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# Republic of the Philippines

## President Ramon Magsaysay State University

(Formerly Ramon Magsaysay Technological University)
Iba, Zambales, Philippines
Tel/Fax No.: (047) 811-1683

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
1st Semester, AY 2019 – 2020
MTN6 – Differential Equation

## Name: Date: Score:

Yr. /Section: Instructor: __________________________________

Mixture
Sample Problems:
1. A tank initially contains 40 gal of pure water. A salt solution containing 2 pounds of salt per gallon of
water is poured into the tank at a rate of 3 gal/min. The mixture is stirred and is drained out of the
tank at the same rate.
a. Find the amount of salt in the tank at any time.
b. Find the amount of salt in the tank after half hour.
c. Find the amount of salt in the tank after a “long time.”
Solution:
a. Let x denote the amount of salt in the tank at any time t.
𝑑𝑥
= 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒 𝑖𝑛 (𝑙𝑏/𝑚𝑖𝑛) − 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒 𝑜𝑢𝑡 (𝑙𝑏/𝑚𝑖𝑛)
𝑑𝑡
𝑑𝑥 𝑥
= (2 𝑙𝑏/𝑔𝑎𝑙)(3 𝑔𝑎𝑙/𝑚𝑖𝑛) − ( 𝑙𝑏/𝑔𝑎𝑙) (3 𝑔𝑎𝑙/𝑚𝑖𝑛)
𝑑𝑡 40
𝑑𝑥 3𝑥
= 6 𝑙𝑏/ min − 𝑙𝑏/𝑚𝑖𝑛
𝑑𝑡 40
𝑑𝑥 3𝑥
+ =6
𝑑𝑡 40
Solve the differential equation using the method for solving the linear equation.
Note: The dependent variable in this equation is x and the independent variable is t.
P(t) = 3/40
Q(t) = 6
Solve for the integrating factor:
3
𝐼 = 𝑒 ∫ 𝑃(𝑡)𝑑𝑡 = 𝑒 ∫(40)𝑑𝑡
3
𝐼 = 𝑒 (40)𝑡
Solve for x:
3 3
𝑥𝑒 (40)𝑡 = ∫ 6𝑒 (40)𝑡 𝑑𝑡 + 𝐶

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COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

3 6(40) 3 ( 3 )𝑡
𝑥𝑒 (40)𝑡 = ∫ 𝑒 40 𝑑𝑡 + 𝐶
3 40
3 3
𝑥𝑒 (40)𝑡 = 80𝑒 (40)𝑡 + 𝐶
−3
𝑥 = 80 + 𝐶𝑒 ( 40 )𝑡 ← 𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 1
Initial Conditions: when t = 0, x = 0
−3
0 = 80 + 𝐶𝑒 ( 40 )(0)
−80 = 𝐶
Substitute C into the equation 1
−3
𝑥 = 80 − 80𝑒 ( 40 )𝑡
−3
𝑥 = 80 (1 − 𝑒 ( 40 )𝑡 ) ← 𝐴𝑛𝑠𝑤𝑒𝑟

## b. Find x, when t = 30 min.

−3
𝑥 = 80 (1 − 𝑒 ( 40 )(30) ) = 72 𝑙𝑏 ← 𝐴𝑛𝑠𝑤𝑒𝑟

c. Find x when 𝑡 → ∞
−3
as 𝑡 → ∞, 𝑒 ( 40 )𝑡 → 0
𝑥 = 80(1 − 0) = 80 𝑙𝑏 ← 𝐴𝑛𝑠𝑤𝑒𝑟

2. A tank initially contains 200 gallons of water in which 50 pounds of salt are dissolved. A salt solution
containing 0.5 pound of salt per gallon is poured into the tank at a rate of 1 gal/min. The mixture in
the tank is stirred and drained off at the rate of 2 gal/min.
a. Find the initial-value problem that describes the amount of salt x(t) in the tank until the tank
is empty.
b. Find the amount of salt x(t) in the tank until the tank is empty.
c. Find the concentration c(t) of salt in the tank until the tank is empty.
d. Find the concentration of salt in the tank at the exact time the tank becomes empty.
Solution:
a. Let x denote the amount of salt in the tank at any time t.
𝑑𝑥
= 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒 𝑖𝑛 (𝑙𝑏/𝑚𝑖𝑛) − 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒 𝑜𝑢𝑡 (𝑙𝑏/𝑚𝑖𝑛)
𝑑𝑡
𝑑𝑥 𝑥
= (0.5 𝑙𝑏/𝑔𝑎𝑙)(1 𝑔𝑎𝑙/𝑚𝑖𝑛) − ( 𝑙𝑏/𝑔𝑎𝑙) (2 𝑔𝑎𝑙/𝑚𝑖𝑛)
𝑑𝑡 200 − 𝑡
Note that the expression 200-t in the denominator of rate out is due to the fact that the volume of
solution in the tank is not fixed at 200 gal but is decreasing by 1 gal/min (Since flow rate in is 1
gal/min and flow rate out is 2 gal/min.).
𝑑𝑥 2𝑥
= 0.5 𝑙𝑏/ min − 𝑙𝑏/𝑚𝑖𝑛
𝑑𝑡 200 − 𝑡

