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Service Experience

Contents: Page

Introduction ............................................................................................. 3

Cylinder Condition ................................................................................... 3

Alu-coating of piston rings and wave-cut in cylinder liners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3


Alpha Lubricator, cylinder oil savings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Cylinder wear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

Bearings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

Main bearing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
- Thick shell bearing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
- Optimum Lemon Shape (OLS) bearing with flexible edges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
- Thin shell bearing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
- Alignment and vertical offset of aft-end bearings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Crosshead bearing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

Exhaust Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

Sealing oil dosage unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11


Cooling water leaks/U-seal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Seat geometry/W-seat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Engines with Oros combustion chamber, hydraulic safety valve . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

Fuel Injection Gear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

Fuel pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Fuel valve and atomisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

Engine Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

Crankshaft thrust bearing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

Safety Precautions ................................................................................... 14

Tools and lifting equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14


- Wire ropes and wire locks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
- Other tools related to personal safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Oil mist detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

Concluding Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

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Service Experience

Introduction Hence, the full range of S-MC-C en- piston topland. Such deposits would,
gines have been subject to the same by hard face sponge effect, scrape off
As a service to our customers, MAN intensive follow-up, primarily in order to and absorb the oil film, leaving the na-
B&W Diesel have for many years, as detect and cure any teething troubles ked liner wall vulnerable to extensive
part of our open information policy, at as early as possible. wear and/or scuffing.
regular intervals published papers under
the title ‘Service Experience’. The use of the high topland piston also
means that the mating surfaces between
The present paper gives an update on Cylinder Condition the cylinder liner and the cylinder cover
how the latest generation of MC and are lowered, thus reducing the thermal
MC-C low speed engines, i.e. those The cylinder condition of the MC/MC-C load on the cylinder liner and improving
having entered service after 1997, are engines has developed in a most posi- the conditions for lubricating the liner.
performing. The major development tive direction in recent years. Contribu- This was taken into account before in-
steps are shown in Fig.1, which in- ting to this are the Oros combustion troducing the Oros configuration.
cludes the engines of the recent new chamber, high topland pistons, piston
breed of large container vessels that cleaning (PC) ring, controlled pressure Years back a number of cracked cylin-
have attracted special attention in the relief (CPR) piston ring, alucoat, etc. der liners were reported and, conse-
marine market, and therefore the large See Fig. 2. quently, countermeasures were intro-
bore main engines of our range in these duced. Today, we can state that these
vessels will be dealt with in this paper. With the Oros configuration, the com- countermeasures, in terms of bore-cooled
bustion air is concentrated around the liners, and for smaller engines, slim liners,
From the start of the service periods of fuel nozzles and the distance from the have been successful, in that cracked
these large engines, we have made inten- fuel nozzles to the piston top is increased. liners are very rarely reported. For en-
sive follow-ups, including many visits on This has resulted in lower heat load on gines originally specified with cast-in
board the vessels. As a result, a number the piston top and basically unchanged cooling pipes in the liners, the design
of modifications have been introduced. heat load on the cylinder cover and with oval pipes has stopped the crack
exhaust valve. occurrence.
It is important to underline the fact that,
irrespective of the great attention being The higher topland and the introduction Alu-coating of piston rings and
given to large engines, we are also care- of the piston cleaning ring have proved wave-cut in cylinder liners
fully following up on all other sizes of to be very beneficial for avoiding a build-
MC/MC-C engines. up of lube oil derived deposits on the Controlled breaking-in and subsequent
running-in of piston rings and cylinder
liners are considered very important in
Mk mep (bar) Cm (m/s) pmax achieving good performance of a liner
1982 Full L-MC programme 1 15.0 7.2 125 later on in service.
1986 K-MC introduced 3 16.2 7.6 130
S-MC introduced 3 17.0 7.8 130
L-MC upgraded 3 16.2 7.6 130 New piston rings and a fresh liner surface
1988 K-MC-C introduced 3 16.2 8.0 130 have to adapt to each other in the break-
1991 MC programme upgraded 5 18.0 8.0 140 ing-in period to optimise the surface for
1994 K98MC-C introduced 6 18.2 8.3 140 running-in. An ample amount of cylin-
1996 S70MC-C, S60MC-C, S50MC-C 7 19.0 8.5 150 der lube oil is therefore needed initially.
and S46MC-C introduced 7 19.0 8.5 150
1998 K98MC introduced 6 18.2 8.3 140
However, besides providing the neces-
S80MC-C, S90MC-C, L90MC-C introduced 7 19.0 8.1 150
S35MC upgraded 7 19.1 8.1 145 sary lubrication, this high cylinder lube
2001 L70MC-C introduced 7 19.0 8.5 150 oil amount will create deposits and thus
L60MC-C introduced 7 19.0 8.3 150 a more difficult condition for piston ring
performance.
mep = mean effective pressure • Cm = mean piston speed • pmax = maximum firing pressure

