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Subject: MT PC 16 Instrumentation and Control

Course: B. Tech Metallurgical and Materials Engineering (MME)

1) A displacement sensor has an input range of 0 to 3.0 cm and a standard supply voltage of Vs=
0.5V.Using the table given below estimate, the maximum non linearity as a percentage of
F.S.D, the constants KI, KM associated with supply voltage variation and the ideal sensitivity
of the sensor.(Do it with a rough graph)

Displacement x cm 0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0

Output in mV (Vs=0.5V) 0 16.5 32.0 44.0 51.5 55.5 58.5
Output in mV (Vs=0.6V) 0 21.0 41.5 56.0 65.0 70.5 74.0

2) What is the best way of specifying accuracy? A temperature sensor has a range of 20˚C – 250
˚C. A measurement results in a value of 55 ˚C for the temperature. Specify the error if the
accuracy is a) ±0.5% of FS, b) ±0.75% of span, c) ± 0.8% of reading. What is the possible
temperature in each case?

3) Temperature of metal bath is measured 100 times with variations in apparatus procedures and
persons. The readings are tabulated below :
Temp ‘C 397 398 399 400 401 402 403 404 405
Freq. of Occurrence 1 3 12 23 37 16 4 2 2
Find the mean, mode, mean deviation, standard deviation and the probable error of one

4) A thermometer was suddenly dipped in a water bath kept at 100oC, the following data was

Time in 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18
Temp 30 54 74.2 81 86 93 96 97 98.4 99
in oC

a) Find the time constant of the thermometer.

b) Find the steady state error if the thermometer is used to measure temperature of a liquid
cooling at a constant rate of 2o for every 5 sec.
5) The temperature of a furnace is increasing at a rate of 0.1 ºC/s. What is the maximum
permissible time constant of a first order instrument that can be used, so that temperature is
read with a maximum error of 0.5 ºC.

6) Four strain gauges, with specification given below, are available to measure the torque on a
cylindrical shaft 4 cm in diameter connecting a motor and load.

(a) Draw clearly labeled diagrams showing:

(i) The arrangement of the gauges on the shaft
(ii) The arrangement of the gauges in the bridge circuit, for optimum accuracy and

(b) Calculate the maximum achievable bridge out-of-balance voltage for an applied torque
T of 103 Nm given the following:
Tensile and compressive strains = ± T / πSa3 where S = 1.1×1011 Nm-2 is the shear
modulus of the shaft material and a is the radius of the shaft in meters.

Strain gauge data: Resistance = 120 Ω

Gauge factor = 2.1
Maximum current = 50mA.

7) A variable dielectric capacitive displacement sensor consists of two square metal plates, side
5 cm separated by a gap of 1 mm. A sheet of dielectric material 1 mm thick and the same area
as the plates can be slid between them as shown in fig (b). Given that the dielectric constant of
air is 1 and that of the dielectric material 4, calculate the capacitance of the sensor when the
input displacement x = 0.0, 2.5, 5.0 cm.
8) A piezoelectric crystal, acting as a force sensor, is connected by a short cable of negligible
capacitance and resistance to a voltage detector of infinite bandwidth and purely resistive
impedance of 10 MΩ.

(a) Use the crystal data below to calculate the system transfer function and to sketch the
approximate frequency response characteristics of the system.

(b) The time variation in the thrust of an engine is a square wave of period 10 ms. Explain
carefully, but without performing detailed calculations. Why the above system is
unsuitable for the application.

(c) A charge amplifier with feedback capacitance Cf = 1000 pF and feedback resistance Rf
= 100MΩ is incorporated into the system. By sketching the frequency response
characteristics of the modified system, explain why it is suitable for the application of
part (b).
Crystal data: Charging sensitivity of force = 2 pCN-1.
Capacitance = 100pF
Natural frequency = 37 kHz
Damping Ratio = 0.01

9) A linear resistance potentiometer is 50mm long and is uniformly wound with a wire having a
resistance of 10,000Ω. Under normal conditions, the slider is at the centre of the
potentiometer. Find the linear displacement when the resistance of the pot as measured by a
Wheatstone bridge for two cases is 1) 3850 Ω 2) 7560 Ω. Are the two displacements in the
same direction? If it is possible to measure a minimum value of 10 Ω resistance with the above
arrangement. Find the resolution of the potentiometer.

10) A LVDT has the following specifications,. Excitation voltage is 10V at 400Hz. The maximum
output voltage is 2.5V. Range of core movement is ±1.5 cm. a) Calculate the output voltage
when the core is +1 cm away from the null. Sketch the input & output waveform. B) Sketch
the output waveform when the core is moved with a 1Hz sinusoidal motion from the null.