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THE USE OF BLENDED LEARNING ON STUDENTS’ MATHEMATICS ANXIETY


AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE

A Thesis Presented to the


Faculty of the Graduate Studies
DE LA SALLE ARANETA UNIVERSITY
Victoneta Ave., Malabon City, Metro Manila

In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of


MASTER OF ARTS IN EDUCATION
Major in Mathematics

By

JOSE NIÑO R. SALES


MAY 2020
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Recommendation Sheet

Researchers: Jose Niño R. Sales

College: Graduate Studies

Title: THE USE OF BLENDED LEARNING ON STUDENTS’


MATHEMATICS ANXIETY AND ACADEMIC
PERFORMANCE

Recommending Approval:

_________________________ __________
Dr. Irene Dalog Date
Adviser

Approved by:

_________________________ __________
[Name of Committee Chair] Date
Chairperson

_________________________ __________
[Name of Panel Member] Date
Member

_________________________ __________
[Name of Panel Member] Date
Member

_________________________ __________
[Name of Panel Member] Date
Member

Recorded by:

_________________________ __________
PIC, Registrar’s Office Date
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Approval Sheet

This Thesis titled THE USE OF BLENDED LEARNING ON STUDENTS’


MATHEMATICS ANXIETY AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE by JOSE NIÑO R.
SALES, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF ART IN
EDUCATION Major in Mathematics, has been examined and is recommended for
acceptance and approval for ORAL EXAMINATION.

________________________
Dr. Irene Dalog
Adviser

Panel of Examiners

Approved by the COMMITTEE ON ORAL EXAMINATION with a grade of


________on _____________________.

________________________
[Name of Committee Chair
Chair

________________________ ________________________
[Name of Panel Member] [Name of Panel Member]
Member Member

________________________
[Name of Panel Member]
Member

Accepted and approved as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of
MASTER OF ART IN EDUCATION Major in Mathematics.

____________________ _______________________
Dr. Bernardo Sepeda Dr. Socorro Aguja
VCAR Vice Dean, Graduate Studies
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Table of Contents

Page

TITLE PAGE.................................................................................................................1

RECOMMENDATION SHEET....................................................................................2

APPROVAL SHEET.....................................................................................................3

TABLE OF CONTENTS...............................................................................................4

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT..........................................................................................[#]

ABSTRACT................................................................................................................[#]

LIST OF TABLES.........................................................................................................6

LIST OF FIGURES.......................................................................................................7

LIST OF APPENDICES................................................................................................8

CHAPTER

1 The Problem and a Review of Related Literature

Introduction......................................................................................................11

Review of Related Literature...........................................................................12

Statement of the Problem.................................................................................30

Definition of Terms..........................................................................................30

Conceptual Framework....................................................................................31

Participants of the Study..................................................................................31

Significance of the Study.................................................................................32

Limitations of the Study...................................................................................33


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2 Methods

Research Design...............................................................................................34

Research Procedure..........................................................................................35

Measurement Procedure and Materials............................................................36

Data Analysis...................................................................................................40

3 Results and Discussion

Presentation of Results....................................................................................[#]

Interpretation of Data......................................................................................[#]

[Additional entries].........................................................................................[#]

4 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

Summary.........................................................................................................[#]

Conclusion.......................................................................................................[#]

Recommendation.............................................................................................[#]

REFERENCES............................................................................................................42

APPENDICES.............................................................................................................[#]

CURRICULUM VITAE.............................................................................................[#]
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List of Tables

Table Page

1 [Table Caption 1]............................................................................................[#]

2 [Table Caption 2]............................................................................................[#]

3 [Additional entries].........................................................................................[#]
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List of Figures

Figure Page

1 [Figure Caption 1]...........................................................................................[#]

2 [Figure Caption 2]...........................................................................................[#]

3 [Additional entries].........................................................................................[#]
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List of Figures

Table Page

1 [Table Caption 1]............................................................................................[#]

2 [Table Caption 2]............................................................................................[#]

3 [Additional entries].........................................................................................[#]
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List of Appendices

Appendix Page

A [Appendix Caption A].....................................................................................[#]

B [Appendix Caption B].....................................................................................[#]

C [Additional entries].........................................................................................[#]
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Abstract

TITLE : THE USE OF BLENDED LEARNING ON STUDENTS’


MATHEMATICS ANXIETY AND ACADEMIC
PERFORMANCE

RESEARCHER : JOSE NIÑO R. SALES

ADVISER : DR. IRENE DALOG

SCHOOL : De La Salle Araneta University

DEGREE CONFERRED : Master of Arts in Education Major in Mathematics


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Chapter 1 The Problem and a Review of Related Literature

Introduction

Math skills are important for individuals’ participation in society and success in everyday

life (Maloney et al., 2010; O’Leary et al., 2017). With the pace of technological and scientific

progress becoming ever-more rapid, people are constantly faced with mathematics which may be

the language of technology. Learning mathematics and gaining mathematics skills at some level

has become unavoidable than ever (Sevindir et al., 2014). Yet many individuals continuously

become afraid of math and numbers, commonly referred to as mathematics anxiety (Beilock and

Maloney, 2015). Mathematics is the most important tool to understand the world’s order and

organization. Math success level has been one of the crucial keys to school success and

profession selection. Therefore, it is important to know and if possibly eliminate obstacles in

front of math success and of the most significant obstacle in math success is math anxiety

(Sevindir et al., 2014).

