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INTERNSHIP REPORT ON HINDUSTAN

DORR-OLIVER LIMITED

SUBMITTED BY:
MONALI SURNAME
OTHER MEMBERS

SUBMISSION DATE
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We show immense gratitude towards Hindustan Dorr-Oliver Limited, Ahmedabad for providing us
with the opportunity to perform internship in the company. We also like to thank the NAME OF
COLLEGE for their recommendation to the company to provide us with the opportunity of doing
internship in the company.

Besides, we would like to thank Mr. T Srinivas Rao, who assisted us throughout the internship period
in Hindustan Dorr-Oliver Limited. Likewise, we show immense respect to our internal guide from
mechanical department in this college Prof. Manish Parmar for his constant supervison and
guidance.

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TRAINING IN BRIEF

Name of Company: Hindustan Dorr-Oliver Limited

Contact Details: Hindustan Dorr-Oliver Limited

5/1/2, G.I.D.C., Vatya, Near Railway Crossing

Ahmedabad-382445

Tel: 079-25830591/4

Fax: 91-79-25833286

E-Mail: hdoahmedabad@hdo.in

Period of Training: 20th January 2014 to 20th April 2014

Timing of Training: 11:00 AM to 4:00 PM every Saturday and Sunday

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Table of Contents
Acknowledgement..................................................................................................................................i
Training in Brief.....................................................................................................................................ii
List of Figures........................................................................................................................................iv
LIst of Tables.........................................................................................................................................iv
Chapter 1 Introduction..........................................................................................................................1
1.1 Hindustan Door-Oliver Limited..............................................................................................1
1.2 Objective................................................................................................................................1
1.3 Daily Work Schedule..............................................................................................................1
1.4 Work Flow Chart....................................................................................................................2
1.5 Gantt chart.............................................................................................................................2
Chapter 2 Heat Exchangers....................................................................................................................3
2.1 Introduction to Heat Exchangers.................................................................................................3
2.2 Classification of Heat Exchangers................................................................................................3
2.2.1 Direct Contact Type Heat Exchanger (Mixing Type Heat Exchanger)....................................3
2.2.3 Non-Contact Type Heat Exchanger (Non-Mixing Type Heat Exchanger)...............................3
2.3 Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers..............................................................................................4
2.3.1 Components of Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger...................................................................5
Chapter 3 Maintenance of Heat Exchangers.........................................................................................8
3.1 Scale Formation.................................................................................................................8
3.3 Choking..............................................................................................................................9
Chapter 4 Hydro Test...........................................................................................................................11
4.1 Introduction...............................................................................................................................11
4.2 Testing Procedure......................................................................................................................11
Chapter 5 Water Reclamation System.................................................................................................13
5.1 Water Reclamation System........................................................................................................13
5.2 Water Reclamation System in the Facility.................................................................................14
5.3 Expenses Incurred on Water in the Facility................................................................................14
5.4 Total Expense on Water Reclamation System...........................................................................15
5.5 Return on Investment................................................................................................................16
5.6 Safety Aspects............................................................................................................................16
Chapter 6 Summary.............................................................................................................................17
References...........................................................................................................................................18

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LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1: Work Flow Chart followed during internship..........................................................................4
Figure 2: Classification of Heat Exchangers...........................................................................................6
Figure 3: Schematic diagram of shell and tube heat exchanger (https://thermofin.net/wp-
content/uploads/2016/08/caleos-shell-and-tube-heat-exchanger-detail.jpg)......................................7
Figure 4: Shell assembly of shell and tube heat exchanger
(http://www.wermac.org/equipment/heatexchanger_part4.html)......................................................8
Figure 5: Tube Sheet of Shell and Tune Heat Exchanger (https://vacaero.com/information-
resources/vacuum-brazing-with-dan-kay/252727-shell-tube-heat-exchangers-methods-to-seal-tube-
to-header-joints.html)...........................................................................................................................8
Figure 6: Single segmental baffle arrangement
(http://www.wermac.org/equipment/heatexchanger_part4.html)......................................................9
Figure 7: Scale Formation in the tube..................................................................................................10
Figure 8: Tube Plug..............................................................................................................................11
Figure 9: Water Jacket test
(https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/76/Water_jacket_test_diagram.jpg)............13
Figure 10: Hydrostatic Testing in the facility........................................................................................14
Figure 11: Plant Layout of Hindustan Dorr-Oliver Ltd..........................................................................15
Figure 12: Detail Design of Water Reclamation System.......................................................................16