With the introduction of the alu-coated


piston rings, a thin layer of alu-coating
Fig. 1: Major development steps will be worn off the rings during the first

http://MarEngine.com 3
Previous High topland
Alpha Cylinder Lubricator, cylinder
Features:
! High topland
oil savings
! Oros shape of piston top
! CPR top piston ring One of the tools for optimising the cyl-
! Alu-coat piston rings inder condition is optimising the cylin-
! Bore cooled, forged piston of der lube oil dosage.
heat resistant steel
! Piston cleaning (PC) ring
Examples show that over-lubrication
Improvements: (above 1.6 g/bhph) can be damaging
! Approx. 100 °C lower temperature to the cylinder condition, and by ana-
on top compared with former type lysing the correlation between the fuel
piston sulphur level, the lube oil BN and the
! Elimination of Inconel coating wear rate as measured from the com-
on piston top
! Increased chrome layer thickness position of the drain oil from the bottom
in bottom of ring grooves of liners, we are able to recommend
! Anti-erosion bushing in oil outlet the optimal feed rate for the engines.
in piston rod foot
In addition to being potentially detrimental,
Verification:
excessive cylinder lube oil consumption
! Extensive calculations
! Comprehensive tests on K90MC, represents a large expense for engine
K90MC-C and K98MC operation. Therefore, the aim is to reduce
the cylinder lube oil dosage while, at
the same time, retaining satisfactory
Fig. 2: Oros combustion chamber geometry piston ring and liner wear rates and

1,000 - 2,000 hours. This makes it possi-


ble to reduce the breaking-in and run-
ning-in time, as well as the cylinder oil
feed rate during most of the breaking-
The combination of: Wave-cut Semi-honed
in period. This is beneficial not only to
surface
the engine manufacturer, who can re- ! Wave-cut, semi-
duce the time at engine delivery, but also honed liner
to the operator who will receive an engine
with improved running-in conditions. ! Alu-coated rings

The surface of MAN B&W cylinder liners


is specified as semi-honed. This semi- Result in:
honed surface, together with alu-coated ! Unproblematic
piston rings, ensures safe and stable Alu-coated rings
production of
running-in. The semi-honing process cylinder liners
cuts off the tops of the wave-cut, thus
reducing the necessary breaking-in be- ! Safe and stable
tween piston rings and liner surface, while running-in
still having circumferential pockets for lube
oil. We apply semi-honing only, in that
the alu coated piston rings, see Fig. 3,
do the remaining removal of broken or
damaged cementite from the cylinder
liner surface during the initial wear pe-
riod, thereby performing a “free of Fig. 3: Alu-coated piston rings + wave-cut
charge” full honing.

4 http://MarEngine.com
maintaining, or improving, the time be- time. Thus, Alpha Lubricators are cur-
tween overhauls. This can be done by Cylinder oil amount rently being retrofitted on a large num-
means of the Alpha Lubricator system ber of plants in service.
which, by way of being computer con-
trolled, provides means of feed rate Cylinder wear
control based on e.g. the fuel oil sulphur
content, referred to as “Alpha Adaptive Wear of the liners is monitored on a large
Cylinder oil Control” (Alpha ACC). number of engines through visits by
our engineers, because liner wear is
The principle of the Alpha ACC is shown Sulphur amount traditionally considered an engine quality
in Fig. 4. The cylinder oil amount is con- criterion.
trolled so that it is proportional to the
amount of sulphur entering the cylinder Fig. 4: Cylinder oil amount proportional to As can be seen in Fig. 6 for cylinder liner
sulphur amount entering the cylinders
with the fuel (the “Sulphur throughput”). wear, both K98MC/MC-C and S90MC-C
(basic principle of Alpha ACC)
show very convincing low wear perfor-
Two basic needs have to be catered for: mance data and good liner condition.

