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Kochuveli Thiruvananthapuram
Pin: 695021

Inplant Training

Submitted by

Mahendran S
Rohan Baby Mathews
Rohan Stephen Luke
Sarun Jolak George

Mar Baselios College

Engineering And Technology
This is a report on inplant training at Travancore
Titanium Products Ltd during 28th june 2010 to 2nd
July 2010 by the 7th semester BTech Mechanical
Engineeerig students of Mar Baselios College of
Engineering and Technology, Trivandrum.

We Take this opportunity to express our hearty

thanks to the members of the organization who
helped us a lot during this period. We also sincerely
thank our college and management for arranging the
inplant training.


This is to certify that the following studentd of Mar Baselios

College of Engineering and Technology, Thiruvananthapuram
has undergone an inplant training in Travancore Titanium
Products Limited, Thiruvananthapuram during the period of
28th June 2010 to 2nd July 2010.

1. Mahendran S
2. Rohan Baby Mathews
3. Rohan Stephen Luke
4. Sarun Jolak George

Travancore Titanium products is one of the main major titanium
dioxide producing industry in India from the abundant minerals like
ilmenite occurring in beach sands Manavalakurichi of Tamil Nadu and
Chavara in Kollam district.

TTP is one of the profitably running public sector units managed by the
government of Kerala. At present this plant has a capacity of 45 tonnes
per day.

TTP Ltd was set up in 1951 in collaboration with the British Titanium
Products Ltd(now Tioxide), with technology from national Lead(NL),
USA. Before 1951, the beach sand containing rare earth minerals was
being exported to Europe. The unit was promoted by the princely
administration of Travancore, in technical collaboration with the British
Titanium Products Ltd. Sree Chithra Thirunal Balaramavarma Maharaja
of Travancore and his Diwan, Sir C P Ramaswamy Iyer gave the
inspiration for starting the venture.

Two main plants in TTP are

1. Titanium Dioxide Plant
2. Sulphuric Acid Plant

Production Of Titanium Dioxide
Titanium Dioxide is mainly produced from the raw material
illmenite, which is a complex compound of oxides of titanium and

The composition of illmenite is as follows.

Kollam Grade MK Grade

Titanium Dioxide 59-60% 53-54%
Ferrous Oxide(FeO) 09-10% 25_26%
Ferric Oxide(Fe2O3) 24-25% 15-16%
Oxides of other elements 05-08% 04-07%

The two mai processes for the separation TiO2 from Ilmenite are
1. Sulphate process
2. Chloride process

TTP Ltd is using the sulphate process.

Raw Materials
The major raw materials used are
1. ilmenite
2. Sulphuric Acid
3. Scrap Iron
4. Glyceryl Mono Stearate
5. Aluminium Dust
6. Pottasium Sulphate(K2SO4)
7. Mono Ammonium Phosphate
Process Description

The production of TiO2 from ilmenite requires a number of operations

and some unit processes. The various sections in the route for its
production are

1. Grinding
2. Digestion
3. Clarification
4. Concentration
5. Precipitation
6. Post precipitation filtration
7. Pre precipitation filtration
8. Leaching
9. Post Leaching filtration
10. Treatment
11. De watering filtration
12. Calcination
13. Pulverization
14. Packing

Here TiO2(Anatase) is the main product.

Ilmelite is brought to this section from godown using the belt conveyor.
The purpose of grinding is to reduce the size and hence to increase the
surface area of the ore to achieve maximum reaction efficiency.Here
the equipment used for grinding is a ball mill.

The main sections of a milling are

1. Ball mill
2. Rotary classifier
3. Mill fan
4. Double cone classifier
5. Cyclone separator
6. Viscobeth
7. Ductings
8. Dampers
9. Vent Pipe


The material is fed into the ball mill from silo using constant weight
feeder. By the action of the fan the ground product along with the air is
sucked into rotary classifier, where the coarser particles are sent back
to the mill for regrinding. Then the air product mixture is sucked into
the double cone classifier, where the oversize is separated and sent
back to the mill. The air leaving the double cone classifier with the
required size particles reaches the cyclone separator where a whirling
action prevails. The product is separated and sent into a bunker
through an air locked rotary valve connected at the bottom of the
cyclone separator

By the action of the mill fan, air is discharged into the ball mill, at the
same time air leaving the cyclone separator is sucked by the fan. Air
from atmosphere enters at certain regons of the ductings, so suction
increases over discharge which may imbalance the whole system.
Inorder to prevent this condition, extra air is removed through a vent
pipe to the atmosphere.