In the recent study of Andamon and Tan (2018) middle school students’ performance in

mathematics here in the Philippines belongs to the range of approaching to proficiency which

implies moderate or in the average level of learning. For the overall students’ level of conceptual

understanding in mathematics, the result described as approaching to proficiency meaning

moderate. It is maybe traditional educational approaches are not sufficient to satisfy individual

requirements (Yu, 2019).

Despite its growing popularity, researchers have focused little attention on the

effectiveness of combining traditional classroom instruction and online learning, a practice

generally referred to as blended learning (Chaney, 2016). According to Yu (2019) “blended

learning combines the


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features of face-to-face teaching and E-learning activating students’ motivation, shortening class

time, encouraging self-regulated learning. Blended learning produces equal learning improvement

and produces better achievement (Chaney, 2016). Blended learning needs the support of

technology. The use of Technology in education offers a better learning and keeps students

focused when the concept is difficult or the computation by hand is complicated (Khouyibaba,

2010).

Review of Related Literature

Study of teaching models

Traditional teaching. Traditional in-class teaching methods described as lecture

centered with this mode of didactic teaching, lack immediate feedback and reduce student’s

interest in learning (Yeung K., & O’Malley P., 2014; Papadakis et. al., 2016)

Math and Science can be considered as challenging subjects by many. Students struggles

and frequently become frustrated and hopeless. The use of traditional method in teaching courses

move all students through the curriculum at the same pace (Ya-Wen et. al., 2017).

Blended Learning. With increasing number of students bringing a smartphone or other

internet-enabled mobile devices to lectures, and willingness and acceptance amongst student to

use such devices for class-related activities (Brown et al., 2014). Advances in digital technologies
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and technological gadgets are dramatically altering the tools available to teachers and students,

even in preschool education (Biancarosa & Griffiths, 2012). Although iPads and other similar

tablets have not been extensively studied as teaching tools in the early childhood classroom,

many educators are enthusiastic about using them; they rave about their versatility, connectivity,

mobility, as well as the potential benefits of thousands of educational apps (Falloon, 2013;

Mango, 2015).

One of the forms of learning services that can facilitate the students in learning

independently, in groups, and learning together with the teacher in the classroom and outside the

classroom both fully online and offline is blended learning. Through blended learning the teacher

and the students can use information technology in the learning process online and offline. In the

use of blended learning, learning quality obtained at school, that is, through direct interaction

between the teacher and the students is always maintained, but the use of information technology

used to facilitate the students in seeking/accessing learning resources and makes it easy for the

students to seek/access learning resources and to interact/discuss with the their groups/learning

communities at school and outside. By using blended learning at school, the students will have

increasingly more knowledge and insights so that they do not only focus on the information/

knowledge given by the teacher in the classroom, but can obtain comprehensive knowledge from

various reliable sources, through social media, internet and from a community.

Definitions of blended learning range from the very broad where practically any learning

experience that integrates some use of ICTs qualifies, to others that focus on specific percentages

of online curriculum and face to face instruction. Most people agree that blended learning

combines teaching and learning methods from both face to face, mobile and online learning and

that it includes elements of both synchronous and asynchronous online learning options. Blended
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learning is also defined as learning that can conventionally be defined in the classroom combined

with online learning both independently and in a collaboration by using information and

communication technology facilities. Blended Learning is a student-centered learning using a

systematic approach that combines face-to-face learning and online learning aided by ICTs.

Blended learning is a student-centered approach to creating a learning experience

whereby the learner interacts with other students, with the instructor, and with content through

thoughtful integration of online and face-to-face environments. Blended learning is a strategic

and systematic approach to combining times and modes of learning, integrating the best aspects

of face-to-face and online interactions for each discipline, using appropriate ICTs. The core of

blended learning theory is the integration of multiple teaching means, teaching media, and

teaching environments. Blended learning has many advantages over E-learning; the most

important one is that blended learning participants being able to socialize face-to-face interaction

in order to motivate the less independent student. Based on the opinions above, then blended

learning is a learning approach which combines direct face to face learning in the classroom and

online learning through information technology facility and learning interaction keeps on being

developed well both in the classroom and outside of the classroom (Divayana & Sanjaya, 2017).

Mathematics Anxiety

Math Anxiety (MA) is commonly defined as a feeling of fear, tension, apprehension,

discomfort and disturbance that interferes with math performance when they are in the situation

that requires solving math problems (Abbasi, 2013; Casad et al., 2015; Mutawah, 2015; Dowker

et al., 2016).

Mathematics Anxiety and Performance


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Used of Technology in Mathematics

Technology can play an important role in mathematics education. It allows to better

capture the attention of the students and enables them to better understand and master

mathematical concepts (Khouyibaba, 2010). Enormous technology advances over the ages has

developed digital communities all over the world. Recognized as a vehicle that can elevate the

education system to a higher level in a technology driven world, many countries are exploring the

potential of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) as a means of improving and

enhancing the learning of the e-generation as well as achieving efficiencies in classroom

instructions (Khambari et. al., 2010). In the study of Prins et. al. (2016), they found that

innovative teaching with the use of technology has significant and positive large effect in

mathematics achievement.

In the study of Khambari et. al. (2010) in the pros and cons of technology in

Mathematics, overall the findings indicate that teachers were not only able to adapt laptops, but

they were now using the mobile technology in most of their activities in school. Laptop had

promoted efficient use of time because of its mobility, ability to be used in conjunction with ICT

peripherals, and accessibility to the Internet. It had also enhanced classroom instruction,

facilitated teachers in understanding students’ need, improved teachers’ work quality, offered the

opportunity to a wide range of resources through the Internet, and boost teachers’ ICT skills.