1. The cylinder oil dosage must not be rous acids) entering the cylinders. A While initial wear is naturally higher, the
lower than the minimum needed for minimum cylinder oil dosage is set in wear rate is reduced to less than 0.05
lubrication. order to account for other duties of the mm/1,000 hours after about 1,500 hours,
cylinder oil (securing sufficient oil film which is considered very satisfactory.
2. The additive amount supplied detergency, etc.). Thanks to its accu-
through the BN (the “Alkalinity racy, the Alpha Lubricator does just that. Initial wear is part of the running-in of
throughput”) must be only sufficient cylinder liners and piston rings, and
for neutralisation and for keeping Fig. 5 shows control of cylinder oil dos- high wear is expected in this period.
the piston ring pack clean. age proportional to the sulphur percen- The wear study is based on cylinder
tage in the fuel. A minimum dosage of feed rates between 0.9 and 1.2 g/bhph.
As the second criterion usually over- 0.5 g/bhph is indicated, based on ex- Experience with the Alpha Lubricator
rides the first one, the following two perience so far. This minimum value is indicates that there is a significant
criteria determine the control: preliminary and, given the efficient lubri- potential for cylinder lube oil reduction
cation achievable with the Alpha Lubri- while still having a fully acceptable
• The cylinder oil dosage shall be cator system, we expect to be able to cylinder wear rate and mean time
proportional to the engine load (i.e. further reduce this minimum value in between overhauls.
amount of fuel entering the cylinders) the future.
Fig. 7 shows extracts from our data-
• The cylinder oil dosage shall be pro- Alpha Lubricators can be retrofitted, base regarding cylinder wear rates.
portional to the sulphur percentage
and have a relatively short payback
in the fuel.
S-MC engines, S-MC-C engines and
K-MC-C engines all experienced low
The implementation of the above two Cylinder oil dosage (g/bhph) and uniform wear rates.
criteria will lead to an optimal cylinder
1.25
oil dosage, proportional to the amount
1 On the K98 engines, as mentioned
of sulphur entering the cylinders, but
above, the cylinder condition has been
with a low minimum setting to ensure 0.75
good, with very low wear rates and low
lubrication. 0.5 cylinder oil feed rates. However, on
0.25 these engines the good condition has
This principle is founded on the obser-
0 been temporarily overshadowed by a
vation that the main part of cylinder
0 1 2 4 5 6 number of failures of the top piston
liner wear is of a corrosive nature.
Sulphur % ring. Though there are strong indications
Therefore, the amount of neutralising
of this being a production-related issue,
alkalinic components needed in the
the top ring design has been upgraded
cylinder should be proportional to the Fig. 5: Cylinder oil dosage proportional to
sulphur percentage in the fuel
to increase the safety margin against
amount of sulphur (generating sulphu-

http://MarEngine.com 5
Liner wear (mm) 7K98MC prototype, cyl. 2
0.05 mm/1000 h 7K98MC prototype, cyl. 3
0.50
0.1 mm/1000 h initial wear 7K98MC prototype, cyl. 4
7K98MC prototype, cyl. 5
0.45 1.02 g/bhph 7K98MC prototype, cyl. 6
7K98MC prototype, cyl. 7
0.40 1.1 g/bhph 7K98MC 2nd engine, cyl. 7
7K98MC 2nd engine, cyl. 1
0.9 g/bhph
0.35 0.9 g/bhph

0.30 1.0 g/bhph


1.02 g/bhph 0.9 g/bhph
0.25 1.0 g/bhph 0.9 g/bhph
1.02 g/bhph
0.20 1.1 g/bhph 1.02 g/bhph
7K98MC 2nd engine, cyl. 4
0.15 10K98MC-C prototype, cyl. 1
1.1 g/bhph 10K98MC-C prototype, cyl. 2
10K98MC-C prototype, cyl. 4
0.10 10K98MC-C prototype, cyl. 6
Alpha Lubricator 7K98MC 4th engine, cyl. 7
0.05 6S90MC-C prototype, cyl. 4
6S90MC-C prototype, cyl. 6
0.00
0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 Running hours

Fig. 6: K98MC-C, K98MC and S90MC-C cylinder liner wear

breakage. The production process at


subsuppliers has been changed in order
to reduce breakage incidents.

The design upgrading implies a num-


ber of changes, including relocation of
the controlled leakage (CL) grooves, re-
duction of the number of grooves from
6 to 4 (same leakage area is achieved
by applying wider grooves), as well as
a change in surface machining of the
grooves to avoid fine cracks from the
outset. See Fig. 8.

