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U K M anufacturing Site UK Manufacturing site
M o r g a n Electro Ceramics Ltd
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Morgan Electro Ceramics Ltd
B u r s l e d o n Ro a d PIEZOELECTRIC
Ru a b o n Thornhill
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U S A Manufacturing site Asia Customer Services

M o r g a n Electro Ceramics Inc. Morgan Electro Ceramics
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USA China
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Morgan Electro Ceramics forms part of
Morgan Technical Ceramics,
MorganElectroCeramics a Division of The Morgan Crucible Company plc
©Copyright November 2007

Morgan Electro Ceramics (MEC) has a comprehensive range of MATCHING YOUR REQUIREMENTS
piezoelectric and dielectric materials from which many products are TO MORGAN’S CAPABILITIES
manufactured, including transducers, sensors, actuators and high voltage and
RF capacitors. MEC has established an enviable reputation for providing APPLICATIONS ENGINEERING
value-added solutions through world-class research and development, It is our objective to help our customers as much as possible when designing
innovative design and, perhaps most important of all, application engineering. Piezo components into their products. Applications engineering assistance is
provided as a support facility across the product portfolio.
A subsidiary of The Morgan Crucible Company, MEC forms part of the Morgan
Technical Ceramics Group. The Group includes Morgan Advanced Ceramics
and from manufacturing locations in North America, Europe and Asia, supplies MATERIALS
an extensive range of products, including ceramic components, braze alloys, Process control of raw materials and their fabrication into ceramic
ceramic/metal assemblies and engineering coatings. compounds ensures high quality and repeatability of properties. The control
of the specially formulated ceramic materials are vital to the success of the
This brochure contains information about the range of piezoelectric materials product range and we continually strive to reduce variability in our processes.
produced by Morgan Electro Ceramics and gives an introduction to the
properties that may well provide solutions to your design challenges. It does TESTING AND CHARACTERISATION
not address other materials, many of which are listed below, that are available Computer modelling techniques employed in the development of new
from the Morgan Technical Ceramics Group of companies, as other literature designs requires input of the most accurate material property data available.
exists for these. Morgan focuses on test capabilities to provide this characterisation service to
For detailed specifications of individual materials, please contact your local area their customers.
sales person or visit For more information
on Morgan Advanced Ceramics visit COMPONENTS
First class manufacturing processes are employed to provide components
engineered for top performance of electrical and mechanical properties.
THE MORGAN CRUCIBLE COMPANY PLC Quality systems to ISO 9001:2000 are in place to provide the structure for
The Morgan Crucible Company plc is the ultimate holding company of a
control, function and traceability through the manufacturing facilities.
group of subsidiary engaged in the manufacture and marketing of carbon and
ceramic components for application in a wide range of industries and
services. It is listed on the London Stock Exchange in the engineering sector
and is part of the FTSE All-Share index. For more information visit Expertise has been developed in the deposition of many electrode material types on to ceramics with patterns, wrap-around and feed through
configurations to custom designs. The ability to provide special electrodes can
facilitate the manufacture of the devices into which the ceramic components
are mounted.
Morgan’s electroceramics components, transducers and assemblies are
applied in leading edge technologies such as:
AEROSPACE Our customers have found that there are great advantages in working closely
AUTOMOTIVE with us so that we can provide them with a full or sub-assembly. The
ELECTRONICS transducers we manufacture to our own design are a complete, fully tested
DEFENCE assembly ready for immediate fit into a system.

Piezo Ceramic Multilayer Actuators (PCMA) operate at reduced drive voltage
INDUSTRIAL to deliver small accurate displacements rapidly and with low power
consumption. This gives advantages over electromagnetic actuators in specific

Quality assurance is an intrinsic part of everything we do from the moment
Morgan continues to develop new materials and value added assemblies
we receive your initial enquiry to final delivery and after-care. Our total
to meet the rapidly expanding opportunities in these markets.
quality ethos is implemented through an intensive Six Sigma continuous
improvement programme.

All Morgan Advanced Ceramics sites around the world have ISO 9000
accreditation. In addition, individual sites hold a variety of industry-specific
quality standards.


Introduction PIEZOELECTRICITY A PZT ceramic may be regarded as a mass of minute crystallites randomly
1 oriented. After it has been sintered, the ceramic material will be isotropic and will
Piezoelectricity is a property exhibited by certain classes of crystalline materials.
2 Table of Contents When mechanical pressure is applied to one of these materials, the crystalline exhibit no piezoelectric effect because of this random orientation. The ceramic
structure produces a voltage proportional to the pressure. Conversely, when can be made piezoelectric in any chosen direction by a poling treatment, which
3 The Nature of Piezoelectric Ceramics an electric field is applied to one of these materials, the crystalline structure involves exposing it to a strong electric field. When a field is removed, the dipoles
changes shape, producing dimensional changes in the material. These materials remain locked in alignment, giving the ceramic material a remnant polarisation
5 PZT Manufacturing Process are used as electromechanical transducers. and permanent deformation (i.e. making it anisotropic), as well as making it
permanently piezoelectric. This poling treatment is usually the final stage of PZT
6 Piezoelectric Applications Piezoelectric properties occur naturally in some crystalline materials and can
component manufacture.
be induced in other polycrystalline materials. Pierre and Jacques Curie
7 Piezoelectric Ceramic Materials discovered piezoelectricity in the 1880’s. A PZT component will usually have metal electrodes deposited on its surface
perpendicular to its poling axis (see Figure 2). When a voltage is applied between
8 Piezoelectric Property Symbols and Notation
PIEZOELECTRIC CERAMICS them, the body distorts along its poling axis. The random orientation of the
9 Typical Symbols Employed in Describing Properties of Piezoelectric Materials Quartz is a good example of a piezoelectric material. Ferroelectric crystals, crystallites, and the fact that only certain polarisation directions are allowed,
e.g. tourmaline and Rochelle salt, also exhibit piezoelectricity. In addition to the means that it is not possible to get perfect dipole alignment within the field.
10 Modes of Vibration, Displacement and Voltage crystals mentioned above, an important group of piezoelectric materials are A reasonable degree of alignment is, however, possible since there are several
the piezoelectric ceramics, of which PZT is an example. These are allowed directions within each crystal.
12 Typical Temperature Properties for PZT Compositions
polycrystalline ferroelectric materials with the perovskite crystal structure, a
13 Dynamic Behaviour of Piezoelectric Ceramics tetragonal/rhombohedral structure very close to cubic. They have the general
formula ABO3, (see Figure 1) in which A denotes a large divalent metal ion
16 Useful Electromechanical Relationships such as Pb, and B denotes a small tetravalent metal ion such as Zr or Ti.

19 Piezoelectric Sensor The PZT ceramics in this data handbook are solid solutions of Lead Titanate
(PbTiO3), and Lead Zirconate (PbZrO3), modified by additives, a group of
20 Acoustic Impedance Matching piezoceramics generally known as PZT.

22 Shapes and Mechanical Tolerances The PZT can be fashioned into components of almost any shape and size. As
well as being strongly piezoelectric, PZT is hard, strong, chemically inert and
23 Electrodes completely unaffected by humid environments.

25 Transducers and Sensors

27 PZT Flexure Elements: Bimorph

28 Multilayer Actuators

Table of Properties

30 Navy I Type Piezoelectric Ceramics

Figure 2: Electric dipoles in piezoelectric materials
31 Navy II Type Piezoelectric Ceramics
Figure 3 illustrates the piezoelectric effect in a cylinder of PZT material. For clarity,
32 Navy III Type Piezoelectric Ceramics the magnitude of the effect has been exaggerated. Figure 3a shows the cylinder
Navy V Type Piezoelectric Ceramics under no-load conditions. If an external force produces compressive or tensile strain
in the material, the resulting change in dipole moment causes a voltage to appear
33 Navy VI Type Piezoelectric Ceramics between the electrodes. If the cylinder is compressed, the voltage will have the
same polarity as the poling voltage (see Figure 3b). If it is stretched, the voltage
34 Custom Piezoelectric Ceramics Figure 1: The Piezoelectric crystal structure. across the electrodes will have opposite polarity to the poling voltage (see Figure
3c). These are examples of generator action, the conversion of mechanical energy
35 Custom Piezoelectric Ceramics
into electrical energy. Examples of Piezoelectric-induced generator action can be
PIEZOELECTRIC ACTIONS found in cigarette and gas lighters, accelerometers, hydrophones and microphones.
36 Custom Piezoelectric Ceramics In a ferroelectric crystal, each cell of the crystal lattice spontaneously polarises
along one of a series of allowed directions. This spontaneous polarisation If a voltage of opposite polarity to the poling voltage is applied to the
37 Single Crystal Materials
disappears at a critical temperature (the Curie point), above which the crystal electrodes, the cylinder will shorten (see Figure 3d). If the applied voltage has
37 Material Cross Reference Table becomes paraelectric. the same polarity as the poling voltage, the cylinder will lengthen (see Figure
3e). Finally, if an alternating voltage is applied to the electrodes, the cylinder
If the crystal is cooled through the Curie point in the presence of an external
38 Glossary of Terms will expand and contract at the same frequency as that of the applied voltage
electric field, the dipoles tend to align in the allowed direction most nearly
(see Figure 3f). These are examples of motor or actuator action, conversion
39 Samples Ordering Data Checklist aligned with the field. If this crystal is then stressed, the lattice will distort, leading
of electrical energy into mechanical energy.
to a charge in the dipole moment of the crystal (piezoelectric effect). Within a
40 Technical Publications certain stress range (which depends on the crystal concerned), this change in the PZT-induced motor action is found in transducers for ultrasonic cleaning
dipole moment with stress is approximately linear and reversible. equipment, ultrasonic atomisers, fuel injection systems and piezoelectric motors.

2 3

AGEING RATES AND TIME STABILITY MEC manufactures electro-ceramics materials in a batch process that involves the following basic process stages (see figure 5 below):
Most of the properties of piezoelectric ceramics change gradually with time.
The changes tend to be logarithmic with time after poling. The ageing rate of
various properties depends on the ceramic composition, the geometry and on PbO TiO2 ZrO2 Dopants
the way the ceramic is processed during manufacture. Because of ageing exact
values of various properties such as dielectric constant, coupling, and
piezoelectric constants may only be specified for a standard time after poling.
The longer the time period after poling, the more stable the material becomes. Weigh Out Raw Material
Exposing the ceramic to one or more combination of the following conditions
can accelerate the ageing process in any ceramic:
• High mechanical stress.
• Strong electric de-poling field. Milling
• High temperatures approaching the Curie point.

Material selection should be based on the conditions of a given application.

Typical ageing rates of various material properties can be found on pages Calcine Firing <1000 C
30-37 of this handbook.


To predict value X at T days after poling: Milling
XT = Xt+ Xt .AR. (logT - log t)
Where: XT is value of interest at T days after poling.
Xt is value at poling date. Spray Drying
AR is the Ageing Rate (Positive or Negative)

TEMPERATURE LIMITATIONS Forming Dry press, isostatic press, Tape cast

As the operating temperature increases, piezoelectric performance of a
material decreases, until complete and permanent depolarisation occurs at the
Figure 3: The Piezoelectric effect on a cylindrical body of piezoelectric ceramics. materialís Curie temperature. The Curie point is the absolute maximum
For the sake of clarity, only one dipole is shown. exposure temperature for any piezoelectric ceramic. Each ceramic has its own o
Binder Burnout <800 C
Curie point. When the ceramic element is heated above the Curie point, all
piezoelectric properties are lost. In practice, the operating temperature must
After poling, the material has a remnant polarisation (Pr) and a remnant stress be substantially below the Curie point. As a general rule it is not recommended
(Sr) as shown in Figure 4. to exceed half of the materialís Curie temperature in degrees Centigrade. The o
materialís temperature limitation decreases with greater continuous operation
Sintering <1200 C
or exposure. At elevated temperatures, the ageing process accelerates, and the
maximum safe stress level is reduced.


A piezoelectric ceramic can be depolarised by a strong electric field with
polarity opposite to the original poling voltage. The limit on the field strength
is dependant on the type of material, the duration of the application, and the
operating temperature. The typical operating limit is between 500V/mm for Electroding Silver, Nickel, Gold
soft piezoelectric materials and 1000V/mm for hard piezoelectric materials
during continuous application. In bimorph actuators it is possible to apply an
electrical field up to 1.25kV/mm for a soft piezoelectric material. It should be
noted that alternating fields can have the same effect during the half cycle, Electrode Firing
which is opposite to the poling direction.


High mechanical stress can depolarise a piezoelectric ceramic. The limit for Poling
the applied stress is dependent on the type of ceramic material, and duration
of the applied stress. For dynamic stress (impact ignition) the limit is less
severe; materials with higher energy output (high g constant) can be used.
For impact applications, the material behaves quasi-statically (non-linear) for Final Test / Inspection
pulse durations of a few milliseconds or more. When the pulse duration
Figure 4: Typical hysteresis loop and associated lateral strain or contraction.
approaches a microsecond, the piezoelectric effect becomes linear, due to Figure 5: Typical piezoelectric ceramic manufacturing process
the short application time compared to the relaxation time of the domains.

