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Changes in energy

Energy stores

There are seven main stores of energy: 1) Magnetic 2) Internal(thermal) 3) Electrostatin 4)


Chemical

5) Elastic potential 6) Nuclear

7) Gravitational potential 8) Kinetic

Energy store Description Examples


Magnetic The energy stored when repelling poles have been Fridge magnets, compasses,
pushed closer together or when attracting poles have maglev trains which use
been pulled further apart. magnetic levitation.
Internal The total kinetic and potential energy of the particles Human bodies, hot coffees,
(thermal) in an object, in most cases this is the vibrations - also stoves or hobs. Ice
known as the kinetic energy - of particles. In hotter particles vibrate slower,
objects, the particles have more internal energy and but still have energy
vibrate faster.
Electrostati The energy stored when repelling charges have been Thunderclouds, Van De
c moved closer together or when attracting charges Graaff generators.
have been pulled further apart.
Chemical The energy stored in chemical bonds, such as those Foods, muscles, electrical
between molecules. cells.
Elastic The energy stored when an object is stretched or Drawn catapults,
potential squashed. compressed springs,
inflated balloons.
Nuclear The energy stored in the nucleus of an atom. Uranium nuclear power,
nuclear reactors.
Gravitational The energy of an object at height. Aeroplanes, kites, mugs on a
potential table.
Kinetic The energy of a moving object. Runners, buses, comets.
Energy transfers

Pathways for transferring energy: Energy can be transferred from one store into another - as one
store empties, another store fills. The process by which this happens is called the pathway. There
are four main pathways:

1)mechanical work - a force moving an object through a distance

2)electrical work - charges moving due to a potential difference

3)heating - due to temperature difference caused electrically or by chemical reaction

4)radiation - energy transferred as a wave, eg light and infrared - the Sun emits light radiation and
infrared radiation

Systems and stores

Energy can remain in the same store for millions of years or sometimes just for a fraction of a
second. There are energy transfers going on all the time - whenever a system changes there is a
change in the way some or all of the energy is stored.