6 http://MarEngine.com
Cylinder liner wear rate
S26MC, S35MC, S42MC, S46MC-C S50MC, S60MC S70MC, S80MC
Total 199 cylinders Total 396 cylinders Total 696 cylinders
Average wear: 0.036 mm/1,000 hours Average wear: 0.055 mm/1,000 hours Average wear: 0.073 mm/1,000 hours

Number of cylinders
35 121
44
110
30 40
99
36
25 88
32
77
28
20
66
24

20 55
15
16 44
10 33
12
8 22
5
4 11

0 0 0

0.001 0.01 0.1 1 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 0.001 0.01 0.1 1


Wear rate in mm/1,000 hours

S50MC-C, S60MC-C S70MC-C, S80MC-C, S90MC-C K80MC-C, K90MC-C, K98MC-C,


Total 58 cylinders Total 19 cylinders Total 299 cylinders
Average wear: 0.068 mm/1,000 hours Average wear: 0.067 mm/1,000 hours Average wear: 0.056 mm/1,000 hours
13 5 50
12
45
11
4 40
10

9 35
8
3 30
7
25
6

5 2 20

4
15
3
1 10
2

1 5

0 0 0

0.010 0.100 1.000 0.010 0.100 1.000 0.001 0.010 0.100 1.000
Wear rate in mm/1,000 hours

Fig. 7: Extracts from our database regarding cylinder wear rates

http://MarEngine.com 7
Bearings
Original location of grooves No. of reported damage incidents
(6 CL-grooves) Main bearing to MC/MC-C engines
90° 80
45° 45° Thick shell bearing 60
Width of Since 1998, we have seen a decrease 40
CL-groove: 2 mm in the number of reported main bearing
20
45°
failures. In 1998 a number of features
45° 0
90°
were introduced in the design of the 1999 2000 2001
bearings, the adjustment of the bear-
6 relocated CL-grooves ings, and to the installation of the en- The graph shows the positive influence of
(E-type from Jan. 2002)
gine/shaftline. the introduction of the “Optimum Lemon
Shape” bearing and offset of the aft end
bearings of the engine. The statistics are
Width of The major updates can be summarised made based on attendances from the
CL-groove: 2 mm as follows: Operation dept.
30°
60° 60° As an evolution of the Mark 5 bearing
type, the “Optimum Lemon Shape”
Fig. 10: Bearings – statistics
4 relocated CL-grooves type main bearing was introduced, see
(E4-type)
-
Fig. 9. This type features optimised (re-
duced) top and side clearances. Service
Width of
CL-groove: 3 mm
experience has confirmed the efficiency Optimum Lemon Shape (OLS)
of this bearing type simply by the signifi- bearing with flexible edges
30° cantly reduced number of reported There has been a significant reduction
60° damage incidents. in the number of main bearing failures,
as will appear from Fig. 10. However, it
A revised engine installation recommen- must be acknowledged that main bear-
Fig. 8: K98 CPR piston ring development dation (available upon request), includ- ing damage sometimes still does oc-
ing an updated shaftline alignment pro- cur, e.g. due to poor bonding of the
cedure together with differentiated bearing bearing metal.
height in the aft end of the engine, has
added to the safety margin.

Top clearance
Design update:
Oil film thickness in the high
pressure areas of the
bearings was not optimal

Optimised (reduced) side and


top-clearances introduced based Side clearance
on good experience with the
MC-Compact engines

Optimum ‘lemon-shape’ will give


a minimum oil film thickness
increase of 30-40%

Future spare bearings will be of the revised


design and delivered as a set.
The set is fully interchangeable with
previous designs

