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Transparent Anodic Properties of In-doped ZnO thin Films for

Organic
Light Emitting Devices
Young Ran Park and Young Sung Kim*†
Department of Physics, Institute of Basic Science and Center for nanotubes and
nanocomposites,
Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746, Korea
*Advanced Material Process of Information Technology, Sungkyunkwan University Suwon
440-746, Korea
(Received April 24, 2007; Accepted June 18, 2007)
In 도핑된 ZnO 박막의 투명 전극과 유기 발광 다이오드 특성
박영란·김용성*†
성균관대학교 물리학과 기능성나노신소재연구소
*성균관대학교 정보통신용 신기능성 소재 및 공정연구센터
(2007년 4월 24일 접수; 2007년 6월 18일 승인)
ABSTRACT
Transparent In-doped zinc oxide (IZO) thin films are deposited with variation of pulsed DC
power at Ar atmosphere on corning
7059 glass substrate by pulsed DC magnetron sputtering. A c-axis oriented IZO thin films
were grown in perpendicular to the substrate.
The optical transmittance spectra showed high transmittance of over 80% in the UV-
visible region and exhibited the absorption edge
of about 350 nm. Also, the IZO films exhibited the resistivity of ~10−3
Ω·cm and the mobility of ~6 cm/V· s. Organic Light-emitting
diodes (OLEDs) with IZO/N,N’-diphenyl-N, N’-bis(3-methylphenl)-1, 1’-biphenyl-
4,4’-diamine (TPD)/tris (8-hydroxyquinoline)
aluminum (Alq3)/LiF/Al configuration were fabricated. LiF layer inserted is used as an
interfacial layer to increase the electron
injection. Under a current density of 100 mA/cm
2
, the OLEDs show an excellent efficiency (9.4 V turn-on voltage) and a good
brightness (12000 cd/m
2
) of the emission light from the devices. These results indicate that IZO films hold promise
for anode
electrodes in the OLEDs application.
Key words : ZnO, Thin film, Anode, Organic light emitting devices, OLED
1. 서 론
최근 정보화
Performance of Low-Slump Underwater Concrete Incorporating Antiwashout Admixtures
(05-0328) - MP-14
Dina Adel Nakhla, Siemens Ltd Egypt
Mohamed Nagib Abu Zeid, American University in Cairo, Egypt

Antiwashout admixtures (AWAs) are among recently employed techniques to minimize adverse
effects associated with concrete placement underwater. However, relatively little work has been
conducted on the influence of AWAs on performance of underwater concrete and evaluating the
validity of conventional and non-destructive testing employed. Thirty mixtures were prepared with
several water-to-cementitious materials ratio, admixtures types and dosages. Concrete
specimens were placed in-air and at two underwater depths. The testing program involved fresh,
hardened and non-destructive testing of concrete. A simple method was employed for the
assessment of concrete and corrosion damage upon exposure to wetting and drying cycles in
aggressive saline solution. Impact of the type and dosage of antiwashout admixtures, mix
proportions and placement depth on fresh and hardened concrete properties is highlighted.
Results suggest that the surface of underwater concrete has inferior quality to its core and that a
need exists for adjusting and calibrating non-destructive methods when evaluating such concrete.
Underwater AWA concrete exhibited relatively high susceptibility to damage when exposed to
saline solutions.

Analysis of Stack of Layer Type Molecules

With the turbostratic carbon structure, the carbon layers are stacked with displacements
and rotations in parallel to the layer plane. This type of crystallite produces a peculiar
wide-angle X-ray diffraction pattern which differs widely from that of the graphite. In the
present study, a method for analyzing the structure of the stack of the layer type
molecules which are preferentially oriented in the system from the wide-angle diffraction
has been proposed

Non-Hookean Stress-strain Response of Carbon Fibers

Tensile modulus of carbon fibers increases with increasing tensile stress. In order to
elucidate the mechanism of non-Hookean stress-strain response, the changes of the
crystallite orientation of carbon fibers during tensile deformation have been measured.
Stress dependencies of the tensile modulus and the crystallite orientation have been
theoretically analyzed based on various models such as undulating ribbon, zigzag ribbon,
series elements, series rotatable elements, parallel elements and mosaic model. It was
concluded that the increased constraint of the crystallite deformation with increasing
tensile stress is responsible for the non-Hookean stress-strain response of carbon fibers.
Axial Compressive Behavior of Carbon Fibers

Carbon fibers show extremely low axial compressive strength in comparison to their
tensile strength. In the present study, the axial compressive strength of carbon fibers has
been determined by compressing directly the single filaments. By considering that the
axial compressive strength is determined by the buckling stress of carbon layers, the axial
compressive strength has been derived theoretically as a function of the size of
microvoids.

