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INTRODUCTION

Communication is an integral part of nursing administration. it is one of the important function


of management. Communication failures have been largely responsible for disruptions and
frustrations among employes.Barnpard Considered “communication as the foundation of
cooperative group activity “communication really plays a vital role in the managerial functions
of planning, organizing and controlling.
MEANING

The word communication is derived from the latin word “ communis” meaning common. thus
communication stands for sharing ideas, information or an attitude in common
DEFINATION

Communication is an exchange of facts, ideas, opinions or emotions by two or more persons.


-Newman and Summer.
The word communication describes the process of conveying message (facts, ideas, attitudes and
opinions) from one person to another so that they are understood.
-Cummin M.W.
CHARACTERSTICS OF COMMUNICATION

1. It involve more than one person


2. It deals with transmission of facts
3. Media of communication may be numerous
4. It is a continuous process.
5. It involves both information and understanding.
6. It includes all means by which meaning is conveyed from one person to another
7. It Is the bases for action and cooperation
8. It travels up and down and also from side to side.
9. Its primary purpose is to motivate a response
10. A further attribute of communication is its universality in the organizations

IMPORTANCE OF COMMUNICATION IN MANAGEMENT


Importance of communication can be judged through following points
1. BASES OF CO-ORDINATION
The importance of communication in the context of modern industrial setup is
enormous. the big organization are designed on the bases of specialization and division
of labour,the work of the organization can be carried out without interruption only
through co-ordination.co-ordination is a must for the efficient functioning of an
interprise.co-ordination requires mutual understanding about the organizational goals,
the mode of their achievement and the inter relationships between the work being

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informed by various individual and all this can be achieved through communication
only.
2. SMOOTH WORKING OF AN ENTERPRISE
Communication makes possible the smooth and unrestricted running of the enterprise.
All the organizational interactions depend upon communication. if the persons engaged
in performing the various tasks understand it exactly in the same sense in which they are
required to perform, It can help in smooth running or an interprise.It is only the process
of communication which makes cooperative action possible.
3. BASIS OF DECISION MAKING
Communication is the basic requirement for making decisions. In its absence it may not
be possible for the top management to take any decision. information must be received
before any meaningful decision can be made. again to implement the decision
effectively it becomes necessary to have a good communication system.
4. ENHANCING MANAGERIAL EFFICIENCY
Communication is essential for quick and systematic performance or managerial
functions. The management conveys through communication only the goals and targets,
issues, instructions, allocate jobs and responsibilities and looks after the performance or
subordinates.
5. PROMOTION OF CO-OPERATION AND INDUSTRIAL PEACE
Better and economic production is the aim of prudent management. it can be possible
only when there is industrial harmony between management and workers. The two
way communication permotes co-operation and mutual understanding between the
parties.
The downward communication helps the management to tell the subordinates what
management actually expects of them. The upwards communication helps the worker in
putting up their grievances, suggestions and the actions before management which
ultimately helps in achieving co operation of employees.

6. ESTABLISHMENT OF EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP


Communication is the bases of direction and leadership, it is an influencing process. By
developing the skill of communication a manager can be real leader of his subordinates.
A good system of communication brings them in close contact with each other and
removes misunderstanding of all types between the leader and his subordinates.

7. MORALE BUILDING AND MOTIVATION


An efficient system of communication enables the management to mould the attitude of
the sub ordinates. Most of the conflicts in business are not basic but are caused by
misunderstood motives and ignorance of the facts. Proper and timely communication
between the interested parties reduces the friction and minimums that which may arise in
variably. Communication impose the human relations in the industry.

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THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS

Communication may be defined as a process concerning exchange of facts or ideas between persons
holding different POSITIONS in an organization to achieve mutual harmony. the communicationprocess
is dynamic in nature rather than a static phenomenon.Communication process as such must be
considered a continous and dynamic interaction,both affecting and being affected by many variables.

Fields of experiences

ELEMENTS OF COMMUNICATION PROCESS

A communication process involves the following elements:


1. SENDER – The person who intense to convey the message with the intention of passing
information and ideas to others is known as sender or communicator.
2. IDEAS – This is the subject matter of the communication. This may be an opinion, attitude,
feeling, views, orders or suggestions.
3.ENCODING- since the subject matter of communication is theoretical and intangible, its
further passing requires use of certain symbols, such as words,action,or pictures
,act.conversion of subject matter into these symbols is the process of encoding.

