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EL-315

School of Engineering

Technology

CII, Johar Town Lahore

http:/www.umt.edu.pk

1

Signals And Systems Lab Manual EL-315

School of Science & Technology

Department of Electrical Engineering

List Of Experiments

1 Introduction to MATLAB

calculation of their energy and power. 1.6: Elementary Signals.

3 Generation of complex exponential, real 1.6: Elementary Signals.

exponential, sinusoidal and random signals

on Matlab

4 Implementation of signal addition, 1.5: Basic Operations on

multiplication, scaling, shifting, folding, Signals.

sample summation, even and odd synthesis

on Matlab

5 Calculation of impulse response and step 2.7-8 : Impulse Response of

response of Linear-Time-Invariant (LTI) LTI system ; Step Response of

system LTI system.

6 Simulation of Linear-Time-Invariant (LTI) 2.7:Relations between LTI

system Properties (Open Ended) System properties.

7 Continuous time convolution 2.4-5: Convolution Integral

and its Evaluation.

Evaluation.

9 Fourier series, magnitude and 3.3-5: Fourier Representation

phase calculation on Matlab of Signals, Discrete Time

Fourier Series, Continuous

Time Fourier Series.

10 Fourier transform 3.6-7: Discrete Time Fourier

Transform, Continuous Time

Fourier Transform.

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Signals And Systems Lab Manual EL-315

signals and systems Representation.

12 Comparison of continuous-time & discrete- 4.5: Sampling.

time Signals and Sampling and Signal

Reconstruction

13 Z-transform using residuez method, pole- 7.1-3: Introduction to Z

zero plot Transform, Properties of

region of Convergence for Z

Transform

14 Inverse z-transform on matlab 7.5: Inversion of Z Transform

Text Book: Signals & Systems by Simon Haykin and Barry Van Veen, 2 nd

Edition, John Wiley & Sons

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Signals And Systems Lab Manual EL-315

Roll #:_____________________________

OBJECTIVES:

signals and system.

Be able to explain MATLAB Variables, Arithmetic operations, Control flow statements,

Math Functions and Plotting in MATLAB.

MATLAB is a programming language and data visualization software package which is especially

effective in signal processing and system analysis.

If you know the name of a function which you would like to learn how to use, use the help.

>> help function name

This command displays a description of the function and generally also includes a list of

related Functions. If you cannot remember the name of the function, use the lookfor.

>>lookfor keyword

This command will display a list of functions that include the keyword in their

descriptions.

Other help commands that you may find useful are info what and which.

MATLAB stores variables in the form of matrices which are M x N, where M is the number of

rows and N is the number of columns. All elements of a matrix can be real or complex numbers.

Complex scalar >> x = 5+10j (or >> x = 5+10i)

Row vector >> x=[1 2 3]

Column vector >>x = [1; 2; 3]

3x3matrix >> x=[1 2 3;4 5 6;7 8 9]

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Signals And Systems Lab Manual EL-315

Arithmetic Operations

+ Addition

- Subtraction

* Multiplication

/ Division(for matrices it also means inversion)

There are also three other operators that operate on an element by element basis:

.* multiplication of two vectors, element by element

./ division of two vectors, element-wise

.^ raise all the elements of a vector to a power.

Example:-

>> X= [1,3,4]

>> Y= [4,5,6]

>> X+Y

Ans= __________

>> X*Y.

Ans= __________

>> X.*Y

Ans = ___________

Complex numbers :

MATLAB also supports complex numbers. The imaginary number is denoted with the i. or j..

>> z =3 + 4i

>>conj(z) =______________ % computes the conjugate of z

>>angle(z) =______________ % computes the phase of z

>>real(z) = ______________ % computes the real part of z

>>imag(z) = ______________ % computes the imaginary part of z

>>abs(z) = ______________ % computes the magnitude of z

Array Indexing

In MATLAB, all arrays (vectors) are indexed starting with 1, i.e., y(1) is the first element of the

array y. Note that the arrays are indexed using parenthesis (.) and not square brackets[.] as in

C/C++. To create an array having as elements the integers 1 through 6, just enter:

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Signals And Systems Lab Manual EL-315

>> x=[1,2,3,4,5,6]

>> x=1:6

The: notation above creates a vector starting from 1 to 6, in steps of 1. If you want to create a

vector from

1 to 6 in steps of say 2, then type:

>>ii=2:4:17 = ___________________________

>>jj=20:-2:0 = _____________________________

Extracting or inserting numbers in a vector can be done very easily. To concatenate an array, you

can usethe []operator, as shown in the example below:

>> x=[1:3 4 6 100:110]

>>x(3:7) = __________________

>>length(x) = _______________% gives the size of the array or vector

Allocating memory

You can allocate memory for one-dimensional arrays (vectors) using the zeros command.

The following command allocates memory for a 100-dimensional array:

>> Y = zeros(100,1);

>>Y(30) = ______________

Similarly, you can allocate memory for two-dimensional arrays (matrices). The command >>

Y=zeros (4, 5) defines a 4 by 5matrix.

>> Y= ones (1, 5) = ____________________________________

Pi(pi=3.14...)

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Signals And Systems Lab Manual EL-315

0/0.

; Indicates the end of a row in a matrix. It is also used to suppress printing on the screen

% denotes a comment. Anything to the right of % is ignored by the MATLAB interpreter and is

considered as comments

. Denotes transpose of a vector or matrix. It is also used to define strings,

e.g., str1=’DSP’;

Control Flow

• if statements

• switch statements

• for loops

• while loops

• break statements

The if, for, switch and while statements need to terminate with an end statement.

Examples:

IF:

>> X = -3;

>> If X>0 str =’positive.’

elseif X==0 str = ‘equal. ‘

elseif X <0 str = ‘negative.’

else str= ‘error.’

end

Answer :-str = _______________________________

Do if X = 3

Answer :-str = _______________________________

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Signals And Systems Lab Manual EL-315

WHILE:

>> X= -10 ;

>>while X < 0

X= X+1;

end

FOR loop:

>> Y= 0;

for X= 1:10

Y=Y+1;

end

Value of X after execution of loop =_________________________________

BREAK:

The break statement lets you exit early from a for or a while loop:

>> x=-10;

while x<0

x=x+2;

if x == -2

break;

end

end

Relational Operators

Symbol Meaning:

<= Lessthanequal

< Less than

>= Greater than equal

> Greater than

== Equal

~=Not equal

Logical Operators

Symbol Meaning:

& AND

| O

~ NOT

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Signals And Systems Lab Manual EL-315

Math Functions

MATLAB comes with a large number of built-in functions that operate on matrices on an

element-by element basis. These include:

sin sine

cos cosine

tan tangent

exp exponential

lognatural logarithm

log10 common logarithm

sqrt square root

absabsolute value

Plotting

Plot Plot in linear coordinates as a continuous function

stem Plot in linear coordinates as discrete samples

loglog Logarithmic

bar Bar graph

polar Polar co ordinates

Example:-

X= 0 : 90;

Y = cos (x);

Plot (Y);

Plot(X);

Stem(X);

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Signals And Systems Lab Manual EL-315

MATLAB programming is done using M-files, i.e., files that have the extension .m. These files are

created using

a text editor. To open the text editor, go to the File pull-down menu, choose New, then M-file.

After you type in the program, save it, and then call it from the command window to execute it.

Example:-

Say for instance that you want to write a program to compute the average (mean) of a vector x.

The program should take as input the vector x and return the average of the vector.

Steps:

1. You need to create a new file, called “average.m”. Open the open the text editor by going to

the File pull-down menu; choose New, then M-file. Type the following in empty text file.

function y=average(x)

L=length(x);

sum=0;

for i=1:L

sum=sum+x(i);

end

y=sum/L; % the average of x

Remarks:

y is the output of the function “average”

Average is the name of the function. It is best if it has the same name as the filename. MATLAB

files always need to have the extension .m2. From the Editor pull-down menu, go to File | Save,

and enter: average.m for the filename.

>> x=1:100;

>> y=average(x)

ans =

50.5000

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Signals And Systems Lab Manual EL-315

LAB Assignment

Write a MATLAB program that will add all the numbers corresponding to the even or odd (your

registration number) indices of an array. For instance, if the array x was x=[1, 3, 5, 10], and your

registration number is even ;

then it should return 13 (= 3 + 10). Use that program to find the sum of all integers from 1 to your

Registration number. Write your program so that it is flexible. That is, you should be able to

invoke your program from

the command window as follows:

>> y = addnumber(x)

Where x is the input vector, and y is the sum of all the numbers corresponding to the indices of x.

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Signals And Systems Lab Manual EL-315

Observations/Comments/Explanation of Results:

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Signals And Systems Lab Manual EL-315

Questions:

2. How will you create a row vector in Matlab?

3. How will you create a column vector in Matlab?

4. Write command to compute multiplication of two vectors element by element.

5. Write command to compute conjugate of a complex number.

6. Write command to get the size of an array or vector.

7. Write command to compute magnitude and phase angle of a complex number.

8. Write command to compute real and imaginary part of a complex number.

9. Make an array of 5 by 6 matrix having all elements initialized to zero.

10. How will you plot a continuous function in Matlab?

11.

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Signals And Systems Lab Manual EL-315

energy and power.

Roll #:_____________________________

OBJECTIVES:

Be able to compute the power and energy of different signals in MATLAB environment.

INTRODUCTION

Signals are represented mathematically as functions of one or more independent variables. For

convenience, we generally refer to the independent variable as time. Signals are broadly

classified into analog and discrete signals.

