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2 Marks & 16marks

UNIT-I            AMPLITUDE MODULATION SYSTEMS

1. What is communication?

 Communication is the process of conveying or transferring messages from one

             Point to another.

2. What are the types of Communication system?

3. Define modulation?

 Ø Modulation is a process by which some characteristics of high frequency carrier signal


is varied in accordance with the instantaneous value of another signal called modulating
signal. 

4. What are the types of modulation?

            Amplitude modulation, Frequency modulation, Phase modulation.

5. Define depth of modulation(or)modulation index.

            It is defined as the ratio between message amplitude to that of carrier amplitude.

                             ma=Vm/Vc

6. What are the degrees of modulation?


            Under modulation. m<1

            Critical modulation m=1

            Over modulation m>1

7. How will you determine the Fourier transform for periodic signal?

     [Nov-03]

8. If a 10KW amplitude modulated transmitter is modulated 

      Sinusoidally by 50%, what is the total RF power delivered?

      [Nov-05]

                             ma=50/100=0.5;Pc=10 kw 

                                    Pt=Pc(1+m2/2)

                                            =11.25kw 

9. Define demodulation.

 Demodulation or detection is the process by which modulating voltage is recovered from


the modulated signal. It is the reverse process of modulation.

10. Define Amplitude modulation?

 Ø Amplitude modulation is the process by which amplitude of the carrier signal is varied
in accordance with the instantaneous value of the modulating signal but frequency and
phase of carrier wave is remains constant. 

11. Define Frequency modulation?

 Frequency modulation is the process by which frequency of the carrier signal is varied in
accordance with the instantaneous value of the modulating signal.
12. Define phase modulation?

 Ø Phase modulation is the process by which Phase angle of the carrier signal is varied in
accordance with the instantaneous value of the modulating signal. 

13. As related to AM what is over modulation, under modulation and 

      100% modulation? [April-04]

                                   (OR)

    When does a carrier is said to be over, under modulated in 

     Amplitude modulation? [Nov-04]

 In the case of Under modulation, modulation index ma<1(i.e.)Vmc.Here the envelope of


Amplitude modulated signal does not reach the Zero amplitude axis. Hence the Message
signal is fully preserved in the envelope of the AM Wave.
  In the case of Over modulation, modulation index  ma>1(i.e.)Vm>Vc. Here the envelope
of Amplitude modulated signal crosses the zero axis. 

 In the case critical modulation modulation index ma=1(i.e.)Vm=Vc.Here the envelope of


the modulated signal just reaches the zero amplitude axis. The message signal remains
preserved.

 
 

14. Draw the phasor diagram of AM-SC signal. [Nov-04]

 
  

                                                                                

 
 

15. Draw the Graphical and frequency spectrum and phasor 

      Representation of AM with carrier.

Frequency spectrum of AM with carrier:

 
  

                                                       

 
 

Graphical representation:

     

Phasor representation of AM with carrier:

 
  

16. What is the power saving in DSB-SC-AM and SSB-SC AM?

 Power saving in DSB-SC-AM is 66.7%.


 Power saving in SSB-SC-AM is 83.3%.

17. What are the advantages of VSB-AM?


 It has bandwidth greater than SSB but less than DSB system.
 Power transmission greater than DSB but less than SSB system.
 No low frequency component lost. Hence it avoids phase distortion.

18. How will you generating DSB-SC-AM?

                              (OR)

      Give the two methods of generating DSB-SC-AM.

     There are two ways of generating DSBSC-AM such as

  1. balanced modulator      2.ring modulators

19. Compare linear and non-linear modulators.

Sl.no Linear modulators Non-Linear modulators


1 Heavy filtering is not required.                      Heavy filtering is required 
These modulators are used in         high level These modulators are used in low
2
modulation.                                       level Modulation.
The modulating signal voltage is very
The carrier voltage is very much greater than
3 much greater than the carrier signal
modulating signal voltage.                  
voltage.

20. What are advantages of ring modulator?

       1. Its output is stable.

       2. It requires no external power source to activate the diodes.

       3. Virtually no maintenance.

       4. Long life. 

21. Draw the Graphical and frequency spectrum and phasor

      Representation of DSB-SC-AM?

Graphical representation:
 

 
  

Frequency spectrum:

 
 

Phasor representation

 
  

 
 

22. What are the advantages of DSB-SC and SSB-SC.

       DSB-SC:

 Suppression of carrier results in economy of power. 


 It is commonly used in carrier current telephony system, in which one sideband is filtered
out to reduce the width of the channel required for transmission.< strong>
 It offers secrecy. 
 It increases the efficiency because the carrier is suppressed. 

SSB-SC

 Bandwidth of SSB is half that of DSB-SC AM. Thus twice the number of channels can
be accommodated at a given frequency spectrum. 
 No carrier is transmitted, hence possibility of interference with other channels are
avoided. 
 It eliminates the possibility of fading. Fading occurs due to multipath propagation of
electro-magnetic waves. 

23. Give the methods of generating SSB-SC-AM. And mention

       Some applications of SSB-SC

 Ø The two methods of generating the SSB-SC waves are 


 Ø Frequency discrimination or Filter method. 
 Ø Phase discrimination method. 
 Ø Applications: 

ü Police Wireless communication. 

ü SSB telegraph system 

ü Point to point radio telephone communication 

ü VHF and UHF communication systems. 

24. Draw the Graphical and frequency spectrum and phasor

      Representation of SSB-SC-AM?

Phasor representation:
 

                                           

                                                               

Graphical representation:

Frequency Spectrum representation:

25. What are the types of AM modulators?

                          There are two types of AM modulators. They are

ª      Linear modulators

ª      Non-linear modulators

  Linear modulators are classified as follows

ª      Transistor modulator


            There are three types of transistor modulator.

×         Collector modulator

×         Emitter modulator

×         Base modulator

ª      Switching modulators

  Non-linear modulators are classified as follows

ª      Square law modulator

ª      Product modulator

ª      Balanced modulator

26. What is single tone and multi tone modulation?

If modulation is performed for a message signal with more than one frequency component then
the modulation is called multi tone modulation.

If modulation is performed for a message signal with one frequency component

then the modulation is called single tone modulation.

27. What is the need for modulation?

                           Needs for modulation:

ª      Ease of transmission

ª      Multiplexing

ª      Reduced noise

ª      Narrow bandwidth

ª      Frequency assignment


ª      Reduce the equipments limitations 

28. Compare AM with DSB-SC and SSB-SC.

      AM signal             DSB-SC           SSB-SC


Bandwidth=2fm
Bandwidth=2fm Bandwidth=fm
 
Contains LSB or USB
Contains USB, LSB, carrier Contains USB,LSB
 
More power is required for Power required is less than that Power required is less than AM
transmission of AM. &DSB-SC

29. What are the types of AM detectors?

1. Nonlinear detectors
2. Linear detectors

30. What are the types of linear detectors?

      1. Synchronous or coherent detector.

      2 .Envelope or non coherent detector.

31. A transmitter supplies 8 Kw to the antenna when modulated. 

     Determine the total power radiated when modulated to 30%.

                                    ma=30/100=0.3;Pc=8 kw

                                    Pt=Pc(1+m2/2)

                                            =8.36 kw

32. The antenna current of an AM transmitter is 8A when only carrier is sent. It increases
to 8.93A when the carrier is modulated by a single sine wave. Find the percentage
modulation.
Solution:

               Given:  Ic =8A     It=8.93A        m=0.8

Formula:                    It=Ic (1+m2/2) ½ 

                              8.93=8(1+m2/2) ½                           

                                m=0.701 

                             It=8 (1+0.82/2) ½ 

                             It=9.1A

33. A 1MHz carrier is amplitude modulated by 400Hz modulating signal to a depth of


50%.The modulated carrier power is 1KW.Calculate the power of the unmodulated signal.

Solution:-

Pc=1KW, ma=0.5=50%

The increase in power is given by 1.125-1=0.125KW is contained in two side bands.

34. What do you mean by Hibert transform and inverse Hilbert 

      Transform? And write few applications of Hilbert transform?

 It may be observed that the function xh(t) obtained by providing(-Π/2)phase shift to every
frequency component present in x(t),actually represents the Hilbert transform of x(t).This
means that xh(t) is the Hilbert transform of x(t) defined as

       Also, the inverse Hilbert transform is defined as

 Few applications of Hilbert transform.


 For generation of SSB signals,
 For designing of minimum phase type filters,
 For representation of band pass signals.
 

35. Define multiplexing.

        Multiplexing is defined as the process of transmitting several message signals


simultaneously over a single channel.

36.Define sensitivity,Selectivity,Stability.

 Sensitivity is defined as a measure of its ability to receive weak signals.

Selectivity of a receiver is defined as its ability to select the desired signals among the various
signals.and Stability is the ability of the receiver to deliver a constant amount of output for a
given a given period of time.

37. What are the drawbacks of emitter modulator?

                   1. The amplifier is operated in class A mode, thus the efficiency is low.

                    2. The output power is very small. Thus it is not suitable for generating high level
modulation.

          38. Define super heterodyne principle.

 It can be defined as the process of operation of modulated waves to obtain similarly


modulated waves of different frequency. This process uses a locally generated carrier
wave, which determines the change of frequency.
 And also we can define that a device performs the frequency translation of a modulated
signal is known as a frequency mixer. the operation is often called frequency mixing,
frequency conversion, or heterodyning.

16 marks ANSWERS:
 

1. Write the Expression for AM & calculate its Power and Efficiency

                                                 (OR)

     Write down the AM equation and also obtain an expression for its

       Power saving and efficiency.

Let us consider the modulating voltage,

               Vm(t) = Vm Cos ωmt

               Vc(t) =  Vc Cos ωct

According to the definition, the amplitude of the carrier signal is changed after modulation.

              VAM = Vc + Vm=Vc+Vm Cos ωmt------------- (1)

                     = Vc [ 1+ (Vm/Vc) Cos ωmt ] ------------- (2)

                  ma= Em/Ec Where ma is the modulation index (or)depth of modulation.

Therfore VAM=Vc(1+ ma Cos ωmt ) ------------- (3)

But the instantaneous amplitude of modulated signal, i.e at any time

          VAM(t)= VAM Cos ωct------------- (4)

i.e. the modulated wave contains amplitude of the carrier wave.so that equation(4)is represented
by the product of VAM Cos ωct.

                     Sub equation(3)in(4)

                     VAM(t)= Vc (1 + ma Cosωmt) Cosωct


 

                    = Vc Cosωct + ma Vc  Cosωmt Cosωct

                     = Vc Cosωct + ma Vc [Cos(ωc + ωm)t + Cos(ωc – ωm)t]

                                                2

                     = Carrier       +           USB                 +      LSB

Finally the modulated wave contains carrier term and upper side band and lower side band.

Frequency spectrum of AM Wave

 
  

 
 

Graphical representation of AM

Phasor representation of AM

Power relation in AM:

 The modulated wave contains three terms such as carrier wave, LSB, USB.
 The modulated wave contains more power than the unmodulated carrier.

                  Total Power in modulated wave will be,


                          Pt = PC + PUSB  + PLSB

i.e. total power Pt of AM wave is the sum of carrier power and side band power.

                        PC      - Carrier power

                        PUSB - Upper Side Band power

                        PLSB  - Lower Side Band power

But we know that                                       

                          Vcarrier=RMS value of carrier voltage.

                          VLSB= VUSB=RMS value of upper and lower side band voltages.

                            R=Resistence in which power is dissipated.

The  RMS value is VRMS=Vm/√2

Therefore Pcarrier=V2carrier/R=(Vc/ √2)2/R=Vc2/2R

Current relation in AM:

                                     
 

It=Total(or)modulated current

IC=Carrier current

Efficiency:

                     % η = Power in side band    x 100

                                     Total Power

                             =PLSB+PLSB  x 100

                                 PTotal

                                          =   ma2      x 100

                               2+ma 2

                        If ma = 1

Then   %η = 33.33 %

In this only one third of total power is carried by the sidebands and the rest two third is wasted.
 

2. Derive the expression for DSB-SC AM and calculate its efficiency.

           In AM with carrier scheme, there is wastage in both transmitted power and bandwidth. In
order to save the power in amplitude modulation the carrier is suppressed because it does not
contain any useful information. This scheme is called as the double side band suppressed carrier
amplitude Modulation (DSB-SC). It contains LSB and USB terms, resulting in a transmission
bandwidth that is twice the bandwidth of the message signal.

Let us consider the modulating voltage,

               Vm(t) = Vm Cos ωmt ------------(1)

               Vc(t) =  Vc Cos ωct -------------(2)

For obtaining the DSB-SC wave we have to multiply both carrier signal and message
signal.hence,

      V(t)DSB-SC = Vm(t).Vc(t)

                           =Vm.Vc cosωm t cosωc t

                     V(t)DSB-SC=Vm.Vc [ cos(ωc +ωm )t + cos(ωc - ωm )t

                                           2

                                       USB                              LSB

From this equation we know that the carrier is suppressed in double side band suppressed carrier.

Graphical Representation of DSB-SC AM:

 
 

Frequency spectrum of DSB-SC AM

                   It shows that carrier term ωc is suppressed. It contains only two sideband terms
having frequency (ωc - ωm) and  (ωc + ωm). Hence this scheme is called as DSB-SC AM.

Phasor representation of DSB-SC AM:

Power Calculation:

w.k.t  The total power transmitted in AM is

              Pt =Pcarrier +PLSB +PUSB

If the carrier is suppressed , then the total power transmitted is

               Pt’ =  PLSB +PUSB

 
w.k.t, PLSB = PUSB = ma 2 Vc2
            

      
                              8R

Pt’ = ma 2 Vc2   +  ma 2 Vc2

           8R             8R

     =  
             

Power Saving = Pt  - Pt’   x 100


                    
             Pt

                              =     [ 1+ ma 2 / 2] PC  - [ma 2 / 2] PC

 
  

                             [1+ ma 2 / 2] PC 


                            

                            
=         PC

                          [1+ ma 2 / 2] PC 

% Power Saving =      2      x 100


                                  2+ ma 2

If ma  = 1, then power saving     (2/3) x 100 = 66.7 %

i.e 66.7% of power is saved by using DSB-SC-AM.

1. 3.     Derive the expression for SSB-SC AM and calculate its 

      Efficiency

 In AM with carrier both the transmitting power and bandwidth is wasted. Hence the
DSB-SC AM scheme has been introduced in which power is saved by suppressing the
carrier component but the bandwidth remains same.
  Increase in the saving of power is possible by eliminating one sideband in addition to the
carrier component because the USB and LSB are uniquely related by symmetry about the
carrier frequency. So either one sideband is enough for transmitting as well as recovering
the useful message. The block diagram of SSB-SC AM is shown in figure.
 As for as transmission information is concerned only one side band is necessary. so if the
carrier and one of the two sidebands are suppressed at the transmitter, no information is
lost.
 This type of modulation is called as single side band suppressed carrier-AM and the SSB
system reduces the band width by half.

             The block diagram of SSB-SC AM is shown in figure.

 The single side band suppressed carrier can be obtained as follows,


 In order to suppress one of the sideband, the input signal fed to the modulator1 is 90° out
of phase with that of the signal fed to the modulator’2’.

  Let V1(t) =  Vm cosωm t .Vc cos ωc t

       V2 (t) = Vm cos(ωmt + 90° ). Vc cos (ωc t + 90° )


                  = Vm sin ωmt. Vc sin ωc t

Therefore,

          V(t) SSB = V1(t) +V2(t)

                       = Vm Vc [cosωm t. cosωc t + sin ωmt. sinωct]

                   V(t)SSB=  Vm Vc cos (ωc - ωm) t.          

W.k.t, for DSB-SC AM

         VDSB-SC (t) = Vm Ec [cos(ωc +ωm )t + cos(ωc - ωm)t]

                                 2

When comparing equations of V(t) SSB-SC and VDSB-SC (t) , one of the sideband is suppressed.
Hence this scheme is known as SSB-SC AM.

Frequency Spectrum Of SSB-SC-AM:

 The Frequency spectrum shows that only one side band signal is present , the carrier and
the other sideband signal are suppressed. Thus the bandwidth required reduces from 2 ωm
to ωm  i.e., bandwidth requirement is reduced to half compared to AM & DSB-SC
signals. 