4. COMMUNICATION CHANNEL- the person who is interested in communicating has to


choose the channel or sending the required information, ideas, and acts. This information is
transmitted to the receiver through certain channels which may be either formal or informal.

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5. RECEIVER – receiver is the person who receives the message or for whom the message is
meant for. It is the receiver who tries to understand the message in the best possible manner in
achieving the desired objectives.
6. DECODING- the person who receives the message or symbol from the communicator tries
to convert the same in such a way or that he may extract its meaning to his complete
understanding.
7. FEEDBACK-feedback is the process of ensuring that the receiver has received the message
and understood in the same sense as sender meant it.

CLASSIFICATION OF COMMUNICATION

A.) ON THE BASES OF ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE

1.Formal communication- it is the line of communication for the transmission of official


messages and information within or outside an organization by and large the “unit of
command” is followed in formal communication .a subordinate has only one superior
from whom he receives information and sends his suggestions and queries.

2. Informal Communication- it referred to as a grapevine or a bush telegraph. This is


built around the social relationship of the members of the organization. It does not
follow the formal channel established by the managmnet.It is more spontaneous and
flexible than formal communication. It can work as a powerful and purposeful effective
tool of good administrative practice. It is considered as a barometer of public opinion in
the organization.

B.) CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO DIRECTION

DOWNWARD COMMUNICATION:-

It is that communication that flow from top to bottom that is from a superior to subordinate or
from the manager to the assistant manager. Downward communication refers to defectiveness,
and other messages that originate with officials at the top of the organization and are transmitted
down through the hierarchy to reach the lowest ranking worker in the chain. Orders, policies,
procedures, circulars, bulletins, manuals, handbooks, employee magazines are most widely used
for downward communication. Process of delegation itself is a form of downward
communication.

UPWARD COMMUNICATION

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Upward communication is that which passes from the subordinate to the superior. The
importance of the upward communication stems up from the fact that it reveals the degree to
which ideas passes down are accepted. In addition it stimulates employees to participate in the
operation of their department or unit, encourages them to defend the decisions and support the
policies co-operatively developed with the management. The opportunity for the upward
communication also encourages employees to contribute valuable ideas for improving
departmental efficiencies.

HORIZONTAL OR LATERAL COMMUNICATION

It is one which takes place directly between two equals or two subordinates of the same superior.
This is a side way communication between people of the same level in managerial hierarchy. It is
one of the best methods of co-ordination between equals. This type of communication can be
made by written reports, face to face contacts and through telephones etc.

DIAGNOAL COMMUNICATION

It occurs between individuals or departments that are not on the same level of the hierarchy.

C.) CLASSIFICATION OF COMMUNICATION ACCORDING TO WAYS OF


EXPRESSION:-
1. VERBAL/ORAL

It is the face to face communication between individuals. Communication through


telephone, public speech, and other artificial means is also part of oral communication.
Daily contacts between the superior and subordinate is the important and frequently used
method of effective communication. it is most effective because the superior can clearly
explain his point of view and the subordinate can understand it quickly and clearly.

2. WRITTEN

It another important communication method which play a significant role in managerial


work. Reports, policies, rules, aggrements, instructions, memoranda and the like have to
be in written for efficient functioning of an organization. This includes words,
graphs.diagrams, pictures ect.It is extensively used in organization. written
communication ensures that everyone concerned has the same information and it
provides a permanent record for the future refrences.Each written communication must
be based of four essential C’s that is clear,correct.complete and concise.

3. GESTURAL

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It is used as supplementary method of verbal communication. Some of non verbal
communication includes gesture, body language or posture; facial expression and eye contact,
object communication such as clothing, hairstyles, architecture, symbols infographics, and tone
of voice as well as through an aggregate of the above. Non-verbal communication is also called
silent language and plays a key role in human day to day life from employment relations to
romantic engagements.

COMMUNICATION IN NURSING SERVICE ORGANIZATION


Each task of the nurses at all levels involves communication. Nursing involves the sharing of
information as well as understanding and interpreting the information transmitted and received.

In today’s complex structure health care organizations the effective two way communication has
an important role in improving patient care services. Communication process is a prerequisite in
defining and assessing patient’s problems, in caring out plan of care, and in documenting actions.
Communication can play an important role in the managerial functions of nursing administrator
like planning, decision making, organizing, directing and controlling

In health care institution the need for effective communication has been intensified by growth in
technology, advance in science, socio culture events, the employment of many different
professionals and technical work group, the pressure to render patient care services to all
consumers at a responsible price.