An analog signal will be denoted by x a ( t ) in which the variablet represents time in seconds.

A discrete signal will be denoted byx (n)in which the variable nis integer and represents

discrete instances in time. It is also represented as

↑

Where the up-arrow indicates the sample at n=0. In MATLAB we can represent a finite–duration

sequence by a row vector of appropriate values. However, such a vector doesn’t have any

information about sample position n. Therefore a correct representation of x (n) would require

two vectors, one each for x and n .

BASIC SEQUENCES

{

0 , n≠ 0

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Signals And Systems Lab Manual EL-315

We will see how we can use unit impulse (sample) signal as basic building blocks for the

construction and representation of other signals.

δ(n)

1

n

Figure2-1: Discrete-Unit sample (impulse)

Similarly unit sample can be expressed as the first difference of the unit step.

δ [ n ] =u [ n ] −u[n−1] (2-3)

Unit Impulse can be used to sample the value of the signal at n=0.

x [ n ] δ [ n ] =x [ 0 ] δ[n] (2-4)

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Signals And Systems Lab Manual EL-315

1

u (n)

........

0 1 2 3 4 . . . n

There is a close relationship between the unit step and unit sample i.e. unit step is the running

sum of the unit sample.

∞

u [ n ] = ∑ δ[n−m]

m=0

(2-6)

If x [ n ] is our discrete time signal then its total energy will be

+∝

2

E ∝=∑ |x [ n ]| −∝ ≤n ≤+∝

−∝

(2-7)

If x [ n ] is our discrete time signal then its total power will be

+N

1 2

P ∝= lim ∑ |x [ n ]| −N ≤ n ≤+ N

N →∝ 2 N +1 −N (2-8)

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Signals And Systems Lab Manual EL-315

LAB TASK

Note: make m-file, show function’s plot,xlabel,ylabel,hold, stem and observe the output and show to

the instructor, see MATLAB help.

function [x,n]=impseq(n0,n1,n2)

%Generate x(n) = delta(n-n0); n1 ≤n≤n2

%---------------------------------------------------

%[x,n]=impseq(n0,n1,n2)

n=[n1:n2]; x= [(n-n0)== 0];

function [x,n] = stepseq(n0,n1,n2)

%Generate x(n) = u(n-n0); n1 ≤ n ≤n2

%---------------------------------------------------

%[x,n] = stepseq(n0,n1,n2)

n = [n1:n2]; x = [(n-n0) >= 0];

Where the superscript “*” denotes the operation of complex conjugation. The energy of a finite

duration sequence x(n) can be computed in MATLAB using

≫ Ex=∑ (|( x )|.¿ 2 ) % forrealsequence ;

SIGNAL POWER:

N −1

1 2

Px= ∑ |x [n ]|

N 0

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Signals And Systems Lab Manual EL-315

LAB ASSIGNMENT

Give a title to the graph, label the x-axis and the y-axis respectively. Give specific color lines to

the input and output for discrimination.(Hint see MATLAB “help plot”)

P.1

Generate and plot the samples of the following sequences using MATLAB. Also find energy

and power of these functions.

10

a. x 1 ( n )= ∑ ( m+1 ) [ δ ( n−2m )−δ ( n−2m−1 ) ] , 0 ≤ n≤ 25

m=0

Hint: See Matlab help for “stem” function and “for loop”

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Signals And Systems Lab Manual EL-315

Observations/Comments/Explanation of Results:

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Signals And Systems Lab Manual EL-315

Questions:

2. What is the difference between analogue and discrete signal?

3. What is unit sample sequence?

4. What is unit step sequence?

5. What is the difference between unit sample and unit step sequence?

6. How will you calculate total energy of the signal?

7. How will you calculate total power of the signal?

8. How will you plot a continuous function in Matlab?

9. How will you plot a discrete signal in Matlab?

10. How will you label the x-axis and y-axis of the graph?

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Signals And Systems Lab Manual EL-315

sinusoidal and random signals on MATLAB.

Roll #:_____________________________

OBJECTIVES:

To generate Random signals on MATLAB.

TYPES OF SEQUENCES

x [ n ] =C . e a .n (3-1)

Where “C“ and “a” are real . There are basically two types of behavior.

If a is positive

As “n” increases “ x [ n ]” is growing exponential, a form that describes different physical

processes including chain reactions and complex chemical reactions.

If a is negative

As “n” increases “ x [ n ]” is decaying exponential, a form that describes the radioactive

decay, RC circuits and damped mechanical systems.

Complex exponential signal is defined as :

x [ n ] =e(σ + j w )n

0 (3-2)

population growth as a function of generation and total return on investment as a

function of day, month etc.

SINUSOIDAL SIGNALS

Sinusoidal signal is defined as:

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Signals And Systems Lab Manual EL-315

RANDOM SINGALS

Many practical signals can’t be described by mathematical expressions like those

explained above. Such sequences are called the random (or stochastic) sequences and

characterized by probability density function or statistical moments.

RAND(1,N)

It generates a length N random sequences whose elements are uniformly distributed

between [0,1].

RANDN(1,N)

It generates a length N Gaussian random sequence with mean 0, and variance 1.

PERIODIC SEQUENCE

A sequence x [ n ] is periodic if

x [ n ] =x [ n+ N ] ; ∀ n (3-4)

The smallest integer that satisfies the above relation is called the fundamental period.

x left [n right ] is an even signal if it is identical to its time-reversal counterpart i.e.

x [−n ] =x [ n ] (3-5)

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Signals And Systems Lab Manual EL-315

LAB TASK

n1

x 1 [n ]=( 0.9 ) ; 0 ≤n 1 ≤10

n1 = [0:10];

x1 = (0.9).^n1;

Plot “ x1(n1)”.

Label x-axis and y-axis.

Also give title to the graph.

TASK3:SINUSOIDAL SEQUENCE

π

(

x 3 [ n ]=3 cos 0 . 1 πn 3+

3 )

+2 sin(0 . 5 πn 3), 0 ≤ n 3≤ 10

clc;

c = -(1/12)+(pi/6)*i;

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Signals And Systems Lab Manual EL-315

K = 2;

n = 0:40;

x = K*exp(c*n);

subplot(2,1,1);

stem(n,real(x));

title(’Real part’);

subplot(2,1,2);

stem(n,imag(x));

title(‘Imaginary part’);

clc;

x = K*a.^+n;

stem(n,x);

n = [0:40];

x1 = rand(1,41);

stem(n,x1)

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Signals And Systems Lab Manual EL-315

Plot “ x1(n1)”.

Label x-axis and y-axis.

Also give title to the graph.

LAB ASSIGNMENT

P.1

Generate a random sequence of numbers upto 40 numbers of samples , called x1, then multiply

it with sin(n), and plot the result.

P.2

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Signals And Systems Lab Manual EL-315

Observations/Comments/Explanation of Results:

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Signals And Systems Lab Manual EL-315

Questions:

2. Explain complex valued exponential signals.

3. How will you generate random sequence of elements in matlab?

4. What is the difference between RAND(1,N) and RANDN(1,N) ?

5. What is periodic sequence?

6. Explain even and odd signals.

7. Explain “stem”.

8. Explain subplot.

9. How will you give title to the graph?

10. How will you label the x-axis and y-axis of the graph?

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Signals And Systems Lab Manual EL-315

shifting, folding, sample summation, even and odd synthesis on

Matlab.

Roll #:_____________________________

OBJECTIVES:

To compute even and odd parts of any signal.

BASIC OPERATIONS

TIME SHIFT

x [ n−no ] (4-1)

signal is a time shift. A time shift discrete time in it we have two signals x [n] and

x [ n−no ]that is identical in shape, but are displaced or shifted relative to each other.

Eq.1 shows a time shifted discrete-time signal.

TIME REVERSAL

x [−n ] (4-2)

A Time reversal signal x [−n ] of x [ n ]is obtained by reflection about n=0 (i.e by reversing

the signal).

TIME SCALING

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Signals And Systems Lab Manual EL-315

x [ αn ] (4-3)

in the independent variable. If we think of the example x [ n ] as tape recording, then

x [ 2 n ] is that recording played at twice the speed, and x [ n /2 ] is the recording played at

half-speed.

Two discrete time signals x 1 [ n ] and x 2 [ n ] can be added up using standard addition if

both having the same order /or equal in length. Same rule holds for the multiplication in

standard form. But if both have unequal length then in this case we can also solve this

problem, using different strategy as in MATLAB there is no built-in function for solving

such problems so we have to make our own user defined function using function-file

code of such problems is given in the lab tasks. Using that code we can easily solve and

get the desired output.

PERIODIC SEQUENCE

A sequence x [ n ] is periodic if

x [ n ] =x [ n+ N ] ; ∀ n (4-4)

The smallest integer that satisfies the above relation is called the fundamental period.

x left [n right ] is an even signal if it is identical to its time-reversal counterpart i.e.

x [−n ] =x [ n ] (4-5)

Similarly the signal is referred to as odd if

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Signals And Systems Lab Manual EL-315

29

LAB TASK

TASK1:SIGNAL ADDITION.

Signal addition is implemented in MATLAB by using the arithmetic operator “+”. However, the

length of x1(n) and x2(n) must be same. If sequences are of unequal length, or if the sample

positions are different for equal length sequences; then we can’t directly use the operator “+”.