Graphical representation of SSB-SC-AM:

Phasor representation of SSB-SC-AM:

Power calculation:

   Power in sidebands Pt” = PSB = ma2Vc2/8R=ma2 Pc / 4

  Power saving with respect to AM with carrier

    Power saving =  Pt  - Pt”x100


                    
                Pt

where Pt  = Total power transmitted.

Power saving =  [ 1+ ma 2 / 2] PC  - [ma 2 / 4] PC

 
  

                             [1+ ma 2 / 2] PC 


                           
                       =  PC  +[ma 2 / 2] PC - [ma 2 / 4] PC

                               [1+ ma 2 / 2] PC 

                    = 

If ma=1 then %power saving= (5/6) x100=83.3%

So we can save 83.3% of power with respect to AM with carrier.

 We can also find the power in SSB-SC-AM with respect to AM with DSB-SC system
and that will be,

If ma=1 then %power saving=50%.therefore 50%power is saved with respect to DSB-SC


System.

4. Write notes on VSB system.

              (OR)

   Explain vestigial side band modulation with frequency response  

   Characteristics. [Nov-03]

 Ø If we are considering the modulated signals of very large bandwidth (such as video
signals, T.V and high speed data signals) having the very low frequency components
along with rest of the signal. 
 Ø These low frequency components give rise to sidebands very close to the carrier
frequency which are difficult to remove it. so it is not possible to go till the extreme and
fully suppress one complete sideband in case of television signals. 
 Ø The low video frequencies contain the most important information of the picture, so if
we suppress one sideband it becomes unsuitable for handling such type of signals. 
 Ø This difficulty has been over come in a scheme known as vestigial sideband (VSB)
modulation.i.e. Partially suppressing any one of the sidebands. 
 Ø A VSB system is a compromise between DSB-SC-AM and SSB-SC-AM, but avoids
their disadvantages.VSB signals are very easy to generate and the bandwidth is slightly
greater than SSB-SC-AM, but less than DSB-SC-AM. 

 
 

   

 VSB modulation is derived by filtering DSB-SC-AM. Here in VSB system one side band
is passed almost completely, while a part of other sideband is used.
 So mainly in VSB instead of rejecting one sideband completely a gradual cut of one
sideband is acceptable. The role off characteristics of filter is such that partial suppression
of transmission sideband is VSB.
 By using VSB system the bandwidth obtained is greater than SSB system but less than
DSB.
 Power transmission is greater than DSB but less than SSB system.
 No low frequency component lost. Hence avoids the phase distortion.

5. Write short notes on the types of generation methods of AM with  

     Carrier.

 The generation method of AM waves are broadly divided in to two types,


 Linear modulator(or)large signal modulator(or)high level modulation
 Non Linear modulator(or)small signal modulator(or)low level modulation
 Linear modulator:
 In this type of modulators the devices are operated in linear region of its transfer
characteristics.
 Linear modulators are also divided in to two types,
 Transistor modulator
 Switching modulator.
 Non linear modulators:
 These modulators are operated in nonlinear region. 
 These are used in low level modulation. 
 The types of non linear modulators are,
 Square law modulator, 
 Product modulator, 
 Balanced modulator. 

6. Explain the principle of operation of square law modulator and 

    Mention its merits and demerits.

                                          (OR)

   Explain any one generation method of AM [Nov-05]

                                           (OR)

   Explain the principle of operation of any one non linear   

   Modulators.

 Here we are using V-I characteristics of diode is used as a element for non-linear
modulators.

 
  

 
 

 This is suited at low voltage levels because of the fact that current-voltage characteristics
of a diode is highly nonlinear particularly in the low voltage region as shown in figure.

 A square law modulator has three features shown in figure.


 Summer-to sum carrier and modulating signal
 A non linear element
 Band pass filter for extracting desired modulating products.

Principle of operation:

 From the figure the non linear device diode is used to produce low level amplitude
modulation.
 Here the carrier and modulating signals are applied across the diode.
 A dc battery Vcc is connected across the diode to get a fixed operating point on the V-I
characteristics of the diode.
 This amplitude modulation that is low level can be explained by considering the fact
when two different frequencies are passed through the non linear device.
 So when we apply carrier and modulating frequencies different frequency terms appear at
the output of diode.
 These different frequency terms are applied across the tuned circuit which is tuned to
carrier frequency and has a narrow bandwidth just to pass two sidebands along with the
carrier and reject other frequencies.
 So the output of the tuned circuit will be carrier and two sidebands that is amplitude
modulated wave is produced.

Mathematical analysis:

Let the modulating voltage will be

Vm= Vm cosωm t------------- (1)

Let the carrier voltage will be

Vc= Vc cosωc t---------------- (2)

So the input voltage applied to t6he diode will be

V1= Vm+ Vc ------------------------------ (3)

     = Vm cosωm t+ Vc cosωc t

W.k.t the current and voltage relationship of a linear circuit is,

i=av

i=current through linear device

v=voltage through the linear device

a=proportionality constant

 The current and voltage relationship of a nonlinear circuit may be expressed as,
i=a V1+b V12+c V13+ ----------

 This means that due to non-linearity in the V-I characteristics of a non-linear circuits, the
current becomes proportional not only to voltage but also to the square, cube and higher
powers of voltage. So

i= a1V1+a2 V12+a3 V13+ ----------    ---------- (4)

Where a1, a2, a3 are proportionality constants and V1is the input voltage applied to the diode or FET.

 Sub equn(3)in(4)then

i= a1(Vm cosωm t+ Vc cosωc t)+ a2(Vm cosωm t+ Vc cosωc t)2+------------

 = a1 Vm cosωm t+ a1 Vc cosωc t+ a2 Vm2 cosωm2 t+ a2 Vc2 cosωc2 t+2a2VmVc cosωm t 

                                                                                                                   cosωc t+---

Neglecting second and higher order terms, we get

i(t)= a1 Vm cosωm t+ a1 Vc cosωc t +2a2VmVc cosωm t cosωc t+---

    = a1 Vm cosωm t+ a1 Vc cosωc t +2a2VmVc [cos(ωc+ωm)t + cos(ωc-ωm)t]

                                                             2

i(t)= a1 Vm cosωm t+ a1 Vc cosωc t +a2VmVc [cos(ωc+ωm)t + cos(ωc-ωm)t]

 The tuned circuit is tuned to the carrier frequency and it allows only ωc, ωc+ωm, ωc-ωm
terms and eliminates all other terms.hence we obtain

i(t)= a1 Vc cosωc t +a2VmVc [cos(ωc+ωm)t + cos(ωc-ωm)t]

 
 

 The main drawback of using diode modulator is it does not provide amplification and a
single diode is unable to balance out the frequency completely. These limitations can be
eliminated by using amplifying devices like transistor, FET in a balanced mode.
 We can also use the square law modulator with FET instead of diode.
 From the final equation we know that it consists only the carrier and USB and LSB
frequency components and all the components are removed.

7. Explain the principle of operation of Product modulator.

                                          (OR)

   Explain any one generation method of AM [Nov-05]

                                           (OR)

   Explain the principle of operation of any one non linear   

   Modulators.

 In a square law modulator the sidebands of an AM signal contains new frequencies that
are not present in the carrier (or) message signal.

 
 

 The modulating signal and carrier signal is multiplied and added with carrier frequency in
order to obtain the amplitude modulated wave.
 This is practically applied by using analog multiplier and an op-amp summer. analog
multiplication is done by variable trasconductance method.
 Here input voltage is applied to variable Tran conductance multiplier.
 V1 varies with total emitter current.
 V2 is given to the input to VtoI converter.
 The output of the multiplier contains only sideband terms which is given to the summer
with the carrier which is given to the summer with the carrier which in turn produces an
amplitude modulated wave.
 The output V0(t)=KV1V2

            V1=Vm cosωm t, V2=Vc cosωc t

                  V0(t)=K Vm Vc cosωm t cosωc t

                    Then input of summer will be

             Vs(t)= V0(t)+ Vc(t)

             Vs(t)= Vc cosωc t+ K Vm Vc cosωm t cosωc t

Thus the AM signal with carrier is produces by using product modulator.

8. Explain the principle of operation of balanced modulator for 


    Generating AM with carrier. [Nov-03]

                                          (OR)

   Explain any one generation method of AM [Nov-05][Apr-04]

                                           (OR)

   Explain the principle of operation of any one non linear   

   Modulators.

 We know that a non-linear device may be used to produce amplitude modulation. That is
one carrier and two side bands.
 Here we are using two transistors, non linear devices are identical and the circuit is
symmetrical. 
 In this the carrier voltage across the two windings of a centre tap transformers are equal
and opposite in phase Vc= -Vc’ 
 Input to the transistor T1 is given by,

                        Vbe = Vc(t)+ Vm(t)----------(1)

                        Vbe= Vc cosωc t +Vm cosωm t--------- (2)

 Similarly Input to the transistor T2,

                        V’be = -Vc(t)+ Vm(t)----------(3)

                        V’be = - Vc cosωc t +Vm cosωm t--------- (4)

By using the non-linearity property the collector current can be written as per square law
equation

     ic = a1 Vbe + a2 Vbe2   + …….  -----------(5)

     i’c  = a1 V’be + a2 V’be2  +…….   ---------(6)                


 

Hence from this


     ic = a1 [Vc cosωc t +Vm cosωm t]+ a2 [Vc cosωc t +Vm cosωm t]2

     ic= a1 [Vc cosωc t +Vm cosωm t]+ a2V2c cos2ωc t+a2V2m cos2ωm t+2a2Vm Vc cosωm t 

                                                                                                            cosωc t---(7)

Similarly

    ic = a1 [-Vc cosωc t +Vm cosωm t]+ a2 [-Vc cosωc t +Vm cosωm t]2

     ic= a1 [-Vc cosωc t +Vm cosωm t]+ a2V2c cos2ωc t+a2V2m cos2ωm t-2a2Vm Vc cosωm t 

                                                                                                            cosωc t---(8)

The output AM voltage V0 is K[ ic – i’c ]


  
That is

                          Vo = K[ ic – i’c ]

Because ic, i’c flows in the opposite direction.and’K’is a constant depending on impedance or
other circuit parameters.

                          Vo = 2K a1 Vc Cosωct + 4a2 Vm Vc Cosωmt Cosωct

 This equation represents the output modulated voltage which contains carrier and side
band terms.
 The same circuit can also be used to generate the DSB-SC-AM. By using balanced
modulator the undesired harmonics are automatically balanced out.
  

9. Explain the principle of any one of the linear modulators?

                                          (OR)

  What are the types of transistor modulators and explain the 

   Working principle of collector modulator?


                                            (OR)

 Explain any one generation method of AM [Nov-05][Apr-04]

 Ø The linear modulators are used in high level amplitude modulation. 


 Ø There are types of linear modulators available, 
 Ø They are 

                  1. Transistor modulators

                  2. Switching modulators.

 Ø Transistor modulator having the classification as collector modulator, Base


modulation, Emitter modulation. 

Collector modulator 

 Collector modulation method is a very popular method for high level AM generation and
it is used in high power applications.
 Transistor T1, makes a radio frequency classC amplifier. and at the base T1,the carrier
signal is applied.
 VCC makes the collector supply used for biasing purpose.
 Transistor T2 makes a class-B amplifier which is used to amplify the modulating signal.
 So class-C is used to amplify the carrier signal, and class-B is used to amplify the
modulating signal.
 This amplified base band or modulating signal appears in series with the collector supply.
 The function of the capacitor is to prevent the carrier signal flowing through the
modulation transformer. And the supply VCC is used for biasing.

Operating principle

 In class-C amplifier the magnitude of the output voltage is a definite fraction of or at the
most equal to supply voltage VCC.
 So the unmodulated carrier is amplified by Class-C modulated amplifier using transistor
T1 and its magnitude will remain constant at VCC since there appears no voltage across the
modulating transformer in the absence of base band or modulating voltage.
 But now if a base band or modulating voltage Vm cosωm t appears across the modulating
transformer, the signal will be added to the supply voltage VCC.
 This type of slow variation in carrier supply voltage at the output of the modulated class-
C amplifier.
 So the final output of the carrier modulation transformer will be variation of voltage with
respect to modulating voltage with supply voltage VCC.
 From the figure we observed that an envelope of the output voltage is identical with the
base band or modulating voltage and hence an AM signal is generated.
 

Mathematical analysis:

 When the modulating voltage is applied then it is added up with the supply voltage then,
the amplitude of modulated voltage will be

 This amplitude of modulated voltage with VCC produces a change in carrier supply
voltage. So change in carrier supply voltage will be equal to amplitude of modulated
voltage. so we can mention the change in carrier supply voltage is VC then,

 Finally the amplitude modulated output voltage will be obtained from carrier modulating
transformer. So final output V0 will be

 Ø Hence from the above equation we can express the output voltage consists of a carrier
term and the side band terms. Hence an AM wave generated.
 Ø Like collector modulator in base and emitter modulator the modulating signal is
applied to base and emitter junction, and added up with the supply voltage and produces
the change in carrier. Finally we will obtain the AM wave.
 Ø Advantages:-
 Ø Power output per transistor is usually high. 
 Ø Collector efficiency is high. 
 Ø Disadvantages:
 Ø Large modulating input power is required when the modulating amplifier is a high
power amplifier. 

10. Explain the principle of any one of the linear modulators?

                                          (OR)

      Explain the working principle of switching modulators?

 The switching modulators (or) chopper modulators are the linear modulators. Here we are
using active device as switches.

 The devices such as BJT or diode serves as a switch.


 Here we are using a simple diode circuit.
 The diode is forward biased for every positive half cycle of the carrier and behaves like a
short circuited switch.
 For a negative half cycle of the carrier the diode is reverse biased and behaves like an
open switch. The signal doesn’t reach the filter and no output is obtained.
 While the circuit is short circuited without applying any modulating signal, then the
carrier is carried over to the tank circuit, then the output will be tuned to only carrier
frequency.
 V0(t)=VCcosωct---------(1)[Steady state o/p voltage in the absence of  

                                                         Modulating voltage]

 Now we are applying the modulating signal with 1: N ratio. Then this signal will be
added up with the o/p voltage. then the o/p voltage will be,

                V0(t)=Vccosωct+N.VmVccosωmt cosωct                                                    

This means that the o/p voltage contains carrier and side band terms. Thus the amplitude
modulated wave generated. The tank circuit is used to select certain frequencies and rejects all
other frequencies. If the number of turns of transformer is selected properly then the desired
modulation has been accomplished without appreciable generation of undesired components
otherwise band pass filter is required to remove the unwanted components.

11. Explain the principle of operation of balanced modulator for 

       Generating DSB-SC-AM.[Nov-03]

                                          (OR)

      Explain any one modulation method for generating DSB-SC-AM.

 We know that a non-linear device may be used to produce amplitude modulation. That is
one carrier and two side bands.
 But a DSB-SC signal contains only two side bands.
 So we are connecting two diodes or two transistors to produce a DSB-SC signal.
 Here the two non-linear devices are connected in balanced mode.
 The same circuit can be used to generate AM with carrier. The main difference between
AM with carrier generation and DSB-SC –AM is the feeding points of the carrier and
modulating signals are interchanged.

Principle of operation:

 The modulating signal is applied as the input to the transistor T1 and T2 where as we are
applying carrier in case of AM with carrier. Because of centre tap transformers are equal
and opposite in phase Vm= -Vm’ 
 Input to the transistor T1 is given by,

                        Vbe = Vm(t)+ Vc(t)----------(1)

                        Vbe= Vm cosωm t +Vc cosωc t  --------- (2)

 Similarly Input to the transistor T2,

                        V’be = -Vm(t)+ Vc(t)----------(3)

                        V’be = - Vm cosωm t +Vc cosωc t --------- (4)

By using the non-linearity property the collector current can be written as per square law
equation
 

     ic = a1 Vbe + a2 Vbe2   + …….  -----------(5)

     i’c  = a1 V’be + a2 V’be2  +…….   ---------(6)                


 

Hence from this

     ic = a1 [Vm cosωm t +Vc cosωc t ]+ a2 [Vm cosωm t +Vc cosωc t]2

     ic= a1 [Vm cosωm t +Vc cosωc t ]+ a2V2m cos2ωm t+a2V2c cos2ωc t+2a2Vm Vc cosωm t 

                                                                                                            cosωc t---(7)

Similarly

    ic = a1 [-Vm cosωm t +Vc cosωc t ]+ a2 [-Vm cosωm t +Vc cosωc t]2

     ic= a1 [-Vm cosωm t +Vc cosωc t]+ a2V2m cos2ωm t+a2V2c cos2ωc t-2a2Vm Vc cosωm t 

                                                                                                            cosωc t---(8)

The output AM voltage V0 is K[ ic – i’c ]


  
That is

                          Vo = K[ ic – i’c ]

Because ic, i’c flows in the opposite direction.and’K’is a constant depending on impedance or
other circuit parameters.

