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Food and its Nutrients + Food Preservation

Food and its Nutrients


Food is one of the important needs of all living things. You need food to live. Without food you will
not be able to live long.

You eat different kinds of foods such as roti,rice,dal,chuntney,papad etc. You also take liquid foods
like milk,soups and fruit juices.Whatever may be the food, it is made up of small units which keep
you healthy and fit.Hence you should eat food which gives you all the nutrients and keeps you

In this lesson you will know all about the nutrients and why our body needs them.

After reading this lesson you will be able to do the following:

 define "food" and list the functions of food;

 define "nutrition" and "nutrients";
 enumerate the functions and sources of nutrients;
 explain the importance of water in the body;
 explain the need for a variety of foods in the diet;

What is food?
We are always thinking about food. This is my favourite food. I will eat this today. But have
you ever thought of what is food? Why do you need to eat? Let us answer these questions.
What is food?

Anything that we eat and is beneficial for our body is food.

That can be the dhal that you ate or can be beans subji or an idli or can be a bamboo pickle or can
be jaggery or sugar that you used in your tea or milk.

Now the second questions is, why do we need to eat food?

Our body is made up of many materials, which we get from the food we eat. Food not only fills up
the stomach, it also helps the body to do a number of things.Let us see what these other things are.

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1. Food gives energy to do work

Everybody needs energy to do work. You need energy for walking, eating, working in the house or
outside and for many other activities.You get this energy from the food that you eat.

You need some energy even when are resting. The different organs inside your body are always
working : the heart is pumping blood , the stomach is digesting food, the lungs are breathing in air,
etc. They also need energy and food provides that energy.

2. Food helps in the growth and repair of tissues

How a small child grows into an adult? The body is made up of thousands of small cells. Lots of
new cells are added to these to help the body to grow.

You need food for the formation of new cells. Sometimes cells die or are damaged due to injury.
New cells take the place of dead cells and thus the damaged is repaired. Food helps not only to
grow but also to do the repair work.

3. Food gives the strength to fight against disease germs

You fall sick when the disease germs enter your body. The food that you eat gives you strength to
fight the disease germs and get well again.

4. Food helps in making the body function normally

Various functions that occur on their own inside the body. These are respiration, circulation,
digestion, excretion, etc. These and many other process are regulated with the help of food.

Your blood has a certain composition. This can change. Blood may have increased or decreased
level of sugar/salt which has to be brought back to normal. Food helps in doing that.

Your heart must beat at a particular rate ie. 72 beats/minute. The excretion of waste products from
the body ( carbon dioxide , faeces, etc.) must also be regular. All these are regular by food that you

5. Food satisfies hunger

When you eat food it fills your stomach and you feel mentally and psychologically satisfied. You
can yourself recall a situation where eating has given you a lot of satisfaction.

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Nutrients and Nutrition
What is nutrition?

Nutrition as a science which tells us about what happens to the food when it enters our
body and thereafter.

The food that we eat contains many chemical substances. These chemical substances are known as
nutrients. So we can say that nutrients are invisible chemicals in the foods which are necessary for
keeping the body healthy. These nutrients have different names.

Most of the food contains a mixture of different nutrients, so when the food is eaten your body gets
a mixture of nutrients. Each nutrient has a role to play in keeping the body healthy.


What does in our body From where do we get

 needed for making new cells in the body Animal sources:
 helps in repairing old and damaged cells Meat, egg, fish, poultry,
 helps in healing wounds milk, cheese,curd,paneer
 needed for making blood, enzymes and
hormones Plant sources:
 also give energy to do work All pulses, cereals, peas, soyaben, groundnuts
and nuts

The protein from animal sources is known as animal protein and the protein from plant sources is
called plant protein. One gram of protein gives 4kcal. An adult needs 1gm of protein for every
kilogram of body weight.