4 5


Several types of piezoelectric ceramic materials are available. Each type is This material was designed for transducer applications requiring reduced dielectric
AUTOMOTIVE PIEZOELECTRIC APPLICATIONS constant, high Qm, low dielectric losses and improved electromechanical coupling
tailored towards the requirements of particular applications. This is achieved by
coefficients. See page 35 for more specific material properties.
changing the chemical composition of the ceramic to enhance specific
properties. The ceramic materials are arranged in three groups. Hard Materials, PZT508 (SOFT)
Soft Materials and Custom Materials. This material has been developed to surpass the electrical performance of PZT5H
Series materials while improving the temperatures characteristics by raising the
Curie temperature to 220°C. See page 34 for more specific material properties.
High power or “hard” ceramics can withstand high levels of electrical excitation
and mechanical stress. These materials are suited for high voltage or high power PZT5K SERIES (SOFT)
generators and transducers. This material outperforms PZT5H Series and PZT508 while at the expense of
PZT400 SERIES (NAVY TYPE I) Curie temperature. This material has very high “d” coefficients and permittivity.
This material is ideally suited for ultrasonic cleaning, sonar, and other high power See page 36 for more specific material properties.
acoustic radiation applications. PZT400 Series is a Lead Zirconate Titanate material PZT700 SERIES (SOFT)
capable of producing large mechanical drive amplitudes while maintaining low These materials have been developed for a number of property optimisations. The
mechanical and dielectric losses. In addition, it can be used under both constant materials have a combination of property stability, good sensitivity and have found use
and repetitive conditions. See page 30 for more specific material properties. in a variety of sensor applications. See page 35 for more specific material properties.
This material is used in high power applications; even though its piezoelectric
This material was developed for its specific combination of permittivity, loss and “d”
activity level is slightly lower than PZT400 Series. With an extremely low loss
coefficient. The material in many aspects is similar to materials PZT400 Series, but falls
factor, PZT800 Series has the ultimate power handling capability. See page 32 for
outside the Navy I classification. See page 35 for more specific material properties.
more specific material properties.
High sensitivity or “soft” ceramics feature high sensitivity and permittivity, but under This material is a Lead Titanate. Unlike PZT it has low radial mode coupling
high drive conditions are susceptible to self-heating beyond their operating coefficients, which therefore provides excellent hydrostatic properties and has the
temperature range. These materials are used in various sensors, low-power motor- highest (figure of merit) for any Morgan Electro Ceramic materials. See page 35
type transducers, receivers, and low-power generators. for more specific material properties.


This material is used as the receiver or generator element in hydrophones, This new single crystal piezoelectric material has been designed for use in transducer
accelerometers, and vibration sensors. PZT5A Series is a Lead Zirconate Titanate and actuator devices. It has been formulated to exhibit very large electromechanical
with a high sensitivity, permittivity, and time stability. See page 31 for more specific coupling coefficients and also offers high dielectric constants and low dielectric losses.
material properties. See page 37 for more specific material properties.
PZT5J1 (NAVY TYPE V) Typical Dielectric and Piezoelectric Properties:
This material is used in fuses, hydrophones, and other applications that require a • Applications include high power sonar projectors, medical imaging, and actuators.
combination of high energy and high voltage output. PZT5J1 is a Lead Zirconate • The increased coupling and displacement results in improved bandwidth, sensitivity
Titanate with a high permittivity and a high piezoelectric voltage constant. See and source level in applications.
page 33 for more specific material properties.
This material is used in sensitive receivers and applications requiring fine movement
control. It has been used in a wide range of applications from hydrophones to ink Ultrasonic Cleaning
jet printers. PZT5H Series provides extremely high permittivity, coupling, and Transducers Hard Material
piezoelectric constant. It has the lowest Curie temperature of the “soft” materials Sonar Transducers PZT400 Series High Qm
(or PZT500 Series family), which restricts its operating temperature range. It has Medical Therapy PZT800 Series High Tc
lower time stability. See page 33 for more specific material properties. Ultrasonic welding Low tan␦
Morgan Electro Ceramics manufacture a number of materials that do not fall within the Sensors
Material testing Soft Material
Department of Defence (DOD) standards that are often used to define PZT materials.
Medical Diagnostics PZT5A Series
PZT501 – PZT506 (SOFT) Actuators PZT5J1 Low Qm ( 80)
These materials are all “soft” and fall between DOD Categories II and V. They range Low power generators PZT5H Series d33>400 pC/N
in Curie temperatures from 270°C to 350°C. All the materials have similar dielectric Receivers PZT501 - PZT508
constants, but have been optimised for charge constants or coupling coefficients for Hydrophones PZT5K1
specific applications. PZT502 is used as an alternative to PZT5A Series when higher Gyroscopes PZT700 Series
sensitivity is required. PZT502 has high acoustic sensitivity, and high coupling, while Accelerometers PZT5R
maintaining a high permittivity. See page 34 for more specific material properties. Ink jet printers
This material is an improved PZT5H Series, developed specifically for bimorph
applications. See page 34 for more specific material properties. Table 1: Classification of PZT materials by typical applications.

6 7

CERAMIC PROPERTY DEFINITIONS PIEZOELECTRIC EQUATIONS Strictly speaking, these symbols are used to identify properties of materials only, and should not be used to describe characteristics of actual physical elements
The piezoelectric properties are described by a system of symbols and notations. To a good approximation, the interaction between the electrical and mechanical made of these materials. However, for convenience, some liberties have been taken in the explanations – electric boundary conditions are identified by indicating
Some of the piezoelectric property symbols are listed and defined in table 2. behaviour of the piezoelectric medium can be described by the following locations and connections of electrodes.
These symbols identify the property: compliance, electromechanical coupling, relationships:
etc… The table includes the MKS units used in measuring each property.


Electromechanical mechanical energy stored

Coupling Coefficient electrical energy supplied -
k electrical energy stored -
mechanical energy supplied

Piezoelectric Strain developed

Constants applied stress Metre/Volt
or or
d short circuit change density Coulombs/Newton
applied stress

open circuit field

applied stress Volt/Newton WHERE:
g or or E = field (V .m )
strain developed Metre/Coulombs T = Stress (N .m )

applied charge density

S = Strain (SI)
D = Dielectric displacment (C .m )
㜸r = relative permittivity or dielectric constant
Relative Dielectric -12 -1

Constant permittivity of material 㜸0 = permittivity of free space (8.85x10 F .m )

permittivity of space - 㜸T = permittivity under constant stress

Figure 7 below depicts the phenomenology arising from the mutual couplings
Modulus of Elasticity among the electric, elastic, and thermal fields. The outer quantities are the
stress Newton/Metre² thermodynamic intensive variables (generalised forces); the inner quantities
Y strain are the extensive variables (generalised displacements).

mass Kg/Metre²
␳ volume

Frequency Constant
Controlling Dimension Hz.Metre
N x Resonant Frequency

Table 2: Ceramic Property Definitions

Poled piezoelectric ceramics are anisotropic
and the direction of polarisation may be freely
chosen, a method of identifying the axes of a
component is necessary in order to specify its
parameters. The direction of polarisation is
conveniently taken as axis 3, with axes 1 and
2 perpendicular to this. The terms 4, 5 and 6
Figure 6: Notation of axes apply to shear strains associated with the 1, 2 Figure 7: Couplings between electrical, mechanical, and thermal fields
and 3 directions (see figure 6 left).

8 9










NOTES: 1 - Equations valid for: (A) plate, disc, ring & shear plate where r, L and W>>thk
2 - All variables are metric; use MKS units
3 - Constants g31 and g33 and negative values which result in negative strain (contraction) and negative voltage (contraction)
4 - Each type of material has particular voltage, stress and temperature limitations.

10 11

ELECTRICAL EQUIVALENT At the series resonance (1) the frequency is expressed in equation 6.
The electrical equivalent (see Figure 8) provides the link between the physical
property of the crystal and the area of application, the oscillator.

Between points A and B, only R1 is remaining, which means the circuit is purely
resistive. At the parallel resonance (2) the frequency is expressed in equation 7.
% Capacitance Change

% Frequency Change
The impedance between points A and B is at its maximum and is expressed
in equation 8.
Figure 8: The electrical equivalent circuit for a PZT resonator.

Temperature ( C)
Temperature ( C) The physical constants of the crystal determine the equivalent values of R1, C1, L1,
and C0. R1 is a result of bulk losses, C1, is the motional capacitance, L1 is determined
by the mass, and C0 is made up of the electrodes, the holder and the leads. When The measurements of fr and fa give the ratio expressed in equation 9.
operated far off resonance, the structure is simply a capacitor C0 but at the precise
resonant frequency the circuit becomes a capacitor and resistor in parallel. The
reactance of the PZT approaches zero at the point of series resonance and reaches
a maximum at the anti-resonant frequency fa (see Figure 9).

Hence equation 10 follows:

% Coupling Coefficient Change
% d31 Change

The resonant frequency fr can be measured with either of the following two


The fr measuring circuit using a constant voltage source is shown in Figure 10.
The oscillator and input resistors R1 and R2 are used to apply a constant voltage
signal to the piezoelectric ceramic transducer. The current passing through the
transducer is measured across output resistor R2. If the transducer's impedance
is much greater than R2, the voltmeter reading is proportional to the transducer's
Temperature ( C)
Temperature ( C) admittance. The frequency where the voltmeter reading is maximized is the
resonant frequency fr and the frequency where the reading is minimized is the
anti-resonant frequency fa. Potentiometer P1 is used to determine the resonant
resistance Zr , which is needed to calculate the mechanical quality factor Qm.


Below is a list of the various electrical parameters which are normally measured
to qualify PZT components. In the absence of a customer specification, Morgan
Electro Ceramics will apply internal limits.
• Capacitance
• tan␦
• Coupling (Kp, Keff) Figure 9: The reactance of the PZT resonator varies with frequency of operation
• Fr, Fa near resonance.
• Zr, Za
• Insulation Resistance An area typically chosen for operation of the oscillator is either near series Figure 10: Resonant frequency method using constant voltage.
• Other parameters as per customer request. resonance or at the more inductive area of parallel resonance.

12 13

MEASURING METHOD USING CONSTANT Under normal operating conditions, the value of this resistance is many times POWER LIMITATIONS
CURRENT CIRCUIT greater than the normal load resistance, ranging from several hundred megohms The acoustic power handling capacity of a radiating transducer is limited by
The fr measuring circuit using a constant current source is shown in Figure 11. to many thousands of megohms. Generally, except at very low frequencies, the the following factors:
Resistor R3 regulates the current passing through the piezoelectric ceramic capacitances in the circuit have reactances very much lower than the circuit
1. Dynamic mechanical strength of the ceramic
transducer. If R3 is much greater than the transducer's impedance, the voltmeter resistances. Under these conditions, the circuit reduces to the simple capacitive
2. Reduction in efficiency due to dielectric losses These equations may be simplified for the specific case of a matched
reading is proportional to the transducer's impedance. The frequency where the voltage divider circuit (see Figure 12b).
3. Reduction in efficiency due to mechanical losses transducer. Matching is the term applied to the process of adjusting the
voltmeter reading is minimized is the resonant frequency fr, and the frequency It can be seen from this circuit that the shunt load capacitance CL of wiring, cable,
4. Depolarisation of the ceramic due to electric field acoustic load so that it corresponds to the image impedance of the
where the reading is maximized is the anti-resonant frequency fa. and amplifier input does not bring about a relative loss of high frequency response
5. Depolarisation of the ceramic due to temperature rise transducer, which is treated as a bandpass filter. In this case, an inductor equal
as in the case of resistive or inductive sources shunted by capacitance loads, but
instead reduces the output at all frequencies (except very low frequencies as 6. Instability resulting from the positive feedback between dielectric losses to (see equation 15) is connected across the transducer.
discussed in the next paragraph). By the application of elementary network theory, and internal heating (factor 2 and 5)
the basic circuit can be reduced to the equivalent circuit of figure 12c, which is
In practice, power limitations are imposed by factors 2 and 5 and the feedback
useful for analysing the low frequency response. From this it can be seen that when
the combined reactance of the piezoelectric and circuit capacitances in parallel between them (factor 6), depending on the composition of the ceramic. Factors
approaches the combined resistance, the low frequency response begins to fall off. 1, 3 and 4 may be neglected. Factor 1 may be reduced through mechanical bias
This is analogous to the situation existing in conventional RC-coupled amplifiers. in sonar, ultrasonic, and other similar applications. Factor 3 may be generally
The impedance of the driving electric generator is set equal to the image
disregarded, since mechanical losses are negligible compared to dielectric losses.
NON-RESONANT ELECTRICALLY DRIVEN DEVICES impedance in order to maximise the transducer bandwidth, where the
In the case of non-resonant piezoelectric devices, which are electrically driven, In the case of factor 4, the electric field necessary to cause sufficient depolarisation generator resistance, RG and the mechanical load impedance, RT, are given
the electrical impedance of the device may, for most practical purposes, be will create extremely undesirable operating conditions with very high dielectric in equation 16; the bandwidth is given by equation 17; and the acoustic
considered to be purely capacitive. For all frequencies well below the first losses, resulting in low efficiency. power and efficiency are given by equation 18.
mechanical resonance of the device, the electromechanical relationships are
such that the displacement of the piezoelectric element from its normal position, A transducer may be efficiency-limited, temperature-limited, or dynamic-strength
Figure 11: Resonant frequency method using constant current. at any instant, is directly proportional to the electric charge applied at that instant. limited. Dynamic strength is significant only when a transducer is not mechanically
biased and the ceramic has a high mechanical quality factor Qm. A low frequency,
RESONANT DEVICES low duty transducer is efficiency-limited. A high frequency continuous duty
The electrical impedance of a piezoelectric device is, in reality, more complicated transducer is temperature-limited. Temperature limited transducers are
CIRCUIT CONSIDERATIONS than the simple capacitor representation generally employed in discussing non-
NON-RESONANT MECHANICALLY DRIVEN DEVICES dependent on the efficiency of the heat removal from the ceramic. Between
resonant devices. A more accurate representation would be a capacitor
For most practical design purposes, a non-resonant piezoelectric generator representing the static capacitance of the piezoelectric element, shunted by an these two extremes, the specific limitation is dependent on the mechanical design
device, such as a microphone or accelerometer, together with the load on impedance representing the mechanical vibrating system. In most non-resonant of the transducer. An absolute value on the power limitation of the ceramic
the device, may be represented by the equivalent circuit of figure 12a, where devices, the latter impedance may be approximated by a capacitor. Therefore, cannot be determined without knowledge of its operating conditions.
Ce represents the capacitance of the piezoelectric element, Rc is the shunt we have a capacitor in parallel with a capacitor, hence the single capacitor
representation. The equations pertaining to the power handling capacities of the material
leakage resistance of the device, CL is the shunt load capacitance, represents
the load resistance and eL represents the load potential. may be readily derived from lumped equivalent circuits. It can be shown that
In devices designed for operation at resonance, the impedance representing the acoustic power density P per cubic metre is given by equation 11.
the mechanical system may become, at resonance, a resistance of relatively
low value and this is shunted by the same static capacitance.
The shunt static capacitance generally is undesirable, whether the device is
designed for operation at resonance or for broadband, below resonance
operation. In electrically driven devices, it shunts the driving amplifier or other
It is assumed that the mechanical losses in the ceramic and the housing are
signal source requiring that the source be capable of supplying extra current.
In the case of mechanically driven devices, the static capacitance acts as a load negligible compared to dielectric losses. This tends to hold for materials with
on the active part of the transducer, reducing the electric output. Qm > 100. The power per cubic meter dissipated in the ceramic by dielectric
dissipation Pd is given by equation 12.
In non-resonant devices, not much can be done about the shunt capacitance,
Table 3 lists the relative power for PZT-400 and PZT-5A series at resonance
except choose a piezoelectric material having maximum activity. In resonant
devices, however, the static capacitance may be “neutralised” or matched by for the same acoustic load for a given volume of material, assuming that the
employing a shunt or series inductor chosen to resonate with the static material is limited by the dielectric losses tan ␦=0.04
capacitance at the operating frequency. This is illustrated in Figure 13.
The efficiency of the transducer ␩ considering only the internal losses of the MATERIAL MODE TEMPERATURE (ºC) RELATIVE POWER
material is approximated by equation 13.
PZT-400 series Parallel 25 100
PZT-400 series Parallel 100 65
PZT-400 series Transverse 25 23
PZT-400 series Transverse 100 12.5