Fig. 9: Main bearing, thick shell design

8 http://MarEngine.com
the bearing, have provided detailed consisting of PTFE as standard. 9,000
S50MC-C main bearing lower shell – information about the mechanisms shells are now in service, many of which
18,000 hours
leading to local loading of the main bear- have been in service for more than a
ing edges. The calculations have indi- decade.
cated that a slight radial flexibility of the
bearing edge will increase the overall Service experience with this configura-
minimum oil film thickness significantly. tion has been excellent, see Fig. 11.
At the same time, the maximum oil film
pressure will be reduced. On the large bore engines, the bearings
are lined with white metal, see Fig. 12.
No remarks – excellent condition A bearing design with flexible forward
and aft edges of the bearing shell has In general, few damage incidents to our
Thickness measurement of shell did not
reveal indication of significant wear rate – been successfully tested. thin shell main bearings have been re-
less than 0.01 mm ported:
The flexibility has been achieved by re-
moving the contact between the shell • Following Q/A inspections, weld
Fig. 11: Thin shell AlSn40 main bearing
and bedplate at the end portions of the rectification of bearing saddles has
shell. The unsupported width of the occasionally been carried out during
shell is equal to the shell thickness. the production of the engine. In a
In nearly all cases, main bearing dam- Apart from the flexible edges, the prop- few cases, these welds have been
age is initiated from a fatigue crack at erties of the bearing are similar to those introduced at a late stage (after final
the edge of the bearing, the aft edge/ of the Optimum Lemon Shape type. machining). This has provided either
manoeuvring side being the most com- This design provides a larger safety high spots on the running surface of
mon point of initiation. Often, geometri- margin in the event of geometrical the bearing shell or areas with missing
cal non-conformities are involved in these non-conformities. contact. Both could disturb the oil
cases. Such non-conformities further film, leading to high local load, and
increase the damage frequency as Thin shell bearing thus fatigue damage, see Fig. 13.
margins established during the design The thin shell bearing design has been Countermeasures introduced have
phase are reduced. introduced on our latest engine types. been either adaptation of the running
For the small and medium bore en- surface of the bearing shell by means
Calculations, combining the dynamics gines (S46MC-C to S70MC-C), the of scraping or the introduction of
of the complete crankshaft with the hy- main bearings are lined with AlSn40 bearings with AlSn40 lining, offering
drodynamic and elastic properties of and provided with a running-in coating an increased margin against fatigue
• Deformed bearing housings of the
thin shell design have been seen due
to the improper use of the triple and
double hydraulic tightening jacks.This
has occurred either prior to machin-
ing of the bearing housing or during
mounting of the bearing shells. Such
deformation changes the ratio be-
tween the side and the top clearances.
New instructions and Service Letter
SL02-400/HMH highlighting the fea-
7K98MC main bearing No. 4 after 6,000 hours tures and the proper use of the jacks
No remarks – except for minor traces of dirt have been issued. In addition, a Quality
Specification instruction has been is-
sued, intended for use at the production
facilities, thus assisting the licensees
in preventing similar incidents in the
future.
Fig. 12: K98MC-C white metal main bearing

http://MarEngine.com 9
Alignment and vertical offset second aftmost main bearing during has been introduced. The new procedure
of aft-end bearings normal operating conditions. includes precalculated bedplate sagging
In addition to other initiatives, attention as well as vertical offsets to the main
has been paid to some cases of re- On the basis of comprehensive investi- bearing saddles. This has resulted in a
peated damage to the aft-end bearings gations made together with a number significant drop in the number of reported
in the engine. This is, presumably, caused of licensees, shipyards and classification damage incidents to the aft-end bearings
by missing static load, particularly in the societies, a new alignment procedure in the engine.

Crosshead bearing
-0,1
0 100 200 300 400
-0,2 In general, the crosshead bearings in both
Pos 4
-0,3 MC and MC-C engines perform very
-0,4
satisfactorily, but cases of wiping have
been observed. In itself, this wiping is of
-0,5
a cosmetic nature, but it can some-
-0,6 times cause blockage of the oil-wedges
-0,7
that normally build up the oil film to the
Large rectified area – missing “pads” inside the bearing, see Fig. 14.
contact between shell and Disturbance of the oil film build-up inside
support. Maximum depth of the bearing could result in slight fatigue
rectified area 0.20 mm damage just behind the blocked area
of the oil-wedge. If the phenomenon is
observed at an early stage during inspec-
tions, the problem is solved by remov-
ing the wiped lead from the oil-wedge.

Fig. 13: Weld-rectified bearing support


Exhaust Valves
Nimonic spindles are well accepted
now that the operators have become
acquainted with the long-lasting seat
performance despite dent marks, see
Fig. 15. Nimonic spindles are standard
for 50MC and for 60MC/MC-C upwards,
and Stellite spindles are standard for
smaller engines.

S90MC-C crosshead # 6 (3,500 hours) Corrosion in the valve housing is effec-


before dressing up. Note that the lead tively minimised by the introduction of
overlay apparently has a tendency of
non-conformity. In this case the the optimised cooling water system,
problem is only cosmetic which raises the wall temperature in the
housing above the critical level for the
formation of acid on the gas side of the
duct. With the high temperature level, a
cast iron spindle guide bushing is nec-
essary.