Yarns and Composite Materials with Twist Structure

Variations of longitudinal and transverse moduli with twist for twisted yarns and twisted
yarn/resin composite strands composed of fibers covering a wide range of tensile moduli
including carbon and aramid fibers have been investigated using a sonic pulse
propagation method. The relationship between the longitudinal modulus of twisted yarns
and the twist angle has been derived theoretically on the bases of a model that takes into
account the anisotropic elasticity of the fibers.

Analysis of Defects in Polymeric Fibers

The figure is the SEM photograph of a polyester fiber with a diameter of about 20 mm on
which a notch was introduced using a focused ion beam milling apparatus. From the
strength of the fibers having notches with different depths, the defect size and the strength
of the fiber attained by eliminating the defects have been estimated. The deflection of the
Weibull plots of the tensile strength has been also discussed.

Temperature-time Superposition

The figure shows the changes in the resistivity of carbon fibers during the heat-treatment
at 1400oC for more than 200,000 years, obtained by applying the temperature-time
superposition. Theses experiments have been performed using internal resistance heating
which allows quick heating at temperatures above 2000oC. The difference in the structure
development of pitch-, polyacrylonitrile- and phenol formaldehyde resin-based carbons,
the influences of the applied stress, the temperature dependent activation energy of the
structure development, and the application of the temperature-time superposition to the
physical properties and the structure parameters have been discussed.

Structure, Properties and Preparation Methods

Structure, properties and preparation methods of carbon fibers and films were
investigated with various starting materials such as pitch, polyacrylonitrile,
polyoxadiazole, polycarbodiimide and poly(vinylidene fluoride).

Mesopores Carbon

The activated carbon produced through conventional activation process is microporous.


In order to produce mesoporous carbon, we have made various attempts including liquid-
phase dehydrohalogenation of starting polymer, iodine vapor treatment, supercritical
carbon dioxide treatment and gas phase activation. The growing process of pores during
activation has been analyzed as well based on the changes of mass, pore volume and
surface area.

Fragmentation Test, Pull-out Test

The figure shows the fiber breaks in a single-fiber composite loaded in tension. By
analyzing the fiber fragmentation process, the fiber-matrix interfacial shear strength can
be estimated. This method is called fragmentation test. So far the interfacial shear
strength has been calculated from the fragment lengths of the fiber and the tensile
strength of the fiber determined with the tensile tests. However, the strength determined
with the tensile tests or its extrapolation to the fragment length is an average fiber
strength which is different from the stress at break of the individual fiber in the single-
fiber composite. In addition, the fiber in the composite may be degraded during the
fabrication process and by the exposure of the composite to the environments in the case
of the durability studies. In order to overcome these problems, a method for estimating
the interfacial shear strength, tensile strength of the individual fiber and its distribution
from the relation between the number of breaks of the fiber and the tensile strain of the
single-fiber composite has been proposed (Composite Interfaces, 4, 379 (1997)). By
applying this method to the glass fiber/epoxy resin single-fiber composites, the
degradation of the fiber and the interface when the composites were exposed to the
hydrothermal conditions was investigated.

Mechanical Properties

The mechanical properties of carbon fiber reinforced composites have been studied
experimentally and theoretically. The tensile strength of unidirectional fiber reinforced
composites has been theoretically derived as a function of the distribution of the fiber
strength, the number of multiple fiber fracture and interfacial strength (Composite
Interfaces, 6, 305 (1999)). The tensile and compressive strengths of woven laminate
composites have been theoretically derived as a function of the radius of curvature of
yarns (Composites Science and Technology, 64, 2221 (2004)). The compression-after-
impact strength of the woven laminate and the felt/resin composites have been uniquely
related to the mode I interlaminar fracture toughness and interpreted by applying the
analysis given by Ilic and Williams (Composites Science and Technology, 64, 2231
(2004)). The fracture toughness of resins dispersed with carbon nanotubes has also been
studied (Oral presentations).

Other Researches (English Papers)

Abstract | Drawing | Description | Claims

Abstract
In accordance with the present invention, a microbial polysaccharide having
the features characteristic of S-657 has been found to be effective to improve
the rheological properties of a variety of cementitious systems. Thus, the
addition of a small, but effective amount of S-657 to such cementitious
systems as portland cement, self-leveling grouts, fresh or saltwater oil well
cement slurries, microfine cements, and the like, gives rise to substantial
improvements in such properties as bleed, flow resistance, fluid loss control,
and the like. S-657 addition provides enhanced rheological control in a variety
of cementitious systems. In addition, S-657 provides a number of advantages
relative to prior art systems, including improved free water and sedimentation
control, as well as reduced fines loss during underwater placement. This
unique biogum has been shown to enhance the stability of highly diluted
microfine cementitious systems, and enhance the flow and workability of
superwork...