PZT-5A series Parallel 25 2.7

Figure 12: Non-Resonant Mechanically Driven Device PZT-5A series Parallel 100 3.2
With high values of Q m power handling capacity of the material is limited at PZT-5A series Transverse 25 0.5
times by the dynamic tensile strength, even though a bias compressive stress PZT-5A series Transverse 100 0.6
The values of the shunt leakage resistance and the capacitance of the
piezoelectric element are dependent on the dimensions of the element and, Figure 13: Resonant PZT device matched by inductor.
as high as 80MPa is used with PZT-400 series. In this case, the acoustic
in the case of leakage resistance, also upon the dryness of the surface. power is given by equation 14. Table 3: Relative power for PZT-400 and PZT-5A series.

14 15

STATIC AND QUASI-STATIC OPERATION The mechanical losses can be determined from the mechanical quality or
Under static or quasi-static (below resonance) conditions, the magnitude of the damping factor, Qm, from equation 32.
piezoelectric effect is given by piezoelectric “d” and “g” constants. For the case
of the direct piezoelectric effect where the material develops an electric charge (Above second resonance)
from an applied stress, the definitions for “d” for constant field and “g” for This value, although related, should not be considered the overall efficiency of
constant dielectric displacement should be used. For the converse effect where the electromechanical transduction, since it does not take into account electrical
and mechanical dissipation or losses. When a transducer is not operating at Where CP is the low frequency capacitance and Zr is the minimum impendance at
the material develops a strain from an applied electric field, the definitions for
“d” and “g” for constant stress should be used. These “d” and “g” coefficients resonance or if it is not properly tuned and matched, the efficiency can be quite
(Above third resonance)
are related by equation 19 for plates and discs, and equation 20 for rods. low. A properly designed transducer can operate at well over 90% efficiency.
Qm can also be determined approximately from the frequency response
The pressure P, which a ceramic driver can impart, is given approximately by curve as follows.
Where k1, k2, and k3 represent the coupling factors for the particular resonance.
equation 27.
For a thin plate, k1 and k2 are k31 and k’31 (length and width respectively), and k3
(Discs and plates) is kt (thickness).
For a thin disc, k1 is kp (radial), k2 is kt (thickness), and there is no third
Where d is equal to d33 for thickness mode operation or d31 for radial or transverse resonance. For a rod, k1 is k33 (length), k2 is k’p and there is no third resonance.
mode, E is the applied electric field, and Y11E is Young’s Modulus for that material. In addition to fr and fa (series and parallel resonance frequencies), there is a
(Rods) frequency fm, at which the transducer’s electromechanical transduction is
DYNAMIC OPERATION maximised. This frequency represents the maximum sensitivity for receivers or
Under dynamic conditions, the behaviour of the piezoelectric material is much the maximum output for drivers. This frequency, the bandwidth, and the
The permittivity of the material is related to both the permittivity of free space more complex. It can be characterised in terms of an equivalent electrical circuit, output are all dependent on the external resistive load, Rext. When k<<1, fm
and the dielectric constant of the material according to equation 21. which exhibits the conditions of parallel and series resonance frequencies. To may be calculated using equation 37.
approximate these frequencies, measure the frequency of the minimum
impedance (fr) and maximum impedance (fa) for the component, since they
differ by a very small amount (<0.1%). The coupling coefficient, K, can be
Where k33 is the relative dielectric constant of the material and is the derived from these frequencies. This derivation is somewhat complex as K is
permittivity of free space (8.85x10-12 F/m). dependent on both the shape of the component and the mode of vibration. The
most useful of these relationships are described in equation 28 for plates, The frequency difference f2 - f1 is the frequency bandwidth at about 3dB where
equation 29 for discs, and equation 30 for rods. the amplitude is 1/ 2 of its maximum value. Of these losses, the dielectric
At frequencies far below the mechanical resonance frequency, the electro- losses are usually the most significant. Therefore, it is recommended that
mechanical coupling factor, k, can be calculated by equation 22 for plates, materials with a low dissipation factor be used for high power applications,
equation 23 for discs, equation 24 for rods, and equation 25 for shear plates. particularly since these losses increase with power. For high intensity
transducers, the overall electro-acoustical efficiency ␩ is given approximately by
equation 33.

(Plates) The maximum bandwidth, B, obtainable by electrical tuning, is approximately
equal to the product of the coupling coefficient and the series or parallel
resonance frequency as described in equation 38.
Where QA is the mechanical quality factor due to the acoustical load alone.

(Discs) (Discs) It should be noted that at high drive levels QE and Qm are not constants. They are
usually lower than the low drive level values. The dielectric permittivity of the
material, and therefore the dielectric constant and capacitance, decreases as the
If the mechanical quality factor is high (Qm>Q), the external resistance Rext
applied frequency (mechanical or electrical) exceeds each resonant frequency of the
for a fairly flat frequency response can be approximated by equation 39 for
particular ceramic part. For static operation, well below the first resonance
(Rods) (Rods) parallel inductance, or equation 40 for series inductance.
frequency, the dielectric permittivity is Tr 33 (free). For dynamic operation well above
all resonance frequencies of the ceramic part, the material behaves as if it was
In addition to the coupling coefficient, the total efficiency of a transducer clamped (strain = 0), and the electric permittivity is rS 33 (clamped). Between each,
depends on the mechanical and dielectric losses. the permittivity is the product of the static permittivity and a loss term based on the
coupling of the resonance mode each resonance point the applied frequency has
The dielectric losses, tan ␦, are given by the dissipation factor, D.F., as described (Parallel inductance)
Where S is the compliance of the material. exceeded, as described in equation 34 (above first resonance), equation 35 (above
in equation 31.
second resonance), and equation 36 (above third resonance).
The coupling factor is a useful expression relating the amount of energy that
can be changed from the electrical form to the mechanical form, or vice versa,
for the different operational modes. The coupling factor can be expressed as Where QE is the electrical damping. (Above first resonance) (Series inductance)
equation 26.

16 17

Many of the calculated parameters before are interrelated. Thus, many useful THE PIEZOELECTRIC SENSOR Drift is defined as an undesirable change in output signal over time, which is
relationships can be derived. A few of the most useful relationships are described Piezoelectric measuring systems are active not a function of the measured variable.
in equations 41 through 53. electrical systems, which can measure The longer the time constant is, the better the low-end frequency response and
mechanical quantities such as force, the longer the usable measuring time. This is expressed in equation 57 and 58.
acceleration or pressure. That is, the crystals
produce an electrical output only when they
(Rods) experience a change in load. For this reason,
they cannot perform true static measurements.
High impedance transducers such as
piezoelectric sensors, hydrophones, and some
(Rods) accelerometers require an amplifier, which
converts a transfer of charge into a change of voltage. Because of the high Direct
Current (DC) output impedance of these devices, appropriate buffers are required.
The basic circuit for an inverting charge sensitive amplifier is shown in Figure 14.

Figure 15 below illustrates the typical frequency response of an accelerometer.
Below the lower cutoff frequency it is considered as DC mode.

(Plates) PZT400 PZT5A PZT800


AC depoling field >1.0 0.7 >1.5

AC field for tan ␦ = 0.04 @25°C (a) 0.39 0.45 >1.0
(Plates) T
% increase of r 33 at above
electric field 17 11 10
AC field for tan ␦ = 0.04 @100°C 0.33 0.045 n/a

Maximum rated static compressive @25° C82.7 20.734.5 (b) 82.7 Figure 14: Simplified model of a charge amplifier.
stress (maintained) PARALLEL to
the polar axis @100°C 41.4 20.7 41.4 Charge-emitting transducers produce an output charge, ⌬Q, and their Figure 15: Typical frequency response of an accelerometer.
output capacitance remains constant. This charge would normally produce
% change of Tr 33 with stress
increase to rated maximum
an open-circuit output voltage at the transducer output equal to ⌬Q/C.
compressive stress at 25°C ~25% (c) ~ -3% (d) ~18% (c) HYDROPHONES
However, the voltage across the transducer is held constant by the virtual
(Hydrostatic charge constant & coefficient)
% change of d33 with stress
Interfacing the outputs of highly capacitive
ground of the op amp (R1 is usually small), the charge is transferred to capacitor
increase to rated maximum ~ 0.1% @20.7 transducers such as hydrophones, accel-
C2 producing an output voltage expressed in equation 54.
compressive stress at 25°C (b) ±15% (c) ~ -13% @34.5 6% (c) erometers, and condenser microphones to
the outside world presents many design
Maximum rated compressive stress @25°C 55.2 13.8 55.2 challenges. Previously, designers had to use
(maintained) PERPENDICULAR to @100°C 27.6 13.8 27.6
costly hybrid amplifiers consisting of discrete
the polar axis
low-noise JFETs in front of conventional
Maximum rated hydrostatic pressure 345 138 345 operational amplifiers to achieve the low
In an actual application, the charge amplifier only responds to AC inputs. The
Compressive strength >517 >517 >517 upper and lower cutoff frequencies are given in equation 55. levels of voltage and current noise required
Tensile strength, static (e) 75.8 75.8 75.8 by these applications.
Tensile strength, dynamic (peak) (e) 24.1 27.6 34.5 In sonar applications, a piezoceramic cylinder is commonly used as the active
element in the hydrophone. A typical cylinder has a nominal capacitance of
(a) The value of tan␦ at a given electrical field is a function of time after poling or after any around 6,000pF with a series resistance of 10⍀. The output impedance is
major disturbance such as exposure to an elevated temperature. typically108⍀ or 100M⍀.
(b) After appropriate stabilising treatment. This consists of a temperature stabilisation plus a few
minutes soak at the appropriate static stress. The temperature stabilisation is, however, Since the hydrophone signals of interest are inherently Alternating Current (AC)
more important than the stress soak. with wide dynamic range, noise is the overriding concern among sonar system
(c) In range to 70MPa TYPICAL FREQUENCY RESPONSE designers. The noise floor of the hydrophone and the hydrophone preamplifier
(d) In range to 35MPa Two of the more important considerations in the practical use of charge amplifiers together limit the sensitivity of the system and therefore the overall usefulness of
(e) These figures are dependant upon configuration and perfection of fabrication. The static are time constant and drift. The product of the feedback capacitor C2 and the
tensile strength figures were obtained from bending tests on thin Bimorph structures, while the hydrophone. Typical hydrophone bandwidths are in the 1kHz to 10kHz
the dynamic tensile strength figures were obtained from measurements of high amplitude feedback resistor R2 determines the time constant (␶) of a charge amplifier, defined range. The AD743® /AD745®, MAX4252® or LT1792® operational
resonant vibration rings. The latter tests are more sensitive to minor flaws. in equation 56. amplifiers respectively from Analog Devices, Maxim Integrated Products and
Linear Technology, with their low noise figures and high input impedance are ideal
Table 4 High signal properties for PZT400, PZT800 and PZT5A series. for use as hydrophone amplifiers. Further reading and application notes can be
In this table units of electrical field are in kV/mm and stress is in MPa. found on the manufacturers’ web site.