Today nurses are involved in three major communication approaches.

1. The organizational approach

2. The interpersonal approach

3. The technological and scientific approach

ORGANIZTIONAL APPROACH

In dynamic nursing services organization the decision making process consists of many
interrelated message between superior and subordinate. These exchanges contribute to final
decision on particular subject. Also communication process can facilitate interdependency of one
unit on another resulting in mutual understanding, coordination and cooperation for the
attainment of the objectives. Effective communication between nursing services unit and
department can produce a coherent, dynamic organization for improving nursing and other
patient care services.

INTERPERSONAL APPROACH

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The interpersonal theory is applied in communication. in the health care organization there are
various professional in technical groups with different interests,goals,attitudes,abilities and
experts. Administrative and departmental heads are challenged to used techniques that keep
status and power difference between groups to minimum and they also have to keep channels
open and unrestricted between individuals and groups

TECHNOLOGIES AND SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION’S APPROACH

Computer technology is taking on an important role in communication. Computer technology


has been applied in assessment of the patient’s conditions and needs, in the maintenance of
medical records, medication and unit management system. It is also useful in the management of
control system and continuing training and educational programme.in some institution there is a
facility of fully automated system that provide data intantly.exchange of message among
physicians, between physician and nurses, between nurse and other units via computer provide
for effective planning and organization of patient care services. This lead to conservation of
resources and also maintaining a more accurate documentation.

BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION

There are many barriers that tend to distort messages that pass between sender and receiver.
These barriers often cause breakdown and misunderstanding in communication leading to many
managerial problems. Major barriers are:-

1. Barriers due to organizational structure:- Effective communication largely depends on


the organizational structure. If the structure is complex involving many layers, a large
number of barriers will develop. In both upward and downward communication,
intermediary may withhold information for a variety of reasons.
2. Barriers of language: - difficulty in communication sometimes arises when sender and
receiver use words in different senses. The receiver interprets the language symbols in
terms of his own behavior and experience.

3. Barriers due to physical distances: - in big organizations an important barrier of effective


communication is physical distance between people. When people are far away it
becomes difficult to evaluate whether they receive, understand, accept and properly react
to what is transmitted to them.

4. Lack of interest: - one of the most fundamental obstacles to communication has been
stated to be the lack of attention to the interest of the people with whom management
wants to communicate. Management listens more attentively to communication that is
geared to their interests and their basic needs.

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5. Barriers due to status relationship:- one of the important barrier in the effective
communication arises due to stats relationship in organization. status arises on account
of position in the hierarchy, job title, salary or the special privileges. this status
relationship places persons in superior and subordinate positions. the subordinates often
omits or withholds information which is not pleasant to the boss. no subordinate likes to
reveal his mistakes to his superior. This creates distortion in communication.

6. Barriers due to emotional attitudes: - emotional attitude of the sender and the receiver
can affect the communication. a person is likely to send the message in different ways
depending on his own emotional attitudes at the time the message is received.

7. Neglect of listening: - a good deal of trouble in communication arises on neglecting


listening. On the part of executive, listening is the most neglected skill of
communication. It is an art yet to be mastered by man.

8. Psychological barriers: - in upward communication there are many psychological


barriers which arise on account of subordinate – superior relationships. Upward
communication is influenced by the subordinate’s perceived image of his superior.

According to DOYGHLAS Basil one of the greatest barriers to communication is ego


centric tendency of all human beings to view activity from highly personal point of
view. Another major barrier arises on account of tendency to evaluate or judge others.
Poor past experiences in communication can lead to rejection subsequent message and to
the development of barriers against them.

SUGGESTIONS TO OVERCOME BARRIERS

1. The line of communication should be direct and as short as possible

2. Communicator should use simple and meaningful language which the receiver can easily
understand.

3. The executives should develop the skill of listening.

4. A good deal of status and position can be eliminated by a feeling of mutual trust and
confidence between superior and subordinate. Both parties should try to understand each other’s
point of view.

5. Undue emphasis should not be laid on written word in communication. In no case written
words should be considered as a substitute to face to face

HOW LEADERS COMMUNICATE IN THE OHIO STATE LEADERSHIP MODLE

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Leaders communicate in the following ways: telling.selling.participating, deligating.listening and
giving and receiving feedback above figure portrays the relationship between how leaders
communicate and the OHIO STATE LEADERSHIP model. This model represents how leader
behave towards follower, leaders behave by communicating to (one way communication) and
with (two way communication), followers.