Implement below code for adding sequences of unequal length:

%implements y(n)= x1(n)+x2(n)

%y[y,n]=sigadd(x1,n1,x2,n2)

%y=sum sequence over n, which includes n1 and n2

%x1=first sequence over n1

%x2= second sequence over n2 (n2 can be different from n1)

n=min(min(n1),min(n2)):max(max(n1),max(n2));

y1=zeros(1,length(n)); y2=y1;

y1(find((n>=min(n1))&(n<=max(n1))==1))=x1;

y2(find((n>=min(n2))&(n<=max(n2))==1))=x2;

y=y1+y2;

end

Generate x1 and x2 given below

x 1 [ n 1 ] = 1 ;1 ≤ n 1≤ 9

{ 0 ; otherwise

x 2 [ n 2 ] = 1; 3 ≤ n 2≤ 10

{ 0 ; otherwise

Add x1[n] and x2[n] using function “sigadd”.

Signal multiplication is implemented in MATLAB by using the array operator “.*”. However, the

length of x1(n) and x2(n) must be same. If sequences are of unequal length, or if the sample

positions are different for equal length sequences; then we can’t directly use the operator “.*”.

Implement below code for multiplying sequences of unequal length:

%implements y(n)= x1(n) *x2(n)

%-------------------------------------------

%y[y,n]=sigmult(x1,n1,x2,n2)

%y=product sequence over n, which includes n1 and n2

%x1=first sequence over n1

%x2= second sequence over n2 (n2 can be different from all)

30

%

n=min(min(n1),min(n2)):max(max(n1), max(n2)); % duration of y(n)

y1=zeros(1,length(n)); y2=y1; % initiallization

y1(find((n>=min(n1))&(n<=max(n1))==1))=x1;

y2(find((n>=min(n2))&(n<=max(n2))==1))=x2;

y=y1.*y2;

end

Multiply both the signals defined in task 1 x 1 [ n ] and x 2 [ n ] using the function “sigmult”.

TASK 3: SCALING

Scale both the signals defined in task 1 x 1 [ n ] and x 2 [ n ] such that we get 2 x 1 [ n ] ,5 x 2 [ n ] .

Show the results to the instructor.

TASK 4: SHIFTING

In this each sample of “x(n)” is shifted by an amount “k” to obtain a shifted sequence “y(n)”

y ( n )= { x ( n−k ) } (4-10)

%implements y(n)= x(n-n0)

%------------------------------------------

%[y,n] = sigshift (x,m,n0)

%

n=m+n0; y=x;

31

TASK 5: FOLDING

In this operation each sample of “x(n)” is flipped around n=0, to obtain a folded sequence

“y(n)”

In MATLAB this operation is implemented by “fliplr(x)” function for sample values and by

“flipper(n)” function for sample positions as shown in the “sigfold” function.

%implements y(n)= x(-n)

%------------------------------------------

%[y,n] = sigfold(x,n)

%

Y= fliplr(x); n= -fliplr(n)

Fold the signal obtained in the task 1 and show to the instructor.

This operation differs from signal addition operation. It adds all sample values of x(n) between

x(n1) and x(n2).

n2 (4-12)

∑ x ( n )=x ( n1 ) +…+ x( n 2)

n=n 1

ss = sum(x(n1:n2));

32

Using function “sum”, add samples of x 1 [ n ] at 7,8,9,10 sample positions.

What result you have concluded from the functions “sigadd” and “sum”

This operation also differs from the signal multiplication operation. It multiplies all sample

values of x(n) between n1 and n2.

n2 (4-13)

∏ x ( n ) =x ( n 1) × … × x (n2 )

n 1

sp = prod(x(n1:n2));

Using function “prod”, multiply samples of x 1 [ n ] at 8,9,10 sample positions.

What result have you concluded from the functions “sigmult” and “prod”

%Real signal decomposition into even and odd parts

%------------------------------------------------------------------

%[xe,xo,m]= evenodd(x,n)

%

m= -fliplr(n);

m1=min([m,n]); m2=max([m,n]); m= m1:m2;

nm=n(1)-m(1); n1= 1:length(n);

x1=zeros(1,length(m));

x1(n1+nm)= x; x=x1;

xe= 0.5*(x + fliplr(x));

xo= 0.5*(x- fliplr(x));

Split the signal X1[n] obtained in the task 1 into its even and odd parts and show to the

instructor.

33

Use stem function and plot ye , yo , and compare it to the y [ n ]

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Signals And Systems Lab Manual EL-315

LAB ASSIGNMENT

P.1

Generate

x ( n )=e (− j 4 πn) , 0 ≤ n ≤10

y ( n )=e(−4 n) x ( n )+ x ( n−4 ) 0≤ n ≤ 10

Solve this by calling , signal add, signal shift functions, and show the result graphically.

P.2

Plot its even and odd part, and show the graph in which all x(n), xe(n) and xo(n) are given using

subplot command.

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Signals And Systems Lab Manual EL-315

Observations/Comments/Explanation of Results:

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Signals And Systems Lab Manual EL-315

Questions:

2. Explain Time Reversal.

3. Explain Time Scaling.

4. Explain Folding.

5. How will you add and multiply two unequal length signals?

6. What is periodic sequence?

7. Explain even and odd signals.

8. Explain command ‘fliplr’.

9. How will you write x ( n )=e (− j 4 πn) , 0 ≤ n ≤10 in Matlab.

10. Explain function ‘Sigfold’.

11.

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Signals And Systems Lab Manual EL-315

Time-Invariant (LTI) system

Roll #:_____________________________

OBJECTIVES:

Be able to use command ‘FILTER’ to solve difference equations and to calculate impulse

and step response of LTI system on MATLAB.

INTRODUCTION

A system is a collection of elements or components that are organized for a common purpose.

Physical systems in the broad sense are an interconnection of components, devices or

subsystems.

CONTINUOUS-TIME SYSTEM

This is a system in which continuous-time signals are applied and result in continuous-time

output, such a system has x ( t )∧ y ( t) as input and output respectively.

DISCRETE-TIME SYSTEM

A discrete-time system is described as an operator τ [.] that takes a sequence x(n) called

excitation and transforms it into another sequence y(n) called response. i.e.

CLASSIFICATION

LINEAR SYSTEM

A discrete system τ [ . ] is a linear if and only if L[.] satisfies the principle of superposition as

shown in Eq. 2.

L [ a 1 x 1 ( n ) + a2 x 2 ( n ) ] =a 1 L [ x 1 ( n ) ] +a 2 L [ x 2 ( n ) ] , ∀ a 1, a 2 , x 1 ( n ) , x 2(n) (5-2)

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Signals And Systems Lab Manual EL-315

L ( n−k )is called the response of linear system , called the impulse response.

A linear system in which an input-output pair, x(n) and y(n) , is invariant to a shift n in time is

called a linear time-invariant system. For this system L[.] and shifting operators are reversible

as shown below.

˙ k → y (n−k )

x (n)→ S h ift by

˙ k → x (n−k )→ L [ . ] → y (n−k )

∝ (5-4)

y ( n )=LTI [ x ( n ) ] = ∑ x ( x ) h(n−k )

k=−∝

Hence we can say that LTI system is completely characterized in the time domain by the

impulse response h(n) as shown below.

x ( n ) → h ( n ) → y ( n ) =x ( n )∗h(n)

STABILITY

The primary reason for considering stability is to avoid building harmful systems or to avoid

burnout or saturation in the system operation. A system is said to be bounded-input bounded–

output (BIBO) stable if every bounded input produces a bounded output.

|x (n)|<∝ ⇒| y (n)|<∝ , ∀ x , y

Note: An LTI system is BIBO stable if and only if its impulse response is absolutely summable.

∝ (5-5)

BIBOStability ⇔ ∑ |h(n)|<∝

−∝

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Signals And Systems Lab Manual EL-315

CAUSALITY

A system is said to be causal if the output at index “no” depends only on the input up to and

including the index “no” i.e. the output doesn’t depend on the future values of the input. An LTI

system is causal if and only if the impulse response

h ( n ) =0 , n>0 (5-6)

An LTI discrete system can also be described by a linear constant coefficient difference equation

of the form

N M (5-7)

∑ ak y ( n−k )= ∑ b m x ( n−m ) ,

k=0 m=0

This equation describes the recursive approach for computing the current output, given the

input values and previously computed output values. In practice this equation is computed

forward in time, from n=−∝¿ n=∝ . Therefore another form of the equation is

M N (5-8)

y ( n )= ∑ bm x ( n−m )−∑ ak y (n−k )

m =0 k =1

y ( n )= y h ( n ) + y p ( n) (5-9)

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N

y h ( n ) =∑ c k z k n (5-10)

k=1

Where zk , k= 1,……. N, are N roots (also called natural frequencies) of the characteristic

equation.

∑ ak z k (5-11)

0

zk satisfies the condition.

|z k|<1 , k =1, … … .. , N

LAB TASK

Note: make m-file, show function’s plot, xlabel, ylabel,hold,stem and observe the output and

show to the instructor, see MATLAB help.

A routine called the FILTER is available to solve difference equations numerically , given the

input and the difference equation coefficients. This routine is invoked by

y=filter ( b , a , x )

Where

X is input sequence array. Y output has the same length as input x. One must ensure that

coefficient a0 not to be zero.

a. Calculate and plot the impulse response h ( n ) at n= -20, …., 100.

b. Calculate and plot the unit step response s ( n ) at n= -20, …., 100.