18 19

Piezoelectric transducers require the use of impedance matching layers to The transmitted wave through a matching layer, from a piezoelectric element In the second procedure, the finite thickness of the piezoelectric element is EXAMPLE
partially mitigate the impedance mismatch between a media through which to a media, is the sum of the contribution of each of the multiple reverberations considered. A transmission line model (KLM) is used, and optimum bandwidth A piezoelectric ceramic element has the following characteristics:
ultrasonic wave signal is propagated and the piezoelectric element. Several within the matching layer. At the resonant frequency of a quarter-wavelength and maximum efficiency are imposed to determine both the number of /4 • Material: PZT501
matching configurations have been studied, examples are single quarter matching layer, all terms in this summation have the same phase when the matching layers required and the acoustic impedance of each one. • Shape: Disc
wavelength (/4) layers and variations of this configuration such as (/8) and wave leaves the matching layer; a geometrical series is obtained. The series that • Diameter: 10mm
(n+1)./4, stacks of /4 layers, half-wavelength configurations (/2), and a represent the amplitude of the transmitted wave and its summation are given First, the number of matching layers is determined from Za, Zp, and the
effective piezoelectric coupling coefficient of the ceramic (kt2). Then the • Thickness: 1mm
stack of very thin matching layers whose total acoustic thickness is (/4). In in equation 60.
any of these configurations, a key aspect for the successful design of matched impedance of each layer is determined. Two cases are analysed: For a single The radial resonant frequency of the piezoelectric transducer is:
transducers is the acoustic impedance of the outer layer. /4 matching layer, acoustic impedance is given as in equation 65.


The impedance mismatch between a media and piezoelectric ceramics has In this example, the piezoelectric transducer must be interfaced to salt water
two main consequences for the design of the piezoelectric transducers: with a double quarter-wavelength matching layer.
•Sensitivity is low Where t represents the ratio of transmitted to incident wave amplitude, and For a double matching layer it is given by equation 66.
r represents the ratio of reflected to incident wave amplitude. From equation Using equation 64, the acoustic impedance of the matching layers can be calculated.
•Bandwidth is narrow
60, they are given as equation 61:
A single matching layer can improve sensitivity, but the widening of the
frequency bandwidth requires the use of two or more matching layers.
There are two different procedures to determine the optimum acoustic
impedance of the /4 matching layers. They lead to somewhat different results, Where Zm1, and Zm2 denote the acoustic impedance of the first and second
and they are briefly reviewed here. The first one is based on the optimization of From table 5, Aluminium 6262-T9 and PVDF seem to be adequate materials
matching layer, respectively.
the energy transfer through the two interfaces involved in the problem: for the application as their acoustic impedance is close to calculated values.
Piezoelectric element-Matching layer and Matching layer-Media of propagation Acoustic impedance is given by equation 67.
The wavelength in each material can be calculated from equation 68.
(air, water, gas, etc…), in which the piezoelectric element is considered an infinite
layer. At a plane interface between media A and B, having acoustic impedances
Subscripts 1 and 2 denote the two interfaces involved: Piezoelectric ceramic-
ZA and ZB, respectively, solution of reflection and transmission problems for
Matching layer, and Matching layer-Media of propagation.
normal incidence is given by equation 59 below and represented in figure 16.
Where  is the density and c the acoustic velocity of the material.
Z is the acoustic impedance, and subscripts p, m, and a, denote the
Wavelength is expressed in equation 68.
piezoelectric ceramic, the matching layer, and the media of propagation
respectively. Thus giving matching layer thicknesses of:
Considering plane waves, the ratio of energy flux transmitted to the media of
propagation to the energy flux incident on the matching layer (t) is given in
equation 62: Where  is the wavelength, c is the sound velocity and f the frequency.
Where u is the particle velocity, and subscripts i, r, and t denotes incident, [m/s] [106xkg(m2s)] OR [MRay1]
reflected, and transmitted waves respectively.
Brass 4430 36.7
Inconel 5700 47.2
Monel 5400 47.6
For maximum transmitted energy, given the values of Zp, Za, the value of Zm Aluminium 6262-T9 6380 17.41
PVDF 2300 4.2
is given by the simplified equation 63.
Carbon (soft) 3310 7.31
Alumina oxide 10000 32
Silver 3600 38
Iron (cast) 4600 33.2
Salt water 1531 1.569
Polyurethane, RP-6400 1500 1.560
The same result is obtained if the multiple reverberations inside the matching
Neoprene 1600 2.1
layer are ignored, and the amount of energy transmitted through each interface Hard PVC 2060 2.78
is maximised. However, considering multiple reverberations is of interest in Rubber Butyl 1800 2.0
order to account for the contribution of the attenuation. For an ideal quarter- Zinc 4200 29.6
wavelength matching layer (no attenuation and acoustic impedance given by PZT500 series 4350 33.71
equation 63) working at its resonant frequency, there is no energy loss (t=1); PZT5H series 3800 28.5
and in equation 63 can be generalised for a stack of “n” matching layers, the PZT400 series 4600 34.5
impedance of the j layer is given as in equation 64. PZT800 series 4600 35

Table 5: Materials acoustic characteristics

Figure 16: Transducer with transmission and reflection paths In general, the stronger influence of the attenuation in the matching layer is Figure 17: Piezoelectric transducer with matching layers
obtained for the single matching layer scheme.

20 21

DISC SHAPES SOLDERING TO SILVER ELECTRODES It is therefore be recommended to solder parts in short-circuit conditions.
FROM TO Custom shapes are available as well as the shapes shown to Soldering electrical wires to the screen-printed silver electrodes make excellent
the left of this page. and time-stable connections. Processes are tightly controlled during manufacture
DIAMETER 1mm (0.04") 254mm (10")
Parts can be made to the size ranges shown, but not in every to do everything possible to supply parts with high quality electrodes. The
THICKNESS 0.08mm (0.003") 25mm (1")
combination of thickness and lateral dimensions. thickness, solderability and bond strength of electrodes are routinely tested. The
thickness of the screen-printed silver electrode is in the range of 3µm up to 10µm.
A separate list of standard sizes of parts available can be obtained
PLATE (SQUARE & RECTANGLE) on request. Occasionally there can be problems with wetting the solder on the silver surface
FROM TO and soldering can then be difficult. This phenomenon is mainly caused by a
STANDARD MECHANICAL TOLERANCES reaction between sulphuric molecules in the atmosphere with the silver surface
LENGTH 1mm (0.04") 150mm (5.9")
Tolerances on machined dimensions apply to most components. - with the formation of a silver sulphide layer on the surface of the part. The
WIDTH 1mm (0.04") 150mm (5.9")
For large size parts, confirmation of the tolerances achievable will formation and thickness of this layer is influenced by several factors such as age,
THICKNESS 0.08mm (0.003") 25mm (1")
pH, humidity, etc. N.B: If a piezoelectric element is heated to its Curie point, the charges can be
need to be agreed prior to placing an order. disordered and the element becomes completely depolarised. A safe operating
Components can be produced to tighter tolerances (e.g. In order to overcome such problems, it is temperature would normally be about half way the Curie point.
RING good practice to gently clean the surface of
Concentricity within 0.13mm (0.005") TIR and surface finish
FROM TO (Ra) within 1.6m (62in)). the electrodes on the part before soldering. CONNECTION TO NICKEL ELECTRODES
OUTSIDE DIAMETER 1mm (0.04") 150mm (5.9") A glass brush (RS 514-868) or steel wool is Our Nickel electrodes vary depending upon the deposition method used:
Care should be taken not to over-specify a tolerance as this very useful for this operation. Figure 18 (left)
INNER DIAMETER 0.5mm (0.02") 140mm (5.5") • Chemically plated
can significantly increase costs. shows various PZT components with fired
THICKNESS 0.15mm (0.006") 25mm (1") • Electroless Nickel
on silver electrodes.
FREQUENCY TOLERANCES Figure 18: Various PZT components • Evaporated Nickel
Better than ±5% up to 2MHz When soldering is performed it is
important that the temperature does not exceed the Curie point of the For connection, we therefore recommend two different methods:
TUBE Typ. ±7% above 2MHz
FROM TO Closer tolerances are available on request material, since this will immediately depolarize the piezoelectric phase. For EVAPORATED NICKEL
normal PZT types, use soldering temperatures between 240 and 300°C. Conductive epoxies are typically used to provide a consistent reliable electrical
OUTSIDE DIAMETER 1mm (0.04") 150mm (5.9")
TYPICAL SIZE RANGE Furthermore, silver is soluble in the solder, and if the solder time is too long connection.
INNER DIAMETER 0.5mm (0.02") 140mm (5.5")
Other sizes outside the range may be possible. Please the electrode will completely dissolve in the solder. In order to increase the
LENGTH 1mm (0.04") 150mm (5.9") ELECTROLESS NICKEL
contact the manufacturing site for more details. possible solder time, use a solder with silver content of 2-4%. Even if the
Materials used: 15W soldering iron, Flux (Superior 30 or equivalent),
possible soldering time is increased with this type of solder, the solder time
unleaded solder (if possible), glass brush, Q-Tip and Ethanol. Gold sputtered
As "Fired" tolerances ±0.3mm or ±3% whichever is greater must not exceed 2-4 seconds (see Figure 19).
electrodes are also available.
Recommended soldering temperature - Time profile for PZTs Procedure: Pre-heat the soldering iron then clean the electrode area using Q-
HEMISPHERE Tip with Ethanol, or a mild abrasive such as an eraser. Melt some solder on
FROM TO the tip of the soldering iron. Tin the lead with solder and then dip the thinned
OUTSIDE DIAMETER 6mm (0.24") 150mm (5.9") lead into the flux. Place lead on the electrode area and place the soldering iron
WALL THICKNESS 1mm (0.04") 10mm (0.39") with mild pressure on the lead until the solder flows onto the electrode. Hold
the lead stationary for approximately 5 seconds to allow solder to solidify.


FOCAL BOWL 1. Always keep the tip coated with a thin layer of solder.
FROM TO Outside Diameter ±0.15mm ±0.006" 2. Use fluxes that are as mild as possible but still provide a strong solder joint.
DIAMETER 6mm (0.24") 150mm (5.9") Inner Diameter ±0.15mm ±0.006" 3. Keep temperature as low as possible while maintaining enough temperature
THICKNESS 1mm (0.04") 10mm (0.39") to quickly solder a joint (2 to 3 seconds maximum for electronic soldering).
Length & Width ±0.15mm ±0.006"
4. Match the tips size to the work.
Thickness ±0.05mm ±0.002" Figure 19: Soldering profile for most PZTs on silver fired electrodes 5. Use a tip with the shortest reach possible for maximum efficiency.
Squareness (edge to face) Within 0.15° 6. Too high soldering temperatures and too large temperature gradient such as
Mechanical stressing of the joint after completion must be avoided or at worst
TAPERED STAVE rapid heating or cooling may cause electrical failures and mechanical damages
Concentricity 0.2mm TIR 0.980 TIR kept to the minimum. The positioning of the wire when the connection is made
of the devices.
should be as close as possible to the final position. Bending the wire at right
Surface Flatness (Lapped Parts) 12µm (0.012mm) 0.0005" angles to its original position will almost certainly break the joint due to the high C = Constraint Point
peeling stress introduced. SR = Stress Relief Bend
Surface Flatness (Large Sliced Parts) 15µm (0.015mm) 0.0006"

Parallelism (Lapped Parts) 12µm (0.012mm) 0.0005" It should also be noted that the piezoceramic parts do not only have a high
BARREL STAVE piezoelectric coefficient, but also a significant pyroelectric coefficient. This means
Legend: Parallelism (Large Sliced Parts) 60µm (0.06mm) 0.002" that the increase in temperature introduced by the soldering process will
Surface Finish (Ra) 3µm (0.003mm) 0.0001" generate an electrical charge. This charge can be released as a spark, which, Figure 20: Different configurations for wire bonding to ceramics
PZT Ceramic
even if completely harmless to humans, can be very unpleasant for the operator.