Digestion is the second section in the manufacture of TiO2 pigment.

It consists of five stages.

1. Reaction
2. Baking
3. Dissolution
4. Reduction
5. Final Adjustment

Digestion is a Reinforced Cement Concrete (RCC) cylindrical vessel

conical at the bottom. It is first lined with lead and then a double layer
of acid resisting bricks. The necessity of having a RCC vessel is to
withstand the pressure and vibrations that develop during the reaction.

The consistent unit to the digester are trident and service line, sturm
box with the strainer bottom ‘T’, service ‘T’, stand pipe and fume
cupboard with exist stack. The three arms of the trident are connected
with compressor air line, water line and stream line, and the common
service line from the trident enters at the bottom of the digester
through the service ‘T’, and bottom ‘T’. The other lines entering
through the top digester cover are the ground ilmenite, weak liquor
and cutting water inlet lines.

The crude liquor is sent to a settler which is the equipment used for
settling operation. Reduced liquor contains unreacted ilmenite, residue
due to scrap iron and finely divided colloidal particles which are to be

Settling Operation

The settler is actually a thickener. This is as large fairly shallow tank

with slow moving radial rakes driven from a central shaft. Its bottom is
conical. Dilute feed slurry flows from an inclined trough or launder into
the centre of the thickener. The feed dlurry being more denser than
water tends to flow downward until it reaches a zone of equal density.
Then it moves radially outward at a constantly decreasing velocity and
the flow gradually divides between the downward moving suspension
and the upward moving flow that is nearly free of solids. Liquor moves
radially at a constantly decreasing velocity allowing the solids to settle
at the bottom of the tank. Clear liquor is obtained as the overflow. The
rake arms gently agitate the sludge and move it to the centre of the
tank, where it flows through a large opening to the inlet of a sludge

Here the feed is fed into the settler through a feed well, so that it will
not spread at the top but reaches the centre. The temperature inside
the settler is minium 600C. An organic flocculent is used which causes
agglomeration and hence faster settling of particles. Clear overflow is
obtained from the top through pipes connected around the settler. The
rakes rotating at a speed of 1/13 rpm, gently agigate the sludge and
move it to the centre of the tank.

The overflow from the settler contains TiOSO4 andFeSO4 in acid

medium which is collected into the SLS tanks from where it is pumped
to the concentration feed tanks.

Weak Liquor Preparation

The sludge from the settler is withdrawn through the bottom valve and
sent to the sludge dilution tanks. After specified quantity is withdrawn
it is diluted to the required specific gravity and pumped to sludge
settlers. Weak liquor overflow from the sludge settlers is collected in
weal liquor storage tanks.

The overflow from the settler has a concentration of 140 gpl. The
purpose of the concentration is to increase the concentration of the
liquor by evaporating the water content and hence to increase the
content of solids in the liquor per litre.

There are 3 concentration units. The main parts of concentration unit


1. Concentration feed tank

2. Overhead tank
3. preheater
4. Concentrator
5. Vapour separator
6. Discharge lute


The liquor from the concentration feed tank is fed to the overhead tank
from where it is fed to the preheater. Preheater is a shell and tube type
Heat Exchanger. There are 22 tubes inside the preheater. The tubes
and shell are made of electrolytic copper. The liquor from the
preheater is fed to the bottom of the bottom of the concentrator. The
concentrator has 32 tubes inside it which works independently. The
tube side is made of electrolytic copper and the shell side is made of
mild steel which has insulations to prevent heat loss. The shell side is
fed with fed with steam.

The liquor when passes through the tube side gets the water content
reduced by evaporation. The concentrated liquor and vapour are sent
to the vapour separator. The liquor at the bottom of the vapour
separator is collected into the discharge lute. The vapour is sent to the

Since the preheater is used, the amount of steam that is to be used in

the concentrator is reduced and concentration is carried in less time
with less expense and the once used steam can be recycled.