What does in our body From where do we get

 gives energy Cereals – like wheat, rice, bajra, maize
 hepls to make the food tasty Potatoes, sweet potatoes, arbi
 increases the bulk of your food Sweets like sugar, honey, jaggery
 spares the protein to perform other

Some foods give carbohydrates in your body in the form of starch like cereals, potatoes, sweet
potatoes, etc., while some other foods give carbohydrates in the form of sugar like sugar, honey,
jam, jaggery, etc.

One gram of carbohydrate gives 4 kcal. An adult person needs 400-420 gms of carbohydrates

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What does in our body From where do we get

 gives energy – fats are the concentrated Milk , butter, ghee, groundnut oil, coconut oil,
sources of energy vanaspati, eggs, liver, meat, fried foods,
 help in the utilization of fat soluble chocolates, etc.
vitamins like A,D,E,K
 help to keep our body warm
 make the food tasty
 provide protection to delicate organs like
heart,liver and also provide padding on
our skeleton and muscles.

Like proteins , fats which we get from animals are called animal fats. Fats which we get from plants
are called plant fats. Animal fats increase the chances of heart related diseases.

One gram of fat gives you 9 kcal.

Although fats give you more energy than carbohydrates, you eat very little fats and hence fats are
not the major sources of energy in your body.

When fats are eaten in large amounts, they make you fat. Food containing large amount of fat can
cause stomach upsets. An adult needs only 50-60 gms of fat everyday.


Minerals are present in all body tissues and fluids. The minerals calcium and phosphorus are found
in bones and teeth. Iron is a mineral which is found in blood as a part of the red pigment
haemoglobin.Minerals occur in food as salts.

Minerals have two special characteristics:

 Minerals do not provide energy

 Minerals are not destroyed during food preparation.

There are many minerals which are necessary but we will be studying only a few of them in this

Calcium and phosphorous are known as macro or major minerals, as they are present in the body
in large amounts specially in bones and teeth.

Iron and Iodine are found in the body in smaller quantities, hence are known as micro minerals.

General functions of minerals are-

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 Maintanance or control of water balance in the body
 Contraction of muscles
 Normal functioning of nerves
 Clotting of blood.



 Calcium helps your bones to grow and become strong.

 It makes your teeth grow healthy and strong.
 It helps the blood to clot. When you get hurt, you bleed.You must have noticed that after
some time the bloood stops flowing and a hard crust is formed. This is called clotting of
blood for which calcium is needed.
 It also helps in the movement of muscles.


You get calcium from

 Milk and its products like butter and ghee. These are the best sources of calcium.
 Green leafy vegetables like spinach, curry leaves, coriander leaves are also good sources of



 Iron is a very important mineral. It is needed for making red blood cells in your blood.


You get iron from

 Green leafy vegetables like spinach, mint, etc.
 Liver, heart, kidney and egg yolk are full of iron.
 Gur/jaggery
You must include iron rich foods in your daily diet.



 Iodine is needed so that the thyroid gland in your body can work properly.


You get iodine from

 Sea foods like fish and sea weeds.
 Plants which grow in iodine rich soil.

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 Salt which has iodine in it, that is, iodised salt.


These are the substances which occur in very small amounts in food, and are essentials for proper
functioning of the body. Vitamins cannot be manufactured by the body, therefore must be supplied
by the diet.

These are classified into two groups on the basis of their solubility in fats and water.
 Those vitamins which are soluble in fats are known as fat soluble vitamins.These are
vitamins A,D,E, and K.
 Those vitamins which are soluble in water are known as water soluble vitamins. These are
vitamins of B group and C.
We need all these vitamins in small amounts daily, for the body to work properly. Let us see what
each of these vitamins does in our body and where do we get them from.

