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# UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA SARAWAK

FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

KNS 2591
CIVIL ENGINEERING LABORATORY 3
LABORATORY REPORT
Code & Title F2 – Flow Through a Venturimeter

Group 2I

## Group Members Ahmad Amir Fahim (60159)

Elizabeth Jastin (60689)
Maizatul Sakina Binti Ismail (63315)
Flow Through a Venturi Meter

Introduction

A venturi meter is a device used to measure the fluid flow rate on the
volumetric bench, with a known volume of water. The measurement of flow of
fluid through this device is based on the principle of Bernoulli’s equation. The
water flow rate is a function of the pressure, throat area and density of the water
(Fasih & Ghassemi, 2011). A fluid moving through the pipe as shown in Figure
1.0 accelerates in the direction of the tapering contraction with an increase in the
velocity in the throat.

## Pressure difference is created by reducing the cross-sectional area of the

flow passage as in Figure 2.0 at the piezometer D. The obstruction caused to the
flow of liquid at the throat of the venturi produces a pressure drop in the region
that is proportional to the rate of discharge. This difference in pressure is
measured with the help of piezometer and helps in determining rate of fluid flow
or other discharge from the pipe line. By this, a pressure difference is created
between the inlet and the throat of the venturi meter. Hence, by reducing the
cross-sectional area of the flow passage, a pressure difference is created and we
measure that difference in pressure by using Bernoulli’s equation and discharge
formula.

Discharge formula:

Q=C d A2 ¿) (1)

Where:

## Q = Water discharge (m3/s)

Cd = Discharge coefficient

## A2 = Pipe cross-sectional area at section D

h = Different in height between section A and section D

## FIGURE 2.0 Schematic diagram of the venturi meter

From the obtained reading, we can calculate the discharge values by using
formula obtained from the combination equation of Bernoulli’s principle and
continuity equation. The derivation of the equations is shown as below.

Bernoulli equation:

Energy per unit volume before = Energy per unit volume after

1
P+ ρ v 2 + ρgh=constant(Cengel & Cimbala, 2006) (2-1)
2

Where P = Pressure

1 2
ρ v = Kinetic energy per unit volume
2
ρgh = Potential energy per unit volume

1 1
P1 + ρ v 21 + ρg h1=P+ ρ v 22 + ρg h2
2 2

P1 v 21 P2 v 22
+ +h = + +h
ρg 2 g 1 ρg 2 g 2

P1 v 21 P2 v 22
+ = +
ρg 2 g ρg 2 g

P 1−P2 v 22−v 21
=
ρg 2g

(2-2)

## The pressure difference between two points at heights h1 and h2 in a column is

given by:

∆ P=P2−P1=− ρg ( h 2−h1 )

P 2−P1
=−( h2 −h1 )
ρg

( P ¿ ¿ 1−P2 )
− =−( h2 −h1 ) ¿
ρg

(P ¿ ¿ 1−P2 )
=( h2−h1 ) ¿
ρg

(P ¿ ¿ 1−P2 )
h= ¿
ρg

(2-3)

Therefore, equation of h:

P1 −P 2 v 22−v 21
h= =
ρg 2g

(2-4)
Continuity equation:

V1
Volume flow ∈¿ A 1 , V 1= A1 v 1 ∆ t = A v1
∆t 1

V1 V2 A 2 v2
Q= = Q= A 1 v 1=A 2 v 2 v1 = (3-1)
∆t ∆t A1

(3-2)

## Substitute equation (3-2) into equation (2-4).

A2 V 2 2 2 2 2
v 22
2 2
v −(
2 ) 1 A 2 V 2 h= v 2 − 1 ( A 2 V 2 )
A 1 h= − ( )
h= 2 g 2 g A1 2 g 2 g A21
2g

2 2 2 2
v 22 A 21− A22 2 2
1 v 2 A 1−A 2 v 2 2 A1− A 2
2
h= ( 2
)h= ( 2
)2 gh=v2 ( 2
) v 2= (2 gh) A 1
2g A1 2g A1 A1 2 ¿¿

(2 gh) A 21
v 2= √ ¿¿
¿

A1
v 2=√ 2 gh
(√ A 21− A22 ) (4)

Using the continuity and energy equations between section A and section D, it can
be shown that the discharge equation Q is as shown below by substitute the
equation 3 into equation 4.

Q= A 2 V 2

A1
Q=C d A2 √ 2 gh
(√ A 21− A 22 )
(5)

Where
Q = discharge

C d = discharge coefficient

## A2 = pipe cross-sectional area at section D

Section D is chosen as the value for the calculation, because it has the lowest
water level in the piezometer. Thus, section D has the highest velocity and lowest
pressure in the Venturi meter. Meanwhile, the highest water level in the
piezometer is at section A. Therefore, section A has the lowest velocity and
highest pressure in the Venturi meter.