Educational Applications

Studies have long shown that teaching mathematics is becoming more and more difficult.

The challenge is to catch student’s attention and interest in the subject. Obviously, there is a

crucial need to incorporate new tools into the classroom to preserve the relevance of the
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educational institution (Pai, et al, 2012, Jelemenská, et al, 2011). There is a significant body of

research relating to technology-enhanced mathematics education and the perceived potential of

digital tools to enhance the learning experience (Bray & Tangney, 2017). Zhang et al. (2015)

found that student performance in math improved through the use of mathematics apps and

technologies. research suggest that at-risk students in math may require the use of additional

strategies to increase their engagement and performance (Dotterer & Lowe, 2010). Thus, the use

of math apps may be an effective strategy to close the learning gap between typical and at-risk

students (Zhang et al., 2015).

Figure 1. The Log In Web Page at www.classdojo.com (left) and Teacher’s Account

Viewing for Student’s Submitted Portfolio (right).

Class dojo. In this web-based system, students receive avatars that they can customize.

When they do something good in class, their avatar receives a positive point but when they do

something bad, their avatar receives a negative point. These avatars are all controlled either by

the click of a mouse or by the touch of a finger on an application (app) on a mobile device

(Burger, 2015). According to the authors of ClassDojo, it is intended to be a classroom

management technology (ClassDojo, 2014).


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Researchers evaluated charts for ten classrooms (~150 students) and compared the type

of data collected by each teacher for each child. Findings indicated that teachers either used no

system, their own systems, or a computer-based system (Class Dojo) for charting behavior. An

analysis of each of these systems found that Class Dojo provided significantly more data

(positive and negative notations) in general, as well as more reliable data than any other system

reviewed (Krach et. al., 2017). In the study of Dadakhodjaeva (2017) using Class Dojo was

effective at improving academically engaged behavior, and decreasing disruptive behavior.

ClassDojo also used to communicate schoolwide announcements and send individual messages to

parents. These messages can be translated to the parents preferred language. ClassDojo also

employs a feature that allows educators to see how many and which parents have viewed their

posts (Sanchez, 2018)

Figure 2. Teacher Portal at www.quipperschool.com (left) and Dashboard Image of

Assignments Sent to Students (right)

Quipper School. Quipper School is a website that can be used to facilitate technology-

assisted learning. It can be said that Quipper School is part of the implementation of the concept

of OER as it 122 includes facilities for learning activities, learning materials in various forms

such as modules, textbooks, streaming videos, tests, software, and others to support access to

knowledge. Quipper school’s headquarter is based in London. It is widely used in UK, Mexico,
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Japan, Philippines, and Indonesia. Quipper School in Indonesia started its operation since 2014.

So far, users who sign in Quipper School Indonesia at the end of 2015 already more than 50,000

teachers and more than 250,000 students. However, from the number of teachers and students

was just 60 percent who become active users monthly. The teachers and students have come from

about 10,000 schools (with a ratio of 70 percent and junior high school 30 percent). Each online

class in Indonesia alone can accommodate up to 60 students, but teachers can still make an online

class as much as needed. This indicates good prospects of this domain. With Quipper School,

learning activities become more flexible, better done in a sinchronous and an asynchronous way.

In this learning management system, teachers and students have their own account. Teachers can

create classes according to their subject, and students can enter into the class by entering the code

given by the teacher. Learning interaction can be done by visiting the link to the students about

the material, tasks, and specific matters. Interactions can also be done with chat or message.

Quipper School provides free facilities and learning materials in the form of very various form of

articles, animations, and video tutorials. In addition to the material already available in the

system, teachers can also add additional material.

One of the most recently established and popular LMS is The Quipper School

(henceforth QS). Quipper School is a web-based online learning website and application that is

originally developed by Quipper Ltd. in London and available online at

http://school.quipper.com. QS has been widely used by teachers and students around the world

including those in Indonesia. A research investigating the affordability of QS reveals that QS has

at least three features that other LMS platforms such as Moodle and Claroline do not have. First,

QS does not require installation on an existing hosting site. It provides teachers and students with

a ready-to- use web-based learning application. Secondly, QS provides teachers with virtual
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storage that allows them to upload and keep their teaching materials and media such as

PowerPoint presentations, PDF files, pictures, and videos. Thirdly, the storage available on the

website helps the teachers to maintain their teaching and learning activity records, thus they can

monitor students’ learning activity. Having those excellent features, QS is gaining huge

popularity among teachers and students. However, the use of QS has not been as popular as it is

in other countries such as United Kingdom, Philippines, and Mexico. (Saptani, 2017)

QS as one of computer-assisted media has gain a huge popularity among educators and

students. The participants commonly know QS from their fellow teachers. Regarding the

frequency of using QS, G\generally, the participants use QS whenever the internet connection is

available for the students and most of the time outside the class. A participant adds that whenever

she could not come to the class, she asks her students to read materials from the website or

application and do the exercise available there. Participants use QS to enrich and vary their

teaching materials and teaching assignments for the students

To use QS in teaching and learning process, users need to choose role in the time of

account registration whether they are teachers or students. Different roles provide different access

to QS fearures. The ‘teacher role’ enables teachers to have full access to QS’s three main features

namely ‘creation’, ‘assessment’, and ‘learning’. The role also grants teachers access to

‘overview’, ‘assignments’, ‘curriculum’, ‘message’ and ‘manage’ menus. The ‘overview’ menu

provides brief information about active assignments submitted by the students and students’

individual performances. The ‘assignment’ menu allows teachers to create new assignments,

distribute them to students and monitor their progress. The ‘curriculum’ menu offers two options

for teachers regarding the learning materials; they can either use the materials available on QS

database, or they can develop their own materials and use them to teach their students. The
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‘message’ menu has two functions; firstly, it facilitates teacher-student communication, and,

secondly, it allows teachers to distribute notes to all students. Finally, the ‘manage’ menu allows

teachers to select course participants, group the students, and invite other colleagues to teach

collaboratively within the virtual classroom.