Patent number: 6110271


Filing date: Sep 4, 1997
Issue date: Aug 29, 2000
Inventors: Bryan Skaggs, Walter Rakitsky, Alain Phyfferoen
Assignee: Pharmacia Corporation

Current U.S. Classification


106/804; 106/696; 106/729; 106/730; 106/779; 106/790; 106/823

International Classification
C04B 2410
Search within this patent

Citations
Patent
Title Issue date
Number
4041234 Dispersible glyoxal-xanthan gum Aug 9, 1977
complexes
4069062 Additive for mortar and concrete Jan 17, 1978
4342866 Heteropolysaccharide S-130 Aug 3, 1982
4462836 Cement composition and method of cement Jul 31, 1984
casing in a well
4487864 Modified carbohydrate polymers Dec 11, 1984
4963668 Welan gum in cement compositions Oct 16, 1990
4981520 Oil reservoir permeability profile control with Jan 1, 1991
crosslinked welan gum biopolymers
5004506 Welan gum in cement compositions Apr 2, 1991
5175277 Rapidly hydrating welan gum Dec 29, 1992
5175278 Heteropolysaccharide S-657 Dec 29, 1992
5180430 Concrete surface air void reduction Jan 19, 1993
admixture
5207826 Bacterial cellulose binding agent May 4, 1993
5290768 Welan gum-ethylene glycol insulating Mar 1, 1994
compositions
5447197 Storable liquid cementitious slurries for Sep 5, 1995
cementing oil and gas wells
Referenced by
Patent
Title Issue date
Number
6620775 Viscosity stabilization in alkaline solutions Sep 16, 2003
6708760 Methods and cement compositions for Mar 23, 2004
cementing in subterranean zones
6800129 High solids pumpable cement additives Oct 5, 2004
6916369 Beneficiated water reducing compositions Jul 12, 2005
7008479 Methods and cement compositions for Mar 7, 2006
cementing in subterranean zones
7048793 Beneficiated water reducing compositions May 23, 2006
7056964 High strength flooring compositions Jun 6, 2006
7128782 Sulfate dispersion chromate reducer Oct 31, 2006
Claims
What is claimed is:

1. In a cementitious system containing one or more viscosity modifying agents, the improvement
comprising including in said formulation a rheology improving amount of microbial polysaccaride
S-657 and a dispersing agent.

2. A cementitious system according to claim 1 wherein said cementitious system is selected from
portland cement, pozzolanic cement, slag cement, calcium aluminate cement, expanding cement,
ceramic, a mud to cement system, or mixtures of any two or more thereof.

3. A cementitious system according to claim 1 wherein said viscosity modifying agent is selected
from cellulose ethers, synthetic polymers, exopolysaccharides, marine gums, plant exudates,
seed gums or starch-based gums.

4. A cementitious system according to claim 1 wherein a rheology improving amount of S-657


falls in the range of about 0.001 up to 1 wt %, based on the total weight of dry ingredients in said
cementitious system.

5. A cementitious system according to claim 1 wherein a rheology improving amount of S-657


fails in the range of about 0.002 up to 0.5 wt. %, based on the total weight of dry ingredients in
said cementitious system.
6. A novel formulation comprising:

a cementitious system,
a dispersing agent, and
microbial polysaccaride S-657.

7. A formulation according to claim 6 wherein said cementitious system is selected from


portland cement, pozzolanic cement, slag cement, calcium aluminate cement, gypsum
cement, expanding cement, microfine cement, colloidal cement, ceramic, a mud to
cement system, or mixtures of any two or more thereof.

8. A formulation according to claim 6 wherein said cementitious system further comprises


in the range of about 0.001 up to 3 wt % water, based on the total weight of dry
ingredients in said formulation.

9. A formulation according to claim 6 wherein said cementitious system further


comprisesin the range of about 0.002 up to 1 wt % water, based on the total weight of dry
ingredients in said formulation.

10. A method to improve the rheological properties of a cementitious system, said method
comprising including in said system a rheology improving amount of microbial
polysaccaride S-657 and a dispersing agent.

11. A method according to claim 10 wherein said rheology improving amount of S-657
falls in the range of about 0.001 up to 1 wt %, based on the total weight of dry ingredients
in said cementitious system.