22 23

LEAD FREE SOLDERING A step-by step process transition would be as follows: TRANSDUCERS & SENSORS DESIGN CAPABILITY:
Successful soldering results have been obtained using Multicore® 96S flux- • Ensure the tips are designed for lead-free Morgan Electro Ceramics is a world leader in • 3D Finite-Element Analysis software
cored solder, which has been specially developed to provide a lead-free • Ensure the flux content in the wire is a least 2% wt/wt the field of electroceramics and manufactures a
• Proprietary computer modelling software
substitute for tin/lead cored solder wire in all hand soldering operations. Minor • Use lead free tips with the longest life wide range of specialised piezoelectric
adjustments to soldering temperatures will be required, but the resultant solder • Ensure the parts are easily solderable with the chosen flux transducers and sensors for mechanical, • Custom formulated PZT & shapes
joint will perform as well as tin/lead solder joints. There are numerous other • Avoid prolonged contact times electrical and electronic applications. With design • Single / multi-layer products
suppliers of lead-free solders and each Morgan Electro Ceramics site has its own • Avoid needless reworking of the joint centres and manufacturing locations in Europe • Stack transducers
preference. Therefore, it is recommended to contact the specific site for more • Avoid the use of additional liquid flux and the USA, Morgan specialises in designing • Flexural mode transducers
detailed information on solder recommendations. and manufacturing complete solutions for OEM • Bonded / encapsulated assemblies
The picture bottom left illustrates a typical lead free solder joint. This joint was applications. Many of our customers find that Morgan’s complete Sensor and
•Bimorph actuators and sensors
SOLDERING IRON TIP LIFE obtained using a temperature regulated soldering station with a lead free chisel Transducer divisions offer a Total Solution to their needs. Main markets served
Lead-free solder alloys and their cored wire fluxes are both more aggressive to tip. Different temperature settings on the solder tip were used to obtain this included medical, aerospace, industrial and defence.
soldering iron tips than tin lead cored wire. As a result, tip life can be significantly joint result. ULTRASONIC CLEANING
shortened. The tip life will depend to a large extent on the soldering temperature PRODUCTS: Morgan’s range of ultrasonic cleaning
used. As a general rule, a 10°C increase in temperature will halve tip life. EPOXY BOND • Ultrasonic Transducers transducers uses the latest high performance
However, manufacturers are currently introducing tips designed for extended life In heat sensitive applications it is • Sensors PZT material and are designed to operate in
under these conditions. Lead-free is less forgiving and the right tip for the job will often necessary to observe continuous mode in harsh environments. They
go a long way in preventing defects. Choose a solder tip which has enough heat particular attention to the heat have been proven in service over the last
delivering capacity. Fine point tips cannot be used in all applications and in some treatment process for the CAPABILITIES: decade and are used by many of world’s
cases a tip such as a chisel type is best suited to deliver sufficient heat to the parts connection joint. • Transducer Manufacture leading manufacturers of ultrasonic cleaning
to be soldered. Tip life will be reduced with lead-free solders and it is important • Transducer Design systems in applications as diverse as cleaning
Soft piezoelectric materials such
to choose tips really designed for lead-free soldering. Many tips are only tinned • Transducer Testing semiconductors and engine parts. Standard transducers are available with either
as PZT5K1, PZT5H1 or of
with lead-free solder and the iron plating is no different than traditional soldering exposed contact for soldering leads or complete with flying leads. All of Morgan’s
similar characteristics have a low
tips. High tin solders like to dissolve iron and this reduces tip life. ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCERS standard transducers are varnish treated to maximise the resistance to humidity
Curie temperature, hence
Our ultrasonic transducers are designed using Morgan’s world leading piezo materials. and other atmospheric conditions. These transducers have a grit-blasted base to
making it more susceptible to
TYPE OF SOLDERING IRON These materials have extremely good electrical loss properties, high coupling and assist with adhesive bonding to tanks. In many types a thread is also provided to
depolarisation. Silver conductive
Soldering irons of various types are available. The main differences are in the excellent mechanical properties, which enables us enable mounting top tanks with threaded studs. In addition to this, Morgan is
epoxies are a good alternative to
heat output available and the accuracy of the temperature control. Older Figure 22: Typical Silver conductive epoxy joint traditional soldering techniques. to design and manufacture some of the most able to design and manufacture custom transducers for specific frequencies and
types of soldering iron use a method of temperature control that results in efficient ultrasound generators available on the power ratings. This includes the ability to supply transducers for multi frequency
They typically come in the form of a two part composition; often requiring a
large variations in tip temperature. At worst this can result in the solder market. In addition to the custom designs, we operation. These designs are made with the help of Morgan’s bespoke design
mixing ratio of 1:1 which is more suitable in a production environment. To ensure
freezing at the lowest temperature and being too hot for some components have standard designs for the following software and extensive testing facilities.
a high strength bond is achieved, thoroughly clean the surface with acetone or
at the highest temperature. equivalent cleaning agent, allowing it to dry before applying the epoxy. Consult applications.
Improved results can be achieved with lead-free solders if modern soldering the manufacturer’s technical datasheet if curing of the epoxy is required.
•Ultrasonic Therapy THERAPY
irons with good tip temperature control are used. Modern irons are available
•Pre-stressed fibre wrapped tubes Used by physio and beauty therapists around
with higher power ratings, which itself is beneficial, but an ability to maintain ELECTRODE SPUTTERING
the world, ultrasonic therapy is well proven in
temperature and minimize fluctuation during soldering is more important as MEC-Bedford offers in-house RF/DC sputtering of Gold/Nichrome, Nichrome,
APPLICATION & MARKETS these fields. Morgan designs and manufactures
this will enable operators to use a lower tip temperature. Silver, Aluminium and others upon request that can be supplied at varying film
transducers for massaging, treatment and
thicknesses from 100Å to 20,000Å with a film uniformity of ±15%. Medical Industrial
therapy of skin and soft tissue. These transducers
HAND SOLDERING Dental Descalers Ultrasonic Cleaning
Film characterisation includes: are generally custom designs with bespoke
For operators used to working with Ultrasonic scalpel Ultrasonic Welding
1. Thickness measurement via X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and/or surface mechanical dimensions, wiring and frequencies
tin-lead solders, hand soldering is Cell disruption Sonochemistry
profilometer. to suit the OEM. Dual frequency transducers (typically 1 and 3 MHz) can also be
often controlled by specifying the
2. Resistivity measurement via four point probe and Ultrasonic phacoemulsion Degassing designed. These transducers use Morgan’s high performance low loss PZT
soldering iron's tip temperature.
3. Adhesion test. materials to ensure optimum efficiency and thus minimise self-heating.
However, as lead-free alloys have
The sputtering is done in a class 1000 clean room environment and adapted DESIGN
much higher melting points than tin- PRE-STRESSED FIBRE WRAPPED TUBES
for high volume production. We design our transducers using in house
lead formulas, resulting in a significantly For the Sonar Industry Morgan supplies pre-
modelling software backed up with extensive
narrower process window, a more stressed fibre wrapped PZT tubes. Fibre
test and measurement capabilities, which
comprehensive set of parameters wrapping enable high energy projectors to be
includes laser vibrometry for displacement
must be defined. The key in reducing designed whilst minimising the risk of ceramic
measurement. Designing a drive circuit to match
operator issues and reduced wetting failure through excess tension. Small tubes (up
Figure 21: Typical Lead-free solder joint transducer characteristics is critical for good
resides in the optimization of the to 100mm) are usually manufactured using a
system performance.
soldering process. To avoid issues use a flux content of 2-3% by weight in the monolithic PZT ceramic tube. Larger tubes
solder wire, use a solder tip temperature of 270-320°C. The main issues Morgan’s transducers are fully tested to ensure consistent electrical and (up to 500mm) are constructed with multiple
encountered with lead-free hand-soldering are cold solder joints, poor wetting mechanical characteristics to ensure good compatibility with our customer’s tapered PZT ceramic segments. Morgan’s high coupling and low loss materials
and de-wetting. These can be avoided. drive circuits. are always the basis of a high efficiency tube.

24 25

Morgan’s range of custom designed sensors find applications in many markets Morgan’s over-moulded sensors for wheel With a history in piezo bimorphs extending to the voltage source in series (See figure 23),
in particular Medical, Industrial and Aerospace. Key applications include level, balancing can be found in many garage some 45 years to the pioneering days of the and in a parallel bimorph strips are individually
flow, vibration and dynamic pressure measurement. The sensing principals workshops around the world. Many OEM technology, MEC brings a wealth of experience connected to the voltage source (See figure 24).
used in Morgan sensors are either acoustic manufactures of wheel balancing equipment in the development of customized high precision
have found that Morgan’s design offers and In the series bimorph, one of the PZT strips
(active) and/or piezoelectric (passive). piezo bimorphs components – resulting in real
excellent solution in terms of value for money, will always be subject to a voltage opposite to
added-value for our customers. Today you will
SENSOR TYPES INCLUDE: the polarising voltage, so there is always a
robustness and accuracy. These over-moulded find Morgan Electro Ceramics piezo bimorphs in
• Ultrasonic Sensors danger of depolarisation. This is also true to
sensors are available in a number of versions. a host of specialist application areas, including
• Accelerometers (passive) the parallel bimorph configuration of figure 25, but if it is connected as shown
Transducers are generally supplied with exposed (solderable) connectors. Upon ultrasonic atomizers, transducers, printing technologies, pneumatic valves, textile
• Blood pressure sensor in figure 26, both strips will be driven in the polarisation direction, thereby
request custom versions with either IDC or flying leads (with or without machinery and many more. The bimorphs are available in a range of sizes from 6
• Wheel balancing avoiding drift in characteristics caused by depolarisation.
connector) can be manufactured. to 74mm in length and 1 to 43mm in width, to reflect the variety of applications
• Impact Sensors
in which they can be used.
Electronics form a key part of every sensor and MEC offer sensors comprising TRANSDUCER & SENSOR MANUFACTURING
of the sensing element only or design incorporating a level of electronics All of our transducer and sensor manufacturing facilities are ISO 9000:2000 SERIES & PARALLEL BIMORPHS: HIGH SENSITIVITY & COST EFFICIENT
integration. Electronics design and manufacture is done in co-operation with certified and many are also certified to ISO 14001:2004. Examples of applications:
our partner companies which include APEX in the USA and others in Europe.
PROCESSES & CAPABILITIES INCLUDE: • Sensor systems (airbag)
ULTRASONIC SENSORS • Prototype assemblies • Printing technologies
Ultrasound Sensors use either time of flight • Small to large volume manufacture • Ultrasonic atomizers
measurement, Doppler or acoustic transmission • Ultrasonic transducers Figure 25
• Custom assembly
principles to measure a wide range of • Viscosity measurement systems
parameters. Morgan’s considerable expertise in • Clean room facilities available
• Wire bonding / pulse soldering • Flow measurement systems PRACTICAL DESIGN DATA FOR PZT500 SERIES FLEXURE ELEMENTS
key technologies for ultrasonic sensors is used to
design custom sensors for OEM applications. • Thermal cycling
Morgan’s Engineers have expert knowledge of CARBON-FIBRE OR METAL REINFORCED BIMORPHS:
• Humidity chamber
the fundamentals such as acoustics, matching HIGH FORCE/DEFLECTION RATIO AND EXTREMELY LONG LIFE-TIME
• Encapsulation (Thermoplast + Thermoset) Lt: Total length
layers, damping and adhesive technology which are all key to good transducer Examples of applications: F: Force on tip
design. A large portfolio of materials is used to design the optimum sensor in terms W: Width
TRANSDUCER TESTING • Pneumatic valves for industrial and automotive applications L: Free length
of acoustics, electro-mechanical properties and environmental resistance. The testing of electrical properties of resonating structures requires considerable h: Total thickness
• Valves in medical applications z: Deflection of tip
expertise and sophisticated equipment. Facilities such as these are available • Insulin pumps Field Strength: max 500V/mm
ACCELEROMETERS throughout our design and production process.
Morgan’s stable and high sensitivity materials • Braille keys for the blind
form an excellent basis of accelerometers. The Figure 26: Flexure element (Bimorph)
• Energy harvesting in car-tyres
piezo electric materials can be used in either
• Textile machinery
compression or shear mode to form single or
multi-axis accelerometers. Accelerometers can
be housed in standard housing (e.g. transistor Many applications require displacements far greater than are possible with DEFLECTION m/V
cans) or custom made packages. Morgan’s bimorph materials can also be used simple PZT transducers operating in the d33 or d31 modes. Moreover, the
where increased sensitivity is required. voltages required to produce these displacements are very high, and because
they present a considerable mismatch to air, these elements are unsuitable BENDING m/N
ARTERIAL PRESSURE TRANSDUCER for use as electro-acoustic transducers. A much more compliant structure
The Arterial Pressure Transducer (APT) is a operating in the d31 mode is the flexure element, the simplest form of which is
piezoelectric transducer that provides fast, the bilaminar cantilever or bimorph. This consists of two thin PZT strips bonded RESONANCE Hz
accurate blood pressure readings. Like all of together. Bimorphs are usually mounted as a cantilever and usually operate in FREQUENCY
Morgan Electro Ceramics’ ultrasonic transducers, the d31 mode as shown on figure 23 & 24.
it has been designed using our world leading
piezo materials. CHARGE OUTPUT C/N
IMPACT SENSORS • Impedance Analyser (4194A and 4294A)
Impact sensors use the piezo-electric effect to CAPACITANCE F
• Laser Vibrometer Figure 23
sense forces (dynamic) and rate of force
application. Example applications of impact • Acoustic characterisation (tank test) / Echo Response Rigs
sensors are coin validation equipment and • Sound pressure measurement / Beam characterisation
firmness testing (e.g. fruit). In designing these • Shaker table, charge sensitivity measurement (accelerometers)
sensors great care is taken to ensure that the signal
• Power meter
response is consistent in a variety of conditions, Figure 24
angle of impact, temperature etc. • Optical inspection including SEM and Vision CMM Table 6: Summary of equations for bimorphs

26 27

MULTILAYER FLEXURE MODE ACTUATORS For the multilayer process the thickness is currently limited to about 2mm. Axial mode multilayer d33-mode actuators achieve higher displacements but
The use of very thin piezoelectric layers in flexure elements requires much Figure 29 below shows the structure of such an element. also retain high blocking forces which are proportional to cross-sectional area
lower driving voltages than classical bimorph actuators. as illustrated in the figure 32 underneath.