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COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

𝑑𝑥 2𝑥
+ = 0.5 (0 ≤ 𝑡 < 200) ← 𝐴𝑛𝑠𝑤𝑒𝑟
𝑑𝑡 200 − 𝑡
Note that the tank will run dry after 200 minutes
b. Solve the differential equation in part (a) using the method for solving the linear equation.
Note: The dependent variable in this equation is x and the independent variable is t.
P(t) = 2/(200-t)
Q(t) = 0.5
Solve for the integrating factor:
2
𝐼 = 𝑒 ∫ 𝑃(𝑡)𝑑𝑡 = 𝑒 ∫(200−𝑡)𝑑𝑡
−2
𝐼 = 𝑒 −2ln(200−𝑡) = 𝑒 ln(200−𝑡) = (200 − 𝑡)−2
Solve for x:

## 𝑥(200 − 𝑡)−2 = 0.5(200 − 𝑡)−1 + 𝐶

𝑥 = 0.5(200 − 𝑡) + 𝐶(200 − 𝑡)2 ← 𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 1
Initial Conditions: when t = 0, x = 50 lb
50 = 0.5(200 − 0) + 𝐶(200 − 0)2
1
− =𝐶
800
Substitute C into the equation 1
1
𝑥 = 0.5(200 − 𝑡) − (200 − 𝑡)2
800
(200 − 𝑡)(400 − (200 − 𝑡))
𝑥=
800
(200 − 𝑡)(200 + 𝑡)
𝑥= ← 𝐴𝑛𝑠𝑤𝑒𝑟
800
c. The concentration of the salt in the tank is simply x divided by the amount of solution in the
tank.
𝑥
𝑐(𝑡) =
𝐴𝑚𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑖𝑛 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑘
(200 − 𝑡)(200 + 𝑡) 200 + 𝑡
𝑐(𝑡) = = ← 𝐴𝑛𝑠𝑤𝑒𝑟
800(200 − 𝑡) 800

d. Since the tank will drain dry after 200 minutes, therefore
200 + 𝑡 200 + 200 𝑙𝑏
𝑐(𝑡) = = = 0.5 ← 𝐴𝑛𝑠𝑤𝑒𝑟
800 800 𝑔𝑎𝑙

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COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

Compound Interest
Sample Problems:
1. A young person with no initial capital invests dollars per year at an annual rate of return . Assume
that investments are made continuously and that the return is compounded continuously.

## a. Determine the sum accumulated at any time .

b. If , determine so that \$1 million will be available for retirement in 40 years.
c. If , determine the return rate that must be obtained to have \$1 million
available in 40 years.

Solution:
𝑑𝑆
a. = 𝑟𝑆 + 𝑘
𝑑𝑡

The rate of change of the sum is equal to the percentage of the sum at that time plus the amount
the person has added on his own.
𝑑𝑆
− 𝑟𝑆 = 𝑘
𝑑𝑡
Solve the differential equation using the method for solving the linear equation.
Note: The dependent variable in this equation is S.
P(t) = -r
Q(t) = k
Solve for the integrating factor:
𝐼 = 𝑒 ∫ 𝑃(𝑡)𝑑𝑡 = 𝑒 ∫ −𝑟𝑑𝑡
𝐼 = 𝑒 −𝑟𝑡
Solve for S:

𝑆𝑒 −𝑟𝑡 = ∫ 𝑘𝑒 −𝑟𝑡 𝑑𝑡 + 𝐶

−𝑘
𝑆𝑒 −𝑟𝑡 = ∫ −𝑟𝑒 −𝑟𝑡 𝑑𝑡 + 𝐶
𝑟
−𝑘𝑒 −𝑟𝑡
𝑆𝑒 −𝑟𝑡 = +𝐶
𝑟
−𝑘
𝑆= + 𝐶𝑒 𝑟𝑡 ← 𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 1
𝑟
Initial Conditions: when t = 0, S = 0 (he has no money invested at t=0)
−𝑘
0= + 𝐶𝑒 𝑟(0)
𝑟
𝑘
=𝐶
𝑟
Substitute C into the equation 1
−𝑘 𝑘 𝑟𝑡
𝑆= + 𝑒
𝑟 𝑟