Given access to those five features of QS, the three participants argue that the most useful

feature of QS is the Assignment menu, since it provides a lot of exercises for the students to

practice. In addition, concerning the teaching materials, teachers can either use the available

materials provided by QS or develop or upload their own materials. 234 Advances in Social

Science, Education and Humanities Research (ASSEHR), volume 82 Having provided the

materials by the website, the participants say that the materials are good and helpful. However,

sometimes they combine the available materials with those they make to enrich and vary the

materials.

When asked how QS is suitable to use as teaching media with students nowadays, the

participants have similar idea that this technology suits the students in this modern era in two

ways. First, students are familiar with the use of smartphones and personal computers. They are

skillful enough to work with such media. Therefore, it is feasible for them to use QS. Second,

engaging students with online learning will increase their motivation, since learning through QS

allow them to use tools that they generally like i.e. smartphones and computers. Regarding the

most suitable students’ level to implement QS with, the participants commonly suggest that the

most appropriate learners to work with this application are those in senior high school and

university level. In terms of students’ observed response towards the use of QS, the participants

say that their students are interested and enthusiast in using the media.
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Drawing on their experience of using QS, the teachers commonly summarized three

drawbacks of QS. Firstly, QS is an internet=dependent media. Thus, Internet connection is the

main problem in utilizing the media. Secondly, extended use of online class reduces students’

actual interaction both with teacher and their peers, in other words, the students interact only with

gadgets. Finally, On one hand, QS provides a wide range of teaching materials and becomes

potential alternative teaching media. On the other hand, to use this media, teachers and students

need smartphones or personal computers which are not always available.

Figure 3. Google Classroom Classes Dashboard at www.googleclassroom.com (left) and

Sample Class Time Line (right)

Google classroom. Google Classroom is considered as one of the best platforms out

there for enhancing teachers' workflow. "It provides a set of powerful features that make it an

ideal tool to use with students. ‘Classroom helps teachers save time, keep classes organized, and

improve communication with students. It is available to anyone with Google Apps for Education,

a free suite of productivity tools including Gmail, Drive and Docs (Google classroom, 2015).

Google Classroom is only six months old. Within this short period of time, it has managed to host

over 30 million assignments turned in by teachers and students that indicates that Google

Classroom is being "widely endorsed within the education community (Google classroom, 2015).

Google Classroom is meant to help teachers manage the creation and collection of student
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assignments in a paperless environment, basically leveraging the framework of Google Docs,

Drive and other Apps. Google classroom allows teachers to spend more time with their students

and less time on the paperwork, and it is now even better. Google's latest announcement brings

new functionality to Google Classroom. Included in the new functionality is the ability to add

more than one teacher, as well as to preparing for classes in advance as well.

At institutions currently signed on with Google, there are several ways in which Google

Classroom could be beneficial to both students and faculty.

 Google Classroom has the potential to streamline communication and workflow for

students by providing a single access point to discussion threads and assigned work

 Google Classroom can help students to keep their files more organized because all their

work can be stored paperlessly in a single program.

 Faculty can more quickly identify which students may be struggling with their

assignments due to the tracking mechanisms associated with assigned tasks.

 Grading processes can be simplified because of the grading features associated with

student submissions.

Features of Google Classroom. Google Classroom is very simple to create and to use.

Here all available features are integrated. Once a new course space is created, the instructor can

see three taps . These are labeled as about, students and stream. In the same page, on the bottom

of the right side, he or she can see a plus sign. If the instructor clicks on it, four different tabs will

open named reuse post, create question, create assignment and create announcement. A teacher

can keep all files save in the Google Drive. He or she can grade, attach you tube or any link for

instructional purpose. From Google Classroom, a teacher can send mail to all students at a time.
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Benefits of Google Classroom. Janzen, M. (2014), points out the following benefits of

using Google Classroom. Easy to use: It is very easy to use. "Google Classroom’s design

purposefully simplifies the instructional interface and options used for delivering and tracking

assignments; communication with the entire course or individuals is also simplified through

announcements, email, and push notifications."(Janzen, M. 2014) Saves time: Google classroom

is designed to save time. It integrates and automates the use of other Google apps, including docs,

slides, and spreadsheets, the process of administering document distribution, grading, formative

assessment, and feedback is simplified and streamlined. Chehayeb, A. (2015), Google Classroom

Software Engineer mentions that they built classroom " to save time". He claims that Google is

launching some features like export grades to Google Sheets, easier to update grade point scale

,keyboard navigation for entering grades, sort by name on grading page etc to save teachers' time.