Vitamins How it works in the body Foods it can be found in

A  Your eyes need Vitamin A to see in dim light Vegetables, fruits (especially
 Its makes your skin healthy yellow ones), milk, cheese, eggs
 Necessary for normal growth and yolk, butter, ghee, liver green
development leavy vegetables.
 Provides resistance to infection.
B  Helps the body to use energy Pulses, whole grains cereals
Complex  Keeps the digestive system healthy --wheat,rice,etc
C  All the body cells need Vitamin C because it Fruits, leafy
helps to hold cells together. vegetables,potatoes,sprouted
 It also keeps our teeth and gums healthy. grams.Guava and amala are the
richest sources.
D  Work with minerals phosphorus and calcium Oilyfish,milk,cheese,butter,ghee,
to make teeth and bones strong. etc. Our body can make Vitamin
D when the skin is exposed to
E  Prevents tissue breakdown it is an Whole pulses and cereals
K  Main function is in blood clotting process. Green leafy vegetables

Water is not a nutrient, yet it is very important for you.

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 It helps the body cells to do their work.
 It helps you to digest your food and takes the nutrients from the food to the different cells of
your body.
 Water also helps to keep your body temperature constant.In summer, extra heat is removed
when you sweat.
 Water helps to remove the wate products from your body in the form of urine.
Everybody must drink at least 7-8 glasses of water everyday.

Dietary Fibre
Dietary fibre, also known as roughage, is the undigestible carbohydrate present in food. Fibre is
present in foods of plant origin only. There are many types of fibre. These can be water soluble or
water insoluble. When foods are processed it may remove the fibre as also the vitamins and
Rrice has brown covering over it and is known as brown rice. But the rice which you eat is white
rice. Yes the rice has undergone processing and the brown coat is removed. So also is the fibre and
some Vitamins.
Wheat atta is something you use everyday. Some people have the habit of sieving the atta and then
making chapaties out if it. But in the process, what happens is that you remove the wheat bran
which is fibre and the atta becomes refined. When this refined flour is eaten it is not so beneficial
for your health.
Fibres perform many essential functions in the body.
− they increase the bulk and softness of the stool,thus making it easier to pass;
− foods which contain fibre require more chewing and thus have a high degree of satiety.
High fibre diet helps in the prevention of-
Constipation ,Haemorrhoids Cancer of the large bowel,Diabetes mellitus,Obesity
Food rich in fibre are:
 whole wheat atta,dalia(porridge)
 fruits such as guava,apples,pineapples,banana
 pulses,dhals,rajmah,lobia,whole dhals
 vegetables such as peas,beans,carrots,cauliflower,green leafy vegetables.

Five Food Group System

Food Group Food Stuffs Make Nutrients

Cereals Rice,wheat,ragi,bajra,maize,jowar,barley,ricefla Energy,protein,invisible
kes,wheat flour. fat,Vitamin B, iron,fibre
Pulses Bengalgram,blackgram,greengram,redgram,lent Energy,protein invisible
il(whole as well as dhals),cowpea, peas, rajmah, fat,Vitamin
soyabeans,beans,etc. B,calcium,iron,fibre
Milk,egg and Milk: curd,milk,cheese,paneer Protein,fat,Vitamin-B calcium
flesh foods Meat: Chicken,liver,fish,egg,meat

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Fruits and Fruits:Mango,guava,tomato Vitamin A,Vitamin-C fibre
Vegetables ripe,papaya,orange,sweet lime,watermelon
Vegetables(Green Invisible fats, Vitamin A,
Leafy):Amarnath,spinach,gogu,drumstick Vitamin B, calcium, iron,
leaves,coriander leaves,mustard fibre
leaves,fenugreek leaves.
Other Vegetables:Carrot,brinjal,ladies Vitamin A,calcium,fibre
Fats and Sugars Fats:Butter,ghee,hydrogenated oils,cooking oils Energy,fat
like ground nut,mustard,coconut.
Sugar:Sugar,jaggery Energy


The four golden rules of food hygiene are:
1 Buy food from a safe source.
2 Prevent bacteria from entering your food.
3 Prevent the multiplication (or growth development) of bacteria in your food.
4 Destroy bacteria on food, utensils and work surfaces
Rule No.1

• Buy food from a safe source.

• Make sure that you buy food only from a supplier who is well known and reputable. It is
important to check that all foods be within their expiry date and kept in appropriate conditions
in the shop.