LIST OF TABLES
Table 1: Gantt chart followed during the internship period..................................................................4
Table 2: Expenses Incurred on water at the facility in the year 2013..................................................17
Table 3: Total budget required for the Water Reclamation System....................................................17

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

1.1 Hindustan Door-Oliver Limited


The company is the leading manufacturing company of heat exchangers, pressure vessels,
proprietary solid-liquid separation instruments like classifiers, filters, clarifiers, thickeners etc. and
storage tanks. The company was started as supplier of proprietary solid-liquid separation equipment
which has now become a vital Engineering EPC player by integrating updated technologies and
bestowing the best, integrated and cheaper turnkey solutions. The company has started its branch
offices in various cities of India such as Ahmedabad, Kolkata, Chennai, Delhi, Bangalore and Mumbai.

Dorr-Oliver was initially started at the early 1900 in USA by Dr Dorr, who started in the gold field in
North Dakota and Mr. Oliver, who was working in the gold field of California. Later, they merged
their companies to Dorr-Oliver. In the early time, the invention of Dorr Oliver Thickener which was
the first mechanically furnished, unceasing sedimentation unit, Rake Classifier which was the first
electromechanical major ore dressing equipment etc. were some of the invention of the company.

The company owned HDO Technologies has been providing the comprehensive range of engineering
facilities in-house, allowing the company to acquire control over delivery period and quality. The
manufacturing plant located at Vatya, Ahmedabad has been manufacturing heat exchangers,
pressure vessels and other instruments. Besides, the company has been involved in the area of
mining and minerals, fertilizers and chemicals, pulp and paper and water and wastewater. The
company has done works on management of water and treatment for several refineries existing in
India. The company has excellent presence in Uranium ore processing from supplying equipment to
the first mill of Uranium in Jagududa.

1.2 Objective
The internship is carried with the aim to fulfil the primary objectives of monitoring and maintaining
heat exchangers and water reclamation system. Besides, the secondary objectives are as follows:

 Analyse the P and ID diagram of the water reclamation system.


 Estimate the cost of construction of the water reclamation system.

1.3 Daily Work Schedule


S.N. Tasks
1. Reporting to the Training Incharge
2. Reporting to the Plant Manager
3. Reporting and contact to the assigned head of department to do the daily task
4. Collection of data of the equipment and machinery at the facility
5. Analysis and study of particular processes and equipment in the facility
6. Reporting to the assigned head of department and incharge in training

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1.4 Work Flow Chart
The works are done throughout the internship period following the given work flow chart.

Study of Manufacturing Measuring amount of


of Heat Exchangers Study of Hydro Test
water wasted

Drawing Layout of water


reclamation system

Cost of Construction of Comparison of water


water reclamation system used

Figure 1: Work Flow Chart followed during internship

1.5 Gantt chart


The works are performed throughout the internship period by following the Gantt chart that is given
below:

Work January February March April

Time
Literature Review

Proposal
Presentation
Study of Heat
Exchangers
Study of Hydro
Test
Design of Water
Reclamation
System
Cost analysis of
the project
Breakeven
Analysis
Table 1: Gantt chart followed during the internship period

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CHAPTER 2 HEAT EXCHANGERS

2.1 Introduction to Heat Exchangers


They are the equipment that are used to conveying the heat energy from one substance to another.
It is a part of equipment that is provided to maintain a steady temperature throughout the
equipment and to provide proficient transfer of heat from one media to the other provided that the
mediums might be separated by an opaque object i.e. solid wall to ensure they never mix and to
avoid direct contact. The evaporators and condensers that can be seen generally are some of the
ideal examples of heat exchangers. Likewise some other examples of heat exchangers include
radiators in automobile, condensers and boilers in various power plants etc. In general, the heat
exchangers are used in air conditioning, petrochemical plants, chemical plants, natural gas
processing, sewage treatment, petroleum refineries, refrigeration and space heating.