Cloud-based: Google Classroom presents more professional and authentic technology to use in

learning environment as Google apps represent "a significant portion of cloud-based enterprise

communications tools used throughout the professional workforce." (Mary, 2014) Flexible: This

app is easily accessible and useable to instructors and learners in both face-to-face learning

environments and fully online environment. This enables educators to explore and influence

"flipped instructional methods more easily as well as automate and organize the distribution and

collection of assignments and communications in multiple instructional milieus." ( Mary, 2014)

Free: Google Classroom itself is not necessarily available to learners without access to an

educational institution. But anyone can access to all the other apps, such as Drive, Docs,

Spreadsheets, Slides, etc. simply by signing up for a Google account. Mobile-friendly: Google

Classroom is designed to be responsive. It is easy to use on any mobile device. "Mobile access to
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learning materials that are attractive and easy to interact with is critical in today’s web connected

learning environments."(Janzen, M 2014)

Keeler, A. ( 2014) also mentions several other benefits of using Google Classroom. She

mentions how Google Classroom ensure streamline counseling only by posting an announcement.

Crawford, A. R. ( 2015) states that Google Classroom facilitates collaborative learning. Here

teacher can upload materials and can give feedback to students. Students also can upload

materials and make personal comment. Moreover, students can collaborate with each other. They

can share their documents and assignment and thus they can produce the best assignment. Keeler,

A (2014) also states that Google classroom encourage collaboration between students.

According to research of Iftakhar (2016) about the using google classroom during class,

one teacher mentions that Google Classroom features enable him and his learners to have better

interaction. The students preferred Facebook to Learning Feedback System for announcing a quiz

date or a topic for the upcoming class or assignment. But when he starts using Google Classroom,

it becomes popular among students as they can get all reading materials and resources, lesson

plan, course outline beforehand. The teacher can instruct his students very easily (Iftakhar, 2016)

Figure 4. Quizziz Log In Web Page at www.quizizz.com (left) and Teacher’s Account

for Assigning Quiz or Home Work (right).


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Quizizz. Quizizz is an educational app that applies the concept of gamification

(MacNamara & Murphy, 2017). The colorful interface, avatars and music provide students a

similar experience as a game does. After students answer each question, Quizizz will show

pictures with memes to tell whether the answer is right or wrong. This is a treat to students

(Miller, 2017).

In Quizziz no projector is necessary because players see questions and answer options on

their own screens. Quizizz allows you to create multiplayer quizzes that work on almost any

device. The question order is randomized for each student, so you wouldn't worry about cheating.

With Quizizz, players don’t have to wait for the whole class when they finish answering a

question before they continue to the next one. If you prefer to stop after each question, then

Kahoot is better. You can stop and discuss after each question, immediately checking the

understanding. With Quizizz, players finish through questions at their own pace limiting all

discussion to after all questions have been answered. Quizizz gives the opportunity to complete

the quiz with music and silly “correct” or “incorrect” images drawn from popular media. These

pictures with fun/funny messages are a treat. They’re displayed after a question is answered to

show whether it’s right or wrong. Quizizz even lets you create your own (see image at right). You

can use their pre-loaded images or upload your own. As the teacher, once the quiz is over, you

have access data and analyze reports. You can see the overall class performance on a particular

quiz, or the individual student breakdown as well.

Quizizz also has an integration with Google Classroom. So, if you are using that learning

management system you can easily push out your quizzes to your students, and they will already

be authenticated using their school emails. Some of the features of Google Classroom integration

include the following: 1) Quizizz reports will show the actual names of your students; 2) Student
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safety is enhanced since they are logging in with their Google accounts, and 3) Facilitate

assignment tracking since completion reports are available in Google Classroom. Quizizz is

definitely fun. But when everyone is answering different questions at different times, you lose a

bit of the excitement. When a Quizizz game is over, you can review all the questions all at once,

and you lose that isolation. (Badan & Tymchenko, 2016)

Student engagement is known as an important attribute to influence students’

achievement. Students’ preceding learning (readiness), enthusiasm for learning, and the way the

input is introduced to them are some of the factors that influence their ability to learn (Eltegani

and Butgereit 2015). Diverse learning styles among the students also contribute to the way they

engage in the activities conducted by the educators. Sustaining the students’ interest and

participation is a struggle that leaves the educator in a quandary. This is because students’

involvement plays an important factor in their achievement and performance (Handelsman et al.

2005) measured during either the formative or summative assessment. Mohd et al. (2016) found

that active students are more likely to perform well as they retained more knowledge during

learning activities.

Quizizz is designed to increase social learning. It’s particularly effective with kids, but

quizzizz can be effective for all learners. Students can use a computer or mobile device to answer

assigned questions and are awarded points for correct answer. More importantly, with Quizizz,

anyone can be a winner if they simply answer a question correctly. There is an option to either

create your own game and question or use someone else’s quiz, even editing their questions. You

also can use the site through screen-sharing tools such as Skype or Google hangouts (Quizizz,

2018). Quizizz also offers more private response results, with the teacher screen showing

progress but no leader. Upon answering each question in Quizizz, students receive a meme
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praising them for their correct answer or poking a little fun at them for missing the question

(Eatherton, 2016). Quizizz gives users the option to assign questions as “homework,” as opposed

to solely live game play. When it comes to results, Quizizz goes a step further, showing a

complete breakdown of each question, all the way down to each person’s results, allowing

trainers the opportunity to provide one-on-one assistance (Etherton, 2016).

Quizizz on the other hand, is becoming one of classics of gamification in education.

Teachers using Quizizz in their classes, can transfer many starting and repetition tasks into

entertaining and largely participated activities. This software enables the teacher to use any

browser, prepare his/her own tests and opportunities to examine tests prepared by other teachers.

All resources are password free and needs no username to access. In order to participate in a

gamified activity, all is needed is a ―code‖ which is announced by the teacher to the students, to

get connected to the Quizizz website (Ceker & Ozdamli, 2017).

