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Unit 1

DIE GRÜßE UND


VERABSCHIEDEN

DIE GRÜßE (The Greetings)


Following are the ways you can use to greet somebody in German :
1. Hallo! - Hello!
2. Guten Morgen - Good Morning
3. Guten Tag - Good Afternoon / Hello
4. Guten Abend- Good Evening

TIP : While writing Nouns in German, the first alphabet is always capital.

VERABSCHIEDEN (saying Goodbye)


1. Tschüss- Bye
2. Auf Wiedersehen - Goodbye
3. bis bald - See you soon
4. bis später - See you later
5. bis morgen - see you tomorrow
6. Gute Nacht - Good Night

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TIP : Most Nouns ending with -e and -ung are feminine (der Junge is an exception).

DIE NOMEN (The Nouns)

Definition- A ‘naming’ word for a living being, thing or idea is called a Noun. For example -
woman, table, happiness, Julia, etc.

LERNWORTSCHATZ KAPITEL
1. der Apfel - the apple (masculine)
2. die Milch - the milk (feminine)
3. das Wasser - the water (neuter)
4. der Junge - the boy
5. das Mädchen - the girl (exception)

TIPS : In German, all Nouns have a gender either masculine, feminine or neuter. Hence, the Article
changes depending on the gender of the noun.

Der, die and das mean ‘The’ in English.

• Der (the) for masculine singular nouns, for example – der Mann (the man)
• Die (the) for feminine singular nouns, for example – die Frau (the woman)

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• Das (the) for neuter singular nouns, for example – das Buch (the book)

Unit 2

DIE UNTERHALTUNG

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THE CONVERSATION
• Hallo Julia!
• Hallo Mark! Wie geht’s?
• Es geht mir gut. Und dir?
• Auch gut, danke.
• Tschüss! Bis bald!
• Auf Wiedersehen!

• Hallo! Wie heißt du?


• Ich heiße Oliver. Und wer bist du?
• Mein Name ist Mark. Wie geht’s?
• Mir geht’s gut.

Die Fragen (The Questions) -


1. Wie geht’s? - How are you? / How's it going?
2. Und dir? - And you?
3. Wie heißt du? - What is your name?
4. Wer bist du? - Who are you?

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TIPS : Wie geht’s? and Und du? are the informal ways of asking - ‘How are you?’ and ‘And you?’
respectively.

Wie geht’s es Ihnen? and Und Sie? are the formal ways of asking - ‘How are you?’ and ‘And you?’
respectively.

Die Antworten (The Answers/ Replies)-


1. Es geht mir gut - I’m fine
2. Mir geht’s gut – I’m doing well / I'm fine
3. Sehr Gut - Very good / very well
4. Es geht - Fine/ Okay okay
5. Auch gut, danke – I’m doing well too, thank you
6. Schlecht – bad
7. Nicht gut – not good
8. Toll! / Super! – Great!
9. So So – so so
10. Na Ja – Well

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Unit 3

SICH VORSTELLEN

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INTRODUCING YOURSELF
How do you introduce yourself in German?

Hallo!

Hello!

NAME : Mein Name ist XYZ.

My name is XYZ.

NATIONALITY / COUNTRY :

Ich komme aus Indien.

I am from India.

Ich bin Inder (M) / Ich bin Inderin (F).

I am Indian.

THE PLACE WHERE YOU LIVE : Ich lebe in Chandigarh / Ich wohne in Chandigarh.

I live in Chandigarh.

PROFESSION : Ich bin eine Lehrerin (F) / Ich bin ein Lehrer (M).

I’m a teacher.

Ich bin eine Studentin (F) / Ich bin ein Student (M).

I’m a student.

THE LANGUAGES YOU SPEAK : Ich spreche Deutsche, Englisch und Hindi.

I speak German, English and Hindi.

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TIP : Unlike English – In German, the profession is expressed according to the gender of the noun.

Lehrer - for a male teacher and Lehrerin - for a female teacher.

TIP : In some places, 'Entschuldigung' can also be translated as 'Sorry'.

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Unit 4

DIE ARTIKEL

THE ARTICLES
Definition- A word which is used in front of a noun to tell whether it is a specific or a general
thing. Article can be definite or indefinite.

Unlike English – In German, there are many articles. Therefore, what article must be used depends on
which case the sentence belongs to. Total, there are FOUR cases in German.

FIRST, NOMINATIVE CASE (NOMINATIV)

What is the Nominative Case?


The nominative case is a grammatical case for nouns and pronouns. The case
is used when a noun or a pronoun is used as the subject of a verb.

Nominative case – sein (to be) and occasionally heißen, werden, bleiben.

In German, we can know whether the sentence


belongs to the nominative case because you can
use the question words “who ” or “ what ” to find out
what the subject of the sentence is.

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Definite Articles
1. The

Der, die and das mean ‘The’ in English.

• Der (the) for masculine singular nouns, for example – der Mann (the man)
• Die (the) for feminine singular nouns, for example – die Frau (the woman)
• Das (the) for neuter singular nouns, for example – das Buch (the book)

Singular Plural

maskulin der die

feminin die die

neutrum das die

Indefinite Articles

2. A/An

Ein (M), eine (F) and ein (N) mean ‘a / an’ in English.

• Ein (a/an) for masculine singular nouns, for example – ein Mann (a man) , ein Apfel (an apple)
• Eine (a/an) for feminine singular nouns, for example – eine Frau (a woman)
• Ein (a/an) for neuter singular nouns, for example – ein Buch (a book)

Singular Plural

maskulin ein _

feminin eine _

neutrum ein _

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Unit 5

DIE PLURAL

THE PLURAL
Definition- The form of a word which is used to refer to more than one person or thing is called
Plural.