2.2 Classification of Heat Exchangers


The heat exchangers are typically classified into two main categories. Namely,

1. Direct Contact Type Heat Exchanger (Mixing Type Heat Exchanger)


2. Non-Contact Type Heat Exchanger (Non-Mixing Type Heat Exchanger)

2.2.1 Direct Contact Type Heat Exchanger (Mixing Type Heat Exchanger)
In this type of heat exchangers, the fluids taking part in the process of heat exchange is mixed during
the operation. After the heat transfer act is completed, the fluid combine and form a mixture
resulting in obtaining a single fluid.

2.2.3 Non-Contact Type Heat Exchanger (Non-Mixing Type Heat Exchanger)


In times when there arises the requirement of not mixing of two fluids, non-contact type heat
exchanger is used. The fluids in this type of heat exchangers are kept apart with the help of a solid
object or a similar equipment. The non-contact type heat exchangers are further segmented into
following categories:

1. Regenerative Heat Exchangers


In this type of heat exchangers, the colder and hotter fluids both occupy the equal space
comprising a matrix of materials that operates alternatively as a sink or source for heat
transfer.
2. Recuperative Heat Exchangers
In this type of heat exchangers, the fluids change their respective heat on either side of a
segmenting wall.

3. Evaporative Heat Exchangers


In this type of heat exchangers, the fluid is cooled due to evaporation in the presence of
cooler liquid. The heat exchanger is similar to a cooling tower.

Similarly, the non-contact type heat exchangers are classified in to following categories depending
upon the type of flow of hotter and colder fluids inside the heat exchanger. They are given as
follows:

1. Counter Flow Heat exchanger


In the counter flow heat exchangers, the hotter and colder fluids enter the heat exchanger in
opposite direction.

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2. Parallel Flow Heat Exchanger
As the name suggests, both the hotter and colder fluids enter from the same side inside the
heat exchanger and leave from the respective end.
3. Heater
In this type of heat exchanger, one side is filled with hot fluid (which in most of the case is
steam) and on the other side is a fluid that is to be heated by the hotter fluid.
4. Cooler
In this type of heat exchanger, there is presence of hotter and colder fluids in which the
hotter fluid is cooled by the colder fluid.
5. Boiler
There is presence of two fluids of variable temperature in which the hotter fluid heats the
colder fluids into steam.
6. Condenser
In this type of heat exchanger, there is presence of two fluids generally one is cold fluid and
another is steam, the steam is condensed by the colder fluid.
7. Chiller
The fluid that is to be cooled releases the heat into the cooling fluid resulting the cooling
fluid to heat up and evaporate.

Heat Exchangers

Regenerative Recuperative

Dynamic Static Indirect Direct Specials

Figure 2: Classification of Heat Exchangers

2.3 Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers


These type of heat exchangers are the most common type if heat exchangers in industrial
applications. They contain a large number if tubes which in some cases can reach up to several
hundred that are packed in a shell with their axes parallel to that of the shell. As one fluid flows
along the tubes and another fluid flows on the outside of the tubes, heat transfer takes place. The
shell and tube heat exchangers are further divided according to the number of tubes and shell
passes that are involved during the heat transfer. The bundle of tubes can be made up of different
types of tubes namely, longitudinally finned, plain etc. These heat exchangers are generally applied
during the case of high-pressure applications which is generally with pressures larger than 3 MPa