                          Vo = K [2a1 Vm Cosωmt + 4a2 Vm Vc Cosωmt Cosωct]

Here we are using a band pass filter the other frequencies centered at ±ωc so it will allow only
pass band frequencies.

 
 

 So only the side bands are present in the o/p.Hence the DSB-SC-AM generated.
 The main advantage of this modulator is saving power and efficiency because of the
suppressing of the carrier.

12. Explain the principle of operation of Diode balanced modulator  

      (Or) ring modulator for generating DSB-SC-AM.

                                                 (OR)

      Explain any one modulation method for generating DSB-SC-AM.

 Ring modulator is another product modulator. Which is used to generate DSB-SC Signal.
 Here we are not using any band pass filter at the output; the harmonic frequencies are
automatically controlled.
 In a ring modulator circuit four diode are connected in the form of ring in which all the
four diodes are point in the same manner.
 All the four diodes in the ring are controlled by a square wave carrier signal

      Vc (t).

 On positive half cycle of the carrier diode D1 and D3 will conduct. And point’a’ is
connected to the input through half of the output transformer secondary. In negative half
cycle diode D2 and D4 will conduct.
 While we applying both modulating and carrier signal on +ve half cycle diode D1 and D2
will conduct. And in –ve half cycle diode D3 and D4 will conduct. So the final o/p will be
product of signals.

Let us consider the modulating voltage,

               Vm(t) = Vm Cos ωmt ------------(1)


               Vc(t) =  Vc Cos ωct -------------(2)

For obtaining the DSB-SC wave we have to multiply both carrier signal and message
signal.hence,

      V0(t) = Vm(t).Vc(t)

               =Vm.Vc cosωm t cosωc t

                     V0(t) =Vm.Vc [ cos(ωc +ωm )t + cos(ωc - ωm )t

                                     2

                                       USB                              LSB

The o/p contains only two side band terms. Hence an DSB-SC wave is generated.

 The main advantage is the o/p is stable and long life, no external source to activate the
diodes.

13. Explain the frequency discrimination method for generating SSB-

      SC-AM.

                                                    (OR)

      Explain the method of generating an SSB.[Nov-05][Apr-04]

 Frequency discrimination method is otherwise called as selective filtering method. The


SSB is generated by filtering the DSB.

 
 

 Here the base band is restricted and approximately related to the carrier frequency. Under
this condition the desired side band is selected by an appropriate filter by restricting the
desired side band.

 
 

 But practically it is not possible to extract completely one of the side band and rejects
other, because the practical filter doesn’t have ideal characteristics. Hence a compromise
has been made to design an appropriate side band filter.
 This method is basically consists of a balanced modulator and a suppression filter. The
DSB-SC signal is passed through a sharp cut-off filter to eliminate the undesired side
band.
 The requirements of a filter are
 The pass band of the filter should be same as that of the desired side band.
 The separation region between pass band and stop band should not exceed twice the
max frequency component present in the base band.
 Here we are using band pass filter. Transmission of very high (such as 10MHz)
frequency as well as very low frequency (50Hz) through side band filtering is impossible.
So we are using” Mechanical filters or crystal filters”. 
 The filter is not able to follow such a change of steep response. To overcome this they
have been replaced by mechanical or crystal filters, which may be used in frequency
range of 500 KHz to 80 MHz. 
 We are using mechanical filters because they are small in size, good band pass
characteristics, very good attenuation. 
 The crystal filters may be cheaper but are preferable only at frequencies greater than
1MHz. 
 All the filters having the disadvantage, the maximum operating frequencies are below the
usual transmitting frequency. Hence a balanced mixer is used. 
 So we are using mixer in order to increase the operating frequency, for that we are adding
frequency of the crystal oscillator. Thus the frequency will below the transmitted
frequency. So that we are using mixer. 
 If suppose the transmitting frequency is two high then two stages of mixing will be
required. 
 At the mixer part we are using class’B’amplifier which is more efficient than
Class’A’output. 

14. Explain the Phase shift method for generating SSB-SC-AM.

                                                    (OR)

      Explain the method of generating an SSB.[Nov-05][Apr-04]

 This method avoids the prime disadvantage of filtering method. That is requirement of a
sideband filter with a narrow transition band and it cannot be used for very low and very
high frequencies.
 The undesired components are removed by generating two side band components out of
phase, when added these side band components cancel each other leaving only the
desired side band signal.
 From the figure One of the modulators M1 receives the carrier voltage shifted by 900 and
the modulating voltage, where as another balanced modulator M2 receives the
modulating voltage shifted by 900 and the carrier voltage.
 Both balanced modulators produce an output considering only of side bands.
 Both the upper side bands leads the carrier voltage by 900.one of the lower side bands
leads the reference voltage by 900 and the other lags it by 900.
 The two lower side bands are thus out of phase, and when combined together in the adder
they cancel each other, and hence they produced the SSB signal.

 
 

Mathematical analysis:

For modulator1 (M1)

                        Vc(t) = Vc cos(ωc t+900)

                        Vm(t)= Vm cosωm t

For modulator2(M2)

                        Vc(t) = Vc cosωc t

                        Vm(t)= Vm cos(ωm t+ 900)

o/p for modulator(M1)isV1

V1=Vc cos(ωc t+900). Vm cosωm t

= VcVm [  cos(ωc t+900+ ωm t)+  cos(ωc t+900- ωm t)]  --------(1)           

        2

o/p for modulator(M2)isV2

V2=Vc cosωc t. Vm cos(ωm t+ 900)


 

= VcVm [  cos(ωc t+ ωm t +900)+  cos(ωc t- ωm t -900)] --------(2)

        2

Final o/p V0= V1 + V2

                V0=2VcVm cos(ωc t+ ωm t +900)----------(3)

Equation (1) contains 900phase shift and equn (2) contains (-900) phase shift. Hence they both get
cancelled.

 Thus one of the side band is cancelled where as the other is kept as it is. This method
avoids the use of filters.

15. Explain the Modified Phase shift method for generating SSB-SC-

     AM.                                                    (OR)

      Explain the weavers method of generating an SSB.

 The modified phase shift method overcomes the limitation of phase shift method. That is
AF phase shift network is required to operate over a large range of audio frequencies but
also retains the advantage like its ability to generate SSB at any frequency and use of low
audio frequency.
 This method provides both RF and AF oscillator phase shift and also used in low
frequency and so it can be used for both audio and radio frequencies.

 
 

 In weavers method we are using four balanced modulators. it is just similar to that phase
shift method. Balanced modulator 1&2 are slightly different from modulator 3&4.
 Here instead of trying to phase shift the whole range of audio frequencies it combines the
AF carrier which lies in the middle of audio frequency.
 So we are taking the modulating signal

          Vm= Vm cosωm t-------- (1)

          The A.F carrier(sub carrier signal) V0(t) is the one type of carrier,then

               Middle of frequency V0(t)= V0 cosω0 t

                                                   2

                                               So V0(t)= 2V0 cosω0 t

The R.F carrier

               Vc(t)= Vc cosωc t-----------(2)

                  2
         So Vc(t)= 2Vc cosωc t------------(3)

For modulator1 (M1)

Vm(t)= Vm cosωm t                    

Vc(t) = 2V0 cos(ω0 t+900)

o/p for modulator(M1)is A

A= Vm cosωm t .2V0 cos(ω0 t+900)    

A= VmV0 [  cos(ω0 t+900+ ωm t)+  cos(ω0 t+900- ωm t)]  --------(4)       

                        For i/p to modulator2(M2)

                        Vm(t) = Vm cosωm t

                        Vc(t)= 2V0 cosω0 t

                        o/p for modulator(M2)is B

                       B=2Vm V0 cosωm t cosω0 t

                        B= Vm V0[cos(ω0 t+ ωm t)+ cos(ω0 t- ωm t)]-----------(5)

The o/p of LPF1, 2 will be any one of the side band terms. Here the USB is suppressed

O/p of LPF1 is C= Vm V0 cos(ω0 t+900- ωm t )-----------(6)

O/p of LPF2 is D= Vm V0 cos(ω0 t- ωm t)-----------(7)

The o/p of LPF1,2 are given to B.M3,B.M4.

   For i/p to modulator3 (C)will be

C= Vm V0 cos(ω0 t+900- ωm t )]

Vc(t) = 2Vc cosωc t

o/p for modulator(M3)is V1


So V1= 2Vm V0 Vc cos(ω0 t+900- ωm t ) cosωc t

   Assume  Vm =V0 =Vc=1,then

V1= 2cos(ω0 t+900- ωm t ) cosωc t--------------(8)

For i/p to modulator4 (D)will be

D= Vm V0 cos(ω0 t- ωm t)

Vc(t) = 2Vc cos(ωc t+900)

o/p for modulator(M4)is V2

So V2= 2Vm V0 Vc cos(ω0 t- ωm t) cos(ωc t+900)

   Assume  Vm =V0 =Vc=1, then

V2= 2 cos(ω0 t- ωm t) cos(ωc t+900)------------------(9)         

                        Final o/p VSSB-SC= V1 + V2

Hence VSSB-SC=2 cos[(ω0 + ωc – ωm)t+900]

             VSSB-SC=-sin[(ω0 + ωc – ωm)t. hence the SSB signal generated.

16. Explain the Principle of operation of AM transmitters, SSB

Antenna
 

     Transmitters and ISB transmitters.

AM Transmitters:

Block diagram:-

 
 

v  AM broad cast transmitters are used in large number of applications such as transmission of
music, speech or entertainment for general public. The output power of transmitter varies from
1kw to 100kw. It also works in long ware   medium wave and short wave frequency ranges.

v  Master oscillator: it generates high frequency waves which are subsequently sued as the
carries. The master oscillator should fulfill the following requirements.

 The circuit must provide carrier of specified frequency


 Frequency should be drift free. (Slow variations of frequency with time is termed as
frequency drift .i.e. it should be easily adjustable.
 Changes in supply voltages.

v  Buffer amplifier: the buffer stage is a class A voltage amplifier.

v  If the buffer amplifier is absent then master oscillator will be directly connected to the power
amplifier, hence there may be a chance of change in frequency

v  Harmonic generators (frequency multiplier): when a transmitter has to be operated at the


high frequency band (3MHZ-30MHZ) then frequency multipliers are used to obtain the required
output frequency.

v  Power amplifier: the RF voltage generated by the master oscillator has usually very small
power. This power level is raised to required level by a chain amplifier.

v  Preamplifier:

For noiseless transmission – audio amplifier used. For T.V transmission – video amplifier is
used. The main function of pre amplifier is to raise the amplitude of the signal source to a desired
level
v  Modulated amplifiers:

This is generally a push pull class B or class C amplifier and the modulating signal is fed into
plate or collector of the amplifier. Generally collector or plate modulator method is used in a
high power radio broadcast and radio telephone transmitters.

v  Antenna matching network:

            The output of the final amplifier is fed to an impedance matching network in order to
avoid the amplitude and frequency distortion while passing the side bands.

v  In case of AM transmitters we are having two types of modulation low level and high level
modulation.

v  In case of AM transmitters, the modulating signal is given to power amplifiers which are
modulated and carrier frequency is also given to transmit the signals. Finally the modulated
signal is amplified by modulated amplifier and given to antenna.

v  We have already discussed about the type of AM modulation, so from this we know that we
are having low level AM transmitter, high level AM transmitter.

SSB   transmitters:

v  The single side band transmission method consists of transmitting only one side band with the
suppression of the other side band along with carrier.

v  It is use in radio telephony systems

v  This method having high signal to noise ratio compare to DSB.

v  Compare to DSB, Bandwidth are also reduced to half. Thus twice the number of channels can
be accommodated in a given frequency spec ham

v  But the main disadvantage of SSB system is designing of SSB transmitter and receiver is more
complex

v  Before taking the SSB transmission, we know the generation of SSB wave by frequency
discrimination method and phase discrimination method. In frequency discrimination method we
are using filters in order to suppress the side band and balanced mixer in order to increase the
operating frequency.

v  In phasediscrimination method the output of balanced modulators are added together and
produced the SSB – SC waves.
v  In the block diagram of SSB transmitter, the audio frequency and as well as carrier frequency
are fed in to the balanced modulator. The output will be the DSB output i.e. one carrier is
suppressed and two sidebands are present.

v  The output of the balanced modulator is given to filter in which anyone of the sideband is
suppressed either upper side band or lower sideband.

v  This output fed in to a balanced mixer with higher frequency in order to increase the operating
frequency. From this the harmonics are rejected by band filters.

v  The output is given to second mixer mixes the signal frequencies with the high frequency and
again filtered and finally the signal is amplified in the final amplifier and transmitted.

ISB Transmitter (independent side band)

v  The ISB is the further extension of SSB principle. I.e. independent side band working with
each side band of the transmitted signal carrier a separate message signal.

v  The carrier transmission is at a reduced level to have more power. So the channel capacity will
be wide one.

v  In the block diagram of ISB transmitter, the audio signals from two channels A &B are
amplified by the channel amplifier and applied to the channel balanced modulators I & II then a
100KHZ carrier signal is generated and applied to the balanced modulators.

v  The resulting signal is fed to balanced modulator III along with 100KHZ carrier of low
magnitude.

v  Then the lower side band is filtered by filter and USB is passed to the B.M IV.

v  The output of B.M IV will be two side bands i.e. LSB and USB while carrier of 15MHZ gets
suppressed

v  Then LSB is again filtered out and the USB is passed on to the power amplifier stage when the
signals are amplified to the required power level and transmitted

v  This is one type of SSB transmitter is I&B. uses independent sideband working.

17. Explain the principle of operation of square law Detector and  Mention its merits and
demerits.

                                          (OR)

   Explain any one demodulation method of AM [Nov-04]

                                           (OR)
   Explain the principle of operation of any one non linear   

   Detectors.

v  Demodulation or detection is nothing but the process of extracting a modulating or base band
signal from modulated signal. Otherwise in other words, demodulation or detection is the process
by which the message is recovered from the modulated signal at receiver.

v  The devices used for demodulation or detection are called as demodulators or detector

v  For amplitude modulation, the detectors or demodulators are categorized are

 Square law detectors or nonlinear detectors


 Linear detectors

v  The low level modulated signals are using non linear detectors to recover the original message
signal

Square – law detector. (Non linear detector)

v  The square law detector circuit is used for detecting modulated signal of small magnitude

v  Here the diode is used in V – I characteristics of the device i.e. non linear characteristics of the
diode.

v  The square law detector is similar to the square law modulator. The only difference lies in the
filter circuit.

v  In square law modulator we are using band pass filters, in square law detector; a low pass filter
is used.

v  The DC supply voltage VAA is used to get the fixed operating point in the non-linear portion of
the diode V-I characteristics

v  We know the operation is limited to the non-linear region of the diode characteristics, so the
lower half portion of the modulated waveform is compressed.

v  This produces the envelope distortion, so the average value of the diode – current is no longer
constant and varies with time. The average diode current consists of steady DC component and
time varying modulation frequency.

v  Due to nonlinear region the lower half of its current wave form is compressed. This may cause
envelope distortion due to this diode current will not be constant, and varies with time.
 

                                       I

                                                                                         V

v  The distorted output diode current is expressed by the non-linear V-I relationship (i.e. square
law) is,

i0=a1 Va+ a2 Va2

Va=i/p modulated signal.