Basically these elements can be built up three ways:

• Gluing a d31 actuator onto an inactive substrate, like a metal strip
• Combining a d31 actuator with an unpolarised PZT layer
• Combining layers of piezoelectric ceramic with an intricate electrode structure
so that the layers expand or contract like a classical bimorph element.
Figure 27: below illustrates a multilayer parallel bimorph element.

Figure 29: Axial mode multilayer actuator

Since the maximum strain is about 1X10-3 at 50V supply voltage, the absolute Figure 32: Blocking force of square stacks
increase of its thickness will be about 2m.
For most practical applications it is necessary to stack several of these TRANSVERSAL MODE (D31) ACTUATORS
elements to form a so called multilayer stacked actuator as illustrated in the Multilayer actuators (figure 33) can be produced with layer thicknesses as low as
figure 30 below. 20-40µm. The manufacturing method is completely different from the classical
process of sawing and electroding individual discs or plates. Because of the very
Figure 27: Multilayer parallel bimorph element
thin layers of PZT, an electrical field strength of about 1kV/mm can easily be
reached for a drive voltage as low as around 50V. The elongation per unit length
or height is roughly the same as for of “classical” actuators. The difference is that
Since the maximum strain is around 5x10-4 for 1kV/mm (as with discrete
the effect is reached for a much lower voltage. The performance of a transversal
flexure elements), the general rule and formulas in this section also apply to
d31-mode type is shown in figure 34. Note that the element shortens for a drive
multilayer elements.
voltage in the polarisation direction.
Figure 28 below shows the performance of a typical multilayer flexure mode
actuator. Bimorph Actuator
Combination of 2
d31 actuators

Poling direction
Electrical field
Figure 30: Various examples of stacked d33-mode actuators

Figure 33: Tranversal mode (D31) multilayer actuator

Figure 28: Deflection of flexure mode actuator as a function of applied voltage


As with “classical”, axially-stacked actuators, the strain in the direction of
polarisation is twice as large as it is in the transverse direction. However, to
get a large absolute elongation, the dimension of the actuator in the direction Figure 31: Performance of a multilayer d33-mode actuator Figure 34: Performance of a multilayer d31-mode actuator
of polarisation must be large as well.

28 29

Relative Permittivity r 33 1470 1200 1350 1450 1450 1325 Relative Permittivity r 33 1875 1700 1700 1850
Relative Permittivity r 11 - - 1475 - - - Relative Permittivity r 11 - 1730 1730 1650
Dielectric Loss tan  0.002 0.003 0.003 0.004 0.003 0.0035 Dielectric Loss tan  0.02 0.02 0.02 0.017
Resistivity (at 25oC)  el m 1010 >1010 - - - 1010 Resistivity (at 25oC)  el m 1012 - - 5010
Resistivity (at 100oC)  el m - 108.5 - - - - Resistivity (at 100oC)  el m - - - -
Resistivity (at 200oC)  el m - 105.5 - - - - Resistivity (at 200oC)  el m - - - -


Increase in Tr 33 @ 2KV/cm % 5.1 - - - - - Increase in r 33 @ 2KV/cm % - - - -
Dielectric Loss @ 2KV/cm tan  0.01 - - - - - Dielectric Loss @ 2KV/cm tan  - - - -
Increase in Tr 33 @ 4KV/cm % 12.7 - 25 - 25 - Increase in r 33 @ 4KV/cm % - - - -
Dielectric Loss @ 4KV/cm tan  0.02 - - - - - Dielectric Loss @ 4KV/cm tan  - - - -

Coupling Factors k 0.62 0.60 0.60 0.66
Coupling Factors k 0.60 0.56 0.58 0.60 0.62 0.61
k15 0.69 0.69 0.69 0.68
k15 0.70 0.71 0.60 - - -
k31 -0.34 -0.34 -0.34 -0.37
k31 -0.35 -0.33 -0.33 -0.34 - -0.34
k33 0.67 0.71 0.71 0.72
k33 0.67 0.70 0.68 0.71 - 0.70 kt 0.45 - - -
kt - - - - - - Charge Constants d33 x 10-12 C/N 409 374 374 460
Charge Constants d33 x 10-12 C/N 315 285 315 315 350 315 or Strain Constants d31 x 10-12 C/N or m/V -176 -171 -171 -195
or Strain Constants d31 x 10-12 C/N or m/V -132 -122 -135 -135 - -130 dh x 10-12 C/N 58 32 32 -
dh x 10-12 C/N 51 41 45 45 - - d15 x 10-12 C/N or m/V - 585 585 550
d15 x 10-12 C/N or m/V 511 495 - - - - Voltage Constants g33 x 10-3 Vm/N 25.7 24.8 24.8 28
Voltage Constants g33 x 10-3 Vm/N 26.8 24.8 26.4 24.6 27.3 27 or Stress Constants g31 x 10-3 Vm/N -11 -11.4 -11.4 -13
or Stress Constants g31 x 10-3 Vm/N -12 -10.6 -10.5 -10.5 - -11 gh x 10-3 Vm/N 3.6 2 2 -
gh x 10-3 Vm/N 2.8 3.7 3.6 3.6 - - g15 x 10-3 Vm/N - 38.2 38.2 37
g15 x 10-3 Vm/N - 38 - - - - dhgh x 10-15 - 64 64 -
dhgh x 10-15 143 152 162 162 - - Frequency Constants N Hz.m 2000 1960 1960 1970
Frequency Constants N Hz.m 2190 2180 2120 2110 2160 2200 N1 Hz.m 1370 1400 1400 1400
N1 Hz.m 1636 1650 1515 1515 N3 Hz.m 1410 - - 2060
N3 Hz.m 1576 - - - - 2015 N5 Hz.m - - - 900
Na Hz.m - 2060 - - - - Na Hz.m - 1845 1845 -
N3t or N33 Hz.m - 2000 2000 - - - N3t or N33 Hz.m - 1880 1880 -
Ns Hz.m 1800 - - - - - Ns Hz.m 1465 - - -
Hoop or Nc Hz.m 1030 1040 990 990 - - Hoop or Nc Hz.m 930 890 890 -
Nt Hz.m 2080 - - - - - Nt Hz.m 1940 - - -
Compressive Strength 106 Pa - - - - - >600 Compressive Strength 106 Pa - - - >600
Tensile Strength 106 Pa - - - - - 80 Tensile Strength 106 Pa - - - 100
Quality Factor Qm 600 500 600 600 - 750 Quality Factor Qm 60 75 75 80

Compliances SE33 x 10-12 m2/N 15.6 15.5 16.8 16.8 - 15 Compliances SE33 x 10-12 m2/N 17.2 18.8 18.8 18
SE11 x 10-12 m2/N 12.7 12.3 13.3 13.3 - 13 SE11 x 10-12 m2/N 16.7 16.4 16.4 16
SE12 x 10-12 m2/N -3.86 - - - - - SE12 x 10-12 m2/N -5.2 - - -
SE13 x 10-12 m2/N 5.76 - - - - - SE13 x 10-12 m2/N - - - -
SE55 x 10-12 m2/N 39.2 - - - - - SE55 x 10-12 m2/N - - - 45
SE66 x 10-12 m2/N - - - - - - SE66 x 10-12 m2/N - - - -
SD33 x 10-12 m2/N 7.76 7.9 - - - - SD33 x 10-12 m2/N 9.4 9.4 9.4 -
SD11 x 10-12 m2/N 11.1 10.9 11.8 11.8 - - SD11 x 10-12 m2/N 15 14.4 14.4 -
SD12 x 10-12 m2/N -5.44 - - - - - SD12 x 10-12 m2/N -7.1 - - -
S66 x 10-12 m2/N - - - - - - S66 x 10-12 m2/N 43.7 - - -
YE33 x 1010 N/m2 - 6.6 5.9 5.9 - - YE33 x 1010 N/m2 - 5.3 5.3 -
YE11 x 1010 N/m2 - 8.2 7.5 7.5 - - YE11 x 1010 N/m2 - 6.1 6.1 -
YD33 x 1010 N/m2 - 12.6 - - - - YD33 x 1010 N/m2 - 10.6 10.6 -
YD11 x 1010 N/m2 - 9.9 8.5 8.5 - - YD11 x 1010 N/m2 - 6.9 6.9 -
Poisson’s Ratio - 0.31 0.31 0.31 - 0.3 Poisson’s Ratio - - - 0.35
Density  kg/m3 7600 7600 7600 7600 7500 7800 Density  kg/m3 7750 - 7700 7900

Curie Temperature Tc °C 370 374 365 360
Curie Temperature Tc °C 330 320 320 325 300 325 Approx. Operating Temp. °C - 250 250 -
Approx. Operating Temp. °C - - 200 - - - Specific Heat J/kg K - - - 420
Specific Heat J/kg K - - - - - 420 Thermal Conductivity W/m K - - - 1.2
Thermal Conductivity W/m K - - - - - 1.2 Young's Modulus E Gpa - - - -
Young's Modulus E Gpa - - - - - - Internal Friction Q-1 x 10-4 - - - -
Internal Friction Q-1 x 10-4 - - - - - -
TIME STABILITY Relative change per
TIME STABILITY Relative change per Coupling Factor k time decade % -0.40 -0.10 0.00 -0.10
Coupling Factor k time decade % -1.70 -1.70 -2.10 -2.10 -2.50 Capacitance C -1.60 - - -
Capacitance C -4.60 - - - - - Permittivity T
33 -0.90 -0.90 -2.00
Permittivity T - -2.50 -4.60 -4.60 - -6.00
33 Frequency f 0.20 - +0.1
Frequency f 1.00 - - - - - d33 - -2.90 -2.90 -
d33 - -3.40 -3.40 -3.40 - - Time Constant  T/33 (25oC) minutes - - - >100
Time Constant Seconds - - - - - - N - - +0.1 -
N - +0.8 +1.2 +1.2 - +1.5 Quality Factor Qm - - - +0.1
Dielectric Loss Factor tan  - - - -0.1

Typical Values measured at 20°C ±1°C are provided for design information only. Standard tolerances are approximately ±20% of these values. Typical Values measured at 20°C ±1°C are provided for design information only. Standard tolerances are approximately ±20% of these values.
Material properties are measured according to standard IEEE and DOD definitions and measuring techniques. Material properties are measured according to standard IEEE and DOD definitions and measuring techniques.

30 31

Relative Permittivity r 33 1000 1150 1050 1000 1250 1150 Relative Permittivity r 33 2600 3400 3400
Relative Permittivity r 11 - 1290 - - - 1190 Relative Permittivity r 11 - - -
Dielectric Loss tan  0.004 0.003 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.0016 Dielectric Loss tan  0.02 0.018 0.025
Resistivity (at 25oC)  el m 1010 1010 - 1010 1013 1012 Resistivity (at 25oC)  el m - - >1011
Resistivity (at 100oC)  el m - - - - - - Resistivity (at 100oC)  el m - - 1011
Resistivity (at 200oC)  el m - - - - - - Resistivity (at 200oC)  el m - - 1010


Increase in r 33 @ 2KV/cm % - - - - 1.9 - Increase in r 33 @ 2KV/cm % - - -
Dielectric Loss @ 2KV/cm tan  - - - - 0.004 - Dielectric Loss @ 2KV/cm tan  - - -
Increase in r 33 @ 4KV/cm % - - - - 4.7 3.6 Increase in r 33 @ 4KV/cm % - - -
Dielectric Loss @ 4KV/cm tan  0.009 0.015 0.008 0.01 0.006 Dielectric Loss @ 4KV/cm tan  - - -