Titanium Dioxide is separated from the concentrated liquor by
precipitation. Precipation is effected through thermal hydrolysis.
Maximum precipitation takes place at a temperature of 110 0C. The
tank is made up of mild steel which has a brick lining inside made up of
acid and heat resistant bricks which prevents heat loss and also
protects mild steel. There is a rubber lining outside. The concentrated
liquor at a temperature of 900C is fed into the tank. Nuclei is charged
and kept for three hours. Steam is injected and cutting water is added.
This brings about precipitation by thermal hydrolysis. Temperature
raises to about 1100C and the tank is sealed with steam and is
maintained for 3 hours. Then it is left there for about 2 1/2 hours of

TiOSO4 + 2H2O -- TiO(OH)2 + H2SO4

Hydrated titanium dioxide is precipitated. Ferrous sulphate remains as

such. It will not coprecipitate. It is during the precipitation stage that
the black liquor is changed to white one.

Here rotary drum filter is used. It is a continuous vacuum filter. Here is
liquor is sucked through a moving septum to deposit a cake of solids.
The cake is moved of the filtering zone washed, sucked dry and
dislodged from the septum, which then reenters the slurry to pickup
another load of solids. Some part of the septum is in the filtering zone
always, part is in the washing zone and part is being relieved of solids,
so that the discharge of both solids and liquids from the filter is

Working of Rotary Drum Filter

A horizontal drum with a slotted face turns at 1/3 rpm in an agitated

slurry trough. A filter medium such as canvas covers face of the drum
which is partly submerged in liquid. Under the slotted cylindrical face
of the drum which is a second smaller drum with a solid surface.
Between the two drums are radial partitions dividing the annular space
into separate compartments each connected by an internal pipe to one
hole in the rotating plate of the rotary valve. Vacuum and air are
already applied to each compartment as the drum rotates. A strip of
filter cloth covers the exposed face of each compartment to form a
succession of panels.

There are three zones for a rotary drum filter

1. Catch up zone
2. Wash up zone
3. Drying and releasing zone
The drum is kept in such a way that 1/3rd of the drum is immersed in
the slurry trough. The slurry is sucked up by the catch up zone. A
vacuum is used to create the suction. Solids remain on the surface of
the filter cloth, and the liquid along with the dissolved impurities is
sucked into the tubes.

At the top of the drum water is constantly sprayed which washes the
pulp when it comes in the washing zone. The water and the dissolved
ferrous sulphate is sucked into the tubes. As the drum rotates, when it
comes down vacuum is released at some region and so slurry is

There are 16 tubes inside which are connected to a single tube lead
which leads to a catch pot. The fumes from the catch pot are sent to a
water scrubber. The cleaned gas is sent to a common line, which is
connected to a vacuum pump. The catch pot and the scrubber are
water sealed.

For maximum removal of ferrous sulphate and other impurities the

filtration is carried in four stages.
1. Post Precipitation Filtration
2. Pre Leaching Filtration
3. Post Leaching Filtration
4. Dewatering Filtration

Post Precipitation Filtration

The precipitated liquor from the batch storage is sent to the filtration
unit. There are four numbers of post precipitation filters.

Length - 16 inch
Diameter – 08 inch

The pulp is diluted and is sent to the repulping tank. The repulped
mass is sent to the preleaching filters.

Pre Leaching Filteration

Four numbers of filters are available. The feed is from post precipation
filters and dorr tanks. The purpose of filtration is to wash off ferrous
sulphate and increase the TiO2 content in pulp. The filtrate goes to the
dorr tank.
Specification: Specific Gravity- 1.231.25
The purpose of leaching is to reduce the non washable ferric sulphate
to washable ferrous sulphate. As the pulp passes through different
filtration operations, some ferrous sulphate may get converted to ferric
sulphate due to aerial oxidation. Here Al dust is added along with
particular amount of sulphuric acid. This produces nascent hydrogen
which is a good reducing agent.

Post Leaching Filtration

The leached pulp is washed and filtered for the specific gravity
1.291.30 and an iron content of 0.001gpl. Four numbers are

In treatment section specific amount of potassium sulphate solution
and mono ammonium phosphate are added and K2SO4 is also added to
improve the tone, texture, PH and quality. Mono Ammonium Phosphate
is added to impart antirutile properties. No. of treatment tank in one
stream is two.

