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A and P Intro – Handouts

Overview of Anatomy and Physiology

Anatomy: The study of structure

Subdivisions:

Gross or macroscopic (e.g., regional, surface, and systemic anatomy)

Microscopic (e.g., cytology and histology)

Developmental (e.g., embryology)

Essential tools for the study of anatomy:

Mastery of anatomical terminology

Observation

Manipulation

Palpation

Physiology: The study of function at many levels

Subdivisions are based on organ systems (e.g., renal or cardiovascular physiology)

Essential tools for the study of physiology:

Ability to focus at many levels (from systemic to cellular and molecular)

Basic physical principles (e.g., electrical currents, pressure, and movement)

Basic chemical principles

Anatomy and physiology are inseparable

Function always reflects structure

What a structure can do depends on its specific form

 What a structure can do depends on its specific form Homeostasis  Maintenance of a

Homeostasis

Maintenance of a relatively stable internal environment despite continuous outside changes

A dynamic state of equilibrium Negative Feedback Mechanism

Receptor (sensor)

Monitors the environment

Responds to stimuli (changes in controlled variables)

Control center

Determines the set point at which the variable is maintained

Receives input from receptor

Determines appropriate response

Effector

o

Receives output from control center

o

Provides the means to respond

o

Response acts to reduce or enhance the stimulus (feedback)

Regional Terms

to respond o Response acts to reduce or enhance the stimulus (feedback) Regional Terms Directional Terms
to respond o Response acts to reduce or enhance the stimulus (feedback) Regional Terms Directional Terms
to respond o Response acts to reduce or enhance the stimulus (feedback) Regional Terms Directional Terms

Directional Terms

to respond o Response acts to reduce or enhance the stimulus (feedback) Regional Terms Directional Terms
Body Planes and Sections  A sagittal section divides the body (or organ) into left
Body Planes and Sections  A sagittal section divides the body (or organ) into left
Body Planes and Sections  A sagittal section divides the body (or organ) into left

Body Planes and Sections

A sagittal section divides the body (or organ) into left and right parts

A median, or midsagittal, section divides the body (or organ) into equal left and right parts

A frontal section divides the body (or organ) into anterior and posterior parts

A transverse, or cross, section divides the body (or organ) into superior and inferior parts

Body Cavities

Dorsal body cavity

Cranial cavity houses the brain

Spinal cavity houses the spinal cord

Ventral body cavity

Thoracic cavity houses heart, lungs and others

Abdominopelvic cavity houses digestive system and most urinary system organs

Thoracic cavity subdivisions:

o

Two pleural cavities

Each houses a lung

o

Mediastinum

Contains pericardial cavity

Surrounds thoracic organs

o

Pericardial cavity

Encloses heart

Serous Membranes

Thin, doublelayered membrane separated by serous fluid

Parietal serosa lines internal body walls

Visceral serosa covers the internal organs

Abdominopelvic Major Organs

body walls  Visceral serosa covers the internal organs Abdominopelvic Major Organs Abdominopelvic Regions

Abdominopelvic Regions

body walls  Visceral serosa covers the internal organs Abdominopelvic Major Organs Abdominopelvic Regions
body walls  Visceral serosa covers the internal organs Abdominopelvic Major Organs Abdominopelvic Regions
body walls  Visceral serosa covers the internal organs Abdominopelvic Major Organs Abdominopelvic Regions