
at local, regional, national as well as international level- has to be ensured.
Services have to be physically accessible to all members of the community. This
requires well situated library buildings, good reading and study facilities, as well as
relevant technologies and sufficient opening hours convenient to the users.
It equally implies outreach services for those unable to visit the library.
The library services must be adapted to the different needs of communities in rural
and urban areas.
The librarian is an active intermediary between users and resources.
Professional and continuing education of the librarian is indispensable to ensure
adequate services.
Outreach and user education programmes have to be provided to help users benefit
from all the resources.

History of Public Libraries

– London Guildhall, earliest public library established in 1425
– Benjamin Franklin’s library in Philadelphia through the Junto, the Library Company in
Philadelphia in 1735
– Boston Public Library (1852)
– Philadelphia Public Library (1891)
– New York Public Library (1895)

Public Library System in the Philippines

– Museo-Biblioteca de Filipinas (August 12, 1887)
– American Circulating Library (March 9, 1900)
– Started the public library system in the Philippines
– Organized by Mrs. Charles Greenleaf
– Ms. Nellie Young Egbert, first librarian
– Iloilo Provincial Library, founded October 29, 1916
– A public library MIGHT be constructed depending on the interest of local officials on
having one.
– RA 7160 – Local Government Code (1991)
– RA 411 – Establishment of Municipal Libraries (1949)
– RA 7743 – An Act Providing for the Establishment of Congressional, City and
Municipal Libraries and Barangay Reading Centers throughout the Philippines… (1994)

House and Senate Bills for the Development of Public Libraries

– House Bills filed at the 17th Congress
– HB01455. An Act Creating an Online Library and Appropriating FundsTherefor.
– HB03502. An Act Mandating the Nationwide Establishment of a Public Library
in Each City and Municipality
– HB05045. An Act Digitizing All Books Necessary for Public Education and
Establishing the Philippine Online Library, Providing Funds Therefor, and
For Other Purposes…
– [Repealing Republic Act No. 7743]
– Senate Bills filed at the 17th Congress
– SBN-1757: Adopt-A-Library Act of 2018
– SBN-1342: Amending R.A. No. 7743, Program Shall Be Based on the Latest
Computer/Electronic Library Technology

Standards for Philippine Public Libraries

– Professional Regulatory Board for Librarians Resolution No. 05, s. 2015 “Prescription,
Adoption and Promulgation of the Revised Standards for Philippine Public Libraries”

– A library is called a national library if it serves as
– the official depository of printed works;
– a general access library;
– an information-bibliographical center;
– a center of coordination, planning and stimulation of the entire library system
of the nations.

Function of the National Library

– Legal depositories of their country’s records
– The collection is encyclopedic in scope
– Produce card catalogs available for the whole country and other libraries
– Acts as clearinghouses for interlibrary loan
– Acts as a library’s library
– Be at par with innovation in terms of new library technology
– Promote public awareness of the importance of the PL
– Conduct schools of library science and provide secretarial assistance for professional

– Biblioteca Marciana in Venice Italy (1468)
– Bibliotheque Nationale of France (1537)
– Credited as the pioneers of public libraries in the world.
– Library of Congress
– Russian State Library
– Two of the largest national libraries in the world
– National Library of the Philippines
– The official depository of all print non-print collection written by Filipinos; or
written about the Philippines.

National Library of the Philippines

– Museo-Biblioteca de Filipinas (1887)
– Don Pedro A. Paterno – first Filipino director
– American Circulating Library
– Under Ms. Nellie Egbert and Mrs. Charles Greenleaf
– Turned over to the Insular government in 1901
– Philippine Library
– James Alexander Robertson – first director
– Trinidad Pardo de Tavera – director in 1923, when the Philippine Library
Association was established.
– The National Library found its present home at T.M. Kalaw St., Manila – a building
constructed out of public contributions during the birth centenary anniversary of
Dr. Jose Rizal in 1961.