And we know the value of AM wave is

Va= Vc (1 + ma Cosωmt) Cosωct

We are providing supply voltage VAA to provide operating point.

So   Va=VAA+ Vc (1 + ma Cosωmt) Cosωct (that is it contains the DC component and 

                                                                      Time varying modulated signal)

 
i0=a1[VAA+ Vc (1 + ma Cosωmt) Cosωct ]+a2[VAA+ Vc (1 + ma Cosωmt) Cosωct ]2

i0=a1VAA+ a1 Vc Cosωct (1 + ma Cosωmt)+a2V2AA+ a2 Vc2 Cos2ωct (1 + ma Cosωmt)2

                                                                           +2 VAA a2 Vc Cosωct (1 + ma Cosωmt)

i0=a1VAA+ a1 Vc Cosωct (1 + ma Cosωmt)+a2V2AA

                      + a2 Vc2 (1-Cos2ωct) (1 + ma2 Cos2ωmt+2 ma Cosωmt)

                      2

               +2 VAAa2 Vc Cosωct (1 + ma Cosωmt)                                                                        

The carrier term is filtered by using a filter then,

i0=a1VAA+ a2V2AA+ a2 Vc2 + a2 Vc2 (2 ma Cosωmt)

The higher frequency term also reduced. The VAA is the supply voltage to get fixed operating
point in nonlinear region. So the final output contains a DC component and modulating
frequency. Hence original signal is recovered.                     

18. Explain the principle of operation of Envelope Detector (or)  

      Linear Diode detector and Mention its merits and demerits.

                                          (OR)

   Explain any one demodulation method of AM [Nov-04]

                                           (OR)

   Explain the principle of operation of any one linear   


   Detectors.

Linear detectors are mainly used in commercial receivers. This is classified into two types

v  Synchronous or coherent detector

v  Envelope or non coherent detector.

      Envelope detector:

v  It is known that a diode operating in linear region of its V-I characteristics can extract the
envelope of an AM wave.

v  This type of detector is known as envelope detector or a linear detector.

v  This is most popular in commercial receiver circuits since it is very simple and not expensive,
and also it gives satisfactory performance.

v  The input portion of the tuned transformer provides perfect tuning at the desired carrier
frequency. R-C network is the time constant network.

v  The diode is working diode is working in a linear portion of V-I characteristics of the diode.

v  Figure shows the idealized linear characteristics of the diode along with the input voltage and
output current waveforms.

            Operating principle:

v  First let us assume that the capacitor is absent in the circuit, in this case the detector circuit
will work as a half wave rectifier.

v  While we applying the capacitor, for positive half cycle the diode conducts and attains the
maximum peak, when it crosses the peak value , the diode gets reverse biased, and capacitor gets
discharged, through the resistor R with a time constant

τ =R C. so the time constant value should be properly chosen.

v  The voltage across the capacitor ‘c’ will not fall appreciably during the small period of
negative half cycle and by that time the next positive cycle appears. The positive cycle again
charges the capacitor c to the peak value of the carrier voltage and thus this process repeats again
and again. 
v  So the output voltage across capacitor is a spiky modulating or base band signal. So the
envelope is detected at the output of capacitor. Then if we take the average value, from the peak
value we will recover our original signal by extracting the envelope.

v  We can reduce these spikes to a negligible amount by keeping the time constant RC large so
that the capacitor c discharges negligible amount.

v  Large (or) small value of time constant makes problem. So time constant is important
consideration.

v  If RC is quite low: Discharge curve during non conductive period is almost vertical, so
fluctuations may occur in output voltage.

v  If RC is very large: Discharge curve is almost horizontal, so several peaks will missed in
output.

v  So when RC is large the ma will be low and signal becomes clipped at the negative peaks.

v  If the modulating voltage is faster than the rate of voltage fall across RC combination resulting
in distorted output. This type of distortion is called diagonal clipping.

v  There are two clippings i.e. distortions available

            Distortion in diode detector;

 Negative peak clipping


 Diagonal clipping.

v  Diagonal clipping: may cause when time constant of detector is not selected properly.

v  Improper selection of time constant RC.

v  So if modulating frequency is faster than the rate of voltage fall across RC combination
resulting in distorted output.

 
 

Negative peak clipping:

v  The 2nd source of distortion in linear diode detector is the curvatures of the diode
characteristics. So as a result the efficiency varies. It will be reduced by selecting load resistance
value large.

v  The negative peak clipping provides ac and dc load impedances unequal.

v  To avoid the clipping mainly diagonal clipping we have to select proper value of RC then, 
voltage across the capacitor in no conduction period

v  The rate of slope in capacitor due to period discharging is calculated by differentiating VC(t)

                  So

Like wise we have to calculate the slope of envelope voltage

       The slope is

 
 

       To avoid the clipping the slope of capacitor voltage VC should be algebraically equal or less
than the slope of envelope voltage, so

                       &

            By simplifying

          So RC depends on the ma value. So the RC to be selected by satisfying the condition in


order to avoid distortion and the modulation index value should be correct, if it is large then it
will provide negative peak clipping.

            So the envelope detector will be changed for smooth functioning by attaching a  section
low pass filter at the output.

19. Explain the principle of operation of Rectifier detector.                                                       

v  In the rectifier detector, the modulated signal is fed to the diode through a resonant circuit
tuned to carrier frequency

v  The resonant circuit has a bandwidth sufficient to accommodate the sidebands used.

v  The tank circuit in input side needed to prevent ripples entering to the diode

v  It is also the non coherent detector

v  Here we are using simple ohm’s law in order to calculate the output diode current

                Input voltage 

                The output diode circuit id =

Rd=Dynamic resistance of the diode.

 
If we find the average current then we will obtain the voltage output by

Vav=Iav.R

If we find the %η then it will be 31.8%.that is one third of o/p is taken at the o/p side. So we
want heavy filtering to avoid distortions. For this we are connecting the capacitor across the
resistor.

20. Explain the principle of operation of synchronous or coherent  

     Detector.                     

                                          (OR)

   Explain the method of detecting the DSB-SC-AM.

 The DSB-SC modulated signal reaches the receiver through a transmission medium and
at the receiver end the original modulating signal is recovered fro modulating signal.
 The coherent detector uses exact carrier synchronization for retrieving the message signal
from modulated signal.
 These types of detectors are mainly used for detecting DSB&SSB signals.
 For detecting signal we need a local oscillator at the receiver end. the frequency and
phase of the locally generated carrier and transmitter carrier must be synchronized that is
exactly coherent.
 All types of linear modulation can be detected by using synchronous detector. It consists
of a product modulator with LPF.
 The incoming signal is first multiplied with locally generated carrier and then passed
through low pass filter and the local oscillator should be exactly synchronized with
carrier.
 Considering the DSB-SC signal I/p

V1(t)=Vm.Vc cosωm t cosωc t

V2(t)=Vcosωc t

e(t)= V1(t). V2(t)= Vm.Vc Vcosωm t cos2ωc t

e(t)=  Vm.Vc Vcosωm t[1+ cos2ωc t]

                                            2
After passing through the LPF

 Considering the SSB-SC signal I/p

V1(t)= Vm Vc cos (ωc - ωm) t.

V2(t)=Vcosωc t

e(t)= V1(t). V2(t)= Vm.Vc cos (ωc - ωm) t. cosωc t

 e(t)=  Vm.Vc V[cosωm t+cos(2ωc t-ωm t)]

                                            2

After passing through the LPF

 Thus by using synchronous detector the original message signal is extracted. But the
oscillator frequency must be synchronized one. if there is a phase shift then the result in
phase or delay distortion.
 Assume local carrier to have a phase difference Φ with modulated carrier then there will
be the phase difference in the output also.
 In order to avoid the distortions and to ensure synchronization a pilot carrier is inserted
this is separated and used at the receiver for synchronize the carrier.

21. Explain the principle of operation of costas PLL detection scheme

      For DSB-SC-AM.

 One method of obtaining a practical synchronous receiver system suitable for DSB-SC-
AM wave is the costas detectors.

v  This receiver contains two coherent detectors supplied by same input signal

v  The frequency of the local oscillator is adjusted to be the same as the carrier frequency fc
v  The upper path detector -> In –phase I – channel coherent detector

v  the quadrature phase coherent detector -> lower path detector-> Q channel

v  To understand the operation, if suppose the local oscillator signal is of the same phase of the
carrier wave then the upper detector have the output and lower detector have zero output.

v  Suppose there is any phase difference then the upper detector output remains unchanged and
lower detector output will be some value and that value will be given to phase discriminator and
that difference is adjusted by PLL principle so we will get detected output.                              

22. Draw the block diagram of a super heterodyne receiver and explain the function of each
stage briefly.

We are using double frequency conversion AM super heterodyne receiver.

 We are using carrier frequency tuning in order to select the desired signal.(TVorRadio
station)
 It uses “heterodyne” principle. Heterodyne means mixing two frequencies.

 
 

R.F. section:

v  The incoming amplitude modulated wave picked up by the receiving antenna is passed on to
the RF amplifier. The RF section generally consists of a preselector and an amplifier.

v  The preselector is a band pass filter with an adjustable centre frequency that is tuned to the
desired carrier frequency of the incoming signal.

v  The primary purpose of preselector is to provide enough initial band limiting to prevent
unwanted radio frequency called “image frequency” and it also reduces the bandwidth for noise
and allows the useful signal.

v  The RF amplifier amplifies the incoming signal to the requisite level apart from selecting the
desired signal, an also it determines the sensitivity of the receiver.

v  A receiver can have one or more RF amplifiers or it may not have any depending on the
desired sensitivity. The advantage of RF amplifiers are (i) greater gain (ii) better sensitivity (ii)
better SNR (iv) better selectivity (v) better image frequency rejection.

Frequency changes:

v  The combination of mixer and local oscillator constitute the frequency changer. Both of them
provide “heterodyne” function, where the incoming signal is converted to a predetermined fixed
frequency called the “intermediate frequency”. This intermediate frequency is lower than the
incoming carrier frequency. The result of heterodyning is

       fIF = fRF  - fLO

v  Since the output of the frequency changer is neither the original input frequency nor the output
base band frequency, it is called intermediate frequency. Sometimes the frequency changer
circuits are referred to as first detector. Incase of double frequency conversion, the demodulator
becomes the third detector.

v  Although the modulated signal is translated from RF to IF the shaped of the envelope and the
original information contained in the envelope remains unchanged. It is important to note that the
bandwidth is not altered in heterodyne process.

IF section:

v  This section consists of one or more stages of tuned amplifiers which amplify the intermediate
frequency produced at the output of frequency changer circuit.
 

Demodulator or detector:

v  The output of the IF section is applied to a demodulator which recovers the base band or
message signal. If coherent detection is used, then a coherent signal source must be provided in
the receiver.

v  The detector also supplies d.c. bias voltage to RF and IF stages in the form of an AGC circuit.
Finally the recovered signal is power amplified enrouted to the loud speaker.

Audio amplifiers:

v  This audio section comprises of several cascaded audio amplifiers and one or more speakers.
The number of amplifiers used depends on the audio signal power.

Image frequency:

v  In a super heterodyne receiver the mixer will develop an intermediate frequency when the
input frequency is greater than or less than the local oscillator frequency. That is there will be
two input frequency [fLO & fin].

v  This produces two IF signals at the mixer output and results in simultaneous reception of two
signals, differing in frequency by twice the intermediate frequency. Thus the mixer is not able to
distinguish between the desired frequency and the image frequency. The image frequency is by .

v  The curve for this image interference is to employ high selective stages in RF section, in order
to favour the selection of the desired signal and reject the unwanted signals.

Advantages:

 The selectivity of this receiver is better.


 The design of IF amplifier is relatively simple.
 It provides better sensitivity throughout the broadcast band.   

TRF Receivers:
 It consists of two or three stages RF amp. Tuned together to select and amplify the
signals.
 After the signal was amplified it is demodulated and fed to the loud speaker after passing
through audio amplifier.

23. Compare various amplitude modulation systems.[Nov-04]

Comparison table:

Comparison spectrum of AM systems:

            If we draw the power spectrum of the AM systems then it will be,

DSB – SC -
Description AM with carrier SSB-SC-AM VSB-AM
AM
B.W 2fm 2fm fm Fm<2f1
75%
Power saving for
33.33% 66.66% 83%
sinusoidal
 
Power saving for non
33.3% 50% 75% 75%
sinusoidal
Difficult

Generation methods Not difficult Not difficult Difficult  

 
         
Signal to noise ratio
AM broad cast Carrier Police wireless TV high
Application
application telephony mobile etc. speed tx

24. Write short notes on Frequency translation.

v  It means changing the frequency, frequency mixing or heterodyning.

v  If suppose we  are having modulated wave S1(t) whose spectrum is centered on a carrier
frequency f1 and we need to translate it’s carrier from f1 to new value f2

v  Mixer is a device that consists of a product modulator followed by a BPF.

v  The received radio frequency signal is shifted to IF frequency band for processing

v  The received signal is translated to fixed IF , can be easily amplified, filtered and demodulated.
v  Normally if we are having the voice signal is modulated signal it will be the RF frequency. So
we have to provide the down conversion in order to find the intermediate frequency and we are
tuning the frequency range to IF frequency. Then the certain signal is demodulated and detected.

v  Up conversion f2=fi+fl,Down conversion f2=fi-fl. 

25. Explain about Frequency division multiplexing, and time division 

     Multiplexing.[Nov-04]

Frequency division multiplexing

v  Multiplexing is a technique in which several message signals are combined into a composite
signal for transmission over a common channel.

v  To transmit a number of these signals over the same channel, the signals must be kept apart so
that they do not interface with each other.

v  This separation is done by either FDM or TDM

v  Here we are discussing about the FDM techniques

v  Here number of signals are combined and uses the constant carrier frequencies to modulate
and passed through common channel.

v  The incoming message is given to low pass filter to remove high frequency to remove high
frequency terms i.e. high frequency components that do not disturb other message signals

v  The filtered signals are applied to modulators which shift the frequency ranges of signals.

v  The necessary carrier supply for frequency translation is given to modulators.

v  For modulation we mostly use SSB techniques

v   The band pass filters following the modulators are used to restrict the band of each modulated
wave to prescribed range.

v  The resulting signal output are combined together and passed though common channel and at
the receiver side the band pass filters in parallel used to separate the message signals in
frequency basis.

v  Finally the original signal is demodulated and filtered by low pass filters at the destination.
Time division multiplexing:

v  In TDM the different frequencies are given low pass filter and then passed to a commutator
time basis and provides multiplexing

v   The commutator gives the multiplexed channel to a pulse modulator which converts the
multiplexed signals in to suitable form.

v  Finally the TDM channels are assigned to distinct slots jumbled together in frequency domain.

University question:-

Explain the modulation and demodulation of AM signal.

Write any one modulation and demodulation scheme.

PROBLEMS

26.A transmitter using AM has unmodulated carrier output power of 10KW and can be
modulated to a maximum depth of 90% by a sinusoidal modulating voltage without causing
overloading. Find the value to which unmodulated carrier power may be increased without
resulting in overloading if the maximum permitted modulating index is restricted to 40 %.

     Soln:

       Pc= 10 KW , m    = 0.9

      PT = Pc [ 1+ m2 ]

           =  10[1+ (0.9)2 /2]

           =   14 KW.

           This is the maximum power which may be handled by the transmitter without

           using overload. If the modulation index is changed to 40% then the increased
           modulated carrier is then given by

            14 = Pc [1+ (0.4)2 /2 ]

            Pc = 12.96 KW.

27.A sinusoidal carrier voltage of frequency 1MHz and amplitude 100 V is modulated by a
sinusoidal voltage of frequency 5KHz producing 50% Modulation. Calculate the frequency and
amplitude of USB and LSB.

Soln:

    Frequency of USB  = 1 MHz + 5KHz  = 1005KHz.

    Frequency of LSB  =  1 MHz - 5KHz  = 995 KHz.

    Amplitude of USB and LSB = (ma Ec)/ 2 = 100 /4 = 25 V.

      Psaving  =         PDSBFC-PSSB    x 100

                                   PDSBFC

                 = 1.125 Pc – 0.0625 Pc

                            1.125 Pc

                 = 94.5 %

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2 Marks & 16marks

UNIT-I            AMPLITUDE MODULATION SYSTEMS

1. What is communication?

 Communication is the process of conveying or transferring messages from one

             Point to another.