Prior studies describe different ways of applying Quizizz. Quizizz can be used to

organize classroom activities and prepare tests (Dean, 2017; MacNamara & Murphy, 2017).

Quzizz can also be used in flipped class lectures (Porcaro et al., 2016; Dayal, Green, & Browne,

2016). Boulden et al.,(2017) use Quizizz and other educational apps to help students recognize

the difference between productive and nonproductive questions. Suo et al., (2018) apply Quizizz

in the Arabic classroom and find that it is effective to enhance students’ learning as a game-based

learning tool. Quizizz is also applied in Physics course enrolled by engineering students and is

found to be effective in increasing learning outcomes and decreasing anxiety (Aşıksoy & Sorakin,

2018). Hamilton-Hankins (2017) introduce Quizizz in an English Language Arts Classroom and

find it has positive impact on student engagement.


28

Several studies referred to gamification as a technique to increase the students’

engagement (Hanus and Fox 2015; Kuo and Chuang 2016; Sanmugam et al. 2016). Gamification

is the use of game design elements in non-game settings to engage participants and encourage

desired behaviors. Technological developments allow the use of game elements in a non-game

context by extending the methods that can be employed by educators in developing lesson plans

(Rahman et al., 2018).

Figure 5. Padlet dashboard (left) and sample students’ posting in an activity (right)

Padlet. Padlet provides a free, multimedia friendly wall which can be used to encourage

real-time, whole class participation and assessment. If you have ever led an in-class activity

where you have asked students to write ideas on sticky notes and then place their sticky notes on

a big piece of paper or wall in order to collect ideas from the whole class, Padlet provides a

similar experience online (Fuchs, 2014). Padlet is a useful tool in the information literacy

classroom because it works on a variety of different devices, does not require participants to

create accounts to use it, and requires no special technical know-how.

Padlet allows students to communicate with their classmates, as well as their teacher, in

regards to class content (Fiester and Green, 2016). According to Fiester & Green (2016), Padlet

allows for students to be actively engaged in a lesson when they may otherwise be distracted.
29

Padlet may also serve as a formative assessment tool for teachers. On the other hand, it may serve

as a bulletin board where students can post their thoughts, ideas, questions, and answers. Students

may then participate in discussion with their peers by replying to each other’s posts (Fiester &

Green, 2016). Such engagement in peer conversations allows teachers to see what their students

are thinking. According to Smith and Mader (2016), the metacognitive processes behind students’

thinking become apparent to teachers through the use tools such as Padlet. According to Fuchs

(2014), Padlet can be used for a variety of classroom purposes. Teacher questions can be posted

to the wall, as opposed to asked verbally to the class. Students then have the opportunity to not

only submit their answer, but also to read and evaluate their classmate responses. Teachers can

request that students copy and post related links and images for a given lesson. Padlet can also be

used in place of the 20 standard do-now or ticket out the door.

In addition, Fuchs (2014) state on her findings that using Padlet in instruction has

provided a non-threatening space for the collection and curation of collaborative classroom work.

All students can contribute and learn from one another. All voices can be heard on a graffiti wall,

which is an idea that strikes right at the heart of our profession.

By implementing technology in the classroom, teachers are able to utilize a wide

variety of teaching strategies to support their students’ learning.

Mathematics Performance

RRL
30

Statement of the Problem

This study investigates the anxiety level of respondents in mathematics with the use of

traditional and blended learning approaches as they relate to their performance. Specially, it

sought to answer the following questions.

1. What is gender distribution of the respondents?

2. What is the level of respondents’ mathematics anxiety before and after performing as

follows:

a. traditional teaching model?

b. blended learning model?

3. Is there a difference in level of respondents’ mathematics anxiety in terms of the teaching

models used?

4. Does mathematics anxiety and performance of the respondents differ according to

gender?

5. Is there a relationship between teaching model and mathematics performance of the

respondents?

Definition of Terms

Mathematics Anxiety. a distinct form of anxiety defined as emotional response elicited

by math in particular. (Carey et al., 2017)

Mathematics Performance
31

Blended Learning. blended learning involves combining Internet and digital media with

established classroom forms that require the physical co-presence of teacher and students (Yu,

2019)

Traditional Teaching

Teaching Approach

Educational applications

Conceptual Framework

The conceptual framework of the study is shown in Figure 1. In the figure, a series of

learning competencies will be taught to the respondents alternately using different approach

known as traditional teaching approach and blended learning approach. These approaches are

connected to the respondents’ Mathematics performance and level of anxiety.

Learning Competencies Teaching Approaches Outcomes

Period 1

Traditional
Period 3
(Phase A)

Period 5 Mathematics
Performance and
Anxiety Level
Period 2

Blended Learning
Period 4 (Phase B)

Period 6
32

Figure 6. Framework for the Comparison of Math Anxiety Level and

Performance Using Different Approaches.

Participants of the Study

By means of purposive sampling, more or less 60 students from sixth grade of De La

Salle Araneta University, Basic Education Department will be selected in this study. The

students’ age are commonly 11-12 years old.

Significance of the study

Findings of this study will be beneficial to the following:

Teachers. This study will create an avenue for the teachers to evaluate their teaching

approaches to better instill learning to the students. It is also helpful for teachers to identify what

best approaches and practice will make the students more engage and appreciative with the

lessons not just in mathematics but with other subjects.

School Administrators. School administrators will be well-informed about the trends of

teaching and students’ learning in school. Assessment of facilities, school environment, and

policies implemented in school may also be a basis for considerations based on the findings of

this study.