S90MC-C crosshead # 6 (3,500 hours) Wear of the previously chrome-plated


after dressing up spindle stem has been effectively re-
duced by the introduction of the HVOF-
Fig. 14: S90MC-C crosshead bearing

10 http://MarEngine.com
long spindle guide (grey cast iron). lifetime was by altering the seat geometry
However, the lifetime of the stem seal of the bottom piece to the patented
itself is still sometimes too short. W-seat, see Fig. 16. On a few S50MC-C
engines with Al50 spindles, the results
Tests with oil as the sealing medium, were remarkably better using the W-seat,
instead of air, have shown very low wear which is now standard on all MC/MC-C
rates on the seals. At the same time, a engines. When using the new type of
high cleanliness level is obtained on the slide fuel valves as well, the result is
surfaces of the spindle stem and spin- even better.
dle guide.
Fig. 15: Nimonic valve normal condition,
after 11,500 running hours Seat material standards for MC/MC-C
A system delivering the necessary dos- Engines are summarised in Table 1.
age of only approximately 1 kg/cyl./day
based cermet coating. All spindles from has been developed for medium and Engines with Oros combustion
our Copenhagen works have been pro- large bore engines. It is located in the chamber, hydraulic safety valve
vided with this coating since 1997, and top of the exhaust valve and is fed by
approximately 6,000 spindles have oil from the hydraulic system of the ex- Engines equipped with the so-called
been produced. The very few claims haust valve. The oil is fed to the spindle Oros combustion chamber leave little
received were due to initial production guide via a small pipe. The sealing oil is distance between the piston top and
problems. The licensees are gradually taken from the circulating oil and is thereby the underside of the exhaust valve spindle.
also using the HVOF process. part of the necessary minimum oil con- Therefore, the usual extended lift system
sumption for keeping the system oil for release of high hydraulic pressure can-
Furthermore, wear and corrosion viscosity and BN-level at the prescribed not be utilised. A safety valve located in
problems at the spindle guide/spindle/ equilibrium. the actuator is used instead.
seal area, caused by combustion prod-
ucts, have been minimised over the years Cooling water leaks/U-seal Unfortunately, a few cases of damaged
by design changes on the sealing air exhaust valves and camshaft sections
system. However, the stem seal has The latest design of exhaust valve on have been reported, due to different
difficulties in reaching lifetimes similar small and medium bore engines occa- external factors, including insufficient
to those of the valve seats. Tests have sionally suffers from cooling water leaks release action of the safety valve. Con-
shown that improvement can be ob- at the lowermost O-ring between bottom sequently, the safety valve has been re-
tained by lubrication. It has, therefore, piece and cylinder cover. Investigations designed. Once activated, it implements a
been decided to replace the sealing air resulted in replacing the lowermost special function to keep it open for about
system by a lubricating device, which O-ring with a special Teflon seal with spring 20 seconds. Furthermore, a disc spring
has been long-term service tested with back-up (U-seal). This was communicated has been introduced in the exhaust valve
good results. by Service Letter SL01-389/PGK. on top of the spindle guide to avoid
damage to the air piston in the event of
Sealing oil dosage unit Seat geometry/W-seat ‘over-shoot’/extended lift of the valve
spindle. This has eliminated the problem.
Good results have been obtained re- During our test work, results have shown Fig. 17 shows the various design details
garding the reduction of wear of the that the best way to increase the seat mentioned.
spindle stem (HVOF coating) and of the

Engine type Spindle Bottom piece


26-42MC SNCrW/Al50 * Cooled/hardened steel/W-shape
46-50MC-C SNCrW/Al50 * Semi-cooled/hardened steel/W-shape
50-98MC Fully forged Nimonic 80A Semi-cooled/hardened steel/W-shape
60-98MC-C

* Nimonic can be delivered on request

Fig. 16: W-seat, exhaust valve Table 1: Seat material standards

http://MarEngine.com 11
obtained with a viton ring, protected
Sealing oil dosage unit against erosion attack by a steel bushing.
Quick acting safety valve with
“stay open function”
A soft iron plate of the same shape as
the original seal forms the “groove” for
the square viton ring.
Single seat
Disc spring Fuel pump top cover fractures have been
experienced on small and medium bore
engines. The fractures were initiated at
the position where the inclined drillings
for the high-pressure pipes intersect
with the central bore, see Fig. 19. The
cause of the failure has in all cases
High spindle guide been related to roundings which did
Single wall housing not fulfil our specification. However, to
improve the safety margin against fail-
ures we have changed the design as
per Fig. 19, which has made the design
easier to manufacture and less sensitive
W-Seat to minor tolerance deviations.