Dewatering Filter
The pulp is again filtered to remove the water present. In the
dewatering filter the vacuum is adjusted in such a way that to get a
solid of 37% in the pulp

It is the process of slow heating of the pulp, which takes hours, to
reach the other end of the calciner. Calciner is a long inclined rotary
kiln, cylindrical rotating at a speed of 1/17 rpm. Its inclination is
towards the furnace end. Two numbers of calciners are available here.
They have a capacity of 30 tonnes per day.

The purpose of calciners are

1. To decompose hydrated titanium into TiO2
2. To remove residual acid.
3. To develop crystal unit.
The cake is dried in a calciner by burning it in the combustion chamber
with kerosene as a fuel. Kerosene is sprayed into the combustion
chamber using a blower. There are two calciners used. The dried up
TiO2 is blown off into the combustion chamber in the form of crystals
by the aid of induced draught fans and thus providing draught in the
chamber. The TiO2 crystals is then passed through a cooler and passed
onto the milling section. The temperature at the firing end 1200oC, is
measured by R-type thermocouple. The temperature at the feed end
450oC is measured by S-type thermocouple. The temperature at the
firing end is controlled at 1200oC by manually controlling the flow of
kerosene to the blower. The gas produced is evacuated through the
main dust which further splits into two with an ID fab provided in each
of the two sub dusts.These gases are taken through a cooling tower
and an electrostatic precipitator.

TiO2 obtained after cooling is in the form of granules. This is transferred
using belt conveyors to bucket elevator which inturn lifts the product
and dumps into a silo having a capacity of 40 tonnes. The particle size
is reduced in a Bradely Pulverizer Mill.

Bradely Pulverizer is a pendulum type mill which powders TiO2 to a

very fine size of about 625 mesh. The pendulum rotate vertically with
close tolerances to the casing of the mill. To send the feed in required
quantity and to prevent overloading and to increase milling efficiency
an auto feeder is provided.
The main accessories of milling are
1. Fan
2. Cyclone Separator
3. Viscobeth
The product coming out of the cyclone separator is sent into the
packing bumker.

A weighing machine is kept below the bunker. TiO2 is filled into plastic
sacks kept over the weighing machine. 25 Kg is fed in each sack and
sacks are tied. This is then sent into the market.
Production of Sulphuric Acid
Sulphuric Acid is a main raw material for the production of Titanium
Dioxide pigment in Titanium Travancore Products Limited. During the
expansion in 1965 a sulphuric acid plant with 50 tonns per day
capacity was also started. In 1996 a new sulphric acid plant was
commissioned with Double contact double Absorption process with a
capacity of 350 tonns per day.

A>Water Treatment Plant

Water treatment plant is a division of the sulphuric acid plant where
the water(steam) necessary for the production of the acid is
generated. For steam production PHD water is used.

The main equipments used are
1. M.G. Filter (multi grade filter)
2. SAC unit (Strong Acid Cation unit )
3. DE gas sump
4. SBA unit
5. Mixed bed
6. D.M. Storage Tank

Multi Grade filter

This is used to remove clay or wood. It has a sand or gravel unit on the
top and mesh arrangement on the bottom. The water at 2.5Kg/cm2 is
given to the top of the filter. As it passes through large layers of the
filter the large impurities are removed and rate of flow is 15m3/hr.

SAC unit
This contains a Zeocarbon resin which produces hydrogen. Chlorides of
Magnesium, calcium etc is removed in this unit. Oxides of carbon and
sulphur is converted to carbonic acid and sulphuric acid etc. water
leaving from this section has a ph of 2.5-4 and regeneration resins is
done using sulphuric acid.

De-Gaser sump
Water from SAC unit is sent here to remove the carbonic acid. Water is
sprayed to sump from top and air is supplied using a fan. The acid is
converted to co2 and h2o and co2 is sent to atmosphere.

SBA unit (Strong Base Anion Unit)

Water from the De-Gaser is sent here. In this section the acidity of
water is removed. For that resins having OH ions are used.
Conductivity is 6.8-7.5. Regeneration of resins is done by NaOH.

Mixed Bed
Water from the SBA unit has low acidity and high alkalinity is not best
for steam production and so the water is demineralised using a mixed
It has two resins with the same principle of SBA and SAC units.

