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OPTIMIZATION OF LINE LOSSES

USING SERIES COMPENSATION


Vaibhav V. Gholase
Sudhir A. Gadekar
Realizing maximum power transfer at the lowest
possible cost is one of the greatest challenges today for
transmission system operators. In meeting this
challenge, series compensation systems represent a very
cost effective and reliable means of increasing bulk
power transfer and relieving power transmission
bottlenecks
Series compensation will:
 Increase power transmission capability.

 Improve system stability.

 Reduce system losses.

 Improve voltage profile of the lines.

 Optimize power flow between parallel lines

 Ferranti effect is minimized


HOW MINIMIZATION OF LINE LOSSES IS
OBTAINED?

Consider following equations:


Assuming constant receiving end apparent
power, series capacitor improves power factor
seen by the sending end by bringing negative
VAR (- Xc Il2 ). The line losses are also reduced.
In fact, since the receiving end voltage VR will
increase , the line current will decrease to reduce
line losses.
PROBLEM WITH SERIES COMPENSATON
Sub-Synchronous resonance (SSR):
subsynchronous resonance is phenomenon due to the
interaction of a series capacitor with turbine-generator
Under a disturbance, series capacitors may excite
subsynchronous oscillations, when electrical resonant
frequency of the network is close to natural torsional mode
frequency of turbine-generator shaft. Under such
circumstance the shaft will oscillate at this natural
frequency. This oscillation might grow to endurance limit
in seconds resulting in shaft fatigue and possibly damage
and failure.
THYRISTOR CONTROLLED
SERIES COMPENSATION
(TCSC):

Dynamic control over series


compensation
BENEFITS OF TCSC OVER FIXED SERIES
COMPENSATION:

 Elimination of SSR risks

 Damping of active power oscillations

 Post-contingency stability improvement

 Dynamic power flow control


Operation of TCSC:
 Consists of a series compensating capacitor
shunted by a Thyristor controlled reactor (TCR).
 TCR is a variable inductive reactor XL controlled
by firing angle α.
XL as function of α can be given as:

total reactance of TCSC circuit is:


With α, XL(α) start vary from actual
reactance XL to infinity. This controlled
reactor is connected across the series
capacitor, so that the variable capacitive
reactance is possible across the TCSC to
modify the transmission line impedance.
From equations of Xtcsc(α) & XL(α) we
have:

Where,
With this much information
about development of TCSC model
now we can go for their
implementation in Newton-Raphson
load flow algorithm, to control
voltage of the bus and active power
across the line so as to optimise line
losses.
Incorporation of any FACTS devices in an existing
power flow algorithm results in increased complexity
of programming due to the following reasons:
 New terms owing to the contributions from the FACTS
devices need to be included in the existing power flow
equations of the concerned buses. These terms necessitate
modification of existing power flow codes.
 New power flow equations related to the FACTS devices come
into the picture, which dictate formulation of separate
subroutine(s) for computing them.
 The system Jacobian matrix contains entirely new Jacobian
sub-blocks exclusively related to the FACTS devices.
Therefore, new codes have to be written for computation of
these Jacobian sub-blocks.
LOAD FLOW:
To illustrate the power flow equations, the
power flow across the general two-port network
element connecting buses k and m shown in
Figure below is considered and for that equations
are obtained.
The injected active and reactive powers at
bus-k & bus-m are:
For simplicity we neglect shunt capacitance.
Let compensaton is added to line k-m
Transmission line admittance in which TCSC is
connected can be written as:

This line admittance is incorporated in bus


admittance matrix
Power flow equations of the line k-m in which
TCSC is placed is given by
As we have discussed that due to introduction of
TCSC ( a FACTS device) in load flow we have to
include new terms related to TCSC.

These terms are:


The terms in the equations are:
Also the regular terms in load flow are:
is the required power flow in the TCSC
branch.
Active power flow mismatch for the TCSC
module is:

Now solve for system variables along with the


firing angle mismatch using modified Jacobean
matrix. Update the firing angles using the
following equation

Where Δα is the incremental change in


the TCSC's firing angle and i shows ith iteration.