2. What are the types of Communication system?

3. Define modulation?

 Ø Modulation is a process by which some characteristics of high frequency carrier signal


is varied in accordance with the instantaneous value of another signal called modulating
signal. 

4. What are the types of modulation?


            Amplitude modulation, Frequency modulation, Phase modulation.

5. Define depth of modulation(or)modulation index.

            It is defined as the ratio between message amplitude to that of carrier amplitude.

                             ma=Vm/Vc

6. What are the degrees of modulation?

            Under modulation. m<1

            Critical modulation m=1

            Over modulation m>1

7. How will you determine the Fourier transform for periodic signal?

     [Nov-03]

8. If a 10KW amplitude modulated transmitter is modulated 

      Sinusoidally by 50%, what is the total RF power delivered?

      [Nov-05]

                             ma=50/100=0.5;Pc=10 kw 

                                    Pt=Pc(1+m2/2)

                                            =11.25kw 

9. Define demodulation.

 Demodulation or detection is the process by which modulating voltage is recovered from


the modulated signal. It is the reverse process of modulation.

 
10. Define Amplitude modulation?

 Ø Amplitude modulation is the process by which amplitude of the carrier signal is varied
in accordance with the instantaneous value of the modulating signal but frequency and
phase of carrier wave is remains constant. 

11. Define Frequency modulation?

 Frequency modulation is the process by which frequency of the carrier signal is varied in
accordance with the instantaneous value of the modulating signal.

12. Define phase modulation?

 Ø Phase modulation is the process by which Phase angle of the carrier signal is varied in
accordance with the instantaneous value of the modulating signal. 

13. As related to AM what is over modulation, under modulation and 

      100% modulation? [April-04]

                                   (OR)

    When does a carrier is said to be over, under modulated in 

     Amplitude modulation? [Nov-04]

 In the case of Under modulation, modulation index ma<1(i.e.)Vmc.Here the envelope of


Amplitude modulated signal does not reach the Zero amplitude axis. Hence the Message
signal is fully preserved in the envelope of the AM Wave.
  In the case of Over modulation, modulation index  ma>1(i.e.)Vm>Vc. Here the envelope
of Amplitude modulated signal crosses the zero axis. 

 In the case critical modulation modulation index ma=1(i.e.)Vm=Vc.Here the envelope of


the modulated signal just reaches the zero amplitude axis. The message signal remains
preserved.

 
 

14. Draw the phasor diagram of AM-SC signal. [Nov-04]


 
  

                                                                                

15. Draw the Graphical and frequency spectrum and phasor 

      Representation of AM with carrier.

Frequency spectrum of AM with carrier:

 
  

 
 

                                                       

Graphical representation:

     

Phasor representation of AM with carrier:

 
  

 
 

16. What is the power saving in DSB-SC-AM and SSB-SC AM?

 Power saving in DSB-SC-AM is 66.7%.


 Power saving in SSB-SC-AM is 83.3%.

17. What are the advantages of VSB-AM?

 It has bandwidth greater than SSB but less than DSB system.
 Power transmission greater than DSB but less than SSB system.
 No low frequency component lost. Hence it avoids phase distortion.

18. How will you generating DSB-SC-AM?

                              (OR)

      Give the two methods of generating DSB-SC-AM.

     There are two ways of generating DSBSC-AM such as

  1. balanced modulator      2.ring modulators

19. Compare linear and non-linear modulators.

Sl.no Linear modulators Non-Linear modulators


1 Heavy filtering is not required.                      Heavy filtering is required 
These modulators are used in         high level These modulators are used in low
2
modulation.                                       level Modulation.
The modulating signal voltage is very
The carrier voltage is very much greater than
3 much greater than the carrier signal
modulating signal voltage.                  
voltage.

20. What are advantages of ring modulator?


       1. Its output is stable.

       2. It requires no external power source to activate the diodes.

       3. Virtually no maintenance.

       4. Long life. 

21. Draw the Graphical and frequency spectrum and phasor

      Representation of DSB-SC-AM?

Graphical representation:

 
  

Frequency spectrum:

Phasor representation

 
  

 
 

22. What are the advantages of DSB-SC and SSB-SC.

       DSB-SC:

 Suppression of carrier results in economy of power. 


 It is commonly used in carrier current telephony system, in which one sideband is filtered
out to reduce the width of the channel required for transmission.< strong>
 It offers secrecy. 
 It increases the efficiency because the carrier is suppressed. 

SSB-SC

 Bandwidth of SSB is half that of DSB-SC AM. Thus twice the number of channels can
be accommodated at a given frequency spectrum. 
 No carrier is transmitted, hence possibility of interference with other channels are
avoided. 
 It eliminates the possibility of fading. Fading occurs due to multipath propagation of
electro-magnetic waves. 

23. Give the methods of generating SSB-SC-AM. And mention

       Some applications of SSB-SC

 Ø The two methods of generating the SSB-SC waves are 


 Ø Frequency discrimination or Filter method. 
 Ø Phase discrimination method. 
 Ø Applications: 
ü Police Wireless communication. 

ü SSB telegraph system 

ü Point to point radio telephone communication 

ü VHF and UHF communication systems. 

24. Draw the Graphical and frequency spectrum and phasor

      Representation of SSB-SC-AM?

Phasor representation:

                                           

                                                               

Graphical representation:

Frequency Spectrum representation:


 

25. What are the types of AM modulators?

                          There are two types of AM modulators. They are

ª      Linear modulators

ª      Non-linear modulators

  Linear modulators are classified as follows

ª      Transistor modulator

            There are three types of transistor modulator.

×         Collector modulator

×         Emitter modulator

×         Base modulator

ª      Switching modulators

  Non-linear modulators are classified as follows

ª      Square law modulator

ª      Product modulator

ª      Balanced modulator

26. What is single tone and multi tone modulation?

If modulation is performed for a message signal with more than one frequency component then
the modulation is called multi tone modulation.

If modulation is performed for a message signal with one frequency component

then the modulation is called single tone modulation.

 
27. What is the need for modulation?

                           Needs for modulation:

ª      Ease of transmission

ª      Multiplexing

ª      Reduced noise

ª      Narrow bandwidth

ª      Frequency assignment

ª      Reduce the equipments limitations 

28. Compare AM with DSB-SC and SSB-SC.

      AM signal             DSB-SC           SSB-SC


Bandwidth=2fm
Bandwidth=2fm Bandwidth=fm
 
Contains LSB or USB
Contains USB, LSB, carrier Contains USB,LSB
 
More power is required for Power required is less than that Power required is less than AM
transmission of AM. &DSB-SC

29. What are the types of AM detectors?

1. Nonlinear detectors
2. Linear detectors

30. What are the types of linear detectors?

      1. Synchronous or coherent detector.

      2 .Envelope or non coherent detector.

 
31. A transmitter supplies 8 Kw to the antenna when modulated. 

     Determine the total power radiated when modulated to 30%.

                                    ma=30/100=0.3;Pc=8 kw

                                    Pt=Pc(1+m2/2)

                                            =8.36 kw

32. The antenna current of an AM transmitter is 8A when only carrier is sent. It increases
to 8.93A when the carrier is modulated by a single sine wave. Find the percentage
modulation.

Solution:

               Given:  Ic =8A     It=8.93A        m=0.8

Formula:                    It=Ic (1+m2/2) ½ 

                              8.93=8(1+m2/2) ½                           

                                m=0.701 

                             It=8 (1+0.82/2) ½ 

                             It=9.1A

33. A 1MHz carrier is amplitude modulated by 400Hz modulating signal to a depth of


50%.The modulated carrier power is 1KW.Calculate the power of the unmodulated signal.

Solution:-

Pc=1KW, ma=0.5=50%

The increase in power is given by 1.125-1=0.125KW is contained in two side bands.

34. What do you mean by Hibert transform and inverse Hilbert 

      Transform? And write few applications of Hilbert transform?


 It may be observed that the function xh(t) obtained by providing(-Π/2)phase shift to every
frequency component present in x(t),actually represents the Hilbert transform of x(t).This
means that xh(t) is the Hilbert transform of x(t) defined as

       Also, the inverse Hilbert transform is defined as

 Few applications of Hilbert transform.


 For generation of SSB signals,
 For designing of minimum phase type filters,
 For representation of band pass signals.

35. Define multiplexing.

        Multiplexing is defined as the process of transmitting several message signals


simultaneously over a single channel.

36.Define sensitivity,Selectivity,Stability.

 Sensitivity is defined as a measure of its ability to receive weak signals.

Selectivity of a receiver is defined as its ability to select the desired signals among the various
signals.and Stability is the ability of the receiver to deliver a constant amount of output for a
given a given period of time.

37. What are the drawbacks of emitter modulator?

                   1. The amplifier is operated in class A mode, thus the efficiency is low.

                    2. The output power is very small. Thus it is not suitable for generating high level
modulation.

          38. Define super heterodyne principle.


 It can be defined as the process of operation of modulated waves to obtain similarly
modulated waves of different frequency. This process uses a locally generated carrier
wave, which determines the change of frequency.
 And also we can define that a device performs the frequency translation of a modulated
signal is known as a frequency mixer. the operation is often called frequency mixing,
frequency conversion, or heterodyning.

16 marks ANSWERS:

1. Write the Expression for AM & calculate its Power and Efficiency

                                                 (OR)

     Write down the AM equation and also obtain an expression for its

       Power saving and efficiency.

Let us consider the modulating voltage,

               Vm(t) = Vm Cos ωmt

               Vc(t) =  Vc Cos ωct

According to the definition, the amplitude of the carrier signal is changed after modulation.

              VAM = Vc + Vm=Vc+Vm Cos ωmt------------- (1)

                     = Vc [ 1+ (Vm/Vc) Cos ωmt ] ------------- (2)

 
                  ma= Em/Ec Where ma is the modulation index (or)depth of modulation.

Therfore VAM=Vc(1+ ma Cos ωmt ) ------------- (3)

But the instantaneous amplitude of modulated signal, i.e at any time

          VAM(t)= VAM Cos ωct------------- (4)

i.e. the modulated wave contains amplitude of the carrier wave.so that equation(4)is represented
by the product of VAM Cos ωct.

                     Sub equation(3)in(4)

                     VAM(t)= Vc (1 + ma Cosωmt) Cosωct

                    = Vc Cosωct + ma Vc  Cosωmt Cosωct

                     = Vc Cosωct + ma Vc [Cos(ωc + ωm)t + Cos(ωc – ωm)t]

                                                2

                     = Carrier       +           USB                 +      LSB

Finally the modulated wave contains carrier term and upper side band and lower side band.

Frequency spectrum of AM Wave

 
  

 
 

Graphical representation of AM

Phasor representation of AM

 
 

Power relation in AM:

 The modulated wave contains three terms such as carrier wave, LSB, USB.
 The modulated wave contains more power than the unmodulated carrier.

                  Total Power in modulated wave will be,

                          Pt = PC + PUSB  + PLSB

i.e. total power Pt of AM wave is the sum of carrier power and side band power.

                        PC      - Carrier power

                        PUSB - Upper Side Band power

                        PLSB  - Lower Side Band power

But we know that                                       

                          Vcarrier=RMS value of carrier voltage.

                          VLSB= VUSB=RMS value of upper and lower side band voltages.

                            R=Resistence in which power is dissipated.

The  RMS value is VRMS=Vm/√2


 

Therefore Pcarrier=V2carrier/R=(Vc/ √2)2/R=Vc2/2R

Current relation in AM:

                                     

It=Total(or)modulated current

IC=Carrier current

Efficiency:

                     % η = Power in side band    x 100

                                     Total Power

                             =PLSB+PLSB  x 100

                                 PTotal
 

                                          =   ma2      x 100

                               2+ma 2

                        If ma = 1

Then   %η = 33.33 %

In this only one third of total power is carried by the sidebands and the rest two third is wasted.

2. Derive the expression for DSB-SC AM and calculate its efficiency.

           In AM with carrier scheme, there is wastage in both transmitted power and bandwidth. In
order to save the power in amplitude modulation the carrier is suppressed because it does not
contain any useful information. This scheme is called as the double side band suppressed carrier
amplitude Modulation (DSB-SC). It contains LSB and USB terms, resulting in a transmission
bandwidth that is twice the bandwidth of the message signal.

Let us consider the modulating voltage,

               Vm(t) = Vm Cos ωmt ------------(1)

               Vc(t) =  Vc Cos ωct -------------(2)

For obtaining the DSB-SC wave we have to multiply both carrier signal and message
signal.hence,

      V(t)DSB-SC = Vm(t).Vc(t)

                           =Vm.Vc cosωm t cosωc t

                     V(t)DSB-SC=Vm.Vc [ cos(ωc +ωm )t + cos(ωc - ωm )t

                                           2

                                       USB                              LSB


From this equation we know that the carrier is suppressed in double side band suppressed carrier.

Graphical Representation of DSB-SC AM:

Frequency spectrum of DSB-SC AM

                   It shows that carrier term ωc is suppressed. It contains only two sideband terms
having frequency (ωc - ωm) and  (ωc + ωm). Hence this scheme is called as DSB-SC AM.

Phasor representation of DSB-SC AM:

 
Power Calculation:

w.k.t  The total power transmitted in AM is

              Pt =Pcarrier +PLSB +PUSB

If the carrier is suppressed , then the total power transmitted is

               Pt’ =  PLSB +PUSB

w.k.t, PLSB = PUSB = ma 2 Vc2


            

      
                              8R

Pt’ = ma 2 Vc2   +  ma 2 Vc2

           8R             8R

     =  
             

Power Saving = Pt  - Pt’   x 100


                    
             Pt

                              =     [ 1+ ma 2 / 2] PC  - [ma 2 / 2] PC

 
  
 

                             [1+ ma 2 / 2] PC 


                            

                            
=         PC

                          [1+ ma 2 / 2] PC 

% Power Saving =      2      x 100

                                  2+ ma 2

If ma  = 1, then power saving     (2/3) x 100 = 66.7 %

i.e 66.7% of power is saved by using DSB-SC-AM.

1. 3.     Derive the expression for SSB-SC AM and calculate its 

      Efficiency

 In AM with carrier both the transmitting power and bandwidth is wasted. Hence the
DSB-SC AM scheme has been introduced in which power is saved by suppressing the
carrier component but the bandwidth remains same.
  Increase in the saving of power is possible by eliminating one sideband in addition to the
carrier component because the USB and LSB are uniquely related by symmetry about the
carrier frequency. So either one sideband is enough for transmitting as well as recovering
the useful message. The block diagram of SSB-SC AM is shown in figure.
 As for as transmission information is concerned only one side band is necessary. so if the
carrier and one of the two sidebands are suppressed at the transmitter, no information is
lost.
 This type of modulation is called as single side band suppressed carrier-AM and the SSB
system reduces the band width by half.

             The block diagram of SSB-SC AM is shown in figure.


 

 The single side band suppressed carrier can be obtained as follows,


 In order to suppress one of the sideband, the input signal fed to the modulator1 is 90° out
of phase with that of the signal fed to the modulator’2’.

  Let V1(t) =  Vm cosωm t .Vc cos ωc t

       V2 (t) = Vm cos(ωmt + 90° ). Vc cos (ωc t + 90° )

                  = Vm sin ωmt. Vc sin ωc t

Therefore,

          V(t) SSB = V1(t) +V2(t)

                       = Vm Vc [cosωm t. cosωc t + sin ωmt. sinωct]

                   V(t)SSB=  Vm Vc cos (ωc - ωm) t.          

W.k.t, for DSB-SC AM

         VDSB-SC (t) = Vm Ec [cos(ωc +ωm )t + cos(ωc - ωm)t]

                                 2

When comparing equations of V(t) SSB-SC and VDSB-SC (t) , one of the sideband is suppressed.
Hence this scheme is known as SSB-SC AM.

Frequency Spectrum Of SSB-SC-AM:

 
 

 The Frequency spectrum shows that only one side band signal is present , the carrier and
the other sideband signal are suppressed. Thus the bandwidth required reduces from 2 ωm
to ωm  i.e., bandwidth requirement is reduced to half compared to AM & DSB-SC
signals. 