Department of Education. Findings of this study will provide DepEd officials the data

as the basis of giving directives to educational institutions. This study may also give the

department a wider perspective on how to help educators in terms of providing quality education

and producing globally competitive students.

Policy Makers. Findings of this study will provide the policy makers the opportunity to

have a clear perception that will help them in making guidelines with the use of educational tools
33

and approaches. With this information, new policies may be formulated for the improvement of

school management.

Research has found that Blended Learning (BL) may serve as an effective tool for

increasing student engagement and academic performance (Bartsch & Murphy, 2011; Blood &

Need, 2008; Cydis, 2011; Dunn, Richardson, Oprescu, & McDonald, 2012; Gauci, Dantas,

Williams, & Kemm, 2009; Moratelli & DeJarnette, 2014; Shaffer & Collura, 2009; Stowell &

Nelson, 2007). However, there is limited research exploring the effect of BL with the use of

educational applications, on student mathematics anxiety, as well as limited research exploring

the effect of BL in the mathematics classroom of middle schoolers. Moreover, few studies have

been conducted to examine the effects of using mathematical apps and technologies to increase

the engagement and academic performance of at-risk students (Ysseldyke et al., 2004; Zhang et

al., 2015). This study will add to the literature by investigating the effects of using the BL with

selected educational applications to increase the academic performance and reduce mathematics

anxiety level of students in a sixth grade regular mathematics classroom. The present study aims

to use BL approach to increase student academic performance and reduce anxiety level in the area

of mathematics. Results of this study may provide implications for teaching students in a

classroom setting using technology.

Limitations of the study

This study is delimited only on the sixth-grade students’ level of mathematics anxiety and

performance with the use of traditional and blended learning approaches in De La Salle Araneta

University. The demographic profile included in this study is gender only.


34

Purpose of the Study?


35

Chapter 2 Methods

Research Design

The study used quantitative approach that examined the math performance and anxiety

level of the students with the use of different teaching approaches.

Quasi-experimental interrupted time series design

An interrupted time series (ITS) design will be employed, where replication of the

intervention effects will be examined across individualized participation goals and across

participant. A time series is a set of measurements taken at intervals over a period of time. The

interrupted time series design is like a pretest-posttest design in that it includes measurement of

the dependent variable both before and after the treatment. It is unlike the pretest-posttest design,

however, in that it includes multiple pretest and posttest measurement (Price et al., 2019). In ITS

study, a time series of a particular outcome of interest is used to establish an underlying trend,

which is ‘interrupted’ by an intervention at a known point in time (Bernal et al., 2017).

The study will follow an ABABAB alternating baseline pattern. During phase A, baseline

data will be collected for two weeks for period 1/6 and 1 week each for periods 3/6 and 5/6.

Baseline data will be collected using an observation checklist, student academic weekly

assessment grades and anxiety level scale (mAMAS). During Phase B, the intervention phase,

students will use the educational applications for a week daily for periods 2/6, 4/6 and 6/6 during

guided practice prior to moving on to independent practice. Educational applications will be

served as the independent variable, while student academic performance and anxiety level will be

served as the dependent variables. Data will be collected daily each week using the observation

checklist and periodically for student academic grades and anxiety level. This alternating

procedure will be implemented to reduce the impact of the weekly mathematics content on
36

student performance data gathered to investigate the effect of the educational application as

blended learning approach. This pattern will be continued until study conclusion. Student

academic performance will be measured through the implementation of summative assessments

related to current mathematical content. Student level of math anxiety will be measured before

and after each phase in every period occurs. At the end of the study, students were given a Likert

scale satisfaction survey to provide feedback on the use of Educational applications as blended

learning approach.

Research Procedure

In order to obtain data for this study, a formal request for data collection will be secured

from the Principal and Vice Principals for Academics of DLSAU, Malabon City. The data

collection will be personally carried out by the researcher. The respondents of the study will be

given enough time to answer each questionnaire in to six (6) phases. The questionnaires will be

checked, scored, organized into tabular form, and subjected to statistical analysis.

The research study will be implemented over a seven-week period from August 2019 to

October 2019. Prior to the intervention, the students will be taught how to use the educational

applications. They will be taught how to access the application via URL and mobile applications

projected on the white screen. They will be also given the opportunity to practice navigating

through the virtual wall and posting responses to given questions and topics.

Instructional design. Identical instruction will be provided by the teacher in both phases

of every periods. The groups received the intervention on alternating weeks once the initial

baseline phase was completed. During baseline/Phase A, students moved directly from guided to

independent practice. The researcher will be completed the engagement checklist at the start of
37

independent practice and students will be administered the daily assessment at the conclusion of

independent practice.

During the intervention/Phase B, students will be accessed educational applications

immediately during and after guided practice. Students will use a URL provided by the teacher to

access each day’s blended learning activity. Each teacher created activity will include a

question/topic directly related to that day’s current lesson. Questions/topics centralized on

summarizing key information, solving basic computation or word problems, or examining errors

in given problems. Students will answer the question or respond to a topic by posting to the

educational app appropriate for the activity. Collaboration between peers will be occurred as

students commented on each other’s work. During this collaboration time, teacher feedback will

be also administered through comments on student works. Students will be transitioned to

independent practice immediately after using educational applications. The researcher will be

completed completed the engagement checklist at the start of independent practice and students

will be administered the daily assessment at the conclusion of independent practice.