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Signals And Systems Lab Manual EL-315

b=[1];

a=[1 -1 0.9];

x= impseq(0, -20, 120); n = [-120:120];

h=filter(b,a,x);

subplot(2,1,1); stem(n,h);title (‘impulse response’); xlabel(‘n’); ylabel(‘h(n)’)

Note: see impseq function in previous lab manuals

s=filter(b,a,x);

subplot(2,1,2); stem(n,s);

title (‘step response’); xlabel(‘n’); ylabel(‘s(n)’)

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Signals And Systems Lab Manual EL-315

To determine the stability of the system, we have to determine h ( n ) for all n. We can use

the plot of impulse response to observe that h ( n ) is practically zero for n > 120. Hence

the sum ∑ |h ( n )| can be determined from MATLAB using:

≫sum(abs(h))

≫ans =14.8785

Which implies that the system is stable. An alternate approach is to use the MATLAB

stability condition using MATLAB’s root function.

≫z = roots(a);

≫magz = abs(z)

Magz = 0.9487

0.9487

Since the magnitudes of both roots are less than one, the system is stable.

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LAB ASSIGNMENT

P1. A particular linear and time-invariant system is described by the difference equation :

a. Determine the stability of the system.

b. Determine and plot the impulse response of the system over 0 ≤ n ≤100.

c. Determine the stability from this impulse response.

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Observations/Comments/Explanation of Results:

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Signals And Systems Lab Manual EL-315

Questions:

2. What is linear system?

3. What is LTI system?

4. Explain Stability.

5. What is causality?

6. Explain ‘Filter’.

7. Explain ‘Stepseq’.

8. How will you determine stability of system in Matlab?

9. Explain ‘roots(a)’.

10. Explain subplot.

11.

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Ended)

Roll #:_____________________________

OBJECTIVES:

INTRODUCTION

We have defined the systems and their types in the previous lab session. In this lab we will

discuss the properties of LTI (Linear Time Invariant) systems. Linearity and time invariance play

a fundamental role in signal and system analysis. Many physical processes possess these

properties and thus can be modeled as linear time invariant (LTI) systems. One of the primary

reasons LTI systems are amenable to analysis is that these systems possess the superposition

property. As a consequence, if we can represent the input of an LTI system in terms of a linear

combination of a set of basic signals, we can then use superposition to compute the output of

the system in terms of its responses to these basic signals.

A linear system in which an input-output pair, x(n) and y(n) , is invariant to a shift n in time is

called a linear time-invariant system. For this system L[.] and shifting operators are reversible

as shown below.

˙ k → y [ n−k ]

x [n]→ S h i ft by

˙ k → x [n−k ]→ L [ . ] → y [n−k ]

∝ (6-1)

y [n]=LTI [ x [n] ] = ∑ x [ k ] h[n−k ]

k=−∝

Hence we can say that LTI system is completely characterized in the time domain by the

impulse response h[n] as shown below.

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If x1(t) and x2(t) are to signals and are input to LTI system then by law of superposition we get as

below

(6-2)

L [ a1 x 1 ( t ) +a 2 x 2 ( t ) ]=a1 L [ x 1 ( t ) ]+ a2 L [ x 2 ( t ) ] , ∀ a 1 , a2 x 1 ( t ) , x 2 (t)

(6-3)

L [ a1 x 1 [n]+ a2 x 2 [n] ] =a1 L [ x 1 [n ]] +a2 L [ x 2 [n] ] , ∀ a 1 , a2 , x1 [n], x 2 [n]

Eq.1 and 2 represents law of superposition on continuous and discrete linear time invariant

systems.

The output of discrete-time LTI system is as follows where , h[n-k] denotes the response of

linear system to the shifted unit impulses δ [n−k ].

+∝ (6-4)

y [ n ] =∑ x [ k ] h [n−k ]=x [ n ]∗h[n]

−∝

In case of continuous time it can be represented as

(6-5)

+∝

y ( t ) =∫ x ( k ) h ( t−k ) . dk=x ( t )∗h(t )

−∝

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A basic property of convolution in both continuous and discrete time is that it is a commutative

operation. That is, in discrete time

+∝ (6-6)

x [ n ]∗h [ n ] =h [ n ]∗x [ n]=∑ x [ k ] h [n−k ]

−∝

+∝ (6-7)

x ( t )∗h (t )=h ( t )∗x (t )=∫ x ( k ) h ( t−k ) . dk =¿

−∝

(6-8)

x [ n ]∗( h1 [ n ] +h2 [ n ] ) =x [ n ]∗h1 [ n ] + x [ n ]∗h2 [ n ]

(6-9)

x (t)∗( h1 ( t ) +h 2 ( t ) )=x (t)∗h1 (t)+ x (t)∗h2 (t)

This property can be easily verified by the parallel interconnection of LTI systems.

Another important and useful property of convolution is that it is associative. That is, in discrete

time

(6-10)

x [ n ]∗( h1 [ n ]∗h 2 [ n ] ) =( x [ n ]∗h1 [ n ] )∗h 2 [ n ]

(6-11)

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A system is said to be memoryless if its output for each value of the independent variable at a

given time is dependent only on the input at the same time. For example, the system specified

by the relationship

y [ n ] =( 2 x [ n ] −x 2 [n ]2)

Is memoryless, as value of y[n] depends only on the value of x[n] at that time.

n (6-12)

y [ n]= ∑ x [k ] % summer/accumulator

k=−∞

A system is said to be invertible if distinct inputs lead to distinct outputs. Furthermore if a

system is invertible, then an inverse system exists that , when cascaded with the original

system, yields an output equal to the input to first system.

CAUSALITY

A system is said to be causal if the output at index “no” depends only on the input up to and

including the index “no” i.e. the output doesn’t depend on the future values of the input. An LTI

system is causal if and only if the impulse response

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(6-13)

h [n ]=0 , n> 0

STABILITY

An LTI system is BIBO stable if and only if its impulse response is absolutely summable.

(6-14)

∝

BIBOStability ⇔ ∑|h[ n]|<∝

−∝

A system is time invariant if the behavior and characteristics of the system are fixed over time.

(6-15)

y ( t ) =k . x (t )

y ( t−¿ )=k . x (t−¿)

LAB TASK

TASK 1:

If x1[n]=sin[n],and x2[n]=cos[n], consider a system y[n]= x[n].cos[0.2*pi*n]. Show if y[n] is linear or not.

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TASK 2:

Considering y[n] defined above show, if this system is time variant or invariant.

Write the MATLAB code below, and the result you get on the command window.

TASK 3:

And h[n]=2 δ [ n+1 ] +2 δ [ n−1 ]

a. y1[n]=x[n]*h[n].

b. y2[n]=x[n]*h[n+2].

TASK 4:

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Then find

b. y2[n]= x1[n]*(x2[n]+x3[n]) % distributive property

Write the MATLAB CODE below.

TASK 5:

The following are the impulse responses of LTI-systems. Determine through MATLAB either

they are causal/stable. Taking -100<=n<=100

a. h 1 [ n ] =( 5 )n u[3−n ]

1 n

b. h 2 [ n ] =n ()

3

u [n−1]

LAB ASSIGNMENT

P1.

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x1[n]=(0.5)^n.u[n] , x2[n]=u[n-3], x3[n]=δ[n]-δ[n-1]

y[n]= 2x[n]+10 then show that ,

a. y[n] is LTI-system.

b. Show x1,x2,x3 satisfy the commutative, distributive and associative law.

P2.

−1−2 j

t

a . h 1 ( t )=e u(t )

Observations/Comments/Explanation of Results:

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Questions:

2. What is LTI system?

3. Explain different properties of LTI system.

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Signals And Systems Lab Manual EL-315

4. Explain Stability.

5. What is causality?

6. Explain Invertibility.

7. What is convolution?

8. Explain “impseq”.

9. How will you find convolution in MATLAB?

10. Explain accumulator.

Roll #:_____________________________

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OBJECTIVES:

Use of INT() command for performing integration.

INTRODUCTION

In this lab we will study continuous time convolution. The definition of convolution is a

mathematical operation on two functions to generate another function. In signals domain,

convolution is the operation on two signals to generate a new signal. Consider the following

system, now in continuous time:

x(t) h(t)

y(t)

Fig.7-1

The output y(t) will be the convolution of input x(t) and impulse response of the system h(t).

In continuous time convolution we take input, impulse response and the output in continuous

time. The output then is represented by the convolution integral given by:

∞ ∞ (7-1)

y ( t ) =x ( t )∗h ( t )= ∫ x ( τ ) h ( t−τ ) d τ = ∫ h ( τ ) x ( t−τ ) d τ

−∞ −∞

The difference between continuous time convolution and discrete time convolution is that in

discrete time we take samples of our signal but in continuous time we take signal on the whole.

It is equivalent to saying that when we make infinite samples of our signal, then the samples

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will be very close to each other and the summation becomes integration and discrete time

convolution becomes continuous time convolution. So in continuous time convolution we use

integration rather than summation as described in the equation above.

Continuous time convolution is similar to discrete time convolution. Basic points to carry out

the convolution are bulleted below:

Change the variable from t to τ of input and impulse response.

Flip h(τ ¿ to make it h(-τ ). (We can reverse either x(τ ) or h(τ ) as per our choice).

Shift h(-τ ) to the left by t i.e. make it h(t -τ ). Shift h(-τ ) by such value that nothing is

common in h(t -τ ) and x(τ )

Slide h(t -τ ) to the right over x(τ ) region by region.

Multiply the overlapping areas of regions and perform the integration.

Carry on this process unless h(t -τ ) slides past all of x(τ ).

The value of sum of all the integrated regions will be the convolution of x(t) and h(t).

EXAMPLE OF CONVOLUTION

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Fig 7-2

Fig.7-3

And finally the output of the convolution of x(t) and h(t) is given by:

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Fig.7-4

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LAB TASK

By reading out the pre lab document most of us would have an idea about convolution. But that

was how we can perform convolution mathematically. In this lab handout we will explain how

convolution is done in MATLAB. By following the explained step by step procedure, we will

learn convolution using MATLAB.