Graphical representation of SSB-SC-AM:

Phasor representation of SSB-SC-AM:

Power calculation:

   Power in sidebands Pt” = PSB = ma2Vc2/8R=ma2 Pc / 4

  Power saving with respect to AM with carrier

    Power saving =  Pt  - Pt”x100


                    
                Pt

where Pt  = Total power transmitted.


 

Power saving =  [ 1+ ma 2 / 2] PC  - [ma 2 / 4] PC

 
  

                             [1+ ma 2 / 2] PC 


                           

                       =  PC  +[ma 2 / 2] PC - [ma 2 / 4] PC

                               [1+ ma 2 / 2] PC 

                    = 

If ma=1 then %power saving= (5/6) x100=83.3%

So we can save 83.3% of power with respect to AM with carrier.

 We can also find the power in SSB-SC-AM with respect to AM with DSB-SC system
and that will be,

If ma=1 then %power saving=50%.therefore 50%power is saved with respect to DSB-SC


System.

4. Write notes on VSB system.

              (OR)

   Explain vestigial side band modulation with frequency response  

   Characteristics. [Nov-03]
 Ø If we are considering the modulated signals of very large bandwidth (such as video
signals, T.V and high speed data signals) having the very low frequency components
along with rest of the signal. 
 Ø These low frequency components give rise to sidebands very close to the carrier
frequency which are difficult to remove it. so it is not possible to go till the extreme and
fully suppress one complete sideband in case of television signals. 
 Ø The low video frequencies contain the most important information of the picture, so if
we suppress one sideband it becomes unsuitable for handling such type of signals. 
 Ø This difficulty has been over come in a scheme known as vestigial sideband (VSB)
modulation.i.e. Partially suppressing any one of the sidebands. 
 Ø A VSB system is a compromise between DSB-SC-AM and SSB-SC-AM, but avoids
their disadvantages.VSB signals are very easy to generate and the bandwidth is slightly
greater than SSB-SC-AM, but less than DSB-SC-AM. 

   

 VSB modulation is derived by filtering DSB-SC-AM. Here in VSB system one side band
is passed almost completely, while a part of other sideband is used.
 So mainly in VSB instead of rejecting one sideband completely a gradual cut of one
sideband is acceptable. The role off characteristics of filter is such that partial suppression
of transmission sideband is VSB.
 By using VSB system the bandwidth obtained is greater than SSB system but less than
DSB.
 Power transmission is greater than DSB but less than SSB system.
 No low frequency component lost. Hence avoids the phase distortion.

 
5. Write short notes on the types of generation methods of AM with  

     Carrier.

 The generation method of AM waves are broadly divided in to two types,


 Linear modulator(or)large signal modulator(or)high level modulation
 Non Linear modulator(or)small signal modulator(or)low level modulation
 Linear modulator:
 In this type of modulators the devices are operated in linear region of its transfer
characteristics.
 Linear modulators are also divided in to two types,
 Transistor modulator
 Switching modulator.
 Non linear modulators:
 These modulators are operated in nonlinear region. 
 These are used in low level modulation. 
 The types of non linear modulators are,
 Square law modulator, 
 Product modulator, 
 Balanced modulator. 

6. Explain the principle of operation of square law modulator and 

    Mention its merits and demerits.

                                          (OR)

   Explain any one generation method of AM [Nov-05]

                                           (OR)

   Explain the principle of operation of any one non linear   

   Modulators.

 Here we are using V-I characteristics of diode is used as a element for non-linear
modulators.

 
 
  

 This is suited at low voltage levels because of the fact that current-voltage characteristics
of a diode is highly nonlinear particularly in the low voltage region as shown in figure.

 A square law modulator has three features shown in figure.


 Summer-to sum carrier and modulating signal
 A non linear element
 Band pass filter for extracting desired modulating products.

 
 

Principle of operation:

 From the figure the non linear device diode is used to produce low level amplitude
modulation.
 Here the carrier and modulating signals are applied across the diode.
 A dc battery Vcc is connected across the diode to get a fixed operating point on the V-I
characteristics of the diode.
 This amplitude modulation that is low level can be explained by considering the fact
when two different frequencies are passed through the non linear device.
 So when we apply carrier and modulating frequencies different frequency terms appear at
the output of diode.
 These different frequency terms are applied across the tuned circuit which is tuned to
carrier frequency and has a narrow bandwidth just to pass two sidebands along with the
carrier and reject other frequencies.
 So the output of the tuned circuit will be carrier and two sidebands that is amplitude
modulated wave is produced.

Mathematical analysis:

Let the modulating voltage will be

Vm= Vm cosωm t------------- (1)

Let the carrier voltage will be

Vc= Vc cosωc t---------------- (2)

So the input voltage applied to t6he diode will be

V1= Vm+ Vc ------------------------------ (3)


 

     = Vm cosωm t+ Vc cosωc t

W.k.t the current and voltage relationship of a linear circuit is,

i=av

i=current through linear device

v=voltage through the linear device

a=proportionality constant

 The current and voltage relationship of a nonlinear circuit may be expressed as,

i=a V1+b V12+c V13+ ----------

 This means that due to non-linearity in the V-I characteristics of a non-linear circuits, the
current becomes proportional not only to voltage but also to the square, cube and higher
powers of voltage. So

i= a1V1+a2 V12+a3 V13+ ----------    ---------- (4)

Where a1, a2, a3 are proportionality constants and V1is the input voltage applied to the diode or FET.

 Sub equn(3)in(4)then

i= a1(Vm cosωm t+ Vc cosωc t)+ a2(Vm cosωm t+ Vc cosωc t)2+------------

 = a1 Vm cosωm t+ a1 Vc cosωc t+ a2 Vm2 cosωm2 t+ a2 Vc2 cosωc2 t+2a2VmVc cosωm t 

                                                                                                                   cosωc t+---

Neglecting second and higher order terms, we get

i(t)= a1 Vm cosωm t+ a1 Vc cosωc t +2a2VmVc cosωm t cosωc t+---

 
    = a1 Vm cosωm t+ a1 Vc cosωc t +2a2VmVc [cos(ωc+ωm)t + cos(ωc-ωm)t]

                                                             2

i(t)= a1 Vm cosωm t+ a1 Vc cosωc t +a2VmVc [cos(ωc+ωm)t + cos(ωc-ωm)t]

 The tuned circuit is tuned to the carrier frequency and it allows only ωc, ωc+ωm, ωc-ωm
terms and eliminates all other terms.hence we obtain

i(t)= a1 Vc cosωc t +a2VmVc [cos(ωc+ωm)t + cos(ωc-ωm)t]

 The main drawback of using diode modulator is it does not provide amplification and a
single diode is unable to balance out the frequency completely. These limitations can be
eliminated by using amplifying devices like transistor, FET in a balanced mode.
 We can also use the square law modulator with FET instead of diode.
 From the final equation we know that it consists only the carrier and USB and LSB
frequency components and all the components are removed.

7. Explain the principle of operation of Product modulator.

                                          (OR)

   Explain any one generation method of AM [Nov-05]

                                           (OR)

   Explain the principle of operation of any one non linear   

   Modulators.
 In a square law modulator the sidebands of an AM signal contains new frequencies that
are not present in the carrier (or) message signal.

 The modulating signal and carrier signal is multiplied and added with carrier frequency in
order to obtain the amplitude modulated wave.
 This is practically applied by using analog multiplier and an op-amp summer. analog
multiplication is done by variable trasconductance method.
 Here input voltage is applied to variable Tran conductance multiplier.
 V1 varies with total emitter current.
 V2 is given to the input to VtoI converter.
 The output of the multiplier contains only sideband terms which is given to the summer
with the carrier which is given to the summer with the carrier which in turn produces an
amplitude modulated wave.
 The output V0(t)=KV1V2
            V1=Vm cosωm t, V2=Vc cosωc t

                  V0(t)=K Vm Vc cosωm t cosωc t

                    Then input of summer will be

             Vs(t)= V0(t)+ Vc(t)

             Vs(t)= Vc cosωc t+ K Vm Vc cosωm t cosωc t

Thus the AM signal with carrier is produces by using product modulator.

8. Explain the principle of operation of balanced modulator for 

    Generating AM with carrier. [Nov-03]

                                          (OR)

   Explain any one generation method of AM [Nov-05][Apr-04]

                                           (OR)

   Explain the principle of operation of any one non linear   

   Modulators.

 We know that a non-linear device may be used to produce amplitude modulation. That is
one carrier and two side bands.
 Here we are using two transistors, non linear devices are identical and the circuit is
symmetrical. 
 In this the carrier voltage across the two windings of a centre tap transformers are equal
and opposite in phase Vc= -Vc’ 
 Input to the transistor T1 is given by,

                        Vbe = Vc(t)+ Vm(t)----------(1)

                        Vbe= Vc cosωc t +Vm cosωm t--------- (2)

 Similarly Input to the transistor T2,

                        V’be = -Vc(t)+ Vm(t)----------(3)


                        V’be = - Vc cosωc t +Vm cosωm t--------- (4)

By using the non-linearity property the collector current can be written as per square law
equation

     ic = a1 Vbe + a2 Vbe2   + …….  -----------(5)

     i’c  = a1 V’be + a2 V’be2  +…….   ---------(6)                


 

Hence from this

     ic = a1 [Vc cosωc t +Vm cosωm t]+ a2 [Vc cosωc t +Vm cosωm t]2

     ic= a1 [Vc cosωc t +Vm cosωm t]+ a2V2c cos2ωc t+a2V2m cos2ωm t+2a2Vm Vc cosωm t 

                                                                                                            cosωc t---(7)

Similarly

    ic = a1 [-Vc cosωc t +Vm cosωm t]+ a2 [-Vc cosωc t +Vm cosωm t]2

     ic= a1 [-Vc cosωc t +Vm cosωm t]+ a2V2c cos2ωc t+a2V2m cos2ωm t-2a2Vm Vc cosωm t 

                                                                                                            cosωc t---(8)

The output AM voltage V0 is K[ ic – i’c ]


  
That is

                          Vo = K[ ic – i’c ]

Because ic, i’c flows in the opposite direction.and’K’is a constant depending on impedance or
other circuit parameters.

                          Vo = 2K a1 Vc Cosωct + 4a2 Vm Vc Cosωmt Cosωct


 

 This equation represents the output modulated voltage which contains carrier and side
band terms.
 The same circuit can also be used to generate the DSB-SC-AM. By using balanced
modulator the undesired harmonics are automatically balanced out.
  

9. Explain the principle of any one of the linear modulators?

                                          (OR)

  What are the types of transistor modulators and explain the 

   Working principle of collector modulator?

                                            (OR)

 Explain any one generation method of AM [Nov-05][Apr-04]

 Ø The linear modulators are used in high level amplitude modulation. 


 Ø There are types of linear modulators available, 
 Ø They are 

                  1. Transistor modulators

                  2. Switching modulators.

 Ø Transistor modulator having the classification as collector modulator, Base


modulation, Emitter modulation. 

Collector modulator 

 Collector modulation method is a very popular method for high level AM generation and
it is used in high power applications.
 Transistor T1, makes a radio frequency classC amplifier. and at the base T1,the carrier
signal is applied.
 VCC makes the collector supply used for biasing purpose.
 Transistor T2 makes a class-B amplifier which is used to amplify the modulating signal.
 So class-C is used to amplify the carrier signal, and class-B is used to amplify the
modulating signal.
 This amplified base band or modulating signal appears in series with the collector supply.
 The function of the capacitor is to prevent the carrier signal flowing through the
modulation transformer. And the supply VCC is used for biasing.

Operating principle

 In class-C amplifier the magnitude of the output voltage is a definite fraction of or at the
most equal to supply voltage VCC.
 So the unmodulated carrier is amplified by Class-C modulated amplifier using transistor
T1 and its magnitude will remain constant at VCC since there appears no voltage across the
modulating transformer in the absence of base band or modulating voltage.
 But now if a base band or modulating voltage Vm cosωm t appears across the modulating
transformer, the signal will be added to the supply voltage VCC.
 This type of slow variation in carrier supply voltage at the output of the modulated class-
C amplifier.
 So the final output of the carrier modulation transformer will be variation of voltage with
respect to modulating voltage with supply voltage VCC.
 From the figure we observed that an envelope of the output voltage is identical with the
base band or modulating voltage and hence an AM signal is generated.

Mathematical analysis:

 When the modulating voltage is applied then it is added up with the supply voltage then,
the amplitude of modulated voltage will be

 
 

 This amplitude of modulated voltage with VCC produces a change in carrier supply
voltage. So change in carrier supply voltage will be equal to amplitude of modulated
voltage. so we can mention the change in carrier supply voltage is VC then,

 Finally the amplitude modulated output voltage will be obtained from carrier modulating
transformer. So final output V0 will be

 Ø Hence from the above equation we can express the output voltage consists of a carrier
term and the side band terms. Hence an AM wave generated.
 Ø Like collector modulator in base and emitter modulator the modulating signal is
applied to base and emitter junction, and added up with the supply voltage and produces
the change in carrier. Finally we will obtain the AM wave.
 Ø Advantages:-
 Ø Power output per transistor is usually high. 
 Ø Collector efficiency is high. 
 Ø Disadvantages:
 Ø Large modulating input power is required when the modulating amplifier is a high
power amplifier. 

10. Explain the principle of any one of the linear modulators?

                                          (OR)

      Explain the working principle of switching modulators?

 The switching modulators (or) chopper modulators are the linear modulators. Here we are
using active device as switches.

 The devices such as BJT or diode serves as a switch.


 Here we are using a simple diode circuit.
 The diode is forward biased for every positive half cycle of the carrier and behaves like a
short circuited switch.
 For a negative half cycle of the carrier the diode is reverse biased and behaves like an
open switch. The signal doesn’t reach the filter and no output is obtained.
 While the circuit is short circuited without applying any modulating signal, then the
carrier is carried over to the tank circuit, then the output will be tuned to only carrier
frequency.
 V0(t)=VCcosωct---------(1)[Steady state o/p voltage in the absence of  

                                                         Modulating voltage]

 Now we are applying the modulating signal with 1: N ratio. Then this signal will be
added up with the o/p voltage. then the o/p voltage will be,

                V0(t)=Vccosωct+N.VmVccosωmt cosωct                                                    

This means that the o/p voltage contains carrier and side band terms. Thus the amplitude
modulated wave generated. The tank circuit is used to select certain frequencies and rejects all
other frequencies. If the number of turns of transformer is selected properly then the desired
modulation has been accomplished without appreciable generation of undesired components
otherwise band pass filter is required to remove the unwanted components.

11. Explain the principle of operation of balanced modulator for 

       Generating DSB-SC-AM.[Nov-03]

                                          (OR)

      Explain any one modulation method for generating DSB-SC-AM.

 We know that a non-linear device may be used to produce amplitude modulation. That is
one carrier and two side bands.
 But a DSB-SC signal contains only two side bands.
 So we are connecting two diodes or two transistors to produce a DSB-SC signal.
 Here the two non-linear devices are connected in balanced mode.
 The same circuit can be used to generate AM with carrier. The main difference between
AM with carrier generation and DSB-SC –AM is the feeding points of the carrier and
modulating signals are interchanged.

Principle of operation:
 The modulating signal is applied as the input to the transistor T1 and T2 where as we are
applying carrier in case of AM with carrier. Because of centre tap transformers are equal
and opposite in phase Vm= -Vm’ 
 Input to the transistor T1 is given by,

                        Vbe = Vm(t)+ Vc(t)----------(1)

                        Vbe= Vm cosωm t +Vc cosωc t  --------- (2)

 Similarly Input to the transistor T2,

                        V’be = -Vm(t)+ Vc(t)----------(3)

                        V’be = - Vm cosωm t +Vc cosωc t --------- (4)

By using the non-linearity property the collector current can be written as per square law
equation

     ic = a1 Vbe + a2 Vbe2   + …….  -----------(5)

     i’c  = a1 V’be + a2 V’be2  +…….   ---------(6)                


 

Hence from this

     ic = a1 [Vm cosωm t +Vc cosωc t ]+ a2 [Vm cosωm t +Vc cosωc t]2

     ic= a1 [Vm cosωm t +Vc cosωc t ]+ a2V2m cos2ωm t+a2V2c cos2ωc t+2a2Vm Vc cosωm t 

                                                                                                            cosωc t---(7)

Similarly

    ic = a1 [-Vm cosωm t +Vc cosωc t ]+ a2 [-Vm cosωm t +Vc cosωc t]2

 
     ic= a1 [-Vm cosωm t +Vc cosωc t]+ a2V2m cos2ωm t+a2V2c cos2ωc t-2a2Vm Vc cosωm t 

                                                                                                            cosωc t---(8)

The output AM voltage V0 is K[ ic – i’c ]


  
That is

                          Vo = K[ ic – i’c ]

Because ic, i’c flows in the opposite direction.and’K’is a constant depending on impedance or
other circuit parameters.