Fuel valve and atomisation


Fig. 17: Exhaust valve, 80-90MC Fractured fuel valve nozzles have been
found on large bore engines where
slide type fuel valves have been stan-
dard for some years. The main reason
resulted in annoying, but not damag- for the cracks was residual stress from
Fuel Injection Gear
ing, pressure fluctuations in the fuel machining. However, the high temper-
Fuel pump supply system. ature of the valve nozzle itself contrib-
uted to the fractures because of the
In general, the fuel pumps work well Even though the pressure fluctuations consequential high mean stress. This
and without difficulties. However, a few measured were within our design limits, has been cured by optimising the pro-
incidents have been experienced. as well as within the classification societies’ duction parameters.
limits, shipowners experienced problems
On the S60MC-C, S70MC-C, with shipyard-installed equipment such As for pressure testing of conventional
S90MC-C and K98MC/MC-C engines, as pumps, filters and preheaters. In order fuel valves, it must be noted, however,
a combined puncture and suction valve to avoid such problems, a shock absorber that the testing device is only capable
is used. This design originally involved has been re-introduced on each fuel of supplying 1-2 % of the normal fuel
a bellow as substitute for the conven- pump on the above-mentioned engines. flow rate on the engine, which is not
tional sealing rings, in order to have a sufficient to ensure proper atomisation.
component needing no or very little On K98MC/MC-C and S90MC-C, leak- If the remaining test items in the proce-
maintenance. However, the reliability age has been seen between fuel pump dure are fulfilled, the fuel valve nozzle
of the bellow was not satisfactory, and housing and top cover. One problem will work perfectly. As the atomisation
a new design without the bellow has was related to production tolerances, test can be omitted, it is not described
been introduced on the above-men- as a gap of up to 0.5 mm was found in new testing procedures, so verifica-
tioned engine types. between the pump housing and the tion of a humming sound as earlier is
top cover, see Fig. 18. However, leak- no longer possible, nor necessary.
As a cost-down measure, fuel pumps age has been experienced even in
without shock absorbers were intro- cases where the machining was correct. Pressure testing procedures for slide
duced on the S60MC-C, S70MC-C, Therefore, a new type of gasket has fuel valves are quite different from
S90MC-C and K98MC/MC-C, but this been introduced. The primary sealing is those for conventional valves and have,

12 http://MarEngine.com
atomisation test, and the low lubricity
of the test oil, would increase the risk
of seizure significantly. The full lift of the
needle, and the very good lubricity of
heavy fuel oil, completely eliminates this
risk during normal operation of the engine.

During scavenge port inspections on


Leakage Gasket engines with slide fuel valves, we often
find wet spots under each fuel valve. In
the conventional valve, the sac volume
is emptied after each injection. In the
0.5 mm gap slide valve, the fuel stays in the fuel
nozzle until the next injection. However,
when turning the engine and after some
hours of engine standstill, the nozzle
Fuel inlet pressure will empty and fuel will drip down on
the relatively cold piston crown, shown
as wet spots of up to 300 mm diame-
Fig. 18: Fuel pump top cover leakage
ter. After some hours the drops will
more or less evaporate, depending on
the actual position of the piston in rela-
Previous New
tion to the scavenge ports, leaving only
some ash on the piston top. This is not
normally an indication of malfunction.

Avoid atomisation test


because of:
1. Small lift
2. Large pressure drop
3. High contact
Sharp edges to pressure
be removed: Crack initiation area 4. High frequency
Radius: 5. Thin oil
min. 0.5 mm
Risk of seizure

Fig. 19: Drillings in fuel pump top cover

probably because of the difference, in and the fuel valve nozzle, would signifi-
some cases been misinterpreted by the cantly restrict the movement of the spin-
operators. Slide fuel valves must be dle. An atomisation test is not accep- 4
disassembled and cleaned before table, because the very small needle lift
3-5
pressure testing, and an atomisation obtained during such a test would re-
test must not be performed on slide sult in an unequal pressure distribution 1-2
fuel valves. The cleaning is necessary on the cut-off shaft, resulting in a rela-
because the cold and sticky heavy fuel tively hard contact in a small area, see
oil, in combination with the very small Fig. 20. This, together with the high
clearance between the cut-off shaft frequency oscillations during an Fig. 20: Slide valve pressure testing