Measurement Procedures and Materials

Observations. Immediately after guided practice, the researcher will observe the students

as they begin working on their independent practice. The researcher will use a timer to check

student engagement every minute for ten minutes. The researcher will observe the students’

engagement from the back of the classroom. During each interval, a checkmark will be used to

indicate on-task behaviors, while an “x” will be used to indicate off-task behaviors.

Anxiety level. To measure the anxiety level of the students in mathematics, the Modified

Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale (mAMAS) of Carey and her colleagues (2017) will be used. The

questionnaire is composed of two sub-scales (learning, and evaluation) with Cronbach’s alpha of
38

0.80. Before and after each period, respondents will complete a 9-item math anxiety scale. The

items of the questionnaire were categorized into two subscales. The learning and assessment

subscales are randomly assigned within the questionnaire without the student’s knowledge. The

teacher will guide the students in answering the questionnaire.

Modified abbreviated math anxiety scale. An anxiety scale will be adopted to determine

students’ level of math anxiety (see Figure 2).

Grade and Section: ____________________ Gender: Male Female

Instructions:
Please give each sentence a score in terms of how anxious you would feel during each
situation. Use the scale at the right side and circle the number which you think best describes
how you feel.

 
Quite a
Low Some Moderat High
bit of
anxiety anxiety e anxiety anxiety
anxiety
1. Having to complete a worksheet
by yourself. 1 2 3 4 5

2. Thinking about a mathematics


test the day before you take it. 1 2 3 4 5

3. Watching the teacher work out a


mathematics problem on the 1 2 3 4 5
board
4. Taking a mathematics test.
1 2 3 4 5

5. Being given a mathematics


homework with lots of difficult
questions that you must submit 1 2 3 4 5
the next day.
6. Listening to the teacher talk for a
long time in mathematics. 1 2 3 4 5

7. Listening to your classmate 1 2 3 4 5


explaining a mathematics
39

problem.
8. Finding out you are going to have
a surprise mathematics quiz when 1 2 3 4 5
you start your lesson
9. Starting a new topic in
mathematics. 1 2 3 4 5

Figure 7.

Academic performance. After completing each phases of every period with necessary

and relevant independent practices, students will complete a 20 question summative assessment.

Questions will be related directly to the content from the scope of each phase’s lesson. Students

will work quietly and independently to complete the assessments. They will be permitted to ask

clarification questions only. Once completed, students will turn in their assessments directly to

the teacher.

Student academic progress table. An academic progress table was developed to record

student scores from their daily assessments (see Figure 2).

STUDEDT ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE PROGRESS

Teaching approach used: ______________________ Phase #: __________

Classes Assessment Assessment Assessment Assessment Assessment Assessment


1 2 3 4 5 6
A
B
C
D
Figure 8.
40

Survey. At the conclusion of the study, all participants will complete a satisfaction

survey. All responses will be anonymous. After reading the survey statements aloud, the teacher

will step outside of the room so the students could complete and turn in their completed surveys.

The tenth question requested that students share any additional comments regarding the

use of Padlet. All student surveys were completed anonymously (see Figure 3).

This survey is anonymous. Do not put your name on this paper.

Use a check mark to select your level of agreement for each statement listed below:

Note: Educational applications below includes, class dojo, google classroom, quizziz, padlet,

quipper school.

AgreeStrongly

DisagreeStrongly
Disagree
Neutral
Agree
1. Educational applications were easy to use.
2. Educational applications were difficult to use
3. Using educational applications helped me to
better understand what I was learning in class.
4. Educational applications allowed me to easily
work together with my classmates.
5. I felt comfortable sharing my ideas on
educational applications.
6. After using educational applications, I performed
higher on my daily assessments.
7. After using educational applications, I was more
engaged in my learning.
8. I enjoyed using educational applications.
9. I would like to use educational applications in the
future.
41

10. Please share any additional comments regarding the use of Educational applications
below:
______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

Figure 9.

Data Analysis

Graphs will be created to illustrate and visually compare each phase of data collection.

Data points for this study will be occurred between 3-5 days a week. Student academic scores

from the academic assessments will be collected every period. Student engagement checks will be

collected daily over 10 one-minute intervals. All data will be recorded into a spreadsheet.

academic scores will be ranged from 0-20. Anxiety level from 1-5 and engagement checks ranged

from 0 to 10 points.

Table 1.

The Modified Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale (mAMAS) Categorized as Learning and

Evaluation (Carey et al., 2017)

Sub components Questions


Having to complete a worksheet by yourself.

Watching the teacher work out a math problem on the board.

Being given maths homework with lots of difficult questions that


Learning
you have to hand in next day.

Listening to another child in your class explain a math problem


Starting a new topic in maths.

Evaluation Thinking about a math test the day before you take it.

Taking a maths test.

Listening to the teacher talk for a long time in maths.


42

Finding out you are going to have a surprise maths quiz when
you start your maths lesson

Figure 10.

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Curriculum Vitae
Photo
JOSE NIÑO R. SALES

11 R. Magsaysay St. Victoneta Avenue [Passport]


Potrero, Malabon City
09173054259
nino.sales@dlsau.edu.ph

EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND
May 2020 DE LA SALLE ARANETA UNIVERSITY
Victoneta Ave., Malabon City
Master of Arts in Education
Major in Mathematics

May 2015 DE LA SALLE ARANETA UNIVERSITY


Victoneta Ave., Malabon City
Bachelor of Secondary Education
Major in Mathematics

AFFILIATIONS
2015 – Present Mathematics Teacher Association of the Philippines
Adress

2018 – Present Special Action and Rescue Group for Emergency


IBP Road Batasan Hills, Quezon City