National Library of the Philippines: Divisions

– Filipiniana
– Reference, in charge of various collections: children’s, blind, etc.
– Bibliographic Services, in charge of ISBN, ISSN, ISMN
– Collection Development and Catalog Division, in charge of cataloging in publication data
– Information Technology Division
– Public Libraries Division, in charge of public libraries across the country
– Research and Publications
– Financial and Administrative Division

National Library of the Philippines: Mandate/Charter?

– The NLP currently does not have a single legal document defining its
mandate/charter, functions and services.
– Initiatives in the House of Representatives were taken but at the moment are tabled.
FUNCTIONS, AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES” filed by Cong. Carlo V. Lopez, 2nd
District of Manila.

National Library of the Philippines: Collections

– The NLP has an aggregate collection of more than one million volumes excluding the
nonbook materials and rare books and manuscripts and the books allocated to all public

– All public libraries should be supported by its government – this starts with their
establishment, materials acquisition, etc.

– A person who intends to work in a public library must have
– a valid PRC license;
– at least 1 year work experience in a library; and
– for head or supervisory positions; the person must have a valid PRC license, an
MLIS degree, and 5+ years of work experience in a managerial post

– Different public libraries have different services to different groups of people.
– In performing the technical aspects of library management of public libraries, the
National Library assists them.
– Promotional activities
– National Children’s Book Day – every July
– LIS Month – in the National Library; every November

Issues and Trends

– Budget J
– Staffing J
– Copyright and ownership
– Digitization and ICT integration
– Services for the underserved groups: differently-abled, LGBT, senior citizens


•From the Latin : museum
•From the Greek mouseion, a temple or place of the muses

“A museum is a non-profit, permanent institution in the service of society and its

development, open to the public, which acquires, conserves, researches,
communicates and exhibits the tangible and intangible heritage of humanity and its
environment for the purposes of education, study and enjoyment.”

•According to the Museum Association: Museums enable people to explore collection

for inspiration, learning and enjoyment. They are institutions that collect, safeguard
and make accessible artifacts and specimens, which they hold in trust for society

•Museums look after the world’s cultural property and interpret it to the public.
•It is also a significant component in defining cultural identity, nationally and

LIS Perspective on Museums

• As a conveyor of information. Museum objects and artifacts carry and convey
• Art pieces carrying messages
• Preserved flora and fauna as evidences of endemic species
• Technological displays to explain how things work.
• As a cultural agent. Similar with public libraries, national libraries and government
archives, museums also have the responsibility of documenting, preserving and
communicating culture.

Object vs. Artifact

• Webster's dictionary defines an artifact as something created by humans, usually for
a practical purpose, and especially as an object remaining from a particular period.
• Artifacts can be an important complement to text-based primary sources because
they provide a concrete, tangible dimension to evidence at hand.
• An artifact remains almost meaningless, however, when taken out of context. Asking
who created the object, did s/he have a particular viewpoint or objective helps to
provide context. An artifact provides insight into the customs, preferences, styles,
special occasions, work, and play, of the culture in which it was created.

Museum Holdings
•It is part of the world’s natural and cultural heritage and may be of a tangible or
intangible character.
•Cultural property also often provides the primary evidence in a number of subject
disciplines, such as archaeology and the natural sciences, and therefore represents an
important contribution to knowledge.

Why do we need MUSEUMS?

•Education - exploring values, centres of learning.
•Protection - Protectors of artistic, historic, scientific and cultural heritage.
•Economic - encourage economic growth and regeneration in an area attracting tourism
and business.
•Political – giving a sense of identity national, local, corporate or civic.

Museum Programs
•Educational programs to enrich knowledge and interaction of users with collections.
Through guided tours, travelling exhibits, lectures, performances, and creative sessions
(e.g. weaving, pottery, art, etc.)
•Research programs to acquire and know more about its collections.