http://MarEngine.com 13
Engine Structure service personnel, etc. An example is
shown in Fig. 21.
Crankshaft thrust bearing
Regarding the new lifting tool for main
The thrust bearing introduced on Mark bearing cap for the 60 - 98MC-C, ex-
5 engines has completely solved the perience has shown, in some cases,
previous problem of cracks in the hori- that the wire-lock used was not in ac-
zontal support plates. No cracks have cordance with the specification.
been reported on engines with the
so-called Calliper design of the thrust As seen in Fig. 22a, the wire-lock to the
bearing. right does not have the correct inside
Fig. 21: Wire ends with strands of wire
shape. The specified lock (which is sticking out
The bearing saddles have remained shown to the left and as No. 2 in Fig.
totally free of cracks, in compliance 22b) is wave-shaped inside to further
with precalculated stress levels. secure the wire rope. In the wire-lock to realised that when rare explosions oc-
the right, there is a risk that the wire rope cur, they originate from other causes,
will be pulled straight through the lock. such as factors related to production,
installation, or incorrect maintenance of
Furthermore, the centre hole in the lock components or the lubricating systems.
Safety Precautions
to the right is oversized, which makes it
Tools and lifting equipment possible to tighten the two halves of Thus, it is recommended that:
the lock completely together, giving too
During recent years, there have been low a clamping force on the wire rope. • The oil mist detector is connected to
examples of lifting tools that have not The result was that the wire rope could the slow down function
been manufactured according to our slide inside the wire-lock. The correct • The oil mist detector has remote moni-
specifications. lock, on the left, leaves a gap between toring from the engine control room
the two halves after tightening.
Wire ropes and wire locks • The relief valves are made with ap-
In some cases, experience has shown Other tools related to personal safety proved flame arrester function.
that the length of wire ropes differs from Hydraulic tools: The hydraulic hoses
the specified length. Often, this is accep- and couplings are sometimes not of an a
table, because the tool is designed to adequate quality which, according to
adapt to these minor variations. How- the operators, means that they can
ever, in some situations (e.g. lifting only be used a few times before a re-
tools for cylinder liners), the tool must placement is necessary, and others are
have the specified wire rope length, as leaky from the start.
the lift would be dangerous if not per-
formed straight. Chain tackles: There have been cases
1
where the chain tackles do not have
The use of wire rope types other than sufficient dimensions for the carrying b
those specified has been seen, for ex- out of normal as well as special overhau-
ample, wire ropes with fibre-core in- ling tasks on board, e.g. when remov-
stead of steel-core, which results in a ing a connecting rod from the engine.
significant reduction in the safety margin
of the lifting gear. Oil mist detection

In connection with aluminium wire-locks, Besides applying an oil mist detector,


there have been examples where wire our efforts to prevent crankcase explo-
2
ropes have not been cut to the correct sions have, so far, been concentrated
length before clamping the wire-lock on designing the engine with ample
around the wire rope, thereby creating margins in order to prevent overheating
a risk of injury to the hands of the crew, of the components. However, we have Fig. 22: Wire-locks

14 http://MarEngine.com
Fig. 25: Deformation of flame arrester
Fig. 23: Testing of a non-functioning Fig. 24: Testing of an approved type of
crankcase relief valve crankcase relief valve

In the past, reliance was placed on shows an approved type. So far, we


specifying safety equipment that had have approved two types of crankcase
been type approved by the classifica- relief valves:
tion societies. However, type approval
is not sufficient as it only comprises the • Hoerbiger type EVN
checking of the opening pressure of • Mt. Halla type HCSG-N.
the relief valve.
There have been cases of fire after an
In the event of a crankcase explosion, explosion in crankcases equipped with
the pressure wave will send a large approved relief valves where the func-
amount of oil mist out of the crankcase tioning of the flame arrester had been
and into the engine room, where it will prevented by a local deformation, see
be moved around by the ventilation. Fig. 25. Thus, in the event of deforma-
A major part of this could be sucked up tions, the flame arrester must be renewed.
into the turbocharger air inlet.

If the oil mist meets a hot spot, it can


be ignited. Therefore, it is important to
Concluding Remarks
keep the insulation around the exhaust
pipes in good condition. Of course, the On the basis of service experience, it
largest risk of igniting the oil mist would can be concluded that the continuous
be if the flame arrester on the relief development and updating of the de-
valve does not function properly. sign and production of the MC and
MC-C engines have clearly resulted in
Therefore, updates to the relief valve a significant increase in reliability and
specification have been made. Only re- longer time intervals between over-
lief valves approved according to this hauls. At the same time, the engines’
specification are accepted on engines unit outputs have been increased while
ordered after 1st May 1999. A draft of the physical dimensions have been de-
this specification was sent to IACS in creased, thus demonstrating the inde-
November 1998. Regrettably, so far, pendence of the three parameters,
no new rules have been introduced. reliability, power and size.

Fig. 23 shows the result when testing a


non-functioning relief valve, and Fig. 24

http://MarEngine.com 15