From the equation of the Q, we can obtain the discharge value for each
flow and recorded into Table 1.0. A graph with Q against h is plotted by using
Microsoft Excel. From the graph plotted, a value gradient is acquired.

y 2− y 1
x 2−x 1

For Equation 5 ,

A1
Q=C d A2 √ 2 gh
(√ A 21− A 22 )
2 2

√ h=Q
√ A −A
1 2

C d A 2 A1 √ 2 g

y=mx+c (6-1)

By comparing the equation 5 and equation 6, it will come by with the equation

y= √h

√ h= √ h 1−h 2=H
x=Q

2 2

m=(
√A −A1 2
)
C d A1 A 2 √ 2 g

(6-2)

We can compare the result obtained from the graph with this equation to obtain
the actual value of theC d. Where the equation is as shown as below:

( √ A 21− A 22)
C d=
m A1 A2√2 g

(6-3)

The discharge coefficient (C d), otherwise known as the coefficient of the Venturi
meter, typically has a value between 0.92 and 0.99. The actual value is dependent
on given Venturi meter and even then, it may change with flow rate.

After the value of Cd is obtained, theoretical flow rate, Q theo is calculated by using
the following formula:

Q act
Cd =
Qtheo

(7)

Finally, the objective of this experiment is to define and explain the principles of a
venturi meter. Other than that is to determine the relationship between the flow
rate of water and the differential height of the piezometer. Lastly, examine the
experimental data obtained, to obtain the coefficient of discharge.
Methodology

This experiment was conducted to define the principles of venturi meter and
determining the flow rate of the fluid. When conducting this experiment, we were
using TecQuipment brand for volumetric bench, piezometer, and also venturi
meter plus mag meter that we have already checked the condition before using it.
The apparatus was leveled by opening both the Bench Supply valve and the
control valve downstream of the meter to allow water to flow and clear air pockets
from the supply hose so that any errors can be avoided. This was achieved
by connecting the apparatus to a power supply. Then it begins by starting with a
fluid height of 280mm on the piezometer A and keep decreasing 10mm until it
reaches 200mm. The control valve was then gradually closed causing water to rise
up in the tubes of the volumetric bench and the time taken for water level at the
volumetric bench to rise 10L from 5 to 15 liter was recorded into Table 2.0.

When the water level had risen to a convenient height, the bench valve was
also closed gradually so that as both valves are finally shut off, the meter was left
containing static water at moderate pressure. Then the height of fluid in each
piezometers were recorded in Table 1.0. While recording the piezometer readings,
make sure the eyes or vision of the observer is parallel to the piezometer scale so
any parallax error could be avoided. The adjustable screws were operated to give
identical reading for all of the tubes across the whole width of the piezometer
board.

## To establish the meter coefficient measurements of a set of differential heads

(h1-h2) and flow rate Q were made.The first reading was taken with the maximum
possible value when (h2– h1) with h1 close to the top of the scale and h2 near to
the bottom. This was obtained by gradually opening both the bench valve and the
control valve in turn.After all of the steps are done for the 280mm fluid height in
the piezometer,the process was repeated 9 times with decreasing height of 10mm
until it reaches 200mm and a graph is plotted based on tabulated data and the
values needed to achieve the objective were gotten by doing some calculations
using the equations from the theory.

Results

## Head of piezometer, h (mm)

Piezomete Diameter, Distance, Area, A
r D (mm) d (mm) (mm²)
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 Q6 Q7 Q8 Q9
A 26.00 -54.0 530.9 280 270 260 250 240 230 220 210 200

B 23.20 -34.0 422.7 250 242 234 226 218 210 202 194 186

C 18.40 -22.0 265.9 194 188 184 180 176 170 168 162 158

## E 16.79 7.0 221.1 84 86 88 90 94 96 98 100 104

F 18.47 22.0 267.9 158 156 154 150 150 148 146 144 140

G 20.16 37.0 319.2 200 194 190 184 180 176 172 166 162

H 21.84 52.0 374.6 218 210 206 200 194 188 182 176 170

J 23.53 67.0 434.8 232 224 218 210 204 198 190 182 178

K 25.21 82.0 499.2 242 232 226 218 210 204 196 188 180

L 26.00 102.0 530.9 248 238 232 222 216 208 200 192 184

## Coefficient of discharge, Cd = 1.266

TABLE 2.0 Data needed to construct a graph to identify Cd and Qtheo values

## Statics Head, (m) Actual flow rate of Theoretical flow

H = √(h1 - h2) Time taken for 10 litre
Trial water, Qact (x10-4 rate of water, Qtheo
(m) filled, t (s)
h1 h2 m3/s) (x10-4 m3/s)
1 0.280 0.060 0.469 24.30 4.115 3.329

## 9 0.200 0.094 0.326 43.28 2.311 1.870

Graph 1.0 Correlation between head of piezometer and the water flow rate

Discussion

We carried out an experiment about the flow through a venturi meter to observe
the flow rate and the coefficient of discharge. The flow rate of the fluid is different
due to the difference in height set on the piezometer.
Our aim is to find out the coefficient of discharge, C d at the end of the
experiment. Based on Graph 1.0, we could attain the value of C d from the gradient
of the plotted Graph 1.0. Using our tabulated data, we obtained a positive linear
graph from the relation between the difference in height and flow rate. Result
shows that with increase in the value of the h, the flow rate is also increasing.
Hence, it can be deduced from the results that the difference in the height of
water level is directly proportional to the flow rate.