Coupling Factors k 0.51 0.54 0.55 0.53 0.55 0.55 Coupling Factors k 0.60 0.60 0.65
k15 0.55 0.55 - - - - k15 0.63 - 0.68
k31 -0.30 -0.30 - -0.30 -0.31 -0.29 k31 -0.36 -0.35 -0.39
k33 0.64 0.64 - 0.66 0.71 0.69 k33 0.69 0.72 0.75
kt - - - - 0.45 0.47 kt - 0.50 -
Charge Constants d33 x 10-12 C/N 225 250 250 230 280 260 Charge Constants d33 x 10-12 C/N 500 620 593
or Strain Constants d31 x 10-12 C/N or m/V -97 -97 - -100 -104 -92.75 or Strain Constants d31 x 10-12 C/N or m/V -220 -250 -274
dh x 10-12 C/N 31 31 - - 79 44.5 dh x 10-12 C/N 60 125 45
d15 x 10-12 C/N or m/V 330 300 - - - 294 d15 x 10-12 C/N or m/V 670 - 741
Voltage Constants g33 x 10-3 Vm/N 25.4 24.6 26.9 27 26.4 25.08 Voltage Constants g33 x 10-3 Vm/N 21.7 21.9 19.7
or Stress Constants g31 x 10-3 Vm/N -10.9 -10.9 - -11 -10.9 -10.11 or Stress Constants g31 x 10-3 Vm/N -9.6 -8.7 -9.1
gh x 10-3 Vm/N 3.6 3.6 - - 8.3 4.86 gh x 10-3 Vm/N 2.5 4.4 1.5
g15 x 10-3 Vm/N -28.9 -28.9 - - - 28.82 g15 x 10-3 Vm/N 35 - 26.8
dhgh x 10-15 112 112 - - - - dhgh x 10-15 150 - 68
Frequency Constants N Hz.m 2340 2285 2245 2350 2155 2320 Frequency Constants N Hz.m 1980 1975 1965
N1 Hz.m 1700 1700 - - 1660 - N1 Hz.m 1450 1375 1420
N3 Hz.m - - - 2050 1555 - N3 Hz.m - 1785 -
Na Hz.m 2000 2000 - - - - Na Hz.m - - 1930
N3t or N33 Hz.m 2070 2070 - - - - N3t or N33 Hz.m - - 2000
Ns Hz.m - - - - 1780 - Ns Hz.m - 1430 -
Hoop or Nc Hz.m 1070 1070 - - 1010 1080 Hoop or Nc Hz.m 910 920 890
Nt Hz.m - - - - 2060 2030 Nt Hz.m - 1895 -
Compressive Strength 106 Pa - >517 - >600 - - Compressive Strength 106 Pa - - -
Tensile Strength 106 Pa - 75.8 - 80 - 75 Tensile Strength 106 Pa - - -
Quality Factor Qm 1000 1000 - 1000 1200 1200 Quality Factor Qm 75 65 65

Compliances SE33 x 10-12 m2/N 13.5 13.5 - 13 14.7 15.65 Compliances SE33 x 10-12 m2/N 22.7 21.9 20.8
SE11 x 10-12 m2/N 11.5 11.5 - 11 11.7 10.9 SE11 x 10-12 m2/N 16.2 17.7 16.4
SE12 x 10-12 m2/N - - - - -3.6 -3.3 SE12 x 10-12 m2/N - -5.7 -
SE13 x 10-12 m2/N - - - - - -4.8 SE13 x 10-12 m2/N - - -
SE55 x 10-12 m2/N - - - - - 31.4 SE55 x 10-12 m2/N - - -
SE66 x 10-12 m2/N - - - - - 28.3 SE66 x 10-12 m2/N - - -
SD33 x 10-12 m2/N 8.5 8.5 - - 7.4 8.2 SD33 x 10-12 m2/N - 10.5 9
SD11 x 10-12 m2/N 10.1 10.1 - - 10.8 9.9 SD11 x 10-12 m2/N 14.1 15.5 14.1
SD12 x 10-12 m2/N - - - - -4.8 -4.2 SD12 x 10-12 m2/N - -7.6 -
S66 x 10-12 m2/N - - - - 30.7 - S66 x 10-12 m2/N - 48.5 -
YE33 x 1010 N/m2 7.4 7.4 - - - - YE33 x 1010 N/m2 4.4 - 4.8
YE11 x 1010 N/m2 8.7 8.7 - - - - YE11 x 1010 N/m2 6.2 - 6.2
YD33 x 1010 N/m2 11.8 11.8 - - - - YD33 x 1010 N/m2 - 11.1
YD11 x 1010 N/m2 9.9 9.9 - - - - YD11 x 1010 N/m2 7.1 - 7.1
Poisson’s Ratio - - - 0.3 - - Poisson’s Ratio 0.31 - -
Density  kg/m3 7600 7500 7450 7800 7600 7650 Density  kg/m3 7400 7400 7450


Curie Temperature Tc °C 300 300 300 300 300 300 Curie Temperature Tc °C 250 200 195
Approx. Operating Temp. °C - 175 - - - - Approx. Operating Temp. °C 140 - 110
Specific Heat J/kg K - - - 420 - - Specific Heat J/kg K - - -
Thermal Conductivity W/m K - - - 1.2 - - Thermal Conductivity W/m K - - -
Young's Modulus E Gpa - - - - - 88.6 Young's Modulus E Gpa - - -
Internal Friction Q-1 x 10-4 - - - - - 8.6 Internal Friction Q-1 x 10-4 - - -

TIME STABILITY Relative change per TIME STABILITY Relative change per
Coupling Factor k time decade % -2.10 -1.50 - -2.00 -2.10 -1.50 Coupling Factor k time decade % -0.30 -0.20 -0.20
Capacitance C - - - - -4.10 -3.50 Capacitance C - -1.50 -
Permittivity 33 -4.00 -4.00 - -4.50 - - Permittivity 33 -1.10 - -0.60
Frequency f 0.90 0.90 - 1.00 1.10 0.75 Frequency f - 0.30 -
d33 -6.30 o -6.30 o - - - - d33 -4.00 - -3.90
Time Constant Seconds 100 (at 25 C) 100 (at 25 C) - - - - Time Constant Seconds - - -
N +0.2 - +0.3

Typical Values measured at 20°C ±1°C are provided for design information only. Standard tolerances are approximately ±20% of these values. Typical Values measured at 20°C ±1°C are provided for design information only. Standard tolerances are approximately ±20% of
Material properties are measured according to standard IEEE and DOD definitions and measuring techniques. these values. Material properties are measured according to standard IEEE and DOD definitions and measuring techniques.

32 33

Relative Permittivity r 33 2000 1950 2100 2000 2600 2250 4400 3900 Relative Permittivity r 33 425 1200 1100 1225 210 640
Relative Permittivity r 11 - - 1800 - - - 3300 - Relative Permittivity r 11 - 1700 - 1400 240 750
Dielectric Loss tan  0.02 0.02 0.02 0.015 0.019 0.02 0.016 0.02 Dielectric Loss tan  0.01 0.005 0.029 0.0025 0.02 0.005
Resistivity (at approx 25oC)  el m >1011 - 5010 5010 5010 1010 Resistivity (at approx 25oC)  el m >1011 - 5010 1010 - -
Resistivity (at 100oC)  el m 1011 - - - - - - - Resistivity (at 100oC)  el m 1011 - - - - -
Resistivity (at 200oC)  el m 1010 - - - - - - - Resistivity (at 200oC)  el m 1010 - - - - -


Increase in Tr 33 @ 2KV/cm % - - - - - - - - Increase in Tr 33 @ 2KV/cm % - - - - -
Dielectric Loss @ 2KV/cm tan  - - - - - - - - Dielectric Loss @ 2KV/cm tan  - - - - -
Increase in Tr 33 @ 4KV/cm % - - - - - - - - Increase in Tr 33 @ 4KV/cm % - - - - -
Dielectric Loss @ 4KV/cm tan  - - - - - - - - Dielectric Loss @ 4KV/cm tan  - - - - -

Coupling Factors k 0.6 0.65 0.68 0.64 0.72 0.7 0.75 0.71 Coupling Factors k 0.52 0.48 0.63 0.64 <0.020 0.52
k15 0.63 - 0.66 - - - - 0.72 k15 0.68 - 0.68 0.70 0.36 0.69
k31 -0.34 -0.35 -0.38 -0.37 - - -0.39 0.41 k31 -0.3 -0.28 0.37 0.38 <0.020 0.30
k33 0.66 - 0.75 0.74 - - 0.8 -0.75 k33 0.67 - 0.73 0.74 0.54 0.67
kt - - - - - - - - kt - - - - - 0.48
Charge Constants d33 x 10-12 C/N 405 450 500 450 610 545 820 720 Charge Constants d33 x 10-12 C/N 153 225 340 325 68 170
or Strain Constants d31 x 10-12 C/N or m/V -185 -195 -215 -200 -270 -225 -360 -315 or Strain Constants d31 x 10-12 C/N or m/V -60 -100 -150 -150 -3 -64
dh x 10-12 C/N 95 60 - - - - - 90 dh x 10-12 C/N 33 25 - - 62 -
d15 x 10-12 C/N or m/V 564 - 515 - - - - 750 d15 x 10-12 C/N or m/V 360 - 500 480 70 310
Voltage Constants g33 x 10-3 Vm/N 22.9 25 24 25 - - 20 18.5 Voltage Constants g33 x 10-3 Vm/N 41 21 30 30 37 37
or Stress Constants g31 x 10-3 Vm/N -10.5 -11.5 -10 -12 - - -10 -9 or Stress Constants g31 x 10-3 Vm/N -16 -9.6 -10 -12 -2 -14
gh x 10-3 Vm/N 1.9 2 - - - - - 0.5 gh x 10-3 Vm/N 9 - - - 33 -
g15 x 10-3 Vm/N 36.4 - 33 - - - - - g15 x 10-3 Vm/N 50 - 33 39 34 45
dhgh x 10-15 181 120 - - - - - 45 dhgh x 10-15 297 - - - 2046 -
Frequency Constants N Hz.m 1950 1930 1975 2000 1900 1940 1925 1950 Frequency Constants N Hz.m 2340 2260 2100 2175 2870 2450
N1 Hz.m 1420 1400 1450 - - - 1400 1420 N1 Hz.m 1750 1625 1500 1620 n/a -
N3 Hz.m - - 1850 1900 - - 1800 1880 N3 Hz.m - - - 2000 - -
N5 Hz.m - - 930 - - - - - N5 Hz.m - - 920 950 - -
Na Hz.m - - - - - - - - Na Hz.m 2050 - - - - -
N3t or N33 Hz.m - - - - - - - - N3t or N33 Hz.m 2100 - - - 2145 1750
Ns Hz.m - - - - - - - - Ns Hz.m - - - - - -
Hoop or Nc Hz.m 890 78 - - - - - - Hoop or Nc Hz.m 1070 1040 - - - -
Nt Hz.m - - - - - - - - Nt Hz.m - - - - - 2150
Compressive Strength 106 Pa - - >600 >600 - - >600 - Compressive Strength 106 Pa - - >600 >600 - -
Tensile Strength 106 Pa - - 80 80 - - 80 - Tensile Strength 106 Pa - - 80 80 - -
Quality Factor Qm 75 80 75 75 60 65 65 55 Quality Factor Qm 600 500 80 1200 1100 1000

Compliances SE33 x 10-12 m2/N - - 18 19 - - 20 22 Compliances SE33 x 10-12 m2/N 13.9 - - 15 8.6 13.5
SE11 x 10-12 m2/N 16.4 16.1 15 15 16.5 15.5 16 16.4 SE11 x 10-12 m2/N 10.7 10.9 15 12 7.4 10
SE12 x 10-12 m2/N - - - - - - - - SE12 x 10-12 m2/N - - - - - -3.1
SE13 x 10-12 m2/N - - - - - - - - SE13 x 10-12 m2/N - - - - - -6.6
SE55 x 10-12 m2/N - - 39 - - - - - SE55 x 10-12 m2/N - - 38 37 - 30.4
SE66 x 10-12 m2/N - - - - - - - - SE66 x 10-12 m2/N - - - - - 26
SD33 x 10-12 m2/N - - - - - - - 8.8 SD33 x 10-12 m2/N 7.9 - - - 6.1 7.4
SD11 x 10-12 m2/N 14.4 14.1 - - - - - 13.9 SD11 x 10-12 m2/N 9.7 10 - - 7.3 9
SD12 x 10-12 m2/N - - - - - - - - SD12 x 10-12 m2/N - - - - - -4
S66 x 10-12 m2/N - - - - - - - - S66 x 10-12 m2/N - - - - - 26
YE33 x 1010 N/m2 - - - - - - - 4.9 YE33 x 1010 N/m2 7.2 - - - 11.6 7.4
YE11 x 1010 N/m2 6.1 6.2 - - - - - 6.1 YE11 x 1010 N/m2 9.3 9.2 - - 13.5 9.8
YD33 x 1010 N/m2 - - - - - - - 11 YD33 x 1010 N/m2 10.3 - - - 16.4 13
YD11 x 1010 N/m2 6.9 7.1 - - - - - 7 YD11 x 1010 N/m2 12.7 10 - - 13.7 11
Poisson’s Ratio 0.31 0.31 0.3 0.3 - - - - Poisson’s Ratio 0.31 0.31 0.3 0.3 - 0.31
Density  kg/m3 7600 7800 7800 7800 7830 8000 7800 7900 Density  kg/m3 7700 7600 7800 7900 6900 7700


Curie Temperature Tc °C 330 350 285 270 285 300 165 208 Curie Temperature Tc °C 350 325 270 315 255 300
Approx. Operating Temp. °C - - - - - - - - Approx. Operating Temp. °C 210 - - - 130 -
Specific Heat J/kg K - - 420 420 - - 420 - Specific Heat J/kg K - - 420 420 - -
Thermal Conductivity W/m K - - 1.2 1.2 - - 1.2 - Thermal Conductivity W/m K - - 1.2 1.2 - -
Young's Modulus E Gpa - - - - - - - - Young's Modulus E Gpa - - - - - -
Internal Friction Q-1 x 10-4 - - - - - - - - Internal Friction Q-1 x 10-4 - - - - - -

TIME STABILITY Relative change per TIME STABILITY Relative change per
Coupling Factor k time decade % 0.00 0.00 -0.50 -1.50 - - -0.60 - Coupling Factor k time decade % 0.00 0.01 -0.50 -1.50 - -
Capacitance C - - - - - - - - Capacitance C - - - - - -
Permittivity 33 -0.90 -3.60 -1.00 -2.00 - - -1.00 - Permittivity 33 0.06 0.03 -0.50 1.00 - -
Frequency N 0.10 0.20 0.50 0.50 - - 0.30 - Frequency N -0.05 0.02 0.50 0.50 - -
d33 -2.90 -3.10 - - - - - - d33 - - - - - -
Time Constant  T/3 (25oC) minute - - >300 >25 - - >500 - Time Constant  T/3 (25oC) minute - - >250 >7 - -
Quality factor Qm - - - - - - -3.00 - Quality factor Qm - - - 10 - -
Dielectric Loss factor tan  - - - - - - - - Dielectric Loss factor tan  - - - -10 - -

Typical Values measured at 20°C ±1°C are provided for design information only. Standard tolerances are approximately ±20% of these values. Typical Values measured at 20°C ±1°C are provided for design information only. Standard tolerances are approximately ±20% of these values.
Material properties are measured according to standard IEEE and DOD definitions and measuring techniques. Material properties are measured according to standard IEEE and DOD definitions and measuring techniques.