TELLING, SELLING, PARTICIPATING, DELIGATING

Hersey and Blanchard (1977) used situational leadership theory to specify and explain the active
verbs for each leader behavior style

HIGH STRUCTURE AND LOW CONSIDERATION (LB1)

“It is referred to as telling because this style is characterized by one way communication in
which the leader defines the roles of followers and tells them what ,how, when and where to do
various tasks.

HIGH STRUCTURE AND HIGH CONSIDERATION (LB2)

“it is referred to as selling because with this style most of the direction is still provided by the
leader. he or she attempts through two way communication and socioemotional support to get the
followers psychologically to buy into decision that have to be made

HIGH CONDIREDATION AND LOW STRUCTURE (LB3)

“it is called participating because with this style, leader and followers now share in decision
making through two way communication and much facilitating behavior from the leader since
the followers have the ability and knowledge to accomplish the task”

LOW CONSIDERATION AND LOW STRUCTURE (LB4)

“It is labeled delegating because the style involves letting followers run their own show through
delegation and journal supervision since the followers are high in both tasks and psychological
maturity.

LISTENING AND GIVING/ RECEIVING FEEDBACK represented in above figure


as the circle that runs around the all of the leader behavior style. Manager behaves by
communicating to and with followers in the leader behavior style that has the highest probability
for motivating them to accomplish the task. The manager should then listen to the feedback that
is verbally and non verbally provided by followers in response to the message given by the
leader through one of the leader behavior style, then the leader decodes the feedback and sends
another massage to the followers. This process occurs until communication ceases, hence, no
further message is required at that time.

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CONFIDENTIALITY is an ethical principle associated with several professions (e.g.,
medicine, law). In ethics, and (in some places) in law and alternative forms of legal resolution
such as mediation, some types of communication between a person and one of these
professionals are "privileged" and may not be discussed or divulged to third parties.

Confidentiality has also been defined by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
in ISO-17799 as "ensuring that information is accessible only to those authorized to have access"
and is one of the cornerstones of information security. Confidentiality is one of the design goals
for many cryptosystems, made possible in practice by the techniques of modern cryptography.

Confidentiality of information, enforced in an adaptation of the military's classic "need to know"


principle, forms the cornerstone of information security in today's corporations. The so called
'confidentiality bubble' restricts information flows, with both positive and negative consequences

CRYPTOGRAPHY (or cryptology; from Greek, "hidden, secret"; and graphein, "writing",
"study", respectively is the practice and study of techniques for secure communication in the
presence of third parties (called adversaries. More generally, it is about constructing and
analyzing protocols that overcome the influence of adversaries and which are related to various
aspects in information security such as data confidentiality, data integrity, and authentication

In this meaning, the term CRYPTOSYSTEM is used as shorthand for "cryptographic system". A
cryptographic system is any computer system that involves cryptography. Such systems include
for instance, a system for secure electronic mail which might include methods for digital
signatures, cryptographic hash functions, key management techniques, and so on. Cryptographic
systems are made up of cryptographic primitives, and are usually rather complex. Because of
this, breaking a cryptosystem is not restricted to breaking the underlying cryptographic
algorithms - usually it is far easier to break the system as a whole, eg, through the not uncommon
misconceptions of users in respect to the cryptosystem.

CONCLUSION

Communication is a meaningful exchange and understanding of ideas, statistical data, opinions


and emotions from a source to receiver. today professional nurses are involved in human and
labor relations, the development of quantity and quality nursing service standards, the assessment
of nursing care and a whole list of other technical aspects of health care operations. The nurse
administrator’s effectiveness depends to a great degree on their awareness of communication
concepts, their positive approach to communication and their skillful use of its mechanism.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY:-

1. BT Basavanthappa, Nursing Administration; Textbook of nursing education, 8th


edition, 2008, Pp-120-125
2. Mary Lucita, Nursing Practice and public health administration, 3rd edition,
2005,Pp 16-30
3. Alexander gorden et.al.Nursing service administration.Mosby 1946,pp 125-140
4. Chatterjee.A introduction to management.World Press 1976,pp 240-256
5. Mathus B S .Principles of management.National publishing house 1982,pp 362-
382
6. www.wikipedia.com

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