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and temperatures exceeding 260 0C. It is due to their rigidness on offer by their shape. The common
application of shell and tube heat exchangers are given as follows:

a. Process liquid, steam or refrigerant evaporation


b. Process liquid or gas cooling
c. Process heat removal and preheating of feed water
d. Process or refrigerant vapour or steam condensing
e. Hydraulic and lube oil cooling
f. Compressor, turbine and engine cooling, oil and jacket water
g. Thermal energy conservation efforts, heat recovery

The shell and tube heat exchangers offer a great deal of advantage of transferring huge amount of
heat in relative to serviceable design, low cost etc. Similarly, they offer huge amount if effective tube
surface whilst reducing the necessities of liquid volume, weight and floor space. They come in a
varied ranges of sizes and history has shown that these technologies are used in the factories for
more than 150 years. So one can find the design of such heat exchangers have changed from its
primitive to advance over the course of time.

2.3.1 Components of Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger


The schematic diagram of shell and tube heat exchanger is as shown in figure given below:

Figure 3: Schematic diagram of shell and tube heat exchanger [ CITATION A \l 1033 ]

The components of shell and tube heat exchangers are discussed in detail in the following
paragraphs.

2.3.1.1 Shell Assembly


The shell is generally constructed either from pipe up to diameter of 24 inch which is either welded
or rolled. The shell body is made up of low carbon steel as it is cheaper in cost and its strength.

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However, high temperature and corrosion resistant material is preferred. The shell assembly is as
shown in the figure given below:

Figure 4: Shell assembly of shell and tube heat exchanger [ CITATION B \l 1033 ]

2.3.1.2 Tubes
The tubes are typically manufactured by the use of low carbon steel, stainless steel, titanium and
similar other metallic alloys. There are several types of tubes such as extruded tube with fins and
interior rifling, finned tubing, U-tubes etc. The specific tube is selected according to the need.

2.3.1.3 Tube Sheet


They are generally manufactured using round flat metal piece that is drilled with holes so that the
tubes in the heat exchanger would fit right into them. Basically, the tube sheets are considered as
the tube and are usually made from the same materials same as that of the tube.

Figure 5: Tube Sheet of Shell and Tune Heat Exchanger [ CITATION C \l 1033 ]

2.3.1.4 Baffle
It is very important in a shell and tube heat exchanger as it provides dual important functions one of
restricting the vibration provoked by the eddies of the flow and direct the fluid in the shell back and
forth across the tube to provide efficient speed and transfer of heat rates and another function is
that it provides support to the tubes during assembly. The diameter of baffle is usually made smaller

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than the diameter of the shell so that the assembly work is easier. The material of the baffle is
selected such that it does not react with the fluid flowing in the shell side.

Figure 6: Single segmental baffle arrangement [ CITATION D \l 1033 ]

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CHAPTER 3 MAINTENANCE OF HEAT EXCHANGERS

The condition of the heat exchangers in the facility of Hindustan Dorr-Oliver Ltd. is briefly studied. It
is found that the monitoring and maintenance of heat exchanger is a very vital activity in a working
plant such as this. It is learnt that the heat exchanger helps in saving energy and hence increase the
overall efficiency of the plant as it allows transfer of energy from one media to another. It is
understood that any defect in the heat exchanger in the plant facility would result in loss of
significant amount of energy. Hence, there is a huge importance of heat exchangers. Some of the
heat exchangers problems that aroused during the time of the internship are presented here along
with the possible problems with its cause and mitigating measures.

3.1 Scale Formation


It is the condition when a layer of salts and different chemicals is seen in the surface of tube which
results in the separating out of the fluid that is passing inside or outside the heat exchanger.

Figure 7: Scale Formation in the tube

Cause:

If the fluid flowing inside the tube is at high temperature, different chemical salts that are available
at the fluid commence to separate from it. Later, these separated salts form a layer on the surface of
the tube. The formation of such layer result in the formation of scale either inside or the outside of
the tube.

Detection:

In this situation, the issue of decreasing of heat transfer rate is observed as the scale offers a very
low coefficient of heat transfer. Due to this reason, the gradient of temperature at the outlet gets
minimised significantly as result of which, the performance of the heat exchanger is significantly
degraded. So the issue of scale formation is often suspected while the measured value of outer
surface temperature shows abnormal measurement. Similarly, back flushing, another technique to
identify scale formation, can be used in which the flow of the fluid is changed in opposite direction
to flush the layer of salts accumulated on the tube.