34 35

Relative Permittivity r 33 6200 6200 7100 Relative Permittivity r 33 4500-5500 5500-7000
Relative Permittivity r 11 - 5200 - Coercive Field EC kV/cm 3.0-3.3 2.5-2.8
Dielectric Loss tan  0.02 0.02 0.02
Resistivity (at approx 25oC)  el m - - - ELECTRO-MECHANICAL
Resistivity (at 100oC)  el m - - - Coupling Factors k33 0.88-0.90 0.90-0.94
Resistivity (at 200oC)  el m - - - kt >0.55 >0.55
Charge Constants d33 x 10-12 C/N 1100-1700 1700-2200
ELECTRICAL - HIGH FIELD or Strain Constants d31 x 10-12 C/N or m/V -850 -950
Increase in Tr 33 @ 2KV/cm % - - - Voltage Constants g33 x 10-3 Vm/N >30 >40
Dielectric Loss @ 2KV/cm tan  - - -
or Stress Constants g31 x 10-3 Vm/N >17 >15
Increase in Tr 33 @ 4KV/cm % - - -
Frequency Constants Nt Hz.m 0800-1900 1800-1900
Dielectric Loss @ 4KV/cm tan  - - -
Compliances SD33 x 10-12 m2/N 10-14 10-14

Poisson’s Ratio σ
Coupling Factors k 0.68 0.70 0.70
YE33 x 1010 N/m2 25-30 16-21
k15 - - -
k31 -0.40 -0.42 -0.42
k33 0.75 0.78 0.78 Density kg/m3 > 8.0 > 8.0
kt - 0.50 0.49
Charge Constants d33 x 10-12 C/N 870 880 950 THERMAL DATA
or Strain Constants d31 x 10-12 C/N or m/V -370 -401 -410 Curie Temperature Tc °C 143 155
dh x 10-12 C/N 130 78 130 Trt Transition Temperature Trt °C 95 ± 5 85 ± 5
d15 x 10-12 C/N or m/V - - - Approx. Operating Temp. °C 90 80
Voltage Constants g33 x 10-3 Vm/N 15.8 16 15.1 Acoustic Impedance ZA 106 kg/m2sec 28 28
or Stress Constants g31 x 10-3 Vm/N -6.8 -7.1 -6.5
gh x 10-3 Vm/N 2.2 1.7 2.1
g15 x 10-3 Vm/N - - -
Typical Values measured at 20°C ±1°C are provided for design information only. Standard tolerances are
dhgh x 10-15 286 137 273 approximately ±20% of these values. Material properties are measured according to standard IEEE and DOD
Frequency Constants N Hz.m 1920 1880 1880 definitions and measuring techniques.
N1 Hz.m 1380 - -
N3 Hz.m - - -
N5 Hz.m - - -
N3t or N33 Hz.m - - -
Ns Hz.m - - -
Compressive Strength 106 Pa - - -
Tensile Strength 106 Pa - - - NAVY I PC4D PZT401
Quality Factor Qm 65 68 60 PZT4 PZT402
Compliances SE33 x 10-12 m2/N 20.4 23.2 23.6 PZT4E PZT405
SE11 x 10-12 m2/N 16.4 16.6 16.4 PXE42 PZT406
SE12 x 10-12 m2/N - - -
SE13 x 10-12 m2/N - - - NAVY II PC5 PZT5A1
SE55 x 10-12 m2/N - - - PZT5A PZT5A2
SE66 x 10-12 m2/N - - - PZT5A PZT5A3
SD33 x 10-12 m2/N 8.9 9.1 9.24 PXE59 PZT5A4
SD11 x 10-12 m2/N 14.7 13.7 13.6
SD12 x 10-12 m2/N - - - NAVY III PZT8 PZT801
S66 x 10-12 m2/N - - - PZT8 PZT802
YE33 x 1010 N/m2 4.9 4.3 4.2 PZT8L PZT803
YE11 x 1010 N/m2 6.4 6 6.1 PZT8S PZT804
YD33 x 1010 N/m2 - 10.9 10.8 PXE43 PZT805
YD11 x 1010 N/m2 - 7.3 7.3 PC4 PZT806
Poisson’s Ratio - - - PC8 PZT807
Density  kg/m3 8200 8200 8200
Curie Temperature Tc °C 160 150 137 NAVY VI PC5H PZT5H1
Approx. Operating Temp. °C - - - PZT5H PZT5H2
Specific Heat J/kg K - - -
Thermal Conductivity W/m K - - - CUSTOM PZT5B PZT501
Young's Modulus E Gpa - - - PZT5R PZT502
Internal Friction Q-1 x 10-4 - - - PXE5 PZT503
PXE21 PZT504
TIME STABILITY Relative change per PXE50+ PZT505
Coupling Factor k time decade % -0.50 - - PXE55 PZT506
Capacitance C -0.50 - - PXE52 PZT507
Permittivity T - - - PZT5T PZT508
Frequency N - - - PC5K PZT5K1
d33 - - - n/a PZT5K2
Time Constant  T/3 (25oC) minute - - - n/a PZT5K4
Quality factor Qm - - - PXE41 PZT407
Dielectric Loss factor tan  - - - PT2 PT1
Typical Values measured at 20°C ±1°C are provided for design information only. Standard tolerances are approximately ±20% of PXE71 PZT703
these values. Material properties are measured according to standard IEEE and DOD definitions and measuring techniques.

36 37

COMPLIANCE Whether you are experienced with piezoelectric materials, or not, use this Capacitance [pF@1kHz]:
When you apply stress to any material, it responds by changing its dimension checklist to organise your application data and material requirements. With Resonant Frequency [kHz, MHz]:
due to its elastic properties. The compliance witnessed in piezoelectric this information, Morgan Electro Ceramics can help you select the most cost, Vibration mode:
ceramics is different in an important way: it exhibits different compliance quality, and design effective ceramic elements for your application. Loss factor:
perpendicularly than it does along its parallel poling axis. For linear positioning d33 or d31 [pC/N]:
applications, the most important compliance tensor elements are those in the APPLICATION f = (fa - fr) [kHz, MHz]:
SE is an elasticity constant (compliance), and Young’s modulus is given as the
direction of the PZT extension: S33E for strain due to uniaxial stress along the Briefly describe the device, its function and the transducer function within the
inverse of compliance. For lengthwise vibrations, the Young’s modulus is ELECTRODES
poling direction, and S11E for strain due to the perpendicular stress. Normally device. If possible include a drawing, schematic or sketch.
given by equation 73:
S33E is 25% greater than S11E . As you might guess from the name, soft PZT is Type:
somewhat more compliant than hard PZT. MATERIAL • Silver
Refer to the material tables, and select the material(s) with the required
• Nickel
characteristics. If you need assistance selecting the material, note the operating
requirements of critical properties.
Curie temperature refers to the critical temperature at which crystals in the
• Other (describe)
piezoelectric ceramic lose their spontaneous polarization and hence their Navy Type I:
piezoelectric property. It is defined as the temperature at which the dielectric Navy Type II: Placement or Configuration:
constant is maximized when the temperature is increased. Navy Type III: Ends:
Navy Type V: ID-OD:
The velocity of sound that propagates through a piezoelectric ceramic has a The relative dielectric constant is defined as the ratio of the permittivity of the Custom: Wraparound:
specific value in each vibration mode when the resonance of other vibration material to the permittivity of free space. This is generally measured well Single Crystal: Shear plate:
below the mechanical resonance. The dielectric constant is derived from the Polarity Markings:
modes is not in the vicinity. For a piezoelectric ceramic with a certain shape,
the relationship of wavelength  of a vibration with propagation length at static capacitance measurements at 1 kHz using a standard impedance bridge. SIZE & SHAPE
the resonant point is given by equation (69). Because the sound velocity is Refer to page 22, and review the shapes and formulae. Select the shape or These tests are usually performed on lot control samples only. Note which
constant, we obtain the following equations (70) and (71): shapes that satisfy the mounting and physical requirements of the application. tests, if any, should be performed on the test sample for this order.
Calculate the values of the critical properties for the selected materials, shapes,
and sizes. Select the combination that satisfies the mechanical and piezoelectric High field measurement at kV/mm at 50/60Hz (for “hard” PZT only)
requirements of the application. Capacitance Change % Maximum
Loss factor % Maximum
Tube d33 pC/N Minimum
Rod Impedance Zr @Fr []
Disc Density [kg/m3]
Plate Serial Numbers:
Bar Other Requirements:
Unimorph Quantity required for samples:
Actuator Potential quantity required for production:
Company Name
This shows the sharpness of mechanical vibration at the resonant frequency. Standard dimensions and tolerances are listed in page 22. Special dimensions
and tolerances must be negotiated. All dimensions are in metric (mm). Town/City
POISSON’S RATIO ( ) Length: Postcode
This is defined as the ratio of the strain of polarization axis direction and the Width: Individual Name
distortion of right angle direction to the polarization axis. Thickness:
Outside Diameter (OD):
Inside Diameter (ID):
It is the net polarization remaining in a polycrystalline dielectric material after Wall Thickness: Fax
removal of an electric field. Flatness: Email
Other: Web Address
When stress T is applied to an elastic body within the proportional elastic ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS ATTACHMENTS
range, strain S is given by equation 72: These standard electrical measurements can be made on various Morgan List attachments such as drawings, sketches, schematics, and special notes and
Electro Ceramics parts. Minimum values and tolerances must be negotiated. instructions.

38 39

For further information on piezoelectric ceramics, Morgan Electro Ceramics has available the following
technical papers on our website:

TP-23 Measurement of piezoelectric coupling in odd ceramic shapes

TP-26 Two-channel cylindrical PZT ceramic transducer

TP-42 Piezoelectric ceramic I.F. filters

TP-43 Solid-state tuned circuits improve I.F. amplifier reliability

TP-46 A ceramic bandpass transformer and filter element

TP-47 An introduction to Morgan Electro Ceramics piezoelectric filters

TP-50 Design of piezoelectric ladder filters

TP-212 The electro-acoustic sensitivity of cylindrical ceramic tubes

TP-214 The stepped horn

TP-215 Speed of sound in seawater as a function of temperature, pressure and salinity

TP-217 A primer of ferroelectricity and piezoelectric ceramics

TP-218 Flexure mode piezoelectric transducer

TP-219 Piezoelectric high voltage generators

TP-220 Effects of high static stress on the piezoelectric properties of transducer materials

TP-221 Power capacities of piezoelectric ceramics in sonar type acoustics transducers

TP-222 On the meaning of “g” and “d” constant as applied to simple piezoelectric modes of vibration

TP-223 Useful relationships for ceramic bender Bimorphs®

TP-224 On the meaning of piezoelectric coupling

TP-225 Power limitations of piezoelectric ceramics in radiating transducers

TP-226 Important properties of Morgan Electro Ceramics piezoelectric ceramics (PZT400, PZT5A, PZT5H, PZT800 Series)

TP-228 Behaviour of piezoelectric ceramics under various environmental and operation conditions of radiating sonar transducers

TP-230 Useful relationships for circular bender Bimorphs®

TP-232 Properties of specialised ceramics of Morgan Electro Ceramics (PZT700, Series, PZT-6A1, PZT-6A2, PZT-6B)

TP-234 Procedures for measuring properties of piezoelectric ceramics

TP-235 The design of piezoelectric sandwich transducers

TP-236 Some considerations in the use of cylindrical ceramic elements in transducer design

TP-237 Some design considerations in the use of Bimorphs® as motor transducers

TP-238 Piezoelectricity

TP-240 Piezoelectric and dielectric properties of lead Titanate Zirconate ceramics at low temperatures

TP-241 Thermal expansion and pyroelectricity in lead Titanate Zirconate and barium Titanate

TP-242-1 Stress sensitivity of piezoelectric ceramics: Part 1. Sensitivity to compressive stress parallel to the polar axis

TP-242-2 Stress sensitivity of piezoelectric ceramics: Part 2. Heat treatment

TP-242-3 Stress sensitivity of piezoelectric ceramics: Part 3. Sensitivity to compressive stress perpendicular to the polar axis

TP-243 Piezoelectric high voltage transformers

TP-244 General description of piezoelectric transformers

TP-245 Cantilever mounted PZT-5A Bimorphs®