Demineralised Water Storage Tank

Water is demineralised and stored in a storage tank. The water for
steam production is obtained by using water treatment plant at a
temperature of 33-350c.
The water is given to a boiler but the temperature has to be increased
and so using a deaerator the temperature of water is increased to 90-
1000c .

B>Procedure for the production of

sulphuric acid
Sulphuric acid is produced by double contact absorption process.
Sulphur is the main raw material . sulphur is melted, filtered and then
oxidized to so2. So2 is further oxidized to so3 by passing through a
catalytic convertor having vanadium pentoxide v2o3 as catalyst. The
converted so3 is absorbed in concentrated sulphuric acid. Then the
absorbed sulphuric acid is converted to sulphuric acid.

Description of the main steps

The flow diagram of the DCDA process contains the following
1. Melting pit
2. Burner
3. Convertor
4. Absorber
5. Scrubber
The raw material used for the large scale manufacture of
sulphuric acid is sulphur . sulphur is a by-product of petroleum

1.Melting Pit

The sulphur obtained may contain impurities like

Selenium, Tellurium, ash, mud etc. so sulphur is to be purified to
about100%. The purification is done by melting. When sulphur is
melted the impurities present in it remain in the molten sulphur itself.
Sulphur has a melting point of 1300c.
Sulphur is stored in a sulphur go down. With the help of an Electrically
operated crane it is transferred to a silo. Ratted quantity is fed to the
melting pit by using a belt conveyor. For melting the sulphur steam
coils are used. The high pressure steam melts the sulphur at a
temperature of 140-1500c and 6.27kg/cm2. The velocity of the molten
sulphur is maintained ina specified value so that the easy flow of
sulphur is achieved. The specific gravity Of molten sulphur is 1.8. The
impurities in the sulphuric acid raises the temperature of sulphur from
130-1500c. In order to neutralize the acid impurities, which are
produced by the contact of molten sulphur with atmospheric oxygen,
sulphurous acid, hydrated lime is added at the rate of 250gm/tons of
sulphuric acid produced. The undissolved impurities are separated by
settling in the melting pit itself.
The overflow from the melting pit is collected in a dirty pit. From the
dirty pit sulphur is pumped to leaf filter . The leaf filter is in horizontal
inclined position. The filterate from the leaf filter are collected in a
clean pit. The temperature of molten sulphur is maintained at a value
of 1300c and at a pressure of 2.5kg/cm2. If the temperature is below
1300c the pumping of molten sulphur becomes difficult and above that
temperature causes firing of molten sulphur.

The molten sulphur reacted with compressed air gives sulphur di oxide
gas. A furnace is used for burning molten sulphur and compressed air.
The furnace is a horizontal, cylindrical vessel with two sulphur guns.
The length of the furnace is 7m and diameter is 4m. The furnace is
made up of carbon steel,acid proof bricks and fire resistant bricks.
Molten Sulphur is pumped from a storage tank through heated lines
and sprayed in to the furnace using burners. Dry air from air drying
tower is introduced into the furnace. The temperature of furnace is
kept at about 950-10200c, otherwise leakage of sulphur takes place .
The conversion is exactly 10.5% by mole so2

Waste Heat Boiler-1

Before the gases are fed to the first stage of the converter, they are
adjusted to the minimum temperature at which catalyst rapidly
increases the speed of reaction,usually 425 to 4400c. For that purpose
a waste heat boiler has shell side and tube side. So2 gas at a
temperature of 10000c is passed through the tube side and water is
passed through shell side. Thus by the principle of heat transfer the
temperature of so2 gas is reduced to about 4350c and water gets
converted to steam.
But there is a chance for reduction the temperature below this value.
So the outlet of the waste heat boiler is given to a mixing chamber
where mixing of so2 from boiler and furnace takes place. As a result the
temperature of so2 can be kept at 4350c.

The chemical conversion of sulphur dioxide to sulphur trioxide is
designed to maximize the conversion by taking into consideration that
1. Equilibrium is an inverse function of temperature and a direct
function of the oxygen to the sulphur dioxide ratio
2. Rate of reaction is a direct function of temperature.
3. Gas composition and amount of catalyst affect the rate of
conversion and the kinetics of the reaction.
4. Removal of sulphur dioxide formed allows more sulphur dioxide
to be converted.
The commercialization of these basic condition makes possible high
overall conversion by using a multipass convertor.
A four pass convertor is used for conversion in the sulphuric acid plant.
It has 4 beds of ring and start type materials coated with vanadium
pentoxide catalyst for better conversion. The conversion takes place in
two stages.