Solution:

The methods that are applied to remove the scale thus formed in the tubes of the heat exchangers
in the Hindustan Dorr-Oliver Ltd. are discussed below. Generally, the scaling is minimised by
performing the chemical treatment. The fluid is mixed with certain amount of acid that is made to
flow through the heat exchanger which eventually melts the layers of scale thus formed and flow it

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out from the heat exchanger. The process is continued until the scale is stooped to flow from the
outlet of the heat exchanger. Likewise, another technique is generally used when the plant is
completely shut down and the heat exchanger is dis assembled and the scale is removed using water
hydro jet cleaning.

3.2 Tube and tube to Tube Sheet Joint Leakage


Among one of the common problems in heat exchangers is leakage from the tube. Over the course
of time, small cracks are developed in the tubes and tube sheet which causes in the flowing of fluid
of high pressure into the fluid on low pressure on either of the tube or shell side.

Cause:

a. Vibration:
Sometimes due to excessive speed of liquids in either tube or shell, the entire heat
exchanger is subjected to vibrate. Due to the induced vibration, the tubes inside the heat
exchangers collide with the baffle and ultimately resulting in generation of cracks in the
tube.
b. Corrosion:
When the fluid flowing in either the tube or shell is very corrosive, the materials of the tube
or shell is being continuously corroded by the liquid. The continuous corrosion of the
materials results in pitting of the tubes. The pitting over the course of time results in
generation of cracks in the tube and hence resulting in leakage from the tubes.

Detection:

Often the leakages are signified by the presence of fluids coming out from the heat exchanger. To
guarantee the leakage, chemical analysis of the liquids is done.

Solution:

To deal with the leakage in the Hindustan Dorr-Oliver Ltd., the heat exchanger are subjected to
pneumatic test for which high pressurised air is passed through the shell side and a soap solution is
placed at the inlet of tube side. Wherever the bubble is seen in the tube, it is marked as the location
of crack and it is removed later. The tube with crack is either plugged or welded and the liquid is
restricted.

Figure 8: Tube Plug

3.3 Choking
It is the situation that is aroused due to the accumulation of insoluble impurities in the inner side of
the tube resulting in the blocking of flow of liquid inside the tube which in technical term is said to
be choked.

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Cause:

In some cases, the liquids flowing in the tube contains high amount of insoluble particles. Over the
course of time, the impurities get deposited inside the tube which eventually reduces the rate of
flow of the liquid and if the extent of the deposition gets too high, the flow of liquid is completely
blocked and hence the overall operation of the heat exchanger is halted.

Detection

It is detected in the facility by analysing the temperature profile. If the temperature profile is
reduced, the preliminary guess of choking on the tube. Thermographs are implemented to
determine the case of choking.

Solution:

To eradicate the problem of choking, the operation of heat exchanger is halted and is disassembled.
The tubes are passed by supplying high pressure jets of water and the accumulated impurities are
removed.

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CHAPTER 4 HYDRO TEST

4.1 Introduction
Hydrostatic test is a technique to test the pressure vessels like gas cylinders, pipelines, boilers, fuel
banks and plumbing from any sorts of faults such as leaks and strength. In this test, the vessels that
are to be tested are filled with fluids such as water and several tests are done. The hydrostatic tests
are carried out in the Hindustan Dorr-Oliver Ltd. to test various pressure vessels. The testing
procedures that are observed to perform the hydrostatic testing in the facility of Hindustan Dorr-
Oliver Ltd.