                          Vo = K [2a1 Vm Cosωmt + 4a2 Vm Vc Cosωmt Cosωct]

Here we are using a band pass filter the other frequencies centered at ±ωc so it will allow only
pass band frequencies.

 So only the side bands are present in the o/p.Hence the DSB-SC-AM generated.
 The main advantage of this modulator is saving power and efficiency because of the
suppressing of the carrier.

12. Explain the principle of operation of Diode balanced modulator  

      (Or) ring modulator for generating DSB-SC-AM.

                                                 (OR)

      Explain any one modulation method for generating DSB-SC-AM.

 Ring modulator is another product modulator. Which is used to generate DSB-SC Signal.
 Here we are not using any band pass filter at the output; the harmonic frequencies are
automatically controlled.
 In a ring modulator circuit four diode are connected in the form of ring in which all the
four diodes are point in the same manner.
 All the four diodes in the ring are controlled by a square wave carrier signal

      Vc (t).

 On positive half cycle of the carrier diode D1 and D3 will conduct. And point’a’ is
connected to the input through half of the output transformer secondary. In negative half
cycle diode D2 and D4 will conduct.
 While we applying both modulating and carrier signal on +ve half cycle diode D1 and D2
will conduct. And in –ve half cycle diode D3 and D4 will conduct. So the final o/p will be
product of signals.

Let us consider the modulating voltage,

               Vm(t) = Vm Cos ωmt ------------(1)

               Vc(t) =  Vc Cos ωct -------------(2)

For obtaining the DSB-SC wave we have to multiply both carrier signal and message
signal.hence,

      V0(t) = Vm(t).Vc(t)

               =Vm.Vc cosωm t cosωc t

                     V0(t) =Vm.Vc [ cos(ωc +ωm )t + cos(ωc - ωm )t

                                     2

                                       USB                              LSB

The o/p contains only two side band terms. Hence an DSB-SC wave is generated.

 The main advantage is the o/p is stable and long life, no external source to activate the
diodes.

13. Explain the frequency discrimination method for generating SSB-

      SC-AM.
                                                    (OR)

      Explain the method of generating an SSB.[Nov-05][Apr-04]

 Frequency discrimination method is otherwise called as selective filtering method. The


SSB is generated by filtering the DSB.

 Here the base band is restricted and approximately related to the carrier frequency. Under
this condition the desired side band is selected by an appropriate filter by restricting the
desired side band.

 
 

 But practically it is not possible to extract completely one of the side band and rejects
other, because the practical filter doesn’t have ideal characteristics. Hence a compromise
has been made to design an appropriate side band filter.
 This method is basically consists of a balanced modulator and a suppression filter. The
DSB-SC signal is passed through a sharp cut-off filter to eliminate the undesired side
band.
 The requirements of a filter are
 The pass band of the filter should be same as that of the desired side band.
 The separation region between pass band and stop band should not exceed twice the
max frequency component present in the base band.
 Here we are using band pass filter. Transmission of very high (such as 10MHz)
frequency as well as very low frequency (50Hz) through side band filtering is impossible.
So we are using” Mechanical filters or crystal filters”. 
 The filter is not able to follow such a change of steep response. To overcome this they
have been replaced by mechanical or crystal filters, which may be used in frequency
range of 500 KHz to 80 MHz. 
 We are using mechanical filters because they are small in size, good band pass
characteristics, very good attenuation. 
 The crystal filters may be cheaper but are preferable only at frequencies greater than
1MHz. 
 All the filters having the disadvantage, the maximum operating frequencies are below the
usual transmitting frequency. Hence a balanced mixer is used. 
 So we are using mixer in order to increase the operating frequency, for that we are adding
frequency of the crystal oscillator. Thus the frequency will below the transmitted
frequency. So that we are using mixer. 
 If suppose the transmitting frequency is two high then two stages of mixing will be
required. 
 At the mixer part we are using class’B’amplifier which is more efficient than
Class’A’output. 

14. Explain the Phase shift method for generating SSB-SC-AM.

                                                    (OR)

      Explain the method of generating an SSB.[Nov-05][Apr-04]

 This method avoids the prime disadvantage of filtering method. That is requirement of a
sideband filter with a narrow transition band and it cannot be used for very low and very
high frequencies.
 The undesired components are removed by generating two side band components out of
phase, when added these side band components cancel each other leaving only the
desired side band signal.
 From the figure One of the modulators M1 receives the carrier voltage shifted by 900 and
the modulating voltage, where as another balanced modulator M2 receives the
modulating voltage shifted by 900 and the carrier voltage.
 Both balanced modulators produce an output considering only of side bands.
 Both the upper side bands leads the carrier voltage by 900.one of the lower side bands
leads the reference voltage by 900 and the other lags it by 900.
 The two lower side bands are thus out of phase, and when combined together in the adder
they cancel each other, and hence they produced the SSB signal.

 
 

Mathematical analysis:

For modulator1 (M1)

                        Vc(t) = Vc cos(ωc t+900)

                        Vm(t)= Vm cosωm t


For modulator2(M2)

                        Vc(t) = Vc cosωc t

                        Vm(t)= Vm cos(ωm t+ 900)

o/p for modulator(M1)isV1

V1=Vc cos(ωc t+900). Vm cosωm t

= VcVm [  cos(ωc t+900+ ωm t)+  cos(ωc t+900- ωm t)]  --------(1)           

        2

o/p for modulator(M2)isV2

V2=Vc cosωc t. Vm cos(ωm t+ 900)

= VcVm [  cos(ωc t+ ωm t +900)+  cos(ωc t- ωm t -900)] --------(2)

        2

Final o/p V0= V1 + V2

                V0=2VcVm cos(ωc t+ ωm t +900)----------(3)

Equation (1) contains 900phase shift and equn (2) contains (-900) phase shift. Hence they both get
cancelled.

 Thus one of the side band is cancelled where as the other is kept as it is. This method
avoids the use of filters.

15. Explain the Modified Phase shift method for generating SSB-SC-

     AM.                                                    (OR)

      Explain the weavers method of generating an SSB.

 The modified phase shift method overcomes the limitation of phase shift method. That is
AF phase shift network is required to operate over a large range of audio frequencies but
also retains the advantage like its ability to generate SSB at any frequency and use of low
audio frequency.
 This method provides both RF and AF oscillator phase shift and also used in low
frequency and so it can be used for both audio and radio frequencies.

 
 In weavers method we are using four balanced modulators. it is just similar to that phase
shift method. Balanced modulator 1&2 are slightly different from modulator 3&4.
 Here instead of trying to phase shift the whole range of audio frequencies it combines the
AF carrier which lies in the middle of audio frequency.
 So we are taking the modulating signal

          Vm= Vm cosωm t-------- (1)

          The A.F carrier(sub carrier signal) V0(t) is the one type of carrier,then

               Middle of frequency V0(t)= V0 cosω0 t

                                                   2

                                               So V0(t)= 2V0 cosω0 t

The R.F carrier

               Vc(t)= Vc cosωc t-----------(2)

                  2

         So Vc(t)= 2Vc cosωc t------------(3)

For modulator1 (M1)

Vm(t)= Vm cosωm t                    

Vc(t) = 2V0 cos(ω0 t+900)

o/p for modulator(M1)is A

A= Vm cosωm t .2V0 cos(ω0 t+900)    

A= VmV0 [  cos(ω0 t+900+ ωm t)+  cos(ω0 t+900- ωm t)]  --------(4)       

                        For i/p to modulator2(M2)

                        Vm(t) = Vm cosωm t

                        Vc(t)= 2V0 cosω0 t

                        o/p for modulator(M2)is B


                       B=2Vm V0 cosωm t cosω0 t

                        B= Vm V0[cos(ω0 t+ ωm t)+ cos(ω0 t- ωm t)]-----------(5)

The o/p of LPF1, 2 will be any one of the side band terms. Here the USB is suppressed

O/p of LPF1 is C= Vm V0 cos(ω0 t+900- ωm t )-----------(6)

O/p of LPF2 is D= Vm V0 cos(ω0 t- ωm t)-----------(7)

The o/p of LPF1,2 are given to B.M3,B.M4.

   For i/p to modulator3 (C)will be

C= Vm V0 cos(ω0 t+900- ωm t )]

Vc(t) = 2Vc cosωc t

o/p for modulator(M3)is V1

So V1= 2Vm V0 Vc cos(ω0 t+900- ωm t ) cosωc t

   Assume  Vm =V0 =Vc=1,then

V1= 2cos(ω0 t+900- ωm t ) cosωc t--------------(8)

For i/p to modulator4 (D)will be

D= Vm V0 cos(ω0 t- ωm t)

Vc(t) = 2Vc cos(ωc t+900)

o/p for modulator(M4)is V2

So V2= 2Vm V0 Vc cos(ω0 t- ωm t) cos(ωc t+900)

   Assume  Vm =V0 =Vc=1, then

V2= 2 cos(ω0 t- ωm t) cos(ωc t+900)------------------(9)         

                        Final o/p VSSB-SC= V1 + V2

Hence VSSB-SC=2 cos[(ω0 + ωc – ωm)t+900]


             VSSB-SC=-sin[(ω0 + ωc – ωm)t. hence the SSB signal generated.

16. Explain the Principle of operation of AM transmitters, SSB

Antenna
 

     Transmitters and ISB transmitters.

AM Transmitters:

Block diagram:-

v  AM broad cast transmitters are used in large number of applications such as transmission of
music, speech or entertainment for general public. The output power of transmitter varies from
1kw to 100kw. It also works in long ware   medium wave and short wave frequency ranges.

v  Master oscillator: it generates high frequency waves which are subsequently sued as the
carries. The master oscillator should fulfill the following requirements.
 The circuit must provide carrier of specified frequency
 Frequency should be drift free. (Slow variations of frequency with time is termed as
frequency drift .i.e. it should be easily adjustable.
 Changes in supply voltages.

v  Buffer amplifier: the buffer stage is a class A voltage amplifier.

v  If the buffer amplifier is absent then master oscillator will be directly connected to the power
amplifier, hence there may be a chance of change in frequency

v  Harmonic generators (frequency multiplier): when a transmitter has to be operated at the


high frequency band (3MHZ-30MHZ) then frequency multipliers are used to obtain the required
output frequency.

v  Power amplifier: the RF voltage generated by the master oscillator has usually very small
power. This power level is raised to required level by a chain amplifier.

v  Preamplifier:

For noiseless transmission – audio amplifier used. For T.V transmission – video amplifier is
used. The main function of pre amplifier is to raise the amplitude of the signal source to a desired
level

v  Modulated amplifiers:

This is generally a push pull class B or class C amplifier and the modulating signal is fed into
plate or collector of the amplifier. Generally collector or plate modulator method is used in a
high power radio broadcast and radio telephone transmitters.

v  Antenna matching network:

            The output of the final amplifier is fed to an impedance matching network in order to
avoid the amplitude and frequency distortion while passing the side bands.

v  In case of AM transmitters we are having two types of modulation low level and high level
modulation.

v  In case of AM transmitters, the modulating signal is given to power amplifiers which are
modulated and carrier frequency is also given to transmit the signals. Finally the modulated
signal is amplified by modulated amplifier and given to antenna.

v  We have already discussed about the type of AM modulation, so from this we know that we
are having low level AM transmitter, high level AM transmitter.

SSB   transmitters:
 

v  The single side band transmission method consists of transmitting only one side band with the
suppression of the other side band along with carrier.

v  It is use in radio telephony systems

v  This method having high signal to noise ratio compare to DSB.

v  Compare to DSB, Bandwidth are also reduced to half. Thus twice the number of channels can
be accommodated in a given frequency spec ham

v  But the main disadvantage of SSB system is designing of SSB transmitter and receiver is more
complex

v  Before taking the SSB transmission, we know the generation of SSB wave by frequency
discrimination method and phase discrimination method. In frequency discrimination method we
are using filters in order to suppress the side band and balanced mixer in order to increase the
operating frequency.

v  In phasediscrimination method the output of balanced modulators are added together and
produced the SSB – SC waves.

v  In the block diagram of SSB transmitter, the audio frequency and as well as carrier frequency
are fed in to the balanced modulator. The output will be the DSB output i.e. one carrier is
suppressed and two sidebands are present.

v  The output of the balanced modulator is given to filter in which anyone of the sideband is
suppressed either upper side band or lower sideband.

v  This output fed in to a balanced mixer with higher frequency in order to increase the operating
frequency. From this the harmonics are rejected by band filters.

v  The output is given to second mixer mixes the signal frequencies with the high frequency and
again filtered and finally the signal is amplified in the final amplifier and transmitted.

ISB Transmitter (independent side band)

v  The ISB is the further extension of SSB principle. I.e. independent side band working with
each side band of the transmitted signal carrier a separate message signal.

v  The carrier transmission is at a reduced level to have more power. So the channel capacity will
be wide one.
v  In the block diagram of ISB transmitter, the audio signals from two channels A &B are
amplified by the channel amplifier and applied to the channel balanced modulators I & II then a
100KHZ carrier signal is generated and applied to the balanced modulators.

v  The resulting signal is fed to balanced modulator III along with 100KHZ carrier of low
magnitude.

v  Then the lower side band is filtered by filter and USB is passed to the B.M IV.

v  The output of B.M IV will be two side bands i.e. LSB and USB while carrier of 15MHZ gets
suppressed

v  Then LSB is again filtered out and the USB is passed on to the power amplifier stage when the
signals are amplified to the required power level and transmitted

v  This is one type of SSB transmitter is I&B. uses independent sideband working.

17. Explain the principle of operation of square law Detector and  Mention its merits and
demerits.

                                          (OR)

   Explain any one demodulation method of AM [Nov-04]

                                           (OR)

   Explain the principle of operation of any one non linear   

   Detectors.

v  Demodulation or detection is nothing but the process of extracting a modulating or base band
signal from modulated signal. Otherwise in other words, demodulation or detection is the process
by which the message is recovered from the modulated signal at receiver.

v  The devices used for demodulation or detection are called as demodulators or detector

v  For amplitude modulation, the detectors or demodulators are categorized are

 Square law detectors or nonlinear detectors


 Linear detectors

v  The low level modulated signals are using non linear detectors to recover the original message
signal

Square – law detector. (Non linear detector)


 

v  The square law detector circuit is used for detecting modulated signal of small magnitude

v  Here the diode is used in V – I characteristics of the device i.e. non linear characteristics of the
diode.

v  The square law detector is similar to the square law modulator. The only difference lies in the
filter circuit.

v  In square law modulator we are using band pass filters, in square law detector; a low pass filter
is used.

v  The DC supply voltage VAA is used to get the fixed operating point in the non-linear portion of
the diode V-I characteristics

v  We know the operation is limited to the non-linear region of the diode characteristics, so the
lower half portion of the modulated waveform is compressed.

v  This produces the envelope distortion, so the average value of the diode – current is no longer
constant and varies with time. The average diode current consists of steady DC component and
time varying modulation frequency.

v  Due to nonlinear region the lower half of its current wave form is compressed. This may cause
envelope distortion due to this diode current will not be constant, and varies with time.

                                       I

                                                                                         V

 
v  The distorted output diode current is expressed by the non-linear V-I relationship (i.e. square
law) is,

i0=a1 Va+ a2 Va2

Va=i/p modulated signal.