• Serving counters should be kept spotlessly clean, likewise machines such as knives and
slicing machines.

• Freezers, fridges and chillers should display their temperatures and should be set at less than
5 degrees centigrade for chilled products and -18 degrees centigrade or less for frozen products.

• All packaging should be original and not tampered with or forged. This would indicate that
the product is not the original contents and has been produced by a fraudulent company. Do not
buy these products under any circumstances because they threaten your health.

• All reputable retail businesses that sell food should display up to date licences from all the
required regulatory authorities as required by law.
Rule No.2
Prevent bacteria from entering your food
All bacteria, when they have the right conditions begin to multiply.
The conditions that they need are,
a) a temperature of above 10 degrees centigrade, (some say 5 degrees).
b) A food source.

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Bacteria need only 20 minutes to adjust themselves to a new food source. For example, Supposing a
bacteria was on a sugary food and suddenly found itself on fish, the transition the bacteria would
need to be able to digest the new food source is twenty minutes.
c) A source of water.
On acquiring suitable conditions bacteria then commence to reproduce at a rate of one division of
the whole colony every 20 minutes. e.g. If you had 1000 bacteria on a piece of food to begin with,
you will have one million bacteria after 20 minutes. Keeping bacteria from getting into your food is
primarily down to prevention of cross contamination.
As home owners we do not usually have this luxury therefore it is advised to keep cooked foods at
the top of the fridge and raw materials at the bottom in closed containers. This way the risk of
contamination is greatly lessened.
Eggs, especially, should be kept in a closed container because they have many bacteria on their
outer shells.
Remember to wash your hands and arms to the elbow before preparing food. Cut your salads first
and then go onto the foods that are to be cooked making sure to thoroughly wash your board before
moving on to different types of food.
Wash all surfaces before and after work with a good detergent. Put cloths into the wash after each
usage. Always start with a clean cloth.

Rule No.3
Prevent the multiplication of bacteria in your food.
As Stated above bacteria need the correct conditions to divide themselves. To do this they need
A) the right temperature, B) Food and C) water.
• It follows, then, that food should be stored at the lowest possible temperature to keep
bacteria inactive. Also, do not allow your food to come into contact with water before you cook
it. By thawing food in water we are giving the bacteria a heads start.
• Cook your food at the earliest possible moment and after it is cooked keep it at a
temperature of at least 70 degrees centigrade until it is served.
• If you have to cool your food, do not put hot food in large containers into the fridge. Divide
it up into smaller containers and do not stack them in such a way that air cannot circulate around
the containers. Once cool freeze if possible.
• When thawing food, do it in the fridge in a closed container. Remember, it's better to plan a
meal a couple of days ahead of time than to have have to take couple of sick days off work in
• Once thawed (soft), cook the food as soon as possible.
• The best way to destroy all bacteria is to cook your food in a pressure cooker. This way the
combination of increased temperature and increased atmospheric pressure will completely
sterilize the food.

Rule No. 4
• Destroy bacteria on food, utensils and work surfaces.
• This rule speaks for itself. Do not let them develop in your kitchen.
• Cook food as quickly as possible. Food that cannot be cooked should be frozen if it is not
eaten within a short space of time.

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• Alternative forms of food preservation such as, dehydration, smoking, canning, sterilizing,
concentrating and pickling are all alternative ways of preventing the development of and
destroying bacteria in food.
• The surroundings also constitute a source of food contamination; therefore, you should wash
your work surfaces after each usage with hot water and detergent.
• In professional kitchens, all working areas should be surfaced with stainless steel. This way,
the surface may be cleaned with special grease and lime removing chemicals that have either a
caustic soda base or a phosphoric acid base. For safety, remember never to mix chemicals;
especially acids and alkalis like caustic soda and phosphoric acid.
• Likewise wash all utensils in very hot water and washing up detergent. The water should be
so hot that you need gloves to tolerate the heat.
• Store pots, pans, plates, cutlery and other utensils in a clean and dry place. Make sure that
they are dry before storing them away. Use a clean dish towel every time. Store them upside
down. Keep all storage areas clean. Check regularly for signs of vermin (pest).
• Heat crockery to 80 degrees centigrade before serving. This will prevent contamination even
• These are the four principles of good food hygiene. Follow them closely and the chances of
you or your clients becoming sick are substantially lessened.