For example - die Kinder (the children) (Plural)


Die (the) for Plural nouns, for example – die Bücher (the Books)

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+S (mostly words taken from English)
das Sofa – die Sofas

+E
der Hund – die Hunde

+ER / +R
Das Kind – Die Kinder

+N
die Schokolade – die Schokoladen

+EN
die Frau – die Frauen

+NEN (mostly designated to a female)


Die Freundin – die Freundinnen

ADD UMLAUT
der Mann – die Männer

der Vogel – die Vögel

das Buch – die Bücher

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NO CHANGE

Das Mädchen (singular) - Die Mädchen (Plural)

TIP : If the same word is used/said in both singular and plural cases, all you need to do is change the
article from singular to plural.

EXCEPTIONS :
1. Some nouns tend to be used only in the singular. That means, nouns which have
no plural.

Like –

• Material or substance (silver, water, meat, etc)


• Abstract nouns (happiness, warmth, etc)
• Collective nouns (audience, luggage, etc)

Example:

die Milch (the milk), der Hunger (the hunger), das Geld (the money)

2. Some nouns are used only in the plural. That means, nouns which have no
singular.

Example:

die Leute (the people), die Eltern (the parents)

If the sentence has 'die Eltern' as the subject, then we see the verb to know whether it is
talking about a single parent or parents.

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Unit 6

DAS PRONOMEN

THE PRONOUN
Definition- A word which you see instead of a noun, and that refers either to the speaker (I, we),
listener (you) or to someone or something else, i.e., third person.

For example - it, you, they, etc

FIRST, PERSONAL PRONOUNS IN NOMINATIVE CASE

Singular Plural

ich - I wir - we

du - you (informal) ihr - you all

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er / sie / es - he / she / it. sie – they

EXCEPTION :

Sie – you (formal and polite / when speaking with elderly)

Sie – you all (formal and polite / when speaking with elderly)

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(Notice - when you use 'Sie' in writing, it should always be written
with capital S)

Unit 7
DIE VERBEN
THE VERBS
Definition- A word used to describe an action (physically or mentally) or a state of being is called
a verb.

For example – to eat, to study, to see, to think, etc

TIP : While forming a sentence in German, the Verb always comes after the noun and is the
second element in a statement (not question).

TIP : Most German verbs are regular, meaning they follow a standard pattern of conjugation.

Regelmäßige Verben (Regular Verbs)


HABEN - to have

WOHNEN - to live

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GEHEN - to go

KOMMEN - to come

FLIEGEN - to fly

TRINKEN - to drink

SCHREIBEN - to write

SPIELEN - to play

Unregelmäßige Verben (Irregular Verbs)

SEIN - to be

FAHREN - to travel / to drive

ESSEN - to eat

LESEN - to read

TIP : The majority of German verbs are regular, even though it may not seem that way since
many commonly used verbs are strong (irregular) verbs.

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CONJUGATION (KONJUGATION)

Definition – Verb conjugation happens when a verb changes according to the person (first, second
or third person), tense, gender, number or mood (formal or informal).

In English, we say “I am...” but “You are...”. This implies,


when the subject changes, the verb will also. In German
too, we will follow verb conjugation.
FIRST, PRESENT TENSE (PRÄSENS) :

Trinken

Ich trink e wir trink en

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du trink st ihr trink t

er / sie / es trink t sie trink en

Haben

Ich habe wir haben

du hast ihr habt

er / sie / es hat sie haben

EXCEPTION : 'b' is missing in hast and hat.

Gehen, Wohnen, Kommen

Ich gehe wir gehen

du gehst ihr geht

er / sie / es geht sie gehen

TIP : Fliegen, Schreiben, Spielen, and all other regular verbs will follow the same
pattern as Trinken.

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Sein

Ich bin wir sind

du bist. ihr seid

er / sie / es ist sie sind

TIP : Notice that sie (she) and sie (they) may look same, but each one gets its own verb form.

Fahren

Ich fahre wir fahren

du fährst ihr fahrt

er / sie / es fährst sie fahren

Essen

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Ich esse wir essen

du isst ihr esst

er / sie / es isst sie essen

Lesen

Ich lese wir lesen

du liest ihr lest

er / sie / es liest sie lesen

TIP : 'I eat' and 'I am eating' - both will be translated as 'Ich esse' in German.

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Unit 8

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DIE BUCHSTABEN

THE LETTERS OF THE GERMAN ALPHABET


Following are the German alphabets with there pronunciations (26+4) :

A - aa आ

B - bay बे

C - say से

D - day

E-a ए

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F - eff

G - geh

H - Ha! ह

I-e ई

J - yot

K – kha ख

L - ell

M - emm

N - enn

O - oh!

P - peh

Q - Kqu

R - err

S -ess

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T - tey

U - ऊ

V - fau

W - veh

X - its

Y - upsilon

Z - set

New ones -

ß - asset (=ss)

Ä- /ae/ (Männer)

Ö- (Vögel)

Ü- (Bücher)

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Unit 9
DIE ZAHLEN

THE NUMBERS (0 – 20)


0- null
1- eins

2- zwei

3- drei

4- vier

5- fünf

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6- sechs

7- sieben

8- acht

9- neun

10- zehn

11- elf

12- zwölf

13- dreizehn

14- vierzehn

15- fünfzehn

16- sechzehn

17- siebzehn

18- achtzehn

19- neunzehn

20- zwanzig

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Let’s review!

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