In the previous lab we performed convolution using ‘conv’ function. But problem with this built

in function is that is works only if the two signals are discrete time. This function is not defined

for continuous time signals. So, we cannot use ‘conv’ function in the case of continuous time

convolution.

There is no built in function for continuous time convolution in MATLAB. Then the obvious

question is how we can perform continuous convolution in MATLAB? Recall from your pre lab

handout that continuous time convolution is carried out by the expression:

∞ ∞

(7-2)

y ( t ) =x ( t )∗h ( t )= ∫ x ( τ ) h ( t−τ ) d τ = ∫ h ( τ ) x ( t−τ ) d τ

−∞ −∞

The integral used in the expression is the definite integral. MATLAB has a function called INT to

perform integration. To explore this function and its functionality type doc symbolic/int and

press enter.

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LAB TASK

TASK 1:

>>doc symbolic/int

Write down what have you understood in “doc syms “ & “doc int “

TASK 2:

Let us consider the convolution of 1/(1+t2) with itself. That is let us calculate

2π

1

∫ 2

∗1

−2 π 1+ τ

dτ

1+(t−τ )2

>>syms t tau

>> f=1/(1+t^2);

>> z=int(subs(f,tau)*subs(f,t-tau),tau,-2*pi,2*pi);

>> subplot(2,1,1);

>>ezplot(f);

>> xlabel(‘t’);

>>ylabel(‘f’);

>> subplot(2,1,2);

>> plot(z);

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>> xlabel(‘t’);

>>ylabel(‘z’);

Fig.7-5

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Fig.7-6

TASK 3:

Plot x(t), h(t) and y(t) in one window. (Hint: Use subplot).

Label y-axis of x(t), h(t) and y(t) as Input x(t), Impulse Response h(t) and Output y(t)

respectively.

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TASK 4:

Plot x(t), h(t) and y(t) in one window. (Hint: Use subplot).

Label x-axis of all three graphs as t.

Label y-axis of x(t), h(t) and y(t) as Input x(t), Impulse Response h(t) and Output y(t)

respectively.

Apply grid on all three graphs.

Give the title Convolution to all three graphs.

TASK 5:

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Plot x(t), h(t) and y(t) in one window. (Hint: Use subplot).

Label x-axis of all three graphs as t.

Label y-axis of x(t), h(t) and y(t) as Input x(t), Impulse Response h(t) and Output y(t)

respectively.

Apply grid on all three graphs.

Give the title Convolution to all three graphs.

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LAB ASSIGNMENTS

Plot x(t), h(t) and y(t) in one window. (Hint: Use subplot).

Label x-axis of all three graphs as t.

Label y-axis of x(t), h(t) and y(t) as Input x(t), Impulse Response h(t) and Output y(t)

respectively.

Apply grid on all three graphs.

Give the title Convolution to all three graphs.

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Observations/Comments/Explanation of Results:

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Questions:

1. What is convolution.

2. Explain types of convolution.

3. What are different steps to carry out convolution?

4. How will you find convolution in MATLAB?

5. What is the difference between plot and stem?

6. How will you apply grid on graphs?

7. How will you write x(t) in MATLAB?

x(t) = u(t-2) – u(t-4)

8. Explain ‘syms’.

9. Explain ‘int’.

10. Explain ‘ezplot’.

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Roll #:_____________________________

OBJECTIVES:

Make a function to perform proper convolution sum along with index calculation.

INTRODUCTION

signals domain convolution is the operation on two signals to generate a new signal. Consider

the following system:

x[n] y[n]

h[n]

Fig.8-1

The output y[n] will be the convolution of input x[n] and impulse response of the system will be

h[n].

TYPES OF CONVOLUTION

1. CONTINUOUS TIME

In continuous time convolution we take input, impulse response and the output in continuous

time. The output then is represented by the convolution integral given by:

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∞ ∞ (8-1)

y ( t ) =x ( t )∗h ( t )= ∫ x ( τ ) h ( t−τ ) d τ = ∫ h ( τ ) x ( t−τ ) d τ

−∞ −∞

2. DISCRETE TIME

In discrete time convolution we take input, impulse response and the output in discrete time.

The output then is represented by the convolution sum given by:

∞ ∞ (8-2)

y [ n ] =x [ n ]∗h [ n ] = ∑ x [ k ] h[n−k ] = ∑ h [ k ] x [n−k ]

k=−∞ k=−∞

Convolution is a step-by-step procedure. Basic points to carry out the convolution are bulleted

below:

Change the variable from n to k of impulse response i.e. h[n] h[k].

Flip h[k] to make it h[-k]. (We can reverse either x[n] or h[n] on our choice).

Shift h[k] to the left by n i.e. make it h[n-k].

Slide h[n-k] to the right over x[n] index by index.

Multiply the overlapping weights of indices and calculate the sum.

Carry on this process unless h[n-k] slides past all of x[n].

The value of sum will be the convolution sum of x[n] and h[n].

EXAMPLE OF CONVOLUTION

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Fig.8-2

Fig.8-3

And finally the output of the convolution of x[n] and y[n] is given by:

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Fig.8-4

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LAB TASK

By reading out the pre lab document most of us would have an idea about convolution. But that

was how we can perform convolution mathematically. In this lab handout we will explain how

convolution is done in MATLAB. By following the explained step by step procedure, we will

learn convolution using MATLAB.

MATLAB provides a built in function named conv(x,h) that computes the convolution of two

signals. Let us take on an example to explore this function.

EXAMPLE

>> x = [3,11,7,0,-1,4,2];

>> h = [2,3,0,-5,2,1];

>> y = conv(x,h)

y=

6 31 47 6 -51 -5 41 18 -22 -3 8 2

This convolution functions proves to be very useful but it misses one of the most important

things of convolution which is discussed below.

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The conv function assumes that the two sequences begin at n = 0. Moreover, this function

neither provides nor accepts any timing information if the sequences have arbitrary starting

points. What is required is the beginning and end point of y[n]. Given finite duration x[n] and

h[n], it is easy to determine these points. Let

And

be the two finite duration sequences, then starting and end points of y[n] can be written as

Now we can define our own function in MATLAB that is slightly modified from the built in conv

function. Our modified function will use the conv function as underlying function but it will

perform convolution of arbitrary support sequences. How to define our own function?

First go to File and then click New and then M-File. Write the following code in the newly

opened editor file.

ny = [nyb : nye];

y = conv(x,h);

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end

This is our own defined function named myconv. Now we can use this function just as any other

function in MATLAB.

Now we will use this function for the convolution of signals having arbitrary starting and ending

points. Consider the signals in previous example

>> x = [3,11,7,0,-1,4,2];

>>nx = [-3:3];

>> h = [2,3,0,-5,2,1];

>>nh = [-1:4];

y=

6 31 47 6 -51 -5 41 18 -22 -3 8 2

ny =

-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Now this function also shows the starting and ending points of y[n] and values are

corresponding indices. We can plot this y[n] by the commands:

>> stem(ny,y);

>> xlabel('n');

>>ylabel('y[n]');

>> title('Convolution');

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Fig.8-5

TASK4:

Both input and impulse response is taken to be the same for the sake of simplicity. We define

output as the convolution of input and impulse response.

Plot x[n], h[n] and y[n] in one window. (Hint: Use subplot).

Label x-axis of all three graphs as n.

Label y-axis of x[n], h[n] and y[n] as Input x[n], Impulse Response h[n] and Output y[n]

respectively.

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Give the title Convolution to all three graphs.

x[n] = 1, 0 ≤ n ≤ 4

0, otherwise

h[n] = 0.5n, 0 ≤ n ≤ 6

0, otherwise

Plot x[n], h[n] and y[n] in one window. (Hint: Use subplot).

Label x-axis of all three graphs as n.

Label y-axis of x[n], h[n] and y[n] as Input x[n], Impulse Response h[n] and Output y[n]

respectively.

Apply grid on all three graphs.

Give the title Convolution to all three graphs.

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LAB ASSIGNMENTS

P.1

When the convolution of a signal is performed with itself, it is called correlation which is a very

important concept in communications. This task is related to this concept. You have to convolve

the signal with itself. The signal is given by:

x[n] = 1, -2≤n≤0

-1, 0<n≤2

Plot x[n] and y[n] in one window. (Hint: Use subplot).

Label x-axis of both graphs as n.

Label y-axis of x[n] and y[n] as Input x[n] and Output y[n] respectively.

Apply grid on all three graphs.

Give the title Convolution to both the graphs.

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Observations/Comments/Explanation of Results:

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Questions:

1. What is convolution.

2. Explain types of convolution.

3. What are different steps to carry out convolution?

4. How will you find convolution in MATLAB?

5. What is the difference between plot and stem?

6. How will you apply grid on graphs?

7. How will you write x[n] in MATLAB?

x[n] = 1, 0 ≤ n ≤ 4

0, otherwise

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Roll #:_____________________________

OBJECTIVES:

To find Fourier series magnitude and phase characteristics.

Form a function to find Fourier series coefficients.

INTRODUCTION

Transforms are used extensively in engineering to change the frame of reference between the

time domain and the frequency domain. Many techniques exist for analyzing steady-state and

smoothly changing systems in the time domain, but complex systems often can be more easily

analyzed in other domains.