Sulphur dioxide gas from the mixing chambers is given to the 1st
layer of the 4 pass convertor. The conversion reaction is 2SO2+O2-
>2SO3. This reaction is highly exothermic. Thus the temperature
increases to 6000c. if this conversion stream is directly given to the 2nd
layer of the convertor then the catalytic bed may be spoiled. In order
to avoid that condition the outlet from the first layer is given to a super
Super Heater
The gaseous stream from the first stage of the convertor is given to
the tube side of the superheater and stream is passed through the
shell side. Then the temperature is reduced to 425oC. The outlet of the
superheater is givan to the second bed of the convertor where 28% of
conversion of SO2 to SO3 takes place. The conversion raises the
temperature of gas to 520oC. For cooling this gas before it is given to
the third layer a hot heat exchanger is used.

Hot Heat Exchanger

The outlet from the 2nd layer of the catalytic convertor is given to the
tube side of the hot heat exchanger. Hot gas is passed through the
shall side. Thus the temperature of SO3 gas reduces to 430oC. The gas
stream from the hot heat exchanger is given to the third layer of the
convertor. In the third layer 6% conversion of SO2 to SO3 takes place
and the temperature raises to 450oC. This completes the first stage of
conversion of SO2 to SO3. For absorption of converted SO3 its
temperature should be reduced. Thus a haet exchanger and an
economizer is used.

Cold Heat Exchanger

The outlet from the third layer of the catalytic convertor is given to the
tube side of the cold heat exchanger and cold gas is passed through
the shell side. Then the temperature of the SO3 gas decreases to 330oC
from 450oC.

For the further reduction of the temperature to 1800C an economizer is
used. In the economizer gas is flowing through the tube side and water
is flowing through the shell side. Thus the temperature is reduced to

4.a.Interpass absorption tower

The so3 gas from economizer-1 is absorbed in an interpass absorption
tower. It is cylindrical in shape and the gas is absorbed in 98.5%
sulphuric acid. The acid is sprayed from the top of the IPAT and gas is
given through bottom. The temp of IPAT is 700c.
In order to reduce the temperature of sulphuric acid before it is
sprayed to IPAT and FAT a plate cooler is used. Water is passed
through the plates and acid is passed in between the plates. Thus the
transfer of heat takes place and as a result of this temperature of acid
is reduced and water become steam.

The unabsorbed SO3 gas from the interpass absorption tower is given
to the 4th bed of the catalytic convertor which is at a temperature of
4300c and 5.75% conversion of so2 to so3 takes place in the second
stage and temperature is increased due to exothermic reaction.

It is similar to that of economizer-1 and having so3 gas in the tube side
and water in the shell side. Reduction of temperature takes place and
the outlet from economizer-2 has a temp of 180 0c. The outlet gas is
absorbed in final absorption tower.

4.b.Final absorption tower

Second stage absorption of so3 gas is done in the final absorption
tower. It is similar to IPAT sulphuric acid at 98.5% concentration and
reduced temperature is sprayed from the top of the FAT and so3 gas
from the economizer-2 is given to the bottom of FAT absorption of so3
The outlet of both the IPAT and FAT has the formula H2S2O7(oleum)
The oleum is collected in acid pumping tank.

Acid pumping tank

The acid pumping tank having capacity of 150m 3 and it is cylindrical in
shape. Inorder to maintain the concentration at 98.5% dilution water is
constantly given to the acid pumping tank.
There are six acid collecting tank in acid plant. When the volume of
sulpuric acid in the acid pumping tank becomes greater than 150m 3 it
is transferred to the acid collecting tank steam is a by product of acid
collecting tank steam byproduct of acid plant.

Air circuit

Air for sulphur burner is supplied by electric blower is used. During the
starting of the acid plant and power filure condition electric blower is
used. All the other time steam turbine blower is used.
Air from the athmosphere is sucked through a filter for removing dust
and compresed by turbine driven air blower and it is given to air drying
tower to remove entire atmospheric oxygen. During is done with the
help of sulphuric acid. The dry air given to the burner for burning of
molten sulphur.