Food Preservation

After reading this lesson you will be able to:

 define food preservation
 state the significance of food preservation
 enumerate causes of food spoilage
 describe general principles of food preservation
 explain the importance of hygienic handling of food
 describe methods of preserving food at home.

What is Food Preservation?

The dictionary meaning of the word 'preserve' is to keep safe,retain quality,prevent decomposition
or fermentation. When we apply this meaning to food preservation it can be defined as:-
A process by which certain food like fruits and vegetables are prevented from getting spoilt
for a long period of time.The colour,taste and nutritive value of the food is also preserved.

Food preservation means to keep food for a limited period of time without decaying.
Food gradually undergoes deterioration from the time it is harvested or manufactured .
Deterioration of food makes it unsafe and unfit for human consumption.

Why Do We Need to Preserve Foods ?

Let us take the example of a fruit, say mango. There are many ways by which mangoes can be

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preserved. These are :-juice,mrraba,squash,aam papad,pulp,chutney,pickle,raw mango powder.

Mango is a summer fruit and grows in large quantities during the months of April to August.
Different varieties of mango are grown in different parts of our country.Usually all the quantity
grown in a region cannot be consumed by the people staying there as there is always an excess.
What does the farmer do with this excess quantity ? He makes arrangements to transport the excess
quantity to regions where either mango is not grown or where the particular variety of mango is not
available. If he does not do this, the excess produce will rot and go waste. The farmer will then lose

There is still some quantity which is left after the fresh fruit is consumed by the people.It is this
quantity which has to be preserved which has to be preserved for consumption during the months
when mango is not available.Preservation of foods is done during the months when food is
available in large quantity and therefore at low cost.

One of the important reasons for preserving foods is to take care of the excess produce.

There are many other reasons for preserving foods.Let us learn about these.

Proper storage of food is imp to prevent from spoilage and also food poisoning. It has to be done
under proper temp and humidity condition and used as soon as possible.
Refrigerator is the best storage device at home to keep fresh, perishable and cooked food.
Grain, legumes (pulses), flour must be kept cool and dry to prevent microbial attack. When stored
properly, grains and legumes can stay for long period without nutritional changes
Vegetables:potatoes ,onions and other root veg can be stored in cool well ventilated area
All other veg like brinjals, lady finger should be washed ,drained and kept in plastic bag container
Green leafy veg should not be washed before storage in plastic moisture proof bags
Ripe fruits except banana can kept in the refrigerator to e stored in the refrigerator
Fruits like grapes,cherries should not be washed before storage. They can be kept in shallow
Frozen foods can be stored in the freezer. Dried fruits are generally stored in the air tight container>
Canned open fruits can be transformed into glass container and kept in refrigerator to retain the
flavor. Over ripened fruits should not be kept for a longer period as they are the source of infection.
Milk and Milk Products
All the dairy products should be kept cold ,clean and covered. They should be stored in the coldest
part of the refrigerator –frozen

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Eggs should be washed properly before storage to remove dirt, which may contain bacteria. Broken
or cracked eggs should be used as soon as possible.
Meat,Fish and Poultry
Uncooked meat , fish poultry should be kept covered by wrapping in moisture proof paper. Cooked
meat , fish and poultry can be kept in the freezer within air tight container.
What is food spoilage?
Food spoilage means the original nutritional value, texture, flavour of the food are damaged, the
food become harmful to people and unsuitable to eat.
Causes of food spoilage