Museum: Staff
• Curare – to take care
• The person with the responsibility of managing and caring for the holdings of a
• Keeper of cultural heritage – responsible for interpreting the collection.
Subject specialists – Ph.D. in History, Art / Art History

Museum Types
•Based on the purpose of the museum
•Archeology – Artifacts
•Art – Paintings
•Natural history – materials on natural history
•Science and technology – computers, robots, etc.
•Heritage Museum
•Military Museum
•Children’s Museum
•Cabinet of Curiosities
•Wax Museum

Republic Act No. 10066: National Cultural Heritage Act of 2009

• “An Act Providing for the Protection and Conservation of the National Cultural
Heritage, Strengthening the National Commission for Culture and the Arts (NCCA), and
its Affiliated Cultural Agencies, and for Other Purposes”


• More than a museum and a documentation center, a heritage center aims to research
on, document, collect, and preserve cultural evidences of a distinct group of people.
• One of the primary aims of heritage centers is to pass on the way of life or
traditional culture from one generation to another.
• Sharing the same goal with museums, heritage centers also intends to provide
information or spread awareness and showcase the richness of a group of people’s
• Typically, heritage centers may have library collections, a museum collection (with
exhibition spaces), and records of archival nature.
• Heritage centers may be under a local government unit, a higher education institution
(as part of its research activities), or a foundation sponsoring the preservation of
• May be related with cultural centers or cultural studies centers, though the latter
may denote more focus on research.

Heritage Centers in the PHL

• Mangyan Heritage Center in Calapan, Oriental Mindoro (
• Kaisa Angelo King Heritage Center in Intramuros, Manila concerning Filipino- Chinese
• Juan D. Nepomuceno Center for Kapampangan Studies at Holy Angel University.
• Philippine Science Heritage Center at the DOST Complex in Bicutan, Taguig City

Information Science, Technology and Other Developments in Library and Information


Technology and libraries

• Libraries are regarded as early adopters of prevailing information and communication
• Rubin believes that “technological changes will continue unabated and they will occur
at an accelerated pace”.

Pre-1960s: Reprography and Microphotography

• Microphotography: the reproduction of print documents onto film-based media (i.e.
• Reprography and the development of photocopiers and other duplicating
1960s: Application of Computer Technologies
• “Mechanization” evolved into “library automation”, defined as “the application of
computer and communication technologies to traditional library processes and services”
(Bierman, 1991)
• MARC (Machine Readable Cataloging) as the standard for the creation of
bibliographic records.
• The rise of bibliographic utilities, most notable of which is the OCLC (Ohio College
Library Center, now Online Computer Library Center)
• Online information retrieval systems developed before the Internet.
• Dialog

1970s: Information Retrieval Systems for Reference

• Database searching services.
• Boolean searching.

1980s: CDROMs and Integrated Library Systems

• Books, notably reference sources in CDROM
• Online Public Access Catalogs
• Online circulation systems
• Automated acquisitions and serials systems
• Integrated Library Systems
• Linked System Project: Linked Systems Protocol (LSP)
• Online circulation systems
• Automated acquisitions and serials management systems

1990s: The Growth of the Internet and the World Wide Web
• The birth of the Internet from the ARPANET.
• Early features of the Internet
• Electronic Mail
• Remote Login
• File Transfer
• The World Wide Web using HTML, HTTP.
• Hyperlinks
• Search engines

Technology and Libraries in the 21st Century

The First Decade: 2000-2010

• Web 2.0 and Social Media, a participatory online environment where users are able to
add online content
• Blogs
• Wikis
• Social networks
• Really Simple Syndication (RSS)
• Podcasting
• Internet2
• The Growth of Google
• Mass digitization and Google Books
• Digital preservation

The Second Decade: 2010-present

• The Online Generation, with the WWW being a part of daily life.
• Broadband access, bundling with other ICT Technologies such as telephone and
• Mobile devices and mobile applications
• Continuing evolution of social media

Technological Innovations Transforming Library Functions

• Digital libraries
• eBooks and electronic publishing
• Electronic resource management systems
• Demand driven acquisitions
• Radio frequency identification (RFID)

Searching/Locating Resources
• Discovery systems
• Virtual reference services
• Social question and answering services

Spaces and Technological Infrastructure

• Providing spaces for learning, creating and engagement
• Cloud-based computing

Future library scenarios 21st century libraries: changing forms, changing futures

