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Historical Roots

Of Special Education
In the Philippines
and Abroad
Prepared by:
Angela Paula A. Apolonio, Annie R. Alpanta, Ashley Brianne Camasura
History of Special Education in the

■ The interest to educate Filipino children with

disabilities was expressed through Mr. Fred
Atkinson, the General Superintendent of
■ In 1907, Special Education was formally started
in the country by establishing the Insular School
for the Deaf and Blind in Manila.
Early 1990’s

 The government established the Welfareville Children’s
Village, a school for people with mental retardation in
 The National Orthopedic Hospital School for the Crippled
Children and Youth is established.
 Quezon City Science High School was inaugurated for gifted
 The Elsie Gache’s Village was established in Alabang
to take care of the abandoned and orphaned children
and youth with physical and mental handicaps.
 Special classes for the deaf in regular class were
 The Bureau of Public Schools of the Department of
Education and Culture created the Special Education
Section of the Special Subjects and Service Education.

■ 1970- Training of teacher for Children with behavior problems

started at the University of the Philippines
■ 1973- the Tahanan Special School for the socially
maladjusted children and youth was established.
■ The Division of Manila City Schools implemented the Silahis
Concept of Special Education in public elementary
■ 1979- The Bureau of Elementary Education Special
Education unit conducted a two-year nationwide survey of
unidentified exceptional children who were in school.
1980’s - 1990’s

■ 1980- The School for the Crippled Children at the Southern

Island Hospital in Cebu City was organized.
■ 1995- The summer training for teachers of the hearing impaired
was held at Philippine Normal University
■ 1998- DECS order No. 5 “Reclassification of Regular teacher and
principal items to SPED teacher and special schools principal
■ 1999- DECS order no. 33 “Implementation of administrative order
no. 101 directing… the DECS and the CHED to provide
architectural facilities or structural feature for disabled persons in
all state college, universities and other buildings”
■ 2000 - DECS Order No. 11, s. 2000 - Recognized Special Education (SPED) Centers in
the Philippines
■ 2007 - Special Education Act of 2007 identifies ten groups of Children with Special
■ 2009 - DepEd issued Braille textbooks to help especially visually impaired children.
■ 2010 - Special Education Act of 2010, An act establishing at least one Special
Education center for each school division and at least three Special Education centers
in big school divisions for children with special needs, guidelines for government
financial assistance and other incentives and support
■ 2012 - DepEd has increased the funding for its Special Education program and is set
to open new centers
■ 2013 - DepEd organized a National Conference for SPED Teachers to sharpen their
History of Special Education in
the United States

■ Special Education has a rich history of

events, laws and court cases that has
changed how people and the country view
disability. This timeline of events will provide
an overview of how much change has
American School for the Deaf
April 15, 1817
- founded in Hartford, Connecticut. This was the first school for
disabled children anywhere in the Western Hemisphere

Perkins Institution for the Blind opens

- founded in Boston, Massachusetts. This institution the first of its
kind for people with mental disabilities. Participants were required
to live and learn there, just like a boarding school.

Law Mandating Compulsory Education

- Rhode Island passed a law mandating compulsory education for all
children. Compulsory education is education in which children are
required by law to receive and for governments to provide.
1860’s – 1890’s
Columbia Institution

- Columbia Institution for the Deaf and Dumb and Blind was allowed to grant college
degrees by the U.S. Congress. It was the first college in the world established for people
with disabilities.

Association of Instructors of the Blind


- The school for the Deaf and the School for the Blind offer comprehensive educational
programs for hearing impaired and visually impaired students.

Plessy vs. Ferguson


- The Supreme Court upheld the Louisan separate car act. Though this is not directly
related to education, this did set the precedence of separate but equal.
Council for Exceptional Children
February 24, 1922
- The CEC is one of the largest special education advocacy groups. The main
objective of this group is to ensure that children with special needs receive

Brown v. Board of Education

May 17, 1954
- A landmark court case that overturned Plessy v. Ferguson case saying that
“Separate is not equal”. This court case brought attention to black v. white’s in
school and special need students v. general education students. This case
encouraged the formation of many advocacy groups to inform the public of need
of special education programs
Pennsylvania Association for Retarded Children v. Commonwealth of
October 8, 1971
- Sided in favor of students with intellectual and learning disabilities in state-run
institutions. PARC v. Penn called for students with disabilities to be places in
publicly funded school settings that met their individual educational needs, based
on a proper and through evaluation.

In the Mills v. Board of Education of the District of Colombia

December 17, 1971
- The U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia students classified as
“Exceptional”. This includes those with mental and learning disabilities and
behavioral issues. This ruling made it unlawful for the D.C. Board of Education to
deny these individuals access to publicly funded educational opportunity.
1970’s – 1990’s
Education for All Handicapped Children Act
- This act made sure that all students with disabilities are educated in public schools. EAHCA
included providing free educations, special education for children 3-21, supplemental services,
due process, zero reject, and least restrictive environment.

Handicapped Children’s Protection Act

August 6, 1986
- Signed by Ronald Regan, a law that gave parents of children with disabilities more say in the
development of their child’s Individual Education Plan (IEP)

Americans with Disabilities Act

July 26, 1990
- signed into law by President George W. Bush. The act promises people with special needs will
have the same rights as everybody else. This includes both school and work. This act also
stated that people with special needs cannot be discriminated against in schools, the
workplace, and everyday society such as public transportation.
1990 – 2000’s
October 30, 1990
- The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act was signed into law by George W. Bush.
This law includes 6 pillars: FAPE, LRE, IEP, evaluation, parent/student participation, and all
procedural safeguards for participants. This law also has 4 sections.

No Child Left Behind Act

January 8, 2002
- signed into law by President George W. Bush. This law states that all students should be
proficient in math and reading by 2014. This law had some states asking to not be part of

IDEA Reauthorized
December 3, 2004
- The re-authorization of IDEA made many changes to the original. The changes include
the IEP, due process, and student discipline.
Thank you!