Theoretically, other than using the graph, we can get the value of Cd by using
equation 7 by dividing the actual flow rate, Q act with the theoretical flow rate,
Qtheo. The equation was developed by using formula obtained from the
combination equation of Bernoulli’s principle and continuity equation. The value
of Qact is gotten by dividing the volume with the time taken for each
piezometer filling up 10L in the volumetric bench. While the value of Qtheo is
gotten from rearranging equation 7 since we already got the value of C d from the
graph and value of Qact.

## Principle of venturi meter is based on the Bernoulli’s principle that stating

a steady, ideal flow of an incompressible fluid, the total energy at any point of the
fluid is constant. It also stated that a rise in the speed of the fluid occurs
simultaneously with the fall in pressure or a decrease in the fluid's potential
energy (Miller, Vandome, McBrewster, 2010). In the calculations, for the value of
the piezometers, only the reading of piezometer A and D was used. Piezometer D
or commonly known as throat value is taken because it has the lowest velocity and
the highest pressure among others. Generally, the velocity of a fluid passing
through a constricted area will increase and its pressure will decrease
because of higher friction and the escalation energy between the narrow area at
the throat. This shows that the concept is relatively related to the Bernoulli’s
principle as stated on the theory.

## Furthermore in this experiment, we also have taken some precautions

steps to improve the accuracy of the data collection and to avoid some errors that
can be possibly done when conducting the experiment. One of the precaution
steps is to make sure our eyes is parallel with the scale reading shown on the
piezometers to avoid parallax error. Moreover,we also have taken some average
reading by doing the reading on each piezometers several times to get more
accurate results. In addition,errors also can be caused by some faulty apparatus, so
before conducting the experiment some checking on the condition of the apparatus
must be done and conducting the experimental setup based on the correct
procedure is compulsory. Hence,to get a result and end product of an
experiment with high accuracy all of these precaution steps must be taken.

Conclusion

In conclusion, the venturi meter can be used to obtain the flow rate of water
that is Qact. The value of Qact is obtained by dividing the volume with the time
taken for each piezometer filling up 10L in the volumetric bench. The height of
the piezometer, H is linearly proportional to the flow rate of water. It proved that
the drop-in height of the piezometer causes the flow rate of water to decrease also
which is the venturi effect. Meanwhile, the coefficient of discharge, Cd has been
obtained after constructing Graph 1.0, which is 1.236. .

References

Cengel, A.Y., & Cimbala, M.J. (2006). Fluid Mechanics: Fundamentals and
applications (3rd ed). New York,NY: McGraw-Hill Education.

## Fasih, H. F., Ghassemi, H. (2011, October). Flow Measurement and

Instrumentation. 22(5), 406-412.

Miller, F.P., Vandome, A.F., & McBrewster, J. (2010). Bernoulli’s Priciple. US:
Alphascript Publishing.

Appendix

Calculation:
1) To find Qact (use eq. 3-1)
for first trial:
V
Qact =
t

0.010 m3
¿
24.30 s

¿ 4.115 m³ /s

2nd trial:

V
Qact =
t

0.010 m3
¿
25.56 s

= 3.912 m³/s

First trial:
H= √ h 1−h 2
¿ √ ¿ ¿)
¿ 0.469 m

2nd trial:
H= √ h 1−h 2
¿ √¿ ¿
¿ 0.454 m

## 3) Use the gradient of the graph to find Cd

( y 2− y 1)
m=
( x 2−x 1)

(0.438−0.366)
¿
( 3.704−2.828 ) ×10 ¯ ⁴

= 0.0821×10 4 m¯²/s

(√ A 12−A 22)
Cd=
mA 1 A 2 √ 2 g

## ( √ (5.309 ×10 ¯ ⁴ )²−(2.011 ×10 ¯ 4 ) ²)

¿
(0.0821 ×10 ⁴ )(5.309× 10¯ ⁴)(2.011 ×10 ¯ ⁴) √ 2(9.81)

= 1.266

## 4) Find Qtheo (use eq. 7)

Q act
Cd =
Qtheo

First trial:

4.115
1.266=
Q theo

Q theo=3.250 m³/s

2nd trial:

3.912
1.266=
Q theo

Q theo=3.090 m³/s