12. A method according to claim 10 wherein said rheology improving amount of S-657
falls in the range of about 0.003 up to 0.5 wt %, based on the total weight of dry
ingredients in said cementitious system.

13. In a self-leveling grout formulation, the improvement comprising adding to said


formulation a rheology improving amount of microbial polysacarride S-657 and a
dispersing agent.

14. A formulation according to claim 13 wherein said rheology improving amount of S-657
falls in the range of about 0.001 up to 0.5 wt %, based on the total weight of dry
ingredients in said grout formulation.

15. A formulation according to claim 13 wherein said rheology improving amount of S-657
falls in the range of about 0.002 up to 0.15 wt. %, based on the total weight of dry
ingredients in said grout formulation.

16. A method for reducing bleed and sedimentation in cement formulations selected from
grout, mortar or concrete formulations, said method comprising adding to said formulation
microbial polysaccaride S-657 and a dispersing agent.

17. A method according to claim 16 wherein said rheology improving amount of S-657
falls in the range of about 0.002 up to 0.5 wt. %, based on the total weight of dry
ingredients in said cement formulations.
18. A method to improve the performance of a fresh or saltwater oil well cement slurries,
said method comprising adding to said slurry a rheology improving amount of microbial
polysaccaride S-657 and a dipersing agent.

19. A method according to claim 18 wherein said rheology improving amount of S-657
falls in the range of about 0.01 up to 0.5 wt %, based on the total weight of dry
ingredients in said cement slurries.

20. A modified fresh or saltwater oil well cement slurry comprising a fresh or saltwater oil
well cement slurry, and microbial polysaccaride S-657 and a dispersing agent.

21. A slurry according to claim 20 wherein said rheology improving amount of S-657 falls
in the range of about 0.01 up to 0.5 wt %, based on the total weight of dry ingredients in
said cement slurry.

22. In a microfine cement formulation containing one or more dispersants, the


improvement comprising adding to said formulation a rheology improving amount of
microbial polysaccaride S-657.

23. A formulation according to claim 22 wherein said rheology improving amount of S-657
falls in the range of about 0.01 up to 5 wt %, based on the total weight of dry ingredients
in said cement formulation.

24. A formulation according to claim 22 wherein said rheology improving amount of S-657
falls in the range of about 0.01 up to 5 wt %, based on the total weight of dry ingredients
in said cement formulation.

25. A method to improve the rheological properties of a colloidal cement, said method
comprising adding to said cement a rheology improving amount microbial polysaccaride
S-657 and a dispersing agent.

26. A method according to claim 25 wherein said rheology improving amount of S-657
falls in the range of about 0.001 to 0.5 wt %, based on the total weight of water.

27. In a cementitious system containing one or more viscosity modifying agents, the
improvement comprising including in said system a rheology improving amount of
microbial polysaccharide S-657 and a dispersing agent.

28. A method to improve the reheological properties of a cementitious system, said


method comprising including in said system a rheology improving amount of microbial
polysaccharide S-657 and a dispersing agent.

29. In a highly flowable, self-leveling grout formulation, the improvement comprising


adding to said formulation a rheology improving amount of microbial polysaccharide S-
657 and a dispersing agent.

30. A method to improve the performance of fresh or saltwater oil well cement slurries,
said method comprising adding to said slurry a rheology improving amount of microbial
polysaccharide S-657 and a dispersing agent.

31. A modified fresh or saltwater oil well cement slurry comprising: a fresh or saltwater oil
well cement slurry, and a microbial polysaccharide microbial polysaccharide S-657 and a
dispersing agent.
32. In a microfine cement formulation containing one or more dispersants, the
improvement comprising adding to said formulation a rheology improving amount of
microbial polysaccharide S-657 and a dispersing agent.

33. A method to improve the rheological properties of colloidal cement, said method
comprising adding to said cement a rheology improving amount of a microbial
polysaccharide S-657 and a dispersing agent.

34. A novel formulation comprising a cementitious system, and a microbial


polysaccharide S-657 and a dispersing agent.

Drawings

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Methods for improved rheological control in cementitious


systems
Bryan Skaggs et al

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Patent
summary
Patent
number:
6110271
Filing
date:
Sep 4,
1997
Issue
date:
Aug 29,
2000
Abstract
In
accordan
ce with
the
present
invention
,a
microbial
polysacc
haride
having
the
features
characte
ristic of
S-657
has been
found to
be
effective
to
improve
the
rheologic
al
propertie
s of a
variety of
cementiti
ous
systems.
Thus,
the
addition
of a