a. Microbial spoilage
There are three types of microorganisms that cause food spoilage -- yeasts, moulds and bacteria.
• Yeasts growth causes fermentation which is the result of yeast metabolism. There are two
types of yeasts true yeast and false yeast. True yeast metabolizes sugar producing alcohol
and carbon dioxide gas. This is known as fermentation. False yeast grows as a dry film on a
food surface, such as on pickle brine. False yeast occurs in foods that have a high sugar or
high acid environment.
• Moulds grow in filaments forming a tough mass which is visible as `mould growth'. Moulds
form spores which, when dry, float through the air to find suitable conditions where they can
start the growth cycle again.
• Mould can cause illness, especially if the person is allergic to molds. Usually though, the
main symptoms from eating mouldy food will be nausea or vomiting from the bad taste and
smell of the mouldy food.
• Both yeasts and moulds can thrive in high acid foods like fruit, tomatoes, jams, jellies and
pickles. Both are easily destroyed by heat. Processing high acid foods at a temperature of
100°C (212°F) in a boiling water canner for the appropriate length of time destroys yeasts
and moulds.

• Bacteria are round, rod or spiral shaped microorganisms. Bacteria may grow under a wide
variety of conditions. There are many types of bacteria that cause spoilage. They can be
divided into: spore-forming and nonspore-forming. Bacteria generally prefer low acid foods
like vegetables and meat. In order to destroy bacteria spores in a relatively short period of
time, low acid foods must be processed for the appropriate length of time at 116°C (240°F)
in a pressure canner. (Temperatures higher than 100°C [212°F] can be obtained only by
pressure canning.)
• Eatting spoiled food caused by bacteria can cause food poisoning.

• Enzymes

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Enzymes are proteins found in all plants and animals. If uncooked foods are not used while fresh,
enzymes cause undesirable changes in colour, texture and flavour. Enzymes are destroyed easily by
heat processing.

Oxidation by air
Atmospheric oxygen can react with some food components which may cause rancidity or color

c. Other factors
• Infestations (invasions) by insects and rodents, which account for huge losses in food stocks.
• Low temperature injury - the internal structures of the food are damaged by very low


A process by which certain foods like fruits and vegetables are prevented from getting spoilt
for a long period of time. The colour, taste and nutritive value of the food is also preserved

• One of the important reasons for preserving foods is to take care of the excess produce.
• The second reason for preserving foods is that they add variety to our meals.
• Reaches areas where the food item is not grown. For example inclusion of dehydrated
peas, green leafy vegetables, canned fruits etc, in the meals is a good idea in such areas

• Makes transportation and storage of foods easier. Preservation of foods usually reduces
bulk. This makes their transportation and storage easier since it requires less space. For
example, if you dry green leafy vegetables such as mint, methi, corriander, etc, their weight
and volume reduces, thus making their storage easy.



Removal of micro-organisms or inactivating them-This is done by removing

air, water (moisture), lowering or increasing temperature, increasing the concentration
of salt or sugar or acid in foods.
Inactivating enzymes-Enzymes found in foods can be inactivated by changing
their conditions such as temperature and moisture, when you preserve peas, one
of the methods of preservations is to put them for a few minutes in boiling water
Removal of insects, worms and rats-By storing foods in dry, air tight containers
the insects, worms or rats are prevented from destroying it.

Foods can be preserved at home by the following methods-

(i) Dehydration
(ii) Lowering temperature
(iii) Increasing temperature
(iv) Using preservatives

Dehydration: The word dehydration means removing water or moisture from foods. The home
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method of dehydration is sun drying
Some foods are dried as they are, eg, green leafy vegetables (methi, pudina, corriander
etc.) cauliflower, grapes, amla, onion, raw mango, etc. Some foods are cooked and
then dried. For example potato chips, papad, banana, chips, wadis, etc. The most
appropriate weather to dry foods is when the air is dry and there is strong sunshine.

Low Temperature: Using low temperature to preserve foods works on the principle that low
temperature slows microbial and enzyme action. The food is thus prevented from spoilage.
Foods can be preserved at low temperature by:
(1) Refrigeration 40 C to 70 C
(2) Cold storage – 10 C to – 40 C
(3) Freezing –180C or below
The duration for which the food can be preserved by using low temperature varies with
the type of food and the temperatures. The lower the temperature, longer is the duration
for which food can be preserved. Of the three methods, freezing uses the lowest

Increasing Temperature
By increasing the temperature, enzymes and micro organisms are destroyed, leaving
the food safe from spoilage.