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COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

𝑘 𝑟𝑡
𝑆= (𝑒 − 1) ← 𝐴𝑛𝑠𝑤𝑒𝑟
𝑟
b. Given: r = 7.5%
S = \$1 million
t = 40 years

Substitute the given in part (b) to the answer in part (a) to solve for the value of k

𝑘 𝑟𝑡
𝑆= (𝑒 − 1)
𝑟
𝑆𝑟
𝑘 = 𝑟𝑡
(𝑒 − 1)
(\$1000000)(0.075)
𝑘=
(𝑒 (0.075)(40) − 1)
𝑘 = \$3930/𝑦𝑒𝑎𝑟 ← 𝐴𝑛𝑠𝑤𝑒𝑟
c. Given: k = \$2000/year
S = \$1 million
t = 40 years

Substitute the given in part (c) to the answer in part (a) to solve for the value of r

𝑘 𝑟𝑡
𝑆= (𝑒 − 1)
𝑟
\$2000/𝑦𝑒𝑎𝑟 𝑟(40𝑦𝑟)
\$1000000 = (𝑒 − 1)
𝑟
𝑟 = 0.0977 𝑜𝑟 9.77% ← 𝐴𝑛𝑠𝑤𝑒𝑟

2. A certain college graduate borrows \$8000 to buy a car. The lender charges interest at an annual rate
of 10%. Assuming that interest is compounded continuously and that the borrower makes payments
continuously at a constant annual rate , determine the payment rate that is required to pay off the
loan in 3 years. Also determine how much interest is paid during the 3-year period.
Given: Let B represents the balance at time t.
At time t=0, B = 8000
r = 10% = 0.10
Required: Rate payments (k) in order to have B = 0 in t = 3 years
Solution:
The balance increases by the interest (product of the current balance and interest rate) and decreases
by the payment:
𝑑𝐵
= 𝑟𝐵 − 𝑘
𝑑𝑡
𝑑𝐵
− 𝑟𝐵 = −𝑘
𝑑𝑡

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COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

Solve the differential equation using the method for solving the linear equation.

## Note: The dependent variable in this equation is B.

P(t) = -r
Q(t) = -k
Solve for the integrating factor:
𝐼 = 𝑒 ∫ 𝑃(𝑡)𝑑𝑡 = 𝑒 ∫ −𝑟𝑑𝑡
𝐼 = 𝑒 −𝑟𝑡
Solve for B:

## 𝐵𝑒 −𝑟𝑡 = ∫ −𝑘𝑒 −𝑟𝑡 𝑑𝑡 + 𝐶

𝑘
𝐵𝑒 −𝑟𝑡 = ∫ −𝑟𝑒 −𝑟𝑡 𝑑𝑡 + 𝐶
𝑟
𝑘𝑒 −𝑟𝑡
𝐵𝑒 −𝑟𝑡 = +𝐶
𝑟
𝑘
𝐵= + 𝐶𝑒 𝑟𝑡 ← 𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 1
𝑟
Initial Conditions: when t = 0, B = 8000
𝑘
8000 = + 𝐶𝑒 𝑟(0)
𝑟
𝑘
8000 − = 𝐶
𝑟
Substitute C into the equation 1
𝑘 𝑘
𝐵= + (8000 − ) 𝑒 𝑟𝑡 ← 𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 2
𝑟 𝑟
To solve for k, substitute r = 0.1, and the initial condition that at t = 3, B = 0 into the equation 2.
𝑘 𝑘
0= + (8000 − ) 𝑒 (0.1)(3)
0.1 0.1
−𝑘 𝑘 (0.1)(3)
+ 𝑒 = 8000𝑒 (0.1)(3)
0.1 0.1
𝑘(−1 + 𝑒 0.1(3) ) = (0.1)(8000)𝑒 (0.1)(3)
(0.1)(8000)𝑒 (0.1)(3)
𝑘=
(−1 + 𝑒 0.1(3))
𝑘 = \$3086.64/𝑦𝑒𝑎𝑟 ← 𝐴𝑛𝑠𝑤𝑒𝑟
The interest is the total amount paid (product of the total payment k and the number of payments
n) decreased by the amount borrowed:
\$3086.64
𝐼=( ) (3 𝑦𝑒𝑎𝑟𝑠) − \$8000
𝑦𝑒𝑎𝑟
𝐼 = \$1259.92 ← 𝐴𝑛𝑠𝑤𝑒𝑟

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