4.2 Testing Procedure


Hydrostatic tests are done within the constrictions of the customer’s specifications or the industry’s
specifications. The vessel is occupied with a nearly incompressible liquid – usually water and oil and
examined for leaks or permanent changes in shape. Red or Fluorescent dyes may be added to the
water to make leaks easier to see. The test pressure is always considerably higher than the operating
pressure to give a margin for safety. This margin of safety is typically 166.66%, 143% or 150% of the
designed pressure, depending on the regulations that apply. For example, if a cylinder was rated to
DOT-2015 PSI (approximately 139 bar), it would be tested at around 3360 PSI (approximately 232
bar). Water is usually adopted because it is approximately incompressible, therefore requiring
relatively little work to develop a high pressure, and is therefore also only able to release a small
amount of energy in case of a failure - only a small volume will escape under high pressure if the
container fails. If gas of high pressure is used, then the gas would expand to V= (nRT)/p with its
compressed volume resulting in an explosion, with the attendant risk of damage or injury. This is the
risk which the testing is intended to mitigate. Water is used mainly because it is cheap and easily
available.

Figure 9: Water Jacket test [ CITATION E \l 1033 ]

Similarly, comparatively smaller pressure vessels are usually tested by the use of water jacket test.
The equipment is inspected visually to look after any faults and the vessel is kept in a container full
of water and the change in the water level is tracked by the use of calibrated tube. The vessel is

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pressurised for a distinct period of about 30 seconds and the expansion of the vessel is measured by
noting the amount of fluid which has been displaced into the tube. After that, the vessel is
depressurised and the new volume of the vessel is measured that occurred due to the plastic
deformation occurred during pressurising of the vessel. If the vessel is seen to exceed certain volume
that it is desirable it is considered as failure. The failure of the vessel indicates the whole process of
manufacturing process of the vessel to be unsafe.

Figure 9: Hydrostatic Testing in the facility

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CHAPTER 5 WATER RECLAMATION SYSTEM

5.1 Water Reclamation System


During the hydrostatic testing of pressure vessels for leakage, water is used and the water used
while performing the hydrostatic test are generally wasted due to lack of presence of water
reclamation system in the facility. So, the use of water reclamation system is a must to reduce waste
of water and minimise the overall cost of performing the hydrostatic test.

Realising the importance of water reclamation system, there is a water reclamation system in the
Hindustan Dorr-Oliver Ltd. The plant layout of the water reclamation system used in the facility of
Hindustan Dorr-Oliver Ltd. is drawn using AutoCAD which is given as follows:

Figure 10: Plant Layout of Hindustan Dorr-Oliver Ltd.

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5.2 Water Reclamation System in the Facility
The P and ID diagram of water reclamation system in the facility of Hindustan Dorr-Oliver Ltd. is
drawn using AutoCAD and is given as follows.

Figure 11: Detail Design of Water Reclamation System

As the figure suggests, the major equipment in the facility include collection tank, settling tank,
pump, gate valves, test rig to perform hydrostatic testing for equipment, centrifugal pump and other
valves. The water required to perform the hydrostatic testing of the pressure vessel is pumped from
the collection tank. The collection tank in the facility has the capacity of 100 m 3. Gate valve is used in
the facility to prevent the back flow of water. The water that is wasted after the hydrostatic test is
again pumped by the help of centrifugal pump towards the settling tank which has the volume of 10
m3. The water after being subjected to hydro test may get infiltrated with unwanted particles, so, the
regenerated water is allowed to settle and after the particle is settled at the bottom the water is
again transferred to the collection tank. Hence, the water can be reused to perform the hydro test.

5.3 Expenses Incurred on Water in the Facility


During the internship period in the facility of Hindustan Dorr-Oliver Ltd., we involved in calculating
the expenses that facility spent on water. The cost analysis for the month of April 2013 to January
2014 is done in which the cost is analysed of pressure vessels and heat exchangers. In the month of
April, 2013, there were altogether 13 jobs for pressure vessel and 18 jobs for heat exchanger. In the
period, 1050 cubic meters of water was utilised by the facility which in terms of cost is INR. 63000.
Similarly, for the month of May, there were altogether 31 works regarding the pressure vessels and
12 works regarding the heat exchanger for which 900 cubic meter of water was utilised at the
expense of INR. 54000. Likewise, the expense in water was INR. 66000 for the month of June in