Societal Trends
• Anonymity, a promoted feature of applications (Whisper, Secret) and forums (Reddit)
allowing users to share information secretly.
• Collective Impact, organizations from different sectors are adopting common
agendas to combat issues within their communities.
• Creative Placemaking, collaborating with the community to strategically shape the
physical and social character of the library through arts and cultural activities.
• Fandom, a community of people who are passionate about something, whether it’s a
film, a band, a television show, a book, or a sports team.
• Fast Casual, characterized by counter service, customized menus, freshly-prepared
and higher quality foods, and upscale and inviting dining spaces; similar to fast food
• Maker Movement: do-it-yourselfers, tinkerers, hackers, entrepreneurs, and
interested learners are finding opportunities to make what they want and determine
their own creative paths.
• Privacy Shifting, consciousness on confidentiality, especially for information being
shared online.
• Short Reading, formats that take advantage of short opportunities to read help
encourage reading among those that are pressed for time, reluctant to read, or
distracted by technology.

Technological Trends
• Blockchain, information processing technique that uses a distributed database
(multiple devices not connected to a common processor) that organizes data into
records (blocks) that have cryptographic validation and are timestamped and
linked to previous records so that they can only be changed by those who own the
encryption keys to write to the files.
• Connected Toys, using wireless connectivity, the internet of things, artificial
intelligence, and machine learning to create highly personalized exchanges between
object and child.
• Data Everywhere [or big data], companies and organizations can use the information
to develop products and services, improve marketing and communications, or monetize
• Drones or ‘Unmanned Aerial Vehicles’ (UAVs) will become a regular part of life, used
in research, transportation and delivery, artistic production, news coverage and
reporting, law enforcement and surveillance, and entertainment.
• Haptic Technology, technology that incorporates tactile experience or feedback as
part of its user interface, creating a sense of touch through vibrations, motion, or
other forces.
• Internet of Things. Smaller computing and radio devices, often unseen or built into
objects, will sense and transmit data offering greater control of and connectivity
between objects.
• Robots, collaborative robots will increasingly perform repetitive tasks and work
alongside humans.
• Unplugged, quiet, relaxing spaces to get away from the connected world.
• Virtual Reality, traditional VR; augmented reality (that starts with the real world and
overlays virtual objects and information) and 360° views.
• Voice Control, the development of virtual assistants and bots that act more and more
like people, controlled by and responding with human voices and fulfilling search
queries, acting as proxies, accomplishing tasks, and asking questions of us in return.

Educational and Environmental Trends

• Badging. and digital badges in particular, offer opportunities to recognize individuals’
accomplishments, skills, qualities, or interests and help set goals, motivate behavior,
represent achievements, and communicate success in learning offered in schools,
professional settings, or daily life.
• Connected Learning, “highly social, interest-driven, and oriented toward educational,
economic, or civic opportunity.”
• Flipped Learning, a model where students review content online via video lectures and
assignments are completed during class meeting times with students and teachers
working through and solving questions together.
• Gamification, (the application of game elements and digital game design techniques
to non-game settings) and game-based learning (game playing that has defined
learning outcomes)
• Resilience, incorporates preparations for and rapid recovery from physical, social, and
economic disruptions, including environmental disasters, terrorist attacks, or economic

Economic & Demographic Trends

• Aging Advances, aging workforce and population as a challenge to workplace,
government budgets, family life, etc.
• Digital Natives. A gap exists between natives (those born in the 80s and later) and
migrants (the generation before).
• Emerging Adulthood, considers the period from the late teens through twenties as a
time of distinct psychological and behavioral characteristics that in more affluent
countries may result in individuals’ taking longer to move out of their parents’ home,
involve themselves in a career, get married, and have children.
• Urbanization, more and more people will migrate to urban areas.
• Basic Income, the payment from the government to all people in society; commonly in
developed countries.
• Income Inequality, the extent to which income is distributed in an uneven manner
among a population
• Sharing Economy, often utilizing social technologies, allows users to share resources,
goods, services, and even skills.