5.Pollution control(scrubber unit)

Gases from the final absorption tower contains SO2. SO3 atmospheric
pollutant. Gasses from the final absorption tower are taken to a packed
scrubber. During normal operation the gasses passes through dry
scrubber. During start up or disturbed conditions caustic solution from
the solution tank is fed to the foot of the scrubber by gravity. SO 2 from
the gases is absorbed in the surculatting stream of caustic solution.
Scrubbed gases are vented to atmosphere through a 26 meter tall
chimney. The specified limit is 300ppm SO2 ,100mg/Nm3 of SO3, as
prescribed by the pollution control standards.

Precommissioning of plant
Before the plant is made ready for commissioning, it is necessary that
individual sections of the plant are checked and necessary test carried
out on the equipment to ensure their smooth functioning during
commissioning and normal running of the plant.

The main step in precommissioning activities for first start is drying of
bricks in sulphur furnace, startup furnace and convertor. Drying of
brickwork shall be carried out by wood firing is sulphur furnace startup
furnace and convertor.

Sulphur circuit
1. For first startup clean all sulphur pits. Flush all the steam coils by
steam to remove any dirt and scale etc.
2. Fill sulphur melter with sulphur through the belt conveyor. Once
substantial amount of sulphur is added to melter, start steam in
melter coils and check for proper operation of traps. Allow the
sulphur to melt and gradually go on adding solid sulphur till level
of liquid sulphur is above the agitator level.
3. Now start the sulphur agitator, check the amperage of agitator
motor, also check for any vibration on sound and start feeding
sulphur gradually and continuously at maximum possible rate
without any lump formation in sulphur pool.
4. Add lime accordingly to neutralize acidity. After sometime
sulphur will overflow to dirty sulphur pit.
5. At this time start steam flow through coils in dirty sulphur pit.
When liquid sulphur level comes to agitator level and check for
smooth operation.
6. Open steam in dirty sulphur jacketed pipe and heat the same.
Once sufficient amount of liquid sulphur is filled in dirty pit, start
sulphur pump to recirculate sulphur. Once smoother operation of
dirty sulphur pump is established transfer the sulphur to precoat
pit and fill the same.
7. Add filter aid and start the agitator in precoat pit. Now system is
ready for precoat operation of sulphur filter. Start steam in all
jacketed pipes and in jackets of sulphur filter.
8. For filling the sulphur filter, first start steam in jacket and ensure
that all are well heated. Ensure that lid flanges are tightened
properly. Open the vent/overflow valve and start precoat sulphur
oump. Keep sulphur valve position in suitable open/close
position. Once sulphur starts overflowing close vent valve and
allow the sulphur to recirculate in precoat pit.
9. Once the precoat cycle is over filter cycle can be started. Adjust
the valves so that low from duty sulphur pump goes to filter and
then to clean sulphur. If found in limits continue the filteration
cycle. In case of ash being excessively check for possibility of
improper precoat or damaged filter leaves.
10. Once the filteration cycle is over as indicated by reduced
sulphur flow in filter outlet, prepare to open and clean the
sulphur filter.
11. Keep clean sulphur tank sufficiently full well before
scheduled date of sulphur firing. Take a trial of clean sulphur
pump amd circulate sulphur in all relevant pipelines.

Normal Operation
Sulphur Section
1. Check the ash content in sulphur once in a shift. Higher ash
content may be due to improper precoat or damage to the
screen. Take the corrective action accordingly.
2. Choking of filter as indicated by reducing in sulphur flow
indicates filteration cycle. At such time arrange for cleaning
sulphur filter.
3. Analysis ash content and acidity of dirty sulohur feed to filter.
This will ensure corrosion free operation and help in anticipating
filteration cycle.
4. Incase filter aid contains chlorides wash the same thoroughly
before feeding to filler to avoid corrosion

Gas circuit
1. Analyse so2 at convertor inlet regularly. Plant is designed to
operate at 10.5% so2 convertor inlet.
2. Convertor 2nd bed inlet temperature can be controlled by
operation of super heater bypass valves.
3. Inlet temperature of 3rd pass is controlled by hot heat exchanged
tube side bypass valve.