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2013. The remaining expense of the facility in water is as shown in table given below. The total
expense is calculated as INR. 627000 in the duration of ten months from April 2013 to January 2014.
Table 2: Expenses Incurred on water at the facility in the year 2013

Month No. of Jobs Water Utilised Cost Incurred

Pressure Vessels Heat Exchanger m3 INR

April 2013 13 18 1050 63000

May 2013 31 12 900 54000

June 2013 28 8 1100 66000

July 2013 25 19 750 45000

August 2013 53 2 1600 96000

September 2013 47 13 1000 60000

October 2013 18 15 1200 72000

November 2013 26 22 900 54000

December 2013 22 16 1000 60000

January 2014 33 12 950 57000

Total 296 137 10450 627000

5.4 Total Expense on Water Reclamation System


The total expense of the water reclamation system is done as is shown in the table below. The cost
of RCC tank, piping, valves, pumps, labour cost and maintenance cost is included in the expense and
the total is calculated as INR. 1500000.
Table 3: Total budget required for the Water Reclamation System

Equipment Cost
Piping 180000
RCC Tank 900000
Pump (two) 300000
Valve (six) 60000
Maintenance Cost 24000
Approximate Labour, Power, Running cost 36000
Total 1500000

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5.5 Return on Investment
Approximate expense incurred on water per year = 7, 50, 000 Rs /year

Total Budget on water reclamation system = 15, 00, 000 Rs

Return on Investment would be attained in 2 years i.e.

Return of Investment (ROI) = (15, 00, 000 – 2 * 7, 50, 000)

=0

5.6 Safety Aspects


In the places like manufacturing facilities, safety of people working is of prime concern. A slight
negligence could result in severe fatalities. So, to avoid the human casualties and to maintain the
unnecessary stoppage of works, safety aspects should be maintained in such manufacturing
companies.

During the internship period in Hindustan Dorr-Oliver Ltd., various precautionary measures were
seen to be taken. The company is continuously putting its effort in reducing the accidents occurring
in the facility. It is observed that the company organises safety meetings in the interval of weeks and
a month to aware the workers working in the facility. It is ensured that a different topic is touched
during each consultation meeting in the company. It is observed that several first aid boxes are kept
inside the facilities. We also observed that safety manual was provided stating on how to operate a
complicated machineries in the facility. The work area inside the facility was kept clean and
organised. Besides, the workplace inside the facility was maintained with a good ergonomics. It is
observed that each and every worker in the facility was made to wear the personal protective
equipment. Besides, stocks of gloves, helmets, glasses and shoes was available inside the facility.

16
CHAPTER 6 SUMMARY

The work environment inside the facility of Hindustan Dorr-Oliver Limited is seen keenly. It is known
that the company is a very huge manufacturing industry that has been manufacturing excellent
quality heat exchangers, pressure vessels, solid-liquid separation equipment and many other
sophisticated products. During our stay in the company, we learnt a great deal of knowledge on heat
exchangers, maintenance of heat exchangers and water reclamation system. We also got the
experience of pleasant pre job experience with the beginning of the day with entry in register till
reporting to various authorities at the end of the day. Throughout the internship period, we get very
pleasant experience of learning and very happy that with support of all company employees and the
faculty member from our college we successfully completed our internship. Besides, we enjoyed
working with the employees and got practical knowledge of various equipment in the manufacturing
company.

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REFERENCES
http://www.wermac.org/equipment/heatexchanger_part4.html. (n.d.).

http://www.wermac.org/equipment/heatexchanger_part4.html. (n.d.).

https://thermofin.net/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/caleos-shell-and-tube-heat-exchanger-
detail.jpg. (n.d.).

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/76/Water_jacket_test_diagram.jpg. (n.d.).

https://vacaero.com/information-resources/vacuum-brazing-with-dan-kay/252727-shell-tube-heat-
exchangers-methods-to-seal-tube-to-header-joints.html. (n.d.).

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