There are mainly two methods of preserving foods by using high temperature-
(1) pasteurization
(2) sterilization

In this method food is heated to a high temperature and then quickly cooled. The
micro-organisms are not able to withstand the sudden change in temperature
and are destroyed. However, some organisms still survive this method.

Sterilization: The high temperature used in this method destroys all the microorganisms
in the food. The foods are exposed to high temperature for longer time and in some cases under
When a pressure cooker is used to cook, the food lasts longer because most microorganisms
get destroyed. You can also sterilize bottles and other equipments used

Using Preservatives
What are preservatives?
Any substance that is added to foods to make it last for a longer time is called a
Preservative by increasing the concentration of salt, sugar or acid in a food prevents
its spoilage. Therefore, salt, sugar or acid are substances which act as preservatives.

There are two types of preservatives:-

(1) Natural Preservatives: Salt, sugar, lemon juice, vinegar, oil and spices are natural
(2) Chemical preservatives: Potassium metabisulphate, citric acid and sodium benzoate
are chemical preservatives.

Natural preservatives:
(a) Salt: When you make pickle at home, salt is one of the ingredients used.Besides adding to taste,
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salt has a specific function, i.e., to act as a preservative. If the proportion of salt in pickles
is less, it can get spoilt after sometime. Increasing the quantity of salt in the food changes its
composition .Due to the presence of salt in the food, osmosis takes place. As a result, water comes
out of the food. When there is no or less water in the food, the micro organisms are not able to grow
and the food becomes safe. Salt also reduces the activity of enzymes, thus preventing the food from
getting spoilt.
Salt is used as a preservative in pickles, chatni, sauce, canned food, etc. Salt is rubbed on fish which
helps to preserve it.

(b) Sugar: These are jams, jellies, murabbas, squashes. Like in pickle, chatni,etc., sugar is added to
these foods not only for taste but also as a preservative. The proportion of sugar has to be correct to
protect them from spoiling.

(c) Acids: These are lemon juice, vinegar, citric acid, etc. Vinegar is used to preserve onions,
tomato ketchup; lemon juice is used in pickles; citric acid is used in squashes. Acids increase the
acidic content of food items, thus preventing the activity and growth of micro-organisms.

(d) Oils and spices: These are used as preservatives in pickles. Mustard powder is one of them. It
prevents the growth of micro organisms, thus preventing spoilage.
When pickle is made at home, have you observed that oil is poured to cover the
mango, lemon or other vegetables which are being pickled. The oil acts as a protective cover and
has two advantages-
(i) prevents contact of micro-organisms with the food, hence they can not spoil the food.
(ii) prevents contact of air with food, hence the micro organisms can not grow and spoil the food.

What You Have Learnt


Functions of food + Nutrients and Nutrition

Proteins Carbohydrates Fats Minerals Vit Water Dietary Fibre

Five Food groups

Hygienic Preparation of food -4 Rules


Home science std 10 Facilitator : Jasmina

Sangani 2010-2011 Page 15





Dehydration Lowering Increasing Preservatives
Temperature Temperature Natural Chemical

• Refrigeration Cold storage Freezing Pasteurization Sterilization.


Home science std 10 Facilitator : Jasmina

Sangani 2010-2011 Page 16
What You Have Learnt


Functions of food + Nutrients and Nutrition

Proteins Carbohydrates Fats Minerals Vit Water Dietary


Five Food groups

Hygienic Preparation of food -4 Rules







Dehydration Lowering Increasing Preservatives
Temperature Temperature Natural Chemical

• Refrigeration Cold storage Freezing Pasteurization Sterilization.


Home science std 10 Facilitator : Jasmina

Sangani 2010-2011 Page 17
Home science std 10 Facilitator : Jasmina
Sangani 2010-2011 Page 18