Fourier series and the Fourier transform play a vital role in many areas of engineering such as

communications and signal processing. These representations are among the most powerful

and most common methods of analyzing and understanding signals. A solid understanding of

Fourier series and the Fourier transform is critical to the design of filters and is beneficial in

developing the understanding of many natural phenomena.

FOURIER SERIES

Almost all periodic signals can be represented as an infinite sum of sine and cosines. This sum is

called a Fourier series representation and is defined for a periodic function x(t) of period T with

the following equation,

2 n=1 (

x (t)= + ∑ an cos

T

+b n sin

T )

Where a0, an and bn are the Fourier series coefficients. These coefficients can be calculated by

applying the following equations:

T T

2 2 πnt 2 2 πnt (9-2)

a n= ∫ x (t) cos dt∧b n= ∫ x (t )sin dt

T 0 T T 0 T

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If the Fourier coefficients are written as a single complex number cn with real part representing

the coefficients of the cosine series and imaginary parts representing coefficients of the sine

series, we can write the complex form of the Fourier series as

+∞ T

( j 2 πnt/ T) 1 (− j 2 πnt /T )

x(t) = ∑ ❑cne with cn = ∫ x (t )e n = 0, 1, 2....

−∞ T 0

LAB TASK

TASK1:

In this section we take an arbitrary saw tooth wave and plot it. Next we plot the magnitude and

phase of the Fourier co-efficient. Then reconstruct the saw tooth wave by combining various

harmonics.

>> x = [x xx x]; % 4 periods of x(t)

>>tx = [ -2 -1 0 0 1 2 2 3 4 4 5 6 ]; % time points for x(t)

>>plot ( tx , x );

>>grid;

>>xlabel ( ‘ Time (sec) ‘ ) ;

>>ylabel ( ‘ Amplitude ‘ );

>>title ( ‘ Periodic Signal x(t) ‘ ) ;

>>axis ( [ -2 6 0 1 ] ) ;

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Figure 9-1

>> ph0 = 0;

>> n = [1 3 5 7 9]; % value of n to be evaluated

>>an = -pi./ ( pi * n ) .^2 ; % Fourier Series C officients

>>mag_an = abs (an);

>>phase_an = -180 * ones (1, length (n));

>> n = [0 n];

>>mag_an = [a0 mag_an]; % including a0 with a_n;

>>phase_an = [ph0 phase_an];

>> figure (2);

>>clf;

>>subplot (2, 1 , 1);

>> plot (n, mag_an, ‘o’);

>>grid;

>>xlabel( ‘ Harmonic Number’);

>>ylabel (‘Magnitude’);

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>>axis ( [ 0 10 0 0.6 ] );

>>subplot ( 2 , 1, 2);

>> plot (n,phase_an, ‘o’);

>>grid;

>>xlabel( ‘ Harmonic Number’);

>>ylabel (‘Phase (radians)’);

>>title (‘ Fourier Series Phase ‘ );

Figure 9-2

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TASK3:

function [Xk]=dfs(xn,N)

%computes discrete fourier series coefficients

n=[0:1:N-1];

k=[0:1:N-1];

WN=exp(-j*2*pi/N);

nk=n'*k;

WNnk=WN.^nk;

Xk=xn*WNnk;

end

and

Write the MATLAB code given above for DFS and calculate Xk;

stem x1(n), x2(n) and Xk1(n) and Xk2(n)in one window. (Hint: Use subplot).

Label x-axis of all three graphs as n

Label y-axis of x1(n), x2(n) and Xk1(n) and Xk2(n) respectively.

Apply grid on all three graphs.

Give a title to all four graphs

TASK4:

As by definition,

a0 ∞ 2 πnt 2 πnt

x (t)=

2 n=1 n(

+ ∑ a cos

T

+b n sin

T )

and

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T T

2 2 πnt 2 2 πnt

a n= ∫ x (t) cos dt ∧b n= ∫ x (t )sin dt

T 0 T T 0 T

If , our x(t)= sin(t) , with T=2∏, then find out the values of an, bn, and calculate x(t).

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LAB ASSIGNMENT

−0.3 n

x 1 (n)= n e , 0 ≤ n ≤25 , N =50

{ 026 ≤ n ≤ 49

And

−0.3 n

x 2 (n)= n e , 0 ≤ n ≤25 , N=100

{ 0 26 ≤n ≤ 99

stem x1(n), x2(n) and Xk1(n) and Xk2(n)in one window. (Hint: Use subplot).

Label x-axis of all three graphs as n

Label y-axis of x1(n), x2(n) and Xk1(n) and Xk2(n) respectively.

Apply grid on all three graphs.

Give a title to all four graphs

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Observations/Comments/Explanation of Results:

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Questions:

2. How will you plot Saw Tooth Waveform?

3. What is dicrete fourier series?

4. How will you write x(n) in MATLAB

−0.3n

x ( n )= n e , 0≤ n ≤ 25 , N=50

{ 0 26 ≤ n≤ 49

6. How will you find fourier series coefficients?

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Roll #:_____________________________

OBJECTIVES:

Be able to use fourier(), ifourier(), pretty(), heaviside(), dirac() functions.

FOURIER TRANSFORM

We can then extend the ideas of frequency decomposition to non-periodic signals via the

Fourier Transform. A Fourier transform can be used to analyze a circuit in the frequency domain

much like the Laplace transform can be used to analyze circuits in the s domain. The Fourier

transform is defined by

+∞ +∞

− jωt 1 (10-1)

X(ω) = ∫ x ( t ) e dt ; x(t) = ∫ X ( ω)e jωt dω

−∞ 2 π −∞

MATLAB used the fourier and ifourier functions to transform expressions between domains.

>>help fourier

>>help ifourier

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LAB TASK

TASK1.

>>doc fourier

Write about ‘fourier ’what you have understood.

>>syms t

>>x1 = t*exp(-t^2) % hit enter and write the output

x1=

f1 =

if1 =

TASK2.

Often when using the Fourier transform to solve engineering problems, expressions can include

a step function u(t) and/or impulse function δ(t).

X2 (t) = -e- t u(t) + 3 δ(t).

>>x2 =

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f2 =

Ans=

if2 =

>>ans=

TASK 3.

x3=

f3 =

>>ezplot (abs(f3))

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Figure 10-1

>>ezplot ( abs (f3) , [ -10 10] )

Figure 10-2

>>syms w

>>ezplot ( w , abs ( f3) , [ -5 5 -10 10 ] )

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Figure 10-3

>> axis ( [ -5 5 -10 10 ] );

Figure 10-4

QUESTION: - What is the difference in the three plots???

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

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LAB ASSIGNMENT

P1.

P2.

Plot the Fourier and its inverse transforms of: sine(t)*e – 10tu (t).

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Observations/Comments/Explanation of Results:

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Questions:

2. Explain Inverse Fourier transform.

3. What Matlab command is used to compute fourier transform?

4. Explain ‘syms’.

5. How will you wite δ(t) in MATLAB?

6. How will you wite u(t) in MATLAB?

7. Explain Heaviside(t) function.

8. How will you write sgn(t) in matlab?

9. Explain ‘pretty’.

10. Explain ‘ezplot’.

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Roll #:_____________________________

OBJECTIVES:

Determine magnitude-phase representation of the frequency response of LTI systems

Differentiate between Linear and nonlinear phase

Study Group delay, Log-magnitude and bode plots

INTRODUCTION

represents an alternative to the time-domain characterization through convolution. In

analyzing LTI systems, it is often particularly convenient to utilize the frequency domain

because differential and difference equations and convolution operations in the time domain

become algebraic operations in the frequency domain. Hence in system design and analysis, it

is important to relate time-domain and frequency-domain characteristics and trade-offs. We

will discuss these characterizations in this lab session.

The Fourier transform is in general complex valued and can be represented in terms of its real

and imaginary components or in terms of magnitude and phase.

X ( jω )

jω

)

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From the convolution property for continuous-time Fourier transforms, transform Y ( jω ) of the

output of an LTI system is related to the transform X ( jω ) of the input to the system by the

equation below.

Y ( jω )= X ( jω ) H ( jω ) (11-3)

( jω ) :

Y ( e jω )= X ( e jω ) H ( e jω ) (11-4)

≮ Y ( jω )=≮ X ( jω ) +≮ H ( jω)

Y ( jω ) m n (11-5)

H ( jω )= =∑ bk ( jω)k / ∑ ak ( jω)k

X ( jω ) k=0 k=0

When the phase shift at the frequency ω is a linear function of ω , there is a particularly

straightforward interpretation of the effect in the time domain. Consider the continuous-time

LTI system with frequency response.

H ( jω )=e− jωto

So that the system has unit gain and linear phase. i.e

|H ( jω)|=1 ,≮ H ( jω )=−ωto

The system with this frequency response characteristic produces an output that is simply a time

shift of the input.

y ( t ) =x( t−¿)

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GROUP DELAY

a delay of to. The concept of delay can be very naturally and simply extended to include

nonlinear phase characteristics. Group delay at each frequency equals the negative of the

slope of the phase at that frequency. Group delay is defined as

−d

τ ( ω )= |≮ H ( jω )|

dω

The phase relationship is additive, while the magnitude relationship involves the product of

|H ( jω)| and | X ( jω)|. Thus, if the magnitudes of the Fourier transform are displayed on a

logarithmic amplitude scale then it takes the form of an additive relationship, namely

Consequently, if we have a graph of the log magnitude and phase of the Fourier transform of

the input and the frequency response of LTI system, the Fourier transform of the output is

obtained by adding the log-magnitude plots and by adding the phase plots. In addition,

plotting the magnitude on logarithmic scale allows detail to be displayed over a wider dynamic

range.

NOTE:

Typically, the specific, logarithmic amplitude scale used is in units of 20log10, referred to as

decibels (db). 0db corresponds to a frequency with magnitude equal to 1, 20 db is equal to 10,

and -20 shows 0.1 attenuation and so on. 6db corresponds to a gain of 2.

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LAB TASK

Note: show function’s plot,xlabel,ylabel,hold,ezplot and observe the output and show to the

instructor, see MATLAB help.

TASK 1:

syms x;

f = exp(-x^2)*heaviside(x) %Hit enter

fourier(f) %Hit enter

returns

TASK 2:

10

−5 t −5 t − jωt

ifx ( t )=e u ( t ) , 0 ≤ t ≤ 10 find x ( jω )=∫ e e dt

0

Solution:

syms t w

fr=fourier(y)

ezplot(imag(fr)) %Hit enter shows phase response

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Fig 11-2. Shows the phase response of the above given function.

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TASK 3:

syms t

ezplot(real(fr))

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Fig 11-3. Shows that impulse has Fourier transform consisting of equal contributions at all

frequencies.

TASK 4:

dy (t)

+10 y ( t )=x (t)

dx

Consider an LTI system represented by differential equation, find its frequency response.

Solution:

From eq. 5 as it represents the frequency response of LTI system, so we can represent the

above differential equation as :

syms t w

fr=1/j*w+10

>> subplot(2,1,1)

>>ezplot(real(fr))

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>>ylabel('|fr|')

>> grid on

>> subplot(2,1,2)

>>ezplot(imag(fr))

>>ylabel('angle of fr')

>> grid on

>>gd =

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LAB ASSIGNMENT

P.1

π

c. sin( + 2 πt)

4

d. cos ( π 62 t /10)

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Observations/Comments/Explanation of Results:

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Questions:

2. Explain LTI system.

3. Explain linear and non linear phase.

4. What is group delay?

5. Explain Bode plots.

6. Explain ‘syms’.

8. How will you write cos (π 62 t /10) in MATLAB?

9. Explain ‘ezplot’.

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Sampling and Signal Reconstruction

Roll #:_____________________________

OBJECTIVES:

Be able to explain CONTINUOUS-VALUED versus DISCRETE-VALUED SIGNALS.

Be able to find Periods of Continuous and Discrete signals.

Be able to explain Signal Sampling Theorem and Nyquist Rate.

Be able to reconstruct the signal.

INTRODUCTION

CONTINUOUS-TIME SIGNALS

Continuous-time signals or analog signals are defined for every value of time and they take on

values in the continuous interval (a, b) , where ‘a’ can be -∞ or +∞. Mathematically these

functions are described by functions of a continuous-time variable.

DISCRETE-TIME SIGNALS

Discrete-time signals are defined only at certain specific values of time. These time instants

need not to be equidistant, but in practice they are usually taken as equally spaced intervals for

computational convenience and mathematical tractability. They may take real or complex

values.

CONTINUOUS-VALUED SIGNALS

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takes on all possible values on a finite or an infinite range, it is said to be continuous –valued

signal.

DISCRETE-VALUED SIGNALS

If the signal takes on values from a finite set of possible values, it is said to be a discrete-valued

signal.

NOTE: A discrete-time signal having a set of discrete values is called a digital signal.

The concept of frequency is directly related to the concept of time. Actually frequency has the

dimension of inverse time. Thus nature of time will affect the nature of the frequency

accordingly.

xa ( t ) denotes an analog signal. This signal is has amplitude A, frequency Ω, and phase θ.

Instead of Ω, we often use the frequency F in cycles per second or hertz (Hz) , where

Ω=2 πF

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Continuous-time sinusoidal signals with distinct (different) frequencies are themselves

distinct.

Increasing the frequency F results in an increase in the rate of oscillation of the signal, in

the sense that more periods are included in a given time interval.

(12-3)

x ( n )= Acos ( ωn+θ ) ,−∞ <n<+ ∞

x ( n ) denotes an discrete signal. This signal is has amplitude A, frequency ω , and phase θ.

Instead of ω, we often use the frequency f in cycles per second or hertz (Hz) , where

ω=2 πf

(12-4)

x ( n )= Acos ( 2 πfn+ θ ) ,−∞<n<+ ∞

x ( n+ N )=x ( n ) foralln

The relationship is true for discrete-time signal periodicity if there exits an integer k such

that

2 π f 0 N =2 kπ

f 0=k /N

Where k, and N are relative prime numbers after canceling common factor.

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are identical.

High rate of oscillation is attained when ω=πorω=−π

Increasing the frequency F results in an increase in the rate of oscillation of the signal, in

the sense that more periods are included in a given time interval.

Signals such as speech, radar and sonar signals in practical use are all analog signals. In order to

apply digital processing methods to these signals, we have to convert them into the form

required i.e. the digital form. This procedure is termed Analog-to-Digital conversion is carried

out by ADC’s (Analog-to-Digital converters).

1. Sampling

This step involves converting continuous time signal to discrete time signals. This is done by

taking samples i.e. a continuous time signal input xa(t) will give an output in the discrete form

xa(nT) ≡ x(n) where T is the sampling interval.

2. Quantization

In this step, the discrete time continuous –valued signal is converted into a discrete-time,

discrete-valued (digital) system. The signal sample value is selected from a set of finite possible

values. The difference between unquantized sample (x(n)) and the quantized output (xq(n) ) is

the quantization error.

3. Coding

Although many types of analog sampling techniques are available, periodic or uniform will be

discussed in this practical.

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(12-5)

x ( n )=x a ( nT ) ,−∞< n<¿∞

Where :

x ( n ) Discrete time signal obtained by taking samples of the analog signal every T seconds

Sampling rate (samples per second)/sampling frequency- this is the reciprocal of T which is

equal to 1/Fs

signals and time variable n in discrete time signals.

These two variables are linearly related through the sampling period T or through the sampling

rate Fs=1/T as

n (12-6)

t=nT =

Fs

Due to the relationship stated above there exists another resultant relationship between the

frequency variable F (or Ω) for analog signals and the frequency variable f (or ω) for discrete

time signals.

x a ( t )= A cos(2πFt+θ) (12-7)

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x a ( nT ) ≡ x ( n )= A cos(2πFt+θ) (12-8)

2 πnF

¿ A cos ( +θ)

Fs

x ( n )= Acos(ωn+θ) (12-9)

F

f= (12-10)

Fs

And,

ω=Ω T (12-11)

SAMPLING THEOREM

If the highest frequency obtained in an analog signal x a(t) is Fmax =B (where B=bandwidth ) and

the signal is sampled at a rate F s>2Fmax then xa(t) can be exactly recovered from its sample

values using the interpolation function below:

(12-12)

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sin2 πBt

g(t )=

2 πBt

n n (12-13)

x a (t)=∑ x a ( ) g(t− )

Fs Fs

Where :

When the sampling of xa(t) is performed at the minimum sampling rate Fs=2B, the

reconstruction formula (8) becomes :

(12-14)

n sin 2 πB (t−n/2 B)

x a (t)=∑ x a ( ) ¿¿

2 B 2 πB(t−n/2 B)

LAB TASK

TASK 1:

x 1 ( t )=cos 2 π (10)t

x 2 ( t )=cos 2 π (50)t if Fs=40 Hz

find ing

a. x 1 ( n )

b. x 2 ( n )

Solution.:

X1=cos(2*pi*(10/40)*n)

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X2=cos(2*pi*(50/40)*n)

TASK 2:

if xa ( t )=3 cos (300 πt) and Fs =700 , then find ω and f write MATLAB Command.

Solution:

F=300*pi/2*pi;

f=F/Fs;

TASK 3:

Let us now concentrate on the cosine signal of the form x[n] = Acos(w n +φ ) , where we have

renamed the amplitude as A. We willchange the parameter w0 to see its effect on periodicity.

We will take A as 1, φ as as0 and w0 as 1, π /4 and 3π /4 and generate and plot the

corresponding signals. For the first one, i.e. the cosine with w0 = 1, we will also plot an

envelope to better see that the signal is not periodic.

n=-10:0.1:10;

» w0=1;xn1=cos(w0*n);

» stem(n,xn1);hold on

» t=-10:0.1:10;

» xt=cos(t);

» plot(t,xt,'r');hold off

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» title('A Nonperiodic Discrete Time Cosine Signal')

» w0=pi/4;xn2=cos(w0*n);

» subplot(2,1,1);stem(n,xn2)

» w0=3*pi/4;xn3=cos(w0*n);

» subplot(2,1,2);stem(n,xn3);xlabel('n')

TASK 4:

close all;

clear all;

t=-10:0.01:10;

T=8;

fm=1/T;

x=cos(2*pi*fm*t);

fs1=1.2*fm;

fs2=2*fm;

fs3=8*fm;

n1=-4:1:4;

xn1=cos(2*pi*n1*fm/fs1);

subplot(221)

plot(t,x);

xlabel('time in seconds');

ylabel('x(t)');

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subplot(222)

stem(n1,xn1);

hold on;

plot(n1,xn1);

xlabel('n');

ylabel('x(n)');

n2=-5:1:5;

xn2=cos(2*pi*n2*fm/fs2);

subplot(223)

stem(n2,xn2);

hold on;

plot(n2,xn2);

xlabel('n');

ylabel('x(n)');

n3=-20:1:20;

xn3=cos(2*pi*n3*fm/fs3);

subplot(224)

stem(n3,xn3);

hold on;

plot(n3,xn3);

xlabel('n');

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ylabel('x(n)');

TASK 5:

t=0:.1:20;

F1=.1;

F2=.2;

x=sin(2*pi*F1*t)+sin(2*pi*F2*t);

%plotting

figure(1);

subplot(2,1,1);

plot(t,x);

title('Original signal')

xlabel('t');

ylabel('x(t)');

subplot(2,1,2);

stem(x_samples,'filled');

title('Sampled signal')

xlabel('n');

ylabel('x_s(n)');

axis([0 20 -2 2]);

TASK 6:

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figure(2);

messagebox=msgbox(information,'Information','help');

subplot(2,1,2);

plot(t,x,'black');

hold on;

hold off;

xlabel('t');

ylabel('x(t)');

title('Original signal');

grid;

x_recon=0;

subplot(2,1,1);

for k=0:length(x_samples)-1

stem(0:length(x_samples)-1,x_samples,'filled');

if k==length(x_samples)-1

title('Reconstruction finished');

else

end

grid on;

l=k:-.1:-20+k;

x_recon=x_recon+x_samples(k+1)*sinc(l);

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axis([0 20 -2 2]);

hold;

plot(t,x_samples(k+1)*sinc(l),'r')

plot(t,x_recon);

hold off;

waitforbuttonpress;

end

116

LAB ASSIGNMENT

P.1

Determine which of the following sinusoidals are periodic and compute their fundamental

period.

e. cos ( π 30 n/105)

f. sin( π 62 n/10)

P.2

Determine whether or not each of the following signals is periodic. In case a signal is

periodic , specify its fundamental period.

b. x ( n )=cos (n /8) cos (πn/8)

P.3

117

Observations/Comments/Explanation of Results:

118

Questions:

1. Explain the difference between continuous time signals and discrete time signals.

2. Explain the difference between continuous valued signals and discrete valued signals.

3. Explain Sampling.

4. Explain Quantization.

5. Explain Signal Reconstruction.

6. Explain properties of analogue signals.

7. Explain properties of discrete sinusoidal signals.

8. What is sampling frequency?

9. What is nyquist rate?

10. What is the period of x ( n )=3 cos (5 t+ π /6)

119

Lab-13: Z-transform using ‘residuez’ method and pole-zero plots

Roll #:_____________________________

OBJECTIVES:

Be able to explain Z- Transform: Uni-lateral and Bi-lateral

Be able to observe properties of Z-transform: Linearity, Sample Shifting, Frequency

Shifting, Folding, Complex Conjugation, Differentiation, Multiplication, and Convolution.

THE Z-TRANSFORM

has advantages for LTI systems because it describes systems in the frequency domain using

frequency response function H (e jw ). However, there are two shortcomings to the Fourier

transform approach. Firstly, there are many useful signals in practice such as u(n) and nu( n) for

which the discrete-time Fourier transform does not exist. Secondly, the transient response of a

system due to initial conditions or due to changing inputs cannot be computed using the

discrete-time Fourier transform approach.

∝ (13-1)

X ( z )=Z [ x ( n ) ] = ∑ x ( n ) z−n

n=−∝

Where “z” is a complex variable. The set of z values for which X(z) exists is called the region of

convergence (ROC) is given by

Rx−¿|z|< Rx+¿

1. LINEARITY

120

Z [ a 1 x 1 ( n ) +a 2 x 2 ( n ) ] =a 1 X 1 ( z ) +a 2 X 2( z) ¿ ; ROC : ROCx 1 ∩ ROCx 2 (13-2)

2. SAMPLE SHIFTING

3. FREQUENCY SHIFTING

4. FOLDING

5. COMPLEX CONJUGATION

dX ( z) (13-

Z [ nx ( n ) ] =−z

dz 7)

121

7. MULTIPLICATION

❑

1 z −1 (13-8)

Z [ x 1 ( n ) x 2 ( n ) ]= ∮

2 πj c ()

X 1 (v ) X 2

v

v dv ; ROC : ROCx 1 ∩intertedROCx 2

8. CONVOLUTION

LAB TASK

TASK 1:

syms n;

f = n^4;

T1=ztrans(f)

T1 =

ezplot(T1)

TASK 2:

syms a z;

g = a^z;

T2=ztrans(f)

T2 =

ezplot(T2)

TASK 3:

syms a n w;

f = sin(a*n);

T3=ztrans(f , w)

T3 =

ezplot(T3)

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TASK 4:

part P , and a remainder r. i.e

≫ x3 =[6,17,34,43,38,24];

≫ x1=[2,3,4];

≫ [x2,r] =deconv(x3,x1);

x2 =

r=

TASK 5:

In MATLAB the function ‘residuez’ is available to compute the residue part and direct (or

polynomial) terms of a rational function in z−1.

z

X ( Z )= 2

3 z −4 z+ 1

Solution.

First rearrange X(Z) so that it is a function in ascending powers of z−1 .

z−1

X Z=

( )

3−4 z−1+ z −2

≫ b=[0,1];

≫ a=[3,-4,1];

≫ [R,p,C]=residuez[b,a];

R =

P =

C =

So,

0.5 0.5

X ( Z )= −1

−

1−z 1−0.333 z −1

123

TASK 5:

≫ [b,a]=residuez[R,p,C]

b =

a =

So that

1

0+ z−1

3 z−1 z

x ( z )= = = 2

4 1 −1 −2

1− z−1 + z−2 3−4 z + 1 z 3 z −4 z +1

3 3

1

x ( z )= 2

( 1−0.9 z −1 ) (1+ 0.9 z−1 )

Hint: use a=poly(0.9,0.9,-0.9) to determine polynomials of a. then apply ‘residuez’ method.

TASK 6:

Pole-zero plots

z

X ( Z )= 2

3 z −4 z+ 1

We can find the roots of the denominator polynomial in the following two ways.

(a)We can plot the zeros and poles either with zeros and poles in column vectors

>> roots(den);

>>p=ans;

124

>>z=[0];

>>zplane(z,p)

≫num=[0 1 0];

≫den=[3 -4 1];

≫zplane(num,den)

125

LAB ASSIGNMENT

P1. For the given signal plot the pole-zero plot given below and write its code.

1

x ( z )= −1 2

( 1−0.9 z ) (1+ 0.9 z−1 )

126

Observations/Comments/Explanation of Results:

127

Questions:

1. Explain Z-Transform.

2. Explain Bilateral Z-Transform.

3. What is region of convergence?

4. Explain properties of Z-Transform.

5. What is complex conjugation?

6. What Matlab command is used to compute Z-Transform?

7. Explain ‘residuez’.

8. Explain ‘deconv’.

9. Explain ‘zplane’.

10. Explain ’roots’.

128

Roll #:_____________________________

OBJECTIVE:

MATLAB.

INVERSE Z-TRANSFORM

SYNTAX

f = iztrans(F)

f = iztrans(F,k)

DESCRIPTION

f = iztrans(F) computes the inverse z-transform of the symbolic expression F. This syntax

assumes that F is a function of the variable z, and the returned value f is a function of n.

where R is a positive number, such that the function F(z) is analytic on and outside the circle |

z| = R.

f = f(k)

f = iztrans(F,k) computes the inverse z-transform f as a function of the variable k instead of the

default variable n.

f = iztrans(F,w,k) computes the inverse z-transform and lets you specify that F is a function of w

and f is a function of k.

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9. LINEARITY

12. FOLDING

1 (14-4)

Z [ x (−n ) ] =X ()

z

=; ROC : invertedROCx

130

dX ( z) (14-

Z [ nx ( n ) ] =−z

dz 6)

15. MULTIPLICATION

❑

1 z −1 (14-7)

Z [ x 1 ( n ) x 2 ( n ) ]= ∮

2 πj c ()

X 1 (v ) X 2

v

v dv ; ROC : ROCx 1 ∩intertedROCx 2

16. CONVOLUTION

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LAB TASK

TASK 1:

syms z

f = 2*z/(z-2)^2;

T1=iztrans(f)

returns

ans =

ezplot(T1)

FIGURE 14-1

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TASK 2:

syms n

g = n*(n+1)/(n^2+2*n+1);

T2=iztrans(g)

returns

ans =

ezplot(T2)

TASK 3:

Then, take f, and g from task 1, and 2 and compute the given below

TL3=iztrans¿)

C=5*T1

D=10*T2

TR3=5∗T 1+10∗T 2

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TASK 4:

symsa z

>> T4=1/(1-1/4*z^-1)

T4 =

-1/(1/(4*z) - 1)

>>iztrans(h)

ans =

ezplot(T4)

TASK 5:

syms a z

if T4=1/(1-1/4*z^-1) , then find and show the result graphically using ezplot

z^-7*T4 %time shifting property

-zd(T4)/dz =

z^-7*T4 =

TASK 6:

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0.5 0.5

X ( Z )= −1

−

1−z 1−0.333 z −1

For the given problem find the inverse z-transfrom and write ur MATLAB code below

MATLAB CODE

LAB ASSIGNMENT

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P1.

0.5

P ( Z )=

1−z −1

differentiation in z-domain , show result graphically

z

frequency shifting P () a

, a=5

folding P ( 1z )

Observations/Comments/Explanation of Results:

136

Score of Student in this Lab: _________________________________________

Questions:

2. Explain ‘iztrans(F)’.

3. Explain ‘iztrans(F,k)’.

4. Explain properties of Z-Transform.

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5. What is region of convergence?

6. Explain Frequency shifting property.

7. Explain ‘syms’.

8. Explain sample shifting property.

9. Explain Folding property of Z Transform.

10. Explain Differentiation in the Z-domain.

138