Acid Circuit
1. Amperage of circulation pump should be noted regularly.
2. Acid samples should be analysed once a day check operation of
3. Level indicator readings should be checked frequently by manuel
level measurement.
4. Observe flow of acid in tower distributor once a day through
sight glasses.

Boiler circuit
1. Check boiler feed water sample and boiler blow down sample
once a day. Any abnormality observed it should be corrected
immediately in water treatment, chemical closing or blow down
2. Ensure that steam flow is deaerator is maintained and BFW is at
a temperature of 100-1050c.
3. Safety valves should be checked regularly to ensure safety of
high pressure equipment.
4. Level gauges should be drained and checked once a shift.
5. In no case boiler water level should be allowed to go below
normal level
6. While operating boiler feed water pump, corresponding
recirculation line valve should be kept open.

General Guidelines for Good Operation

1. Always have a spare sulphur gun for service
2. When plant is shutdown, leave steam flowing through the
sulohur burner jacket. This will serve as a coolant to protect the
gun from the radiant heat until the furnace refractory has cooled.
3. Repair any shell or duct leaks at the earliest opportunity and
repair all insulation.
4. Avoid use if cold feed water to an operating boiler except in an
5. Never allow the boiler exit gas temperature to drop below 2750c.
6. Although convertor-operating conditions will vary with time and
service, never allow the catalyst temperature to exceed 6200c.
7. Elevate catalyst temperature slightly before a hot shutdown to
facilitate startup.
8. Frequently check all thermocouples specially convertor thermo
couples against a standard.
9. Never attempt to operate plant without acid circulation on all
three towers. If a pump fails and cannot be restarted
immediately shut the plant down.
10. Keep the spare acid pump in excellent condition and reay
for quick start.
11. Verify the reading of conductivity meters once a day.
12. Try to keep acid plant circulating pumps running all the
time, whether the plant is operating or not, if it is necessary to
stop circulation for maintenance reasons, check the distribution
section and clean if needed.
13. Establish and rigourously follow a procedure for collecting
and recording data on plant operations. These would include
temperature and pressure profiles of systems.


In any shutdown, the first thing to turn off is the sulohur feed. For hot
shutdowns, the blower should be turned off immediately after the
sulphur is turned off. For shutdowns, those are expected to last more
than 5-10 min, the acid cooling water should be turned off. Do not stop
the circulation of acid over the towers unless it is necessary to do so.
When possible increase catalyst temperature a few degrees before
shutdown. These will simplify the subsequent start up. Make sure that
dilution water is cut off.

Shutting down for a prolonged period

Before shutting down for a prolonged period allow the strength of the
process acid run up to 0.1-0.2% above normal operating strength. This
will serve as a buffer against the small decreases in strength normally
observed during a prolonged shutdown. Then stop dilution water.
Turnoff the sulphur feed, and reduce the dry airflow to about 50% of
design. Cool all catalyst leads with air to about 50 0c at a rate not
greater in the boiler approaches atmospheric temperature, the vent
valve on the steam drum must be opened to prevent formation of
vacuum inside boiler. If the boiler is to be entered during shutdown,
cool raw water may be used as feed water after all steam generation
has stopped, and the circulation. A boiler should not be drained until it
is cooled throughout.
Temperature and conversions in each stage of the 4-
pass convertor
Location Temperature Equivalent
c conversion
Gas entering 1st pass 430
Gas leaving 1st pass 600
Rise in temperature 170 60%

Gas entering 2nd pass 430

Gas leaving 2nd pass 520
Rise in temperature 90 28%

Gas entering 3rd pass 430 6%

Gas leaving 3rd pass 450
Rise in temperature 20

Gas entering 4th pass 430

Gas leaving 4th pass 445
Rise in temperature 15 5.75%

TOTAL 99.75%
Travancore Titanium Products Ltd is one of the profit
gaining public sector units. The major asset of this
company is skilled staff. Moreover the efficient
management of the resources have helped them to
overcome the slump in the sales over the last few

Through this inplant training it was able to fulfill the

objective of our study. Detailed study on the
processes was made possible by giving emphasis on
the practical side of the theory. All together it was a
good experience to see the company and various
processes carried out in the plants and the various
functions of the company.