And we know the value of AM wave is

Va= Vc (1 + ma Cosωmt) Cosωct

We are providing supply voltage VAA to provide operating point.

So   Va=VAA+ Vc (1 + ma Cosωmt) Cosωct (that is it contains the DC component and 

                                                                      Time varying modulated signal)

i0=a1[VAA+ Vc (1 + ma Cosωmt) Cosωct ]+a2[VAA+ Vc (1 + ma Cosωmt) Cosωct ]2

i0=a1VAA+ a1 Vc Cosωct (1 + ma Cosωmt)+a2V2AA+ a2 Vc2 Cos2ωct (1 + ma Cosωmt)2

                                                                           +2 VAA a2 Vc Cosωct (1 + ma Cosωmt)

i0=a1VAA+ a1 Vc Cosωct (1 + ma Cosωmt)+a2V2AA

                      + a2 Vc2 (1-Cos2ωct) (1 + ma2 Cos2ωmt+2 ma Cosωmt)

                      2

               +2 VAAa2 Vc Cosωct (1 + ma Cosωmt)                                                                        

 
The carrier term is filtered by using a filter then,

i0=a1VAA+ a2V2AA+ a2 Vc2 + a2 Vc2 (2 ma Cosωmt)

The higher frequency term also reduced. The VAA is the supply voltage to get fixed operating
point in nonlinear region. So the final output contains a DC component and modulating
frequency. Hence original signal is recovered.                     

18. Explain the principle of operation of Envelope Detector (or)  

      Linear Diode detector and Mention its merits and demerits.

                                          (OR)

   Explain any one demodulation method of AM [Nov-04]

                                           (OR)

   Explain the principle of operation of any one linear   

   Detectors.

Linear detectors are mainly used in commercial receivers. This is classified into two types

v  Synchronous or coherent detector

v  Envelope or non coherent detector.

      Envelope detector:

v  It is known that a diode operating in linear region of its V-I characteristics can extract the
envelope of an AM wave.

v  This type of detector is known as envelope detector or a linear detector.

v  This is most popular in commercial receiver circuits since it is very simple and not expensive,
and also it gives satisfactory performance.
v  The input portion of the tuned transformer provides perfect tuning at the desired carrier
frequency. R-C network is the time constant network.

v  The diode is working diode is working in a linear portion of V-I characteristics of the diode.

v  Figure shows the idealized linear characteristics of the diode along with the input voltage and
output current waveforms.

            Operating principle:

v  First let us assume that the capacitor is absent in the circuit, in this case the detector circuit
will work as a half wave rectifier.

v  While we applying the capacitor, for positive half cycle the diode conducts and attains the
maximum peak, when it crosses the peak value , the diode gets reverse biased, and capacitor gets
discharged, through the resistor R with a time constant

τ =R C. so the time constant value should be properly chosen.

v  The voltage across the capacitor ‘c’ will not fall appreciably during the small period of
negative half cycle and by that time the next positive cycle appears. The positive cycle again
charges the capacitor c to the peak value of the carrier voltage and thus this process repeats again
and again. 

v  So the output voltage across capacitor is a spiky modulating or base band signal. So the
envelope is detected at the output of capacitor. Then if we take the average value, from the peak
value we will recover our original signal by extracting the envelope.

v  We can reduce these spikes to a negligible amount by keeping the time constant RC large so
that the capacitor c discharges negligible amount.

v  Large (or) small value of time constant makes problem. So time constant is important
consideration.

v  If RC is quite low: Discharge curve during non conductive period is almost vertical, so
fluctuations may occur in output voltage.

v  If RC is very large: Discharge curve is almost horizontal, so several peaks will missed in
output.

v  So when RC is large the ma will be low and signal becomes clipped at the negative peaks.

v  If the modulating voltage is faster than the rate of voltage fall across RC combination resulting
in distorted output. This type of distortion is called diagonal clipping.

v  There are two clippings i.e. distortions available


            Distortion in diode detector;

 Negative peak clipping


 Diagonal clipping.

v  Diagonal clipping: may cause when time constant of detector is not selected properly.

v  Improper selection of time constant RC.

v  So if modulating frequency is faster than the rate of voltage fall across RC combination
resulting in distorted output.

Negative peak clipping:

v  The 2nd source of distortion in linear diode detector is the curvatures of the diode
characteristics. So as a result the efficiency varies. It will be reduced by selecting load resistance
value large.
v  The negative peak clipping provides ac and dc load impedances unequal.

v  To avoid the clipping mainly diagonal clipping we have to select proper value of RC then, 
voltage across the capacitor in no conduction period

v  The rate of slope in capacitor due to period discharging is calculated by differentiating VC(t)

                  So

Like wise we have to calculate the slope of envelope voltage

       The slope is

       To avoid the clipping the slope of capacitor voltage VC should be algebraically equal or less
than the slope of envelope voltage, so

                       &

            By simplifying

          So RC depends on the ma value. So the RC to be selected by satisfying the condition in


order to avoid distortion and the modulation index value should be correct, if it is large then it
will provide negative peak clipping.

 
            So the envelope detector will be changed for smooth functioning by attaching a  section
low pass filter at the output.

19. Explain the principle of operation of Rectifier detector.                                                       

v  In the rectifier detector, the modulated signal is fed to the diode through a resonant circuit
tuned to carrier frequency

v  The resonant circuit has a bandwidth sufficient to accommodate the sidebands used.

v  The tank circuit in input side needed to prevent ripples entering to the diode

v  It is also the non coherent detector

v  Here we are using simple ohm’s law in order to calculate the output diode current

                Input voltage 

                The output diode circuit id =

Rd=Dynamic resistance of the diode.

If we find the average current then we will obtain the voltage output by

Vav=Iav.R

If we find the %η then it will be 31.8%.that is one third of o/p is taken at the o/p side. So we
want heavy filtering to avoid distortions. For this we are connecting the capacitor across the
resistor.

20. Explain the principle of operation of synchronous or coherent  

     Detector.                     

                                          (OR)

   Explain the method of detecting the DSB-SC-AM.

 The DSB-SC modulated signal reaches the receiver through a transmission medium and
at the receiver end the original modulating signal is recovered fro modulating signal.
 The coherent detector uses exact carrier synchronization for retrieving the message signal
from modulated signal.
 These types of detectors are mainly used for detecting DSB&SSB signals.
 For detecting signal we need a local oscillator at the receiver end. the frequency and
phase of the locally generated carrier and transmitter carrier must be synchronized that is
exactly coherent.
 All types of linear modulation can be detected by using synchronous detector. It consists
of a product modulator with LPF.
 The incoming signal is first multiplied with locally generated carrier and then passed
through low pass filter and the local oscillator should be exactly synchronized with
carrier.
 Considering the DSB-SC signal I/p

V1(t)=Vm.Vc cosωm t cosωc t

V2(t)=Vcosωc t

e(t)= V1(t). V2(t)= Vm.Vc Vcosωm t cos2ωc t

e(t)=  Vm.Vc Vcosωm t[1+ cos2ωc t]

                                            2

After passing through the LPF

 Considering the SSB-SC signal I/p

V1(t)= Vm Vc cos (ωc - ωm) t.


V2(t)=Vcosωc t

e(t)= V1(t). V2(t)= Vm.Vc cos (ωc - ωm) t. cosωc t

 e(t)=  Vm.Vc V[cosωm t+cos(2ωc t-ωm t)]

                                            2

After passing through the LPF

 Thus by using synchronous detector the original message signal is extracted. But the
oscillator frequency must be synchronized one. if there is a phase shift then the result in
phase or delay distortion.
 Assume local carrier to have a phase difference Φ with modulated carrier then there will
be the phase difference in the output also.
 In order to avoid the distortions and to ensure synchronization a pilot carrier is inserted
this is separated and used at the receiver for synchronize the carrier.

21. Explain the principle of operation of costas PLL detection scheme

      For DSB-SC-AM.

 One method of obtaining a practical synchronous receiver system suitable for DSB-SC-
AM wave is the costas detectors.

 
 

v  This receiver contains two coherent detectors supplied by same input signal

v  The frequency of the local oscillator is adjusted to be the same as the carrier frequency fc

v  The upper path detector -> In –phase I – channel coherent detector

v  the quadrature phase coherent detector -> lower path detector-> Q channel

v  To understand the operation, if suppose the local oscillator signal is of the same phase of the
carrier wave then the upper detector have the output and lower detector have zero output.

v  Suppose there is any phase difference then the upper detector output remains unchanged and
lower detector output will be some value and that value will be given to phase discriminator and
that difference is adjusted by PLL principle so we will get detected output.                              

22. Draw the block diagram of a super heterodyne receiver and explain the function of each
stage briefly.

We are using double frequency conversion AM super heterodyne receiver.

 We are using carrier frequency tuning in order to select the desired signal.(TVorRadio
station)
 It uses “heterodyne” principle. Heterodyne means mixing two frequencies.

.
 

R.F. section:

v  The incoming amplitude modulated wave picked up by the receiving antenna is passed on to
the RF amplifier. The RF section generally consists of a preselector and an amplifier.

v  The preselector is a band pass filter with an adjustable centre frequency that is tuned to the
desired carrier frequency of the incoming signal.

v  The primary purpose of preselector is to provide enough initial band limiting to prevent
unwanted radio frequency called “image frequency” and it also reduces the bandwidth for noise
and allows the useful signal.

v  The RF amplifier amplifies the incoming signal to the requisite level apart from selecting the
desired signal, an also it determines the sensitivity of the receiver.

v  A receiver can have one or more RF amplifiers or it may not have any depending on the
desired sensitivity. The advantage of RF amplifiers are (i) greater gain (ii) better sensitivity (ii)
better SNR (iv) better selectivity (v) better image frequency rejection.

Frequency changes:
v  The combination of mixer and local oscillator constitute the frequency changer. Both of them
provide “heterodyne” function, where the incoming signal is converted to a predetermined fixed
frequency called the “intermediate frequency”. This intermediate frequency is lower than the
incoming carrier frequency. The result of heterodyning is

       fIF = fRF  - fLO

v  Since the output of the frequency changer is neither the original input frequency nor the output
base band frequency, it is called intermediate frequency. Sometimes the frequency changer
circuits are referred to as first detector. Incase of double frequency conversion, the demodulator
becomes the third detector.

v  Although the modulated signal is translated from RF to IF the shaped of the envelope and the
original information contained in the envelope remains unchanged. It is important to note that the
bandwidth is not altered in heterodyne process.

IF section:

v  This section consists of one or more stages of tuned amplifiers which amplify the intermediate
frequency produced at the output of frequency changer circuit.

Demodulator or detector:

v  The output of the IF section is applied to a demodulator which recovers the base band or
message signal. If coherent detection is used, then a coherent signal source must be provided in
the receiver.

v  The detector also supplies d.c. bias voltage to RF and IF stages in the form of an AGC circuit.
Finally the recovered signal is power amplified enrouted to the loud speaker.

Audio amplifiers:

v  This audio section comprises of several cascaded audio amplifiers and one or more speakers.
The number of amplifiers used depends on the audio signal power.

Image frequency:

 
v  In a super heterodyne receiver the mixer will develop an intermediate frequency when the
input frequency is greater than or less than the local oscillator frequency. That is there will be
two input frequency [fLO & fin].

v  This produces two IF signals at the mixer output and results in simultaneous reception of two
signals, differing in frequency by twice the intermediate frequency. Thus the mixer is not able to
distinguish between the desired frequency and the image frequency. The image frequency is by .

v  The curve for this image interference is to employ high selective stages in RF section, in order
to favour the selection of the desired signal and reject the unwanted signals.

Advantages:

 The selectivity of this receiver is better.


 The design of IF amplifier is relatively simple.
 It provides better sensitivity throughout the broadcast band.   

TRF Receivers:

 It consists of two or three stages RF amp. Tuned together to select and amplify the
signals.
 After the signal was amplified it is demodulated and fed to the loud speaker after passing
through audio amplifier.

23. Compare various amplitude modulation systems.[Nov-04]

Comparison table:

Comparison spectrum of AM systems:

            If we draw the power spectrum of the AM systems then it will be,

 
 

DSB – SC -
Description AM with carrier SSB-SC-AM VSB-AM
AM
B.W 2fm 2fm fm Fm<2f1
75%
Power saving for
33.33% 66.66% 83%
sinusoidal
 
Power saving for non
33.3% 50% 75% 75%
sinusoidal
Difficult

Generation methods Not difficult Not difficult Difficult  

 
 
       
Signal to noise ratio
AM broad cast Carrier Police wireless TV high
Application
application telephony mobile etc. speed tx

 
 

24. Write short notes on Frequency translation.

v  It means changing the frequency, frequency mixing or heterodyning.

v  If suppose we  are having modulated wave S1(t) whose spectrum is centered on a carrier
frequency f1 and we need to translate it’s carrier from f1 to new value f2

v  Mixer is a device that consists of a product modulator followed by a BPF.

v  The received radio frequency signal is shifted to IF frequency band for processing

v  The received signal is translated to fixed IF , can be easily amplified, filtered and demodulated.

v  Normally if we are having the voice signal is modulated signal it will be the RF frequency. So
we have to provide the down conversion in order to find the intermediate frequency and we are
tuning the frequency range to IF frequency. Then the certain signal is demodulated and detected.

v  Up conversion f2=fi+fl,Down conversion f2=fi-fl. 

25. Explain about Frequency division multiplexing, and time division 

     Multiplexing.[Nov-04]

Frequency division multiplexing

v  Multiplexing is a technique in which several message signals are combined into a composite
signal for transmission over a common channel.

v  To transmit a number of these signals over the same channel, the signals must be kept apart so
that they do not interface with each other.

v  This separation is done by either FDM or TDM


v  Here we are discussing about the FDM techniques

v  Here number of signals are combined and uses the constant carrier frequencies to modulate
and passed through common channel.

v  The incoming message is given to low pass filter to remove high frequency to remove high
frequency terms i.e. high frequency components that do not disturb other message signals

v  The filtered signals are applied to modulators which shift the frequency ranges of signals.

v  The necessary carrier supply for frequency translation is given to modulators.

v  For modulation we mostly use SSB techniques

v   The band pass filters following the modulators are used to restrict the band of each modulated
wave to prescribed range.

v  The resulting signal output are combined together and passed though common channel and at
the receiver side the band pass filters in parallel used to separate the message signals in
frequency basis.

v  Finally the original signal is demodulated and filtered by low pass filters at the destination.

Time division multiplexing:

v  In TDM the different frequencies are given low pass filter and then passed to a commutator
time basis and provides multiplexing

v   The commutator gives the multiplexed channel to a pulse modulator which converts the
multiplexed signals in to suitable form.

v  Finally the TDM channels are assigned to distinct slots jumbled together in frequency domain.

University question:-

Explain the modulation and demodulation of AM signal.

Write any one modulation and demodulation scheme.

PROBLEMS
 

26.A transmitter using AM has unmodulated carrier output power of 10KW and can be
modulated to a maximum depth of 90% by a sinusoidal modulating voltage without causing
overloading. Find the value to which unmodulated carrier power may be increased without
resulting in overloading if the maximum permitted modulating index is restricted to 40 %.

     Soln:

       Pc= 10 KW , m    = 0.9

      PT = Pc [ 1+ m2 ]

           =  10[1+ (0.9)2 /2]

           =   14 KW.

           This is the maximum power which may be handled by the transmitter without

           using overload. If the modulation index is changed to 40% then the increased

           modulated carrier is then given by

            14 = Pc [1+ (0.4)2 /2 ]

            Pc = 12.96 KW.

27.A sinusoidal carrier voltage of frequency 1MHz and amplitude 100 V is modulated by a
sinusoidal voltage of frequency 5KHz producing 50% Modulation. Calculate the frequency and
amplitude of USB and LSB.

Soln:

    Frequency of USB  = 1 MHz + 5KHz  = 1005KHz.

    Frequency of LSB  =  1 MHz - 5KHz  = 995 KHz.

    Amplitude of USB and LSB = (ma Ec)/ 2 = 100 /4 = 25 V.


 

      Psaving  =         PDSBFC-PSSB    x 100

                                   PDSBFC

                 = 1.125 Pc – 0.0625 Pc

                            1.125